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InP-based 1.

55m-Short Cavity VCSELs for highspeed optical fiber telecommunication with stacked
active region

Diploma Thesis
Alexander Andrejew

Chair of Semiconductor Technology,


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M.-C. Amann

Walter Schottky Institut


Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology,
Technische Universitt Mnchen

December 2012

Contents
Abstract..

1. Introduction.

2. Theory..

2.1. Einsteins Relations......

2.2. Optical Resonator.....

10

2.3. Distributed-Bragg-Reflector......... 12
3. Design of High-Speed VCSELs......

19

3.1. Buried Tunnel Junction........

19

3.2. Optical Design of a VCSEL.................

21

3.3. Considerations on High-Speed Performance of VCSELs...

24

3.4. Stacked Active Region.

26

4. High-Speed VCSEL Fabrication.....

31

5. Experimental Results and Discussion.....

39

5.1. L-I-V Characteristics of the Devices ... 40


5.2. Temperature Performance of the Devices........

44

5.3. Spectral Characterization of the Devices ....

46

5.4. High Speed Performance of the Devices.. 51


5.5. Investigation of the Reliability of SC-VCSELs...

54

6. Conclusion...

59

Acknowledgments.....

63

References.........

65

Appendix...

68

Abstract
Near-infrared, indium phosphide (InP) based, vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers
(VCSEL) with emission wavelength at 1.55m are excellent light sources for data transfer in the
telecom industry, especially they are very attractive for the upcoming Fiber-To-The-Home
applications and integration on Silicon. During this work single-mode VCSELs with emission
wavelength around 1.55m were fabricated. In these devices innovative stacked active regions
were used, the devices showed differential quantum efficiency of above 80% and a high output
power of around 4 mW (for 5m device). Additionally cutoff frequency of 12 GHz was
observed. For the devices with conventional single active region the record-high differential
quantum efficiency of around 60% and cutoff frequency of 15 GHz were observed.

1. Introduction
In the resent years the III\V-semiconductor based devices have become an essential part
of modern life. Such devices can be found in different applications ranging from everyday items,
such as CD\DVD-players, to highly sophisticated solar cells for space exploration. One type of
these devices is a semiconductor laser diode. After the introduction of the first semiconductor
laser diodes in 1962 their performance was greatly improved. The laser threshold current density
was reduced by almost a factor of four (see Figure 1.1), and also the excellent performance at
room temperature and beyond was achieved. These improvements made the usage of laser diodes
in different applications feasible, such as CD\DVD-players, laser pointers or beamers. In the
industry laser diodes are often used for material processing or as pump lasers for high power gas
lasers. Relatively new application for laser diodes is fiber-optic communication.

Figure 1.1: History of laser threshold [1]


Fiber-optic communication means the transfer of information by sending light through a
fiber. In the last decade information flow around the world increased immensely, the
conventional methods of information transfer via the copper wires are not able to cope with the
increasing bandwidth anymore. For example a standard twisted pair cable for networks can offer
a bandwidth up to 100 MHz, the radio and television (including high definition TV) utilizes a
2

bandwidth up to some gigahertz, wireless LAN and satellite broadcasting operate at frequencies
up to 30 GHz; however a single optical fiber transmitting light in the range between 1.3 and 1.6
m can theoretically reach a bandwidth of around 43000 GHz. This makes the fiber-optic
communication the method of choice for the future data transfer. For the intercontinental
communication the fiber communication is already standard, many countries are also starting to
develop and introduce the fiber network to increase the bandwidth. The conventional optical fiber
consists of a core and cladding, due to a difference of refractive index (the core has a higher
refractive index as the cladding) total reflection occurs on the boundary between both and the
fiber acts as a waveguide. The material of choice for such fibers is silicon dioxide (SiO2) for both
the core and the cladding while core is being doped with Germanium, for example, to increase
the refractive index. The silicon dioxide is mainly used because it is a rather cheap material,
available in huge quantities; also the material data for SiO2 is well known and can be controlled
very precisely. However the usage of silicon dioxide puts some requirements on the wavelength
of the transmitted light, since an error-free transmission on a long distance is only possible, if the
light isnt absorbed by the fiber. According to the Figure 1.2a the minimum of absorption is at
1.55 m (the so called Third Window), which also became the standard wavelength for the longdistance telecommunication. The other important wavelength is 1.3 m (the Second Window),
where the second absorption minimum is situated and also the dispersion is equal zero for
standard single mode fiber (see Figure 1.2b).

b)

a)

Figure 1.2: a) Optical fiber transmission spectrum [ViaLite Communication],


b) Dispersion in optical fibers [THORLABS]

Since both wavelengths are in near-infrared domain the most developed material system
based on gallium arsenide cant be used (see Figure 1.3), the indium phosphide (InP) based
devices on the other hand can easily cover the spectral range, necessary for fiber-optic
telecommunication, resulting in rapid development of InP-based material system. In fact today
this material system has a very well established technology, allowing the production of highly
sophisticated devices.

Figure 1.3: Band gap energy and lattice constant of various III/Vcompounds at room temperature (adopted from Tien, 1988).
One such device is vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Compared to an edgeemitting laser diode, the VCSEL is an inherently single-mode device, without any need of
gratings, which is an essential requirement for optical telecommunication. VCSELs also have low
threshold current, which is an important factor for energy saving. Also the testing of VCSELs is
much easier and cheaper compared to edge-emitting lasers, since on-wafer testing is possible.
Small dimensions of VCSELs on the other hand allow to process large numbers of devices on a
single wafer, reducing the production cost of a single device. These advantages make VCSEL the
perfect device for optical telecommunication.
Especially this is the case for the arising Fiber-To-The-Home application, where the aim
is to connect each household directly to the optical network. For that a large quantity of cheap
laser diodes is necessary, which makes high speed VCSELs with emission wavelength at 1.55 m
highly desirable. The other approach to reduce the price of the end device is the integration of
4

such devices with silicon-based electronics and waveguides, where low power consumption and
small size are more important than high output power, which can also be achieved by using
VCSELs. Another advantage of a VCSEL is a circular beam profile, which allows easier fiber
coupling compared to the edge emitting laser diodes, minimizing the coupling losses. These facts
make the development of such devices and improvement of their performance a very important
task for the optical semiconductor research.
The goal of this thesis was to develop high speed VCSELs with emission wavelength
around 1.55 m suitable for telecommunication purposes. During this work the innovative design
with stacked active regions was introduced for the first time. To investigate the performance of a
new design a reference sample was also processed for comparison. To compare both devices
emission wavelength, thermal performance, output power, laser threshold and high-frequency
behavior were measured; furthermore, internal parameters such as cutoff frequency, diffusion
broadening, differential quantum efficiency and wall-plug efficiency were extracted and
evaluated.
The outline of this thesis is as follows: In the 1st Chapter the motivation and the objectives
are introduced, the 2nd Chapter deals with basic laser physics, 3rd Chapter gives a brief overview
about the design of the devices and the 4th Chapter presents the device fabrication, finally in the
5th Chapter the device results are presented, followed by the conclusion in the 6th Chapter.

2. Theory
2.1.

Einstein Relations

The light emission in semiconductor takes place via the recombination of the electron
from conduction band with the hole from valence band, in the process a photon with the energy
equal to the band gap energy is emitted. This process is called spontaneous emission. The
counteracting process is called absorption, there a photon is absorbed by a valence electron and
this electron is stimulated to get to the conduction band (this is possible only if the photon energy
is equal or larger than band gap). Einstein however introduced a third possibility, namely
stimulated emission, where a photon is used to stimulate a recombination of a carrier pair and the
second photon identical to the incoming one is generated (a simplified model is shown in Figure
2.1). The stimulated emission is essential for semiconductor laser diodes, as it makes lasing
operation possible at all.

Figure 2.1: (a) spontaneous emission, (b) absorption, (c) stimulated


emission
To derive the condition needed for lasing, the rates of these three processes need to be
investigated. For absorption (Figure 2.1 (b)) the transition occurs from E1 (energy state within the
valence band) to E2 (energy state within the conduction band) and results a photon with energy h
= E21 = E2 E1. The rate of this process depends on several factors:
(1) the probability that a transition can occur, B12,
(2) the probability that the state E1 contains an electron f1,
(3) the probability that the state E2 is empty [1 f2], and
(4) the density of photons of energy E21, P(E21) [2].
7

The rate for absorption can be than written as


[

(2.1)

The occupation probability is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution for indistinguishable particles
that obey the Pauli exclusion principle

(2.2)

where F1 is the quasi-Fermi level for the valence band at non-equilibrium. Similarly for
conduction band

(2.3)

with F2 the quasi-Fermi level for the valence band at non-equilibrium.


The same photon with energy E21, could stimulate a downward transition instead of an
upward one, the rate for this process can be written as
[

(2.4)

where B21 is the transition probability, f2 the probability that E2 is occupied, [1 f1] the
probability E1 is empty, and P(E21) the photon density.
Additionally electrons can spontaneously relax from E1 to E2, the rate for this spontaneous
emission is
[

(2.5)

Assuming thermal equilibrium F2 = F1, and the rate of the upward transition must be
equal to the total rate of the downward transition:
(2.6)

Now using equations (2.1), (2.4), (2.5) and (2.6) the photon density can be described as
[
[

(2.7)

The spectral density at energy E can be also written as [2]

( )(

[
[

)]
]

(2.8)

where is the refractive index. Equating (2.7) and (2.8) and setting (2.2) and (2.3) in gives

(2.9)

and
(2.10)
For lasing it is necessary to have the stimulated emission and as the absorption and the
stimulated emission both need photons with energy E21, the rate of the stimulated emission must
exceed the rate of the absorption
(2.11)
[
(

]
(

(2.12)
)

(2.13)

(2.14)

The equation (2.14) means that the splitting of the Fermi levels must be larger than the
photon energy for lasing to occur and is called Bernard-Duraffourg condition.

2.2.

Optical Resonator

The simplest one-dimensional laser is that of an optical gain medium placed between two
highly reflective optical mirrors. This is the so-called Fabry-Prot laser shown schematically in
Figure 2.2 [3].
The necessary condition for lasing is that the optical field is exactly the same in amplitude
and phase after one cavity roundtrip. This so called oscillation condition is
(2.15)
with propagation constant, r2 and r1 field reflectance of the mirrors, L resonator length

Figure 2.2: Fabry-Prot resonator


The propagation constant can be expressed as:
)

(2.16)

Furthermore the imaginary part of the refractive index is


(2.17)
where

is the net mode gain and is equal to:


10

(2.18)
mode gain,

internal loss. Now from the equation (2.15) the amplitude condition can be

derived:
(2.19)

(2.20)

The right hand side of this equation can be interpreted as mirror losses of both facets distributed
over the cavity length, which means
(2.21)
The phase condition is derived from the phase of the oscillation condition:
(2.22)

(2.23)
And the spacing between two modes is
(2.24)

where

is the group effective index denoted as [3]


|

(2.25)

As can be seen from equation (2.24) the mode spacing decreases with length, which is
also the main reason, why a VCSEL with an emission wavelength of 1.55 m and an effective
resonator length of around 5 m is inherently a single mode laser with mode spacing of about 60
nm.
11

2.3.

Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR)

Essential parts of any laser are the mirrors. The easiest way to make such mirrors for
semiconductor laser diodes is used in edge-emitting lasers, where the cleaved facets of the
semiconductor material act as mirrors due to the difference in refractive index on the boundary
between air and semiconductor material. The reflectivity of such mirrors can be easily calculated
using the following formula
(

(2.26)

where n2 is the effective refractive index of the semiconductor material and n1 the refractive
index of the outer medium. Assuming the refractive index of the semiconductor n2 = 3.5, and for
air as outer medium (n1 = 1) the resulting reflectivity is around 0.3, this means that only 30% of
light are reflected and 70% are out coupled. In this case mirror losses are quite high; however by
increasing the resonator length by cleaving longer laser diodes one can decrease them (mirror
losses per resonator length unit) according to the equation (2.20). In reality the relative mirror
losses are not changing, but the gain volume increases and so is the gain, until it is high enough to
cover for the mirror losses. This approach is impossible for VCSELs, since a VCSEL has a
constant gain volume, which is equal to the volume of the active region, hence another approach
is used one increases the reflectivity of the mirrors. The common way to do this is to introduce
Distributed Bragg Reflectors, which in the case of VCSELs consist of a number of layers of two
alternating materials with different refractive indices.

Figure 2.3: Schematic Structure of a DBR


Figure 2.3 shows a schematic structure of a DBR, where

are the refractive

indices of the semiconductor material, both mirror materials and the outer medium respectively,
12

denotes the resulting reflectivity of the DBR. The DBR takes advantage of the partial
reflections on the boundary between two materials with different refractive indices increasing the
resulting reflectivity with each pair. To describe such optical system it is useful to introduce the
so called two-port network (Figure 2.4), which is also often used in electronics. The idea behind
it is to characterize the system by using two inputs (

and

) and two outputs (

and

and describing the properties using the matrix .

a)

b)

Figure 2.4: Two-port network a) single b) cascade


The system can be than described by the following equation:
(
The Matrix

) (

(2.27)

is called transfer matrix and its elements T-parameters (in general complex

numbers).
From the equations (2.27) the expression for the transfer matrix of a cascade shown in
Figure 2.4b) networks can be easily derived:
(

(2.28)

Using this method one can calculate the transfer matrix of a complex system by splitting it
into smaller components and then multiplying the corresponding matrices. In the case of a DBR
shown in Figure 2.3 the components are on one hand the transitions between two materials, on
the other hand propagation in a material of certain thickness:

13

b)
a)
Figure 2.5: Two-port networks for a DBR
The following matrix can be derived for a boundary layer as shown in Figure 2.5a using
Fresnel equations:
(

(2.29)

Similarly for the transition from n1 to n2 applies:


(

(2.30)

For the propagation in a layer with refractive index n and thickness d (Figure 2.5b) the
transfer matrix can be described as follows:
(

(2.31)

For a layer stack in a DBR one should note that the sign of the amplitude reflection
changes for subsequent discontinuities due to change of sign of the refractive index change [5].
From this the necessary layer thickness for maximum reflectivity at a wavelength

can be

derived as:
(2.32)
The equation (2.30) can be now written as:
(

(2.33)

Using the equations (2.29), (2.30) and (2.33) the transfer matrix for one pair of a DBR in
Figure 2.3 can be written as:
14

(2.34)

resulting in for the complete DBR structure:


(2.35)
and in case of an odd number of layers e.g. N+0.5 pairs:
(2.36)
From the transfer matrix TDBR one can easily derive the reflectivity of a DBR (assuming
:
(2.37)

| |

(2.38)

These formulas are valid for any combination of refractive indices and any number of
pairs:
n1=2.5, n2=1.5
n1=1.5, n2=2.5
N pairs
12.34%
0.5
20.40%
0.15%
1
61.73%
93.00%
5
99.20%
98.85%
5.5
98.20%
97.42%
6
99.71%
99.58%
6.5
99.35%
99.06%
7
99.90%
Table 2.1: Comparison of the reflectivity of a DBR for different
number of pairs (ns=3, n0=1)
From Table 2.1 can be derived that the best reflectivity is achieved by starting with low
refractive index material and using integer number of pairs. Also it can be seen that in this
configuration an additional layer at the end (half-pair) with low index material can reduce the

15

reflectivity, acting as an antireflection coating. In fact by varying the thickness of this layer
between 0 and

it is possible to tune the reflectivity of the DBR.

In this way the out coupling DBR or the Top-DBR of a VCSEL is designed, the necessary
reflectivity is around 99.5%: lower reflectivity would increase the mirror losses to much; too high
a reflectivity would decrease the output power dramatically. The Bottom-DBR on the other hand
is designed to have as high a reflectivity as possible (higher than 99.9%). It also has a slightly
different structure the final layer of the mirror is gold and the mirror is called hybrid mirror.

Figure 2.6: Schematic Structure of a hybrid DBR


In this case gold can be described as medium with a complex refractive index
(for
factor against air

), which results in an amplitude reflection


,which by introducing the layer of thickness d between

DBR and gold can be made real [6]:

(
|

Now the reflection factor can be written as


becomes

))

(2.39)

| and the effective refractive index

, now the same approach as described in

equations (2.35) (2.38) can be applied, with

. The extra layer is necessary to

accommodate for the light penetration in the gold layer and the related phase shift. With the
refractive indices used in Table 2.1 (ns = 3, n1 = 1.5, n2 = 2.5) and n0 = nAu,eff and applying only 3
DBR-pairs a reflectivity of 99.95% can be reached for a hybrid mirror.

16

The calculations for the transfer matrices derived above can be applied not only to design
simple Distributed Bragg Reflectors, as described in Figure 2.3, but in general to any
combination of layers with arbitrary thickness and refractive index. In this way it is possible to
design structures, that will act as band-pass or band-stop filters, however it should be noted that
such designs are difficult to calculate, which requires the use of sophisticated simulation tools.

17

3. Design of High-Speed VCSELs


3.1.

Buried Tunnel Junction (BTJ)

To achieve reasonable performance of a VCSEL it is necessary to define the aperture in


the middle of the mesa to confine the charge carriers there. This ensures that the light is generated
only in the middle of the VCSEL inside of the contact ring. Without this aperture the light will be
generated mostly underneath the contact and the out coupling is not possible. Also the aperture
ensures that there is no current flowing on the sidewalls of the mesa, which could cause surface
recombination via surface trap states and impair laser performance. There are different
possibilities to produce this aperture: for GaAs-based VCSELs, for example, the established
technology is to use oxide confinement (an AlGaAs layer is oxidized from outside, which creates
Al2O3 and defines the isolating aperture inside the mesa, as depicted in Figure 3.1a). With this
approach using wet oxidation, excellent device results were achieved recently (20.2 GHz cut-off
frequency at the wavelength of 980 nm) [8], for InP-based VCSELs however this technique cant
be applied, since the growth of lattice matched material with such high aluminum content isnt
possible. Therefore another method is used the so called Buried Tunnel Junction (BTJ) (see
Figure 3.1b).

a)

b)

Figure 3.1: Cross section of a VCSEL structure a) GaAs-based with


oxide confinement [7], b) InP-based with Buried Tunnel junction
The main difference to the oxide confined GaAs-VCSELs is that the epitaxial growth
takes place in two stages. First the base structure up to the BTJ is grown, then the BTJ is
structured and finally the device is overgrown again hence the name Buried. In general BTJ
consists of two highly doped layers (p++-doped and n++-doped), by choosing the right materials
19

for the layers and due to the strong band bending, tunneling of electrons from the valence band of
the p-side to the conduction band of the n-side can be achieved in reverse bias. In this case, the
BTJ structure operates as backward diode. This means that electrons are generated in the
conduction band and holes in the valence band, which can be viewed as a conversion of electrons
into holes. As a result one can use n-doped materials on the p-side of the laser, for example. This
is also applied in the InP-VCSEL: since electrons have a higher mobility in InP compared to
holes, n-doped InP has lower resistivity, which reduces the series resistance of the device and
improves its thermal properties, the most important advantage is the reduced optical losses in nmaterial, compared to p-material.
The main role of a BTJ however is still creating the aperture for the current flow, for that
the n++-doped layer is partially removed only leaving a small disc in the middle of the future
mesa. The BTJ is then overgrown with n-doped InP: on the n++-part the p++/n++-backward diode
is operated in reverse bias, which ensures conducting, on the part where the n++-layer was
removed a normal reversed bias p++/n-diode is fabricated (between p++-layer of the BTJ and n-InP
overgrowth), therefore no current flows there. This behavior can be also deduced from Figure
3.2, where the band diagram for both cases is depicted. To characterize the BTJ structure it is
useful to introduce the measure called blocking ratio (the ratio between current flowing in the
conducting backward diode and the current flowing in the blocking pn-diode); in a well-designed
VCSEL blocking ratios of around ten thousand can be achieved.

-5.0

-5.0
++

p -AlInGaAs BTJ
-5.5
++

Ec (eV)
Efn (eV)
Ev (eV)
Efp (eV)

++

p -AlInGaAs BTJ
-5.5

n-InP

Energy (eV)

Energy (eV)

n -InGaAs BTJ
-6.0

n-InP
-6.5

-7.0

Ec (eV)
Efn (eV)
Ev (eV)
Efp (eV)

-6.0

-6.5

-7.0

-7.5

-7.5

-8.0

-8.0
0

40

80

120

160

200

40

80

120

160

200

Position (nm)

Position (nm)

b)

a)

Figure 3.2: Band diagram of a BTJ structure a) conducting, b) blocking at reverse bias of
0.1V
20

3.2.

Optical Design of a VCSEL

The optical design is the key point for developing a laser diode. In a VCSEL it plays an
even greater role than in edge-emitting laser diodes. First of all the cavity has to be designed
according to the desired wavelength, since the cavity length defines the wavelength (it must be a
multiple of the half-wavelength in the medium (compare to equations 2.23)), however a cavity is
normally designed larger than half-wavelength in the medium, since current spreading layers are
necessary between BTJ and the contact to ensure homogeneous pumping of the BTJ.
Also the position of the active region and the tunnel junction need to be adjusted to the
standing wave pattern. The BTJ consists of highly doped layers, in particular InGaAs, which is
strongly absorbing for the desired wavelength (

),

therefore to minimize its influence on the laser performance the BTJ needs to be placed in the
minimum of the field. The active region on the other hand is placed in the maximum to increase
the confinement factor and hence the mode gain. The confinement factor of VCSEL can be
calculated as follows:
|

(3.1)

The x- and y-dimensions are defined only by the aperture, which means
and

, for the fundamental mode. For the z-dimension however the overlap of the active

region with the standing wave pattern needs to be taken into account and can be approximated as
[9]:

(3.2)

Typical values for the relative confinement factor

are around 1.8, depending on the number of

the QWs. Also while designing the VCSEL one should consider that the resonator length

isnt

equal to the cavity length, since a significant part of the field penetrates into the mirrors, as can
be seen in Figure 3.3. The penetration depth can be approximated as follows [10]:
21

(3.3)
where

and

are the thicknesses of both mirror materials,

and

are the refractive indices,

and m is the number of pairs. Another approximation can be found in literature:


, however both are only valid for

, which is definitely

not the case for a small number of pairs. Taking into account the penetration depth in the mirrors
the effective resonator length can be written as:
(3.4)

1.0

Refractive Index

0.8
2.0
0.6

0.4
1.5
0.2

1.0

Relative Field Intensity

2.5

0.0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Position (nm)
Figure 3.3: E-field pattern and refractive index of a 5-pair DBR
There are two main possibilities to realize the mirrors: one is to use epitaxially grown
semiconductor materials, another is to use evaporated dielectric and semiconductor materials.
Both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Epitaxial mirrors, for example,
allow easier processing and are grown in the same epitaxial step as the cavity. The crucial
advantage of the epitaxial mirror grown below the cavity is that one can easily measure the cavity
length (by measuring the wavelength dependent reflection and analyzing the reflection spectrum)
and adjust it by the following layers, to correct the position of the standing wave pattern. Also it
is possible to grow doped mirrors, which act as current spreading layers. In general epitaxial
22

mirrors have also a better quality, since crystalline materials are used. However epitaxial mirrors
also have some disadvantages. The semiconductor materials used in epitaxial mirrors need to be
lattice matched to the substrate, which limits the materials of choice; furthermore the materials
which are absorbing for the desired wavelength need to be avoided. Thus the material
compositions that can be used are normally quite limited and also the possible difference of
refractive index is comparatively small, which demands a high number of pairs to reach the
necessary reflectivity. This increases the total thickness of the mirror, which impairs thermal
performance of the VCSEL, since the thermal conductivity of the mirror decreases. Also the
doped mirrors are absorbing due to the free-carrier absorption.
The evaporated dielectric mirrors on the other hand can have a very high refractive index
contrast, therefore a smaller number of pairs can be used, which reduces the penetration depth
and the effective resonator length (and therefore increases the resonance frequency (see Chapter
3.3)). Also the choice of the material isnt restricted by the lattice, thus only the absorption needs
to be taken into account. The layers produced in this way are however amorphous, and the
sticking of the mirrors is a known issue as well. Another aspect is that the dielectric materials in
general have a much lower thermal conductivity compared to binary semiconductors (compared
to ternary and quaternary materials isnt necessarily the case), which affects the thermal
performance of the device, also the complexity of the process increases with the application of
dielectric mirrors. For the high-speed application however the dielectric mirrors are preferred.
n1
n2
N pairs
R (%)
dmirror (m)
Lpen (m)
Mirror
dielectric
1.5
2.5
6
99.71
2.48
0.411
epitaxial
3.2
3.5
32
99.57
7.42
1.286
Table 3.1: Comparison between dielectric mirror and epitaxial mirror (Wavelength = 1.55m,
Reflectivity R >99.5%, ns = 3, n0 = 1)
Finally the Figure 3.4 shows the cross-section and the standing wave pattern of a short
cavity VCSEL with two dielectric mirrors (Bottom-DBR is a hybrid one) and active region (AR)
placed at the field maximum and BTJ at the field minimum.

23

Figure 3.4: Standing wave pattern of a SC-VCSEL

3.3.

Considerations on High-Speed Performance of VCSELs

An essential trait of a laser diode for optical telecommunication is the high-speed


performance, since it directly affects the information transfer rate. To be able to design a VCSEL
for this application, it is necessary to define the parameters that influence the high-speed response
of a laser diode. The first clue can be in general derived from the rate equations of a laser diode
[11]:

(3.5)

where
rate,

(3.6)

is the group velocity and

is the spontaneous recombination

are electron and photon densities, respectively,

is the photon lifetime. From

these rate equations small-signal frequency response can be deduced [4], which is also the
operation mode needed for optical telecommunications:
(3.7)

24

with

relaxation resonance frequency and

damping factor. For the operation above

threshold the following expression can be found for

:
(3.8)

Also from this expression the first possibilities to increase the resonance frequency and thus also
the cut-off frequency can be derived: increase photon density (output power), decrease photon
lifetime. The photon lifetime on the other hand can be described as [12]:
(

(3.9)

This means that a smaller resonator length will result in a lower photon lifetime.
The frequency response described above is only valid in the case where parasitics of the
laser diode are neglected, and thus only describes the intrinsic response of the laser. For the real
device however parasitcs need to be taken into account.

Figure 3.5: Cross-section of a Short-Cavity-VCSEL with


its equivalent circuit
From the equivalent circuit described in Figure 3.5, one can easily derive the parasitic
response of a VCSEL [13]:

25

(3.10)

(3.11)
where

is the parasitic capacitance of the depletion region of the blocking p++n-junction,

spreading resistance plus the resistance of the epitaxial layers and


From the equations (3.10) and (3.11) one can see that decreasing

is the

the contact resistance.


would reduce the

influence of parasitics on the frequency response. Finally the total frequency response can be
deduced as:

(3.12)

3.4.

Stacked Active Region

As mentioned before the resonance frequency increases with the output power, which
means that a laser diode with higher maximum output power should have a better high speed
performance. During this thesis stacked active regions were utilized to improve the performance
of the VCSEL. The stacked active region means that a series circuit of two or more separate
active regions is employed in the laser diode. In this composition the p-side of one active region
is connected to the n-side of the next one; therefore a conversion between holes and electrons is
necessary, which is achieved by using the tunnel junction as described in Section 3.1. From the
electrical point of view the electrons first enter the n-side of the first active region (AR),
recombine there and thus enter the p-side of this AR, and then the same electrons are carried to
the tunnel junction and tunnel to the n-side of the second AR, where they again recombine. This
process continues until the electrons reach the final p-cladding. Since the current flowing through
the stacked AR is the same that flows through the single AR, one can increase the output power
of the laser diode by the factor equal to the number of ARs in a stack. However since each of the
ARs has a certain voltage drop induced by the band gap, the stack has also the higher voltage
drop (a stacked active region consisting of two active regions has twice the voltage drop
26

compared to a single one). For the laser diode it means that for the same output power the current
is reduced by the number of active regions in a stack, compared to the single AR with the same
total number of QWs, at the same time the voltage drop increases by the same factor. At the first
glance this doesnt have any advantages, since the input power (

) used is the same,

however for the laser diode and especially for the VCSEL it is expected to improve the
performance greatly.
To understand the advantages of the stacked active region, first of all one has to consider
the structure of the active region of a laser diode. In general a multiple of quantum wells (QW)
separated by barriers are used as an active region, this increases the density of states at desired
lasing energy (since the spacing between the energy levels in the quantum well is much higher
compared to bulk material). The Figure 3.6 shows the modal gain of an active region with
different number of QWs as a function of injection current, the higher gain means higher output
power, the points in the graph mark the optimum condition for laser performance for a given
number of QWs. For a higher number of QWs the optimum output power is higher, however the
threshold current density also increases. For desired performance the ideal number of QWs can
be estimated from the mentioned behavior. For the InP-based VCSELs this number was found to
be around 5-7 QWs. The number of QWs also determines the thickness of the active region and
therefore also the relative confinement factor (see equations (3.2)): the higher the number of
QWs, the lower is the overlap of the active region with the maximum of the standing wave
pattern.

Figure 3.6: Schematic Figure of Modal Gain as a


function of Current Density for different number of QWs
27

The stacked active region creates a possibility to increase this overlap without decreasing
the number of quantum wells, since each part of the active region is placed at a separate
maximum of the field. The comparison between stacked and single AR can be seen in Figure 3.7:
where an active region consisting of 8 QWs (QW thickness 10 nm, barrier thickness 10 nm,
the material wavelength is assumed to be

) is first placed at a single field

maximum (a), then the same active region is separated in two parts 4 QWs each and each part is
placed at a separate field maximum (b). For these imaginary active regions a relative confinement
factor of around 1.73 and 1.91, respectively, can be calculated. Therefore the stacked active
region in this case improves the relative confinement factor by around 10%, thus increasing the
modal gain (

).

Another advantage of the stacked active region can be derived from the fact that the same
output power can achieved using lower injection current. The maximum output power of a laser
diode is determined by the heating of the active region, induced by the current flow. The
dissipated power can be described by the simple equation

, implying that at half

the current the power loss is decreased by the factor of 4.

-5.2

-5.4
-5.6
0.5

-5.8
-6.0
-6.2
-6.4
-6.6
0

100

200

300

Band Energy (eV)

-5.2

Normalized E-Field

Band Energy (eV)

-5.0

-5.4
-5.6
0.5

-5.8
-6.0
-6.2
-6.4
-6.6

0.0
400

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Normalized E-Field

1.0

1.0
-5.0

0.0
800

Position (nm)

Position (nm)

b)

a)

Figure 3.7: Schematic Structure of a) single and b) stacked active region with 8 QWs in
total each (Note: the necessary BTJ at position 400nm in figure b) is left off)

On the other hand however the stacked active region also has some drawbacks. First of all
the epitaxial growth is more challenging compared to common design, since two or more active
28

regions and BTJs need to be placed at the corresponding nodes and anti-nodes of the standing
wave pattern. Although the absorption in the BTJ is minimized by placing it in the field
minimum, it isnt equal zero, which means that increasing the number of BTJs also increases the
internal losses slightly. Another aspect is the cavity design: for a given thickness of the current
spreading layers in the VCSEL one increases the cavity thickness by introducing stacked active
regions (each active region in the stack increases the cavity thickness by half-wavelength in the
medium), which reduces the resonance frequency of the device (see equations (3.8) and (3.9)).
The main problem in the design introduced above is assumed to be caused by the tunnel junctions
separating the active regions. Since these BTJs are not structured, each of them is expected to
introduce an additional current spreading, which can reduce the performance of the whole device.

29

4. High-Speed VCSEL Fabrication


The High-Speed VCSELs required for the optical telecommunication have to satisfy
many requirements. On one hand performance up to 85C is required, which makes devices with
low threshold currents and low optical losses necessary, on the other hand high speed
performance is very important. Satisfying all the requirements makes the design and especially
the process very complicated. The process for the Short Cavity InP-based VCSEL consists of two
epitaxial growths, 13 lithographic steps with subsequent structuring and several additional
deposition and etching steps.
The fabrication of the VCSEL starts with the first epitaxy using Molecular Beam Epitaxy.
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is a technique for epitaxial growth via the interaction of one or
several molecular or atomic beams that occurs on a surface of a heated crystalline substrate. The
solid sources materials are placed in evaporation cells to provide an angular distribution of atoms
or molecules in a beam. The substrate is heated to the necessary temperature and, when needed,
continuously rotated to improve the growth homogeneity [14]. To ensure that evaporated atoms
do not interact with each other or chamber gases until they reach the wafer an ultrahigh vacuum
in the chamber is necessary. The MBE is the preferred technique since it offers the best
possibility to grow nanometer scale layers with desired composition. Also due to the accumulated
experience and knowledge about the material system, it is possible to grow the layers with very
precise thickness and composition. This allows one to create VCSEL cavity with exact length and
exact position of the active region and BTJ, which is essential for the laser performance of the
future device. The precise control offered by the MBE gives a possibility to grow heavily
compressively strained quantum wells in the active region (partially by using strain compensation
in the barriers), thus improving the performance due to the increase of the differential gain of the
laser, as stated in [15],[16].
In this first epitaxial run the base structure of the device is grown, consisting of the double
etch stop for substrate removal (InGaAs etch stop, InP buffer layer, InGaAs n-side contact layer),
followed by n-cladding, the active region, the p-cladding and finally the two highly doped layers
of the BTJ. The substrate used is the n-doped 2-inch (100) indium phosphide wafer. After the
sample is taken out from the MBE chamber, the quality of the epitaxy is verified first optically
(surface roughness) and then the photo-luminescence spectrum is measured (the quality can be
31

estimated by measuring the peak height and position at a given excitation power and comparing it
to the previous successful epitaxial runs). After the verification the actual processing of the
VCSEL starts.
The first step is to define the aperture of the future devices, thus the top layer of the BTJ is
removed leaving only small areas where both layers are still present. To define the structures
optical lithography is used, for that the sample is first cleaned with hot Acetone and Propanol and
an HCl-Dip (short etching (30s) in a diluted hydrochloric acid) to remove the native oxide is
performed and the residual water is removed by heating out the sample, subsequently the sample
is coated by a resist and exposed leaving only small circles (diameter 2 to 30m) unexposed.
After the development this circles cover the areas where the BTJ apertures of the devices will be
present. The uncovered parts are then etched using Reactive Ion Etching System Oxford
PlasmaLab 100. Since the layer that needs to be etched is around 12 15nm, a very slow etch
rate is essential, which is achieved by using the gas mixture of methane, nitrogen and hydrogen
(weakly reactive gases) and low excitation power. Since it is not possible to use in-situ control for
this etching, the etch time is estimated by calibrating the etch rate beforehand. After the etching
the etch depth is verified using Dektak step profiler. Finally the resist can be removed and the
sample is cleaned before further processing. The next step is the epitaxial overgrowth of the
sample, therefore it has to be ensured that the sample is contamination-free, otherwise the device
performance will suffer. For that all the steps mentioned before are performed with extreme care
and using separate tools, especially the final cleaning step. During the overgrowth the n-doped
InP current spreading layer (the doping is varied depending on the standing wave pattern) and the
heavily n-doped p-side InGaAs contact layer are grown.
After the second epitaxy first of all the alignment marker etched in the previous step are
freed to ensure easier alignment of the next step. This is done by using optical lithography and
subsequently etching the overgrown layers on top of the alignment marker (wet-chemical
selective etching: phosphoric acid for InGaAs and hydrochloric acid for InP). In the next step the
contact layer is removed on top of each BTJ by using selective wet-chemical etching with
phosphoric acid. This step is necessary to avoid the high losses caused by the contact layer and
therefore needs a very precise alignment (for some devices there is no alignment tolerance at all).
The other reason for the precise alignment is that the alignment marker for all the following steps
32

are created in this step, which means the misalignment of this step will be carried to all the other
steps.
In the next step the mesas of the future devices are defined, for that first a silicon oxide
hard mask is produced, by using optical lithography, followed by silicon oxide (SiO2) deposition
(evaporation in this case) and the Lift-Off procedure, where the oxide layer on top of the resist is
removed. The evaporation system is used, because it allows growing relatively thick layers
without any quality loss (compared to e. g. sputtering), before the evaporation an HCl-Dip is
performed to remove the native oxide and ensure better sticking of the evaporated material (this
is the standard procedure before any material deposition and is used very often during the
complete process). For the mesa etching the same dry etching system as for the BTJ is used. In
both steps dry etching is preferred since it offers anisotropic etching profile (e.g. no under etch).
For this step another gas composition is used: methane, hydrogen and chlorine, and also the
excitation power are higher, because a higher etch rate is desired (etch depth around 1.5 2m).
The chlorine is chemically highly reactive therefore a hard mask is necessary (resist reacts with
chlorine and also due to high temperature the resist burns in, which impedes the following resist
removal). Also the in-situ control with mass spectrometer is used during the etching: the mass
fraction of the arsine and phosphine is measured at the outlet, which helps defining whether
phosphorous (InP) or arsenic (InGaAs, AlInGaAs) layer is etched at the given time. The goal is to
etch all the epitaxial layers and stop in the InP buffer layer grown at the start of the first epitaxy.
For this etching the process parameters have to be chosen very carefully; first of all the
etch rate must be high so the etching isnt too long, on the other hand it has to be low enough to
resolve all the layers (especially when using stacked active regions, since there are layers of
around 80 nm, that need to be resolved). The most important factor is the homogeneity of the
etching, in the case of too high inhomogeneity it is not possible to use the in-situ control and the
point to stop the etching cant be distinguished. If this happens one can etch down into the
substrate removing the necessary etch stop, which makes further processing more difficult and
more dangerous, especially the substrate removal. Small dummies of similar structure are used
for testing, the behavior on a full wafer however is different. The Figure 4.1 shows the mass
fraction of Arsine (AsH3) and Phosphine (PH3) in the outlet during the etching for three different
samples. For the first sample (Figure 4.1a) an imperfect process was used: the inhomogeneity
was found to be around 20% (400 nm) and it was impossible to stop the etching in the desired
33

buffer layer. After improving the parameters and experimenting with different other gas mixtures,
a much better parameter set was found (Figure 4.1 b) and c) shows the etching where each part of
the VCSEL is resolved perfectly, which allows to stop the etching in the desired layer) that
resulted in the inhomogeneity of around 2-3%.

a)
1E-7
n-InP overgrowth

n-InP cladding

1E-8

p-cladding + AR

n-InGaAs CL

1E-9

Arsine

Phosphine

1E-10
0

100

200

300

n-InP overgrowth

InP buffer

Mass fraction in the outlet

Mass fraction in the outlet

1E-7

2.n-InP cladding

InP buffer

1E-8
1.p-cladding + 1.AR 2.p-cladding + 2.AR

n-InGaAs CL

1E-9

Arsine

Phosphine

1E-10
0

400

1.n-InP cladding

100

200

300

Etch Time (s)

Etch Time (s)

c)

b)

Figure 4.1: Output of the mass spectrometer during the mesa etching for three different
samples: a) imperfect; b),c) optimized parameter set
After the dry etching an additional lithography step covers the mesa with a slightly bigger
circle and the buffer layer is selectively wet-chemically etched away, resulting in a much
smoother surface compared to the dry etching, which improves the further processing. After the
etching the hard mask is removed (selective dry etching of SiO2) and the sample is ready for
further processing.
34

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 4.2: Fabrication process of the high-speed SC-VCSEL (schematic structure):


a) base structure epitaxy; b) BTJ structuring; c) epitaxial overgrowth; d) mesa etching
Now it is necessary to planarize the etched sample, for which a polymer
Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is used. The main advantages of BCB are: the low dielectric constant
(reduces parasitic capacitance), the low refractive index (BCB is transparent), chemical stability
and finally the sample can be spin coated with BCB (ensures good planarization). Before the
BCB however a layer of SiO2 is sputtered (better sticking then evaporated SiO2), since BCB
35

sticks better to SiO2 then to semiconductor. The same is done after the planarization with BCB to
ensure better sticking of the resist. After the planarization the layers on top of the mesa need to be
removed to enable electrical contacting and deposition of the mirror, which is done by
lithographically defining the necessary areas and selectively etching through BCB and SiO2
layers. Now the contact rings comprised of titanium (for better sticking to semiconductor),
platinum (diffusion barrier for gold) and gold are evaporated and structured using Lift-Off
procedure. This step is known to cause problems, since the inner part of the ring frequently isnt
removed, therefore a spray Lift-Off with acetone is used (the sample is sprayed with Acetone
stream). After the contacts the dielectric Bottom-DBR is evaporated. The materials used are
aluminum fluoride AlF3 (n=1.34) and zinc sulfide ZnS (n=2.28), the mirror is concluded by
100nm of gold to create a hybrid DBR (for the mirror 3.5 Pairs of dielectric materials are used
reaching the power reflectivity of around 99.95%, the reflection spectrum of the DBR can be
found in Figure 4.3). The final structuring step on the bottom side of a VCSEL is the device
definition, where stripes are etched in the BCB to create lines separating each VECSEL from its
neighbors and also the vias for the contacting of the back side. Now finally the Ti-Pt-Au layer
stack is evaporated and additional 50 60m of gold are electroplated on the sample,
encapsulating the devices and creating the pseudo-substrate. The thickness is controlled by
weighting the sample during the electroplating.

1.000

1.0

Power Reflectivity

Power Reflectivity

0.999

Bottom-DBR
Top-DBR

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

Bottom-DBR
Top-DBR

0.998
0.997
0.996
0.995
0.994
0.993
0.992
0.991

0.1
0.0
1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

0.990
1.40

2.4

1.45

1.50

1.55

1.60

1.65

Wavelength (m)

Wavelength (m)

b)

a)

Figure 4.3: Simulated Reflection spectrum of the Bottom-DBR(black line),


of the Top-DBR (red line)

36

1.70

After the electroplating the process continues on the back side of the wafer, where the
future top side of the devices will be. First the InP substrate is removed by selectively etching it
with hydrochloric acid with different concentration (first HCl:H2O=4:1 , at the end HCl:H2O=2:1,
to make the stopping on the InGaAs etch stop easier). Afterwards the etch stop and the buffer
layer are removed, allowing access to the devices from the InP substrate side (now the top side).
The further steps on this side are similar to the ones on the back side: first the contact layer is
removed in the middle of the mesa and then the contact pads for the top side are evaporated.
Additionally some gold (1 1.5m) is electroplated on top of the pads to improve the heat
dissipation and the contacting of the devices. Finally as the last step the Top-DBR is evaporated
using the same materials as for the Bottom-DBR (AlF3 and ZnS); here 5 pairs are used with
reflectivity of around 99.4%.

37

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 4.4: Fabrication process of the high-speed SC-VCSEL (schematic structure):


a) BCB etching; b) Bottom contact and DBR evaporation; c) substrate removal;
d) final device

38

5. Experimental Results and Discussion


In the following chapter the achieved results are presented and discussed. The chapter
mainly focuses on two 1.55m devices (one with stacked active region, the other with
conventional single active region) and their performance.
The single AR device had 6 identical quantum wells in the active region, whereas the
stacked AR device had two active regions with 3 QWs each, separated by the second BTJ, thus
both devices have the same total number of quantum wells. Furthermore in both devices a 3cavity was implemented with nominally identical top- and bottom-mirrors. For the stacked active
region the overgrowth thickness is reduced to accommodate the second active region. The Figure
5.1 shows the standing wave pattern and the refractive index profile of both devices.

4
Active Region

Real index
Intensity

E-Field Intensity (a.u.)


Refractive Index

E-Field Intensity (a.u.)


Refractive Index

BTJ

Active Region

Real index
Intensity

BTJ

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1000

Position (nm)

2000

3000

4000

5000

Position (nm)

a)

b)

Figure 5.1: Refractive index profile and standing wave pattern of a) the single AR device,
b) the stacked AR device
According to equation (3.2) the relative confinement factor

was found to be 1.84 and

1.97 for the single AR and stacked AR devices, respectively, which also resulted in the reduction
of the simulated threshold gain from 527.56cm-1 to 492.95cm-1.
To verify the quality of the structured BTJ the blocking ratio of both devices was
experimentally determined. Figure 5.2 shows the comparison of the measured current for the
blocking part and the conducting part of the tunnel junction for both devices. The blocking ratio
was extracted at the threshold voltage of the device and was found to be around 35000 for the
single AR device and 10000 for the stacked AR device. The single AR device has a higher
39

blocking ratio, however blocking ratios of around 10000 are large enough for excellent current
confinement, therefore the difference of the blocking ratios on hand doesnt have a huge impact
on laser characteristics of the investigated VCSELs.

35K

10000

30K

1000

25K

10
20K
1
15K
0.1
10K

0.01

D=50m
D=100m
blocking
conducting

5K

1E-3

1E-4
0K
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

11K
solid
dash

100

D=50m
D=100m
blocking
conducting

10K
9K
8K
7K

10

6K
1
5K
0.1

4K

0.01

3K
2K

1E-3
1E-4
0.0

Blocking Ratio

100

solid
dash

Current Density (A/cm )

1000

Blocking Ratio

Current Density (A/cm )

10000

1K
0.2

0.4

Voltage (V)

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0K
2.0

Voltage (V)

a)

b)

Figure 5.2: Blocking ratio of a) the single AR device, b) the stacked AR device (the green
line marks the threshold voltage)

5.1.

L-I-V Characteristics of the Devices

To compare the performance of both devices first of all the L-I-V characteristics of the
devices were measured. The L-I curve was measured using thermo-electrically cooled InAs
detector, subsequently the I-V characteristic was recorded using four-point measurement setup to
improve measurement accuracy. The measurements were done at room temperature (20C) on a
copper heatsink in continuous wave (CW) mode.
Figure 5.3 shows the comparison of the L-I-V curves for both devices at room
temperature for VCSELs with 4m (a) and 5m (b) BTJ diameter. Furthermore characteristic
optical and electrical parameters were extracted. Table 5.1 shows a summary of these parameters.

40

1.5
1.5
1.0
0.5

U0 = 0.95V

1.77V

Rs = 74.1

80.9

Uth = 0.98V

1.91V

Ith = 0.69mA

1.62mA

d = 57.6%

80.3%

PRO= 3.31mW

3.12mW

0.0
2

1.0

Voltage (V)

2.0
2.0

Single AR (1 x 6 QW)
Stacked AR (2 x 3 QW)

2.5

2.5

3.0
CW @ RT
DBTJ = 5m

3.5

Single AR (1 x 6 QW)
Stacked AR (2 x 3 QW)

Output Power (mW)

3.0

Output Power (mW)

4.0

3.0
CW @ RT
DBTJ = 4m

0.5

2.5

3.0
2.0

2.5
2.0

1.5

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

0.0
10 11 12 13

U0 = 0.95V

1.77V

Rs = 55.8

62.4

Uth = 0.97V

1.88V

Ith = 0.92mA

1.87mA

d = 54.5%

78.4%

PRO= 3.88mW

3.92mW

1.0

Voltage (V)

3.5

0.5

0.0
9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Current (mA)

Current (mA)

b)

a)
Figure 5.3: L-I-V curves for both devices
Device

DBTJ [m]

V0 [V]

Rs [Ohm]

Vth [V]

Ith [mA]

PRO [mW]

d [%]

Single AR
Stacked AR
Single AR
Stacked AR

4
4
5
5

0.95
1.77
0.95
1.77

74.1
80.9
55.8
62.4

0.98
1.91
0.97
1.88

0.69
1.62
0.92
1.87

3.31
3.12
3.88
3.92

57.6
80.3
54.5
78.4

Table 5.1: Comparison between the extracted L-I-V parameters


The threshold voltage of 0.97V of the single AR device is in good comparison with values
reached before (0.95V as mentioned in [17]) and considerably lower as the ones achieved by
other groups (2.1V in [18], 1.4V in [19]). The optical parameters are also excellent for this
device: the low threshold current of 0.92mA and the high roll-over output power of 3.9mW for
5m device are one of the best for the wavelength of 1.55m at room temperature reported to
date (threshold of 0.75mA and roll-over power of 3mW for the same device were reported in
[17], in [19] the maximum output power of 1mW was achieved for a 8m-device). The single AR
device also achieved a record high differential quantum efficiency of 58% at room temperature
for the devices with single active region (38% in [17], 36% in [18], 23% in [19] and 42.4% in
[20], 50% in [22] both for the edge-emitting lasers).
The same parameters were extracted for the stacked AR device. As expected the threshold
voltage of the stacked AR device is almost twice as high as the one of the single AR device, due
to the stacking of the active regions, as mentioned in Chapter 3.4. Also the differential quantum
efficiency is considerably higher compared to the single AR device, as can be deduced from the
equation:
41

(5.1)
The series resistance is slightly higher in the case of the stacked AR device, because of the
additional tunnel junction and additional p-cladding of the second AR, which has a considerably
higher resistivity compared to the n-InP overgrowth.
Unexpectedly, the threshold current wasnt halved and also the maximum output power
didnt increase. To further investigate this behavior the lateral current spreading for the devices
was estimated. For that purpose the threshold current and current density were investigated for

Threshold Current Density (A/cm )

both devices.

6000

Stacked AR device
Single AR device

0.5

2*sqrt(Ith/) (mA )

Stacked AR device
Single AR device

4000

2000

3
D = 6.65m

Jth = 1632 A/cm

D = 1.25m

Jth = 2944 A/cm

0
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

10

12

14

16

18

20

BTJ Diameter (m)

BTJ Diameter (m)

b)

a)

Figure 5.4: a) Threshold current density as a function of BTJ diameter, b) Model for linear
extraction of the lateral current spreading
The Figure 5.4a shows the threshold current density for different BTJ diameters. In the
ideal case, where the BTJ area is equal to the pumped area of the AR, one expects an
independency of the threshold current density from the aperture diameter. However, it is not the
case here, especially for the stacked AR device. Presumably, this is caused by the current
spreading at the interface between the highly doped p++-BTJ layer and the low doped p-cladding.
For the stacked AR device this behavior is further enhanced by the second BTJ. To calculate the
corresponding current spreading a simple linear model is assumed (
threshold current density can be written as:

42

) and the

(5.2)

The equation (5.2) can be transformed to:

which makes the linear approximation of the

and

(5.3)

possible. The Figure 5.4b shows the

measured data and the linear approximation for both devices and the estimated values for the
threshold current density and the current spreading can be found in Table 5.2.
Device
Single AR
Stacked AR

D [m]
1.25
6.65

Jth [A/cm2]
2944
1633

Table 5.2: Extracted diffusion parameters for both devices


As can be seen the current spreading for the stacked AR device is five times higher
compared to the single AR device, which is obviously caused by the additional unstructured
tunnel junction. Here, it should be mentioned that this broadening doesnt necessarily impair the
laser performance of the single AR device, since only the pumped area and thus the output power
increase. For the stacked AR device however it isnt the case, since only the pumped area of the
second AR in the stack increases comparably. The lasing area though is limited by the first AR,
where the same current aperture and pumped area as in the single AR device can be assumed.
The excess light generated by the second AR is most likely partially absorbed by the first AR.
The fact that both devices have roughly the same maximum output power also indicates that the
effective lasing area is the same.
On the other hand, the actual threshold current density of the stacked AR device, as seen
in the Table 5.2, is almost half as high as the one of the single AR device, which indicates that the
expected halving of the injection current does take place, but the effect is overshadowed by the
current spreading before the second AR.
In general, one can see that the differential quantum efficiency isnt exactly doubled and
the estimated threshold current density isnt exactly halved, which is most likely caused by the
43

fact that both active regions of the stacked AR device arent completely identical, due to growth
inaccuracy. The achieved results however are in good comparison with the results of the other
groups: the stacked AR VCSELs shown in [21] achieved the differential quantum efficiency up
to 51% for a stack of 3 active regions, which is still clearly inferior to results achieved in this
thesis. The segmented laser presented in [20] achieved the differential quantum efficiency of
409% for 12 segments and 126% for 3 segments, compared to 42.4% for unsegmented laser.
These results were however obtained for pulsed mode operation and are expected to deteriorate
for CW operation (342% for 12 segments or 28.5% per segment, which is also inferior to the ones
mentioned above). The differential quantum efficiency for a stacked device, similar to the one
mentioned in this thesis, were achieved in [22], however for an edge-emitting laser diode: for a
single AR device 50%, for stacked AR device (3 ARs in series) 125% (42% per AR).

5.2.

Temperature Performance of the Devices

Additionally to the electrical performance also the temperature performance was


investigated, for that L-I-V curves at different heatsink temperatures were measured and the
thermal behavior was examined.

4.5

4.5
-10C
0C
10C
20C
30C
40C
50C
60C
70C
80C
85C

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5

-10C
0C
10C
20C
30C
40C
50C
60C
70C
80C
85C

4.0

Ouput Power (mW)

Ouput Power (mW)

4.0

1.0
0.5
0.0

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

10

12

14

16

Current (mA)

10

12

14

Current (mA)

a)

b)

Figure 5.5: L-I-curves for a 5m-VCSEL of a) single AR device, b) stacked AR device


The main parameters to be analyzed are the threshold current and the maximum output
power. The Figure 5.6a shows the typical parabolic dependence of the threshold current on the
heatsink temperature. For the sake of convenience Figure 5.6b shows the normalized threshold
current: threshold current at a given temperature divided by the lowest threshold current. From
44

this figure one can easily deduce the optimum temperature of operation. The lowest threshold
current for the single AR device was found to be around 30C, for the stacked AR device
around 0C. Both devices were designed for room temperature operation, which is definitely the
case for the single AR device, for the stacked AR device the optimum temperature shifted
towards low temperatures, due to the detuning of the cavity length compared to the gain
maximum, most likely caused by the growth inaccuracy. Both devices show similar relative
threshold current in the range between 10C and 20C (see Figure 5.6b), which allows an errorfree comparison in this range.

4.5

4.5

4.0

4.0

2.4

3.5

2.2

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5
-20 -10

0.5

0.8
-20 -10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Ith/Ith,min

3.5

Pmax(mW)

Ith(mA)

2.6

Stacked AR
Single AR

Stacked AR
Single AR

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

90

Temperature (C)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Temperature (C)

a)

b)

Figure 5.6: a)Threshold current and maximum output power of both devices, b)Normalized
threshold current as a function of temperature
Both devices also achieved reasonable output power even at high temperatures (above
1.5mW at 85C heatsink temperature for the single AR device, which is superior to previously
fabricated SC VCSELs [17], and considerably higher than maximum CW operation up to 35C
for devices mentioned in [23] and 0.4mW output power at 70C for the VCSELs described in
[24]), the Figure 5.6a however shows that the stacked AR device has a slightly worse thermal
performance, since the maximum power drops faster for this device. This is mainly caused by the
smaller mode-gain offset of the stacked AR device. Also the effect is enhanced by the additional
high current spreading at the BTJ before the second AR, which increases the current density in
the first AR.

45

5.3.

Spectral Characterization of the Devices

Further insight about the operation of the laser can be attained by analyzing the spectral
data of the devices. Figure 5.7 shows the comparison between the spectral responses of both
devices (measured at 20C at roll-over for a BTJ diameter of 5m, dashed line shows the PL
response measured before processing). The wavelength of the main mode was found to be
1522.2nm and 1535.2nm for the single AR device and for the stacked AR device, respectively.
The difference of the wavelength indicates that the lasers have a slightly different cavity length,
the excellent laser performance however shows that the detuning of the standing wave pattern is
neglectable. The PL and lasing peak position at room temperature evince that both devices were
designed with the same mode-gain offset. The optimum operation temperature for the stacked AR
device is however at 0C (compared to 30C of the single AR device), which implies higher
active region temperature and higher mode-gain offset.

1460

1470

1480

1490

1500
1.0

Single AR
Stacked AR

-10
-20

T = 20C
I = IRO

0.8

-30
-40

0.6

-50
0.4

-60
-70
1490

1500

1510

1520

1530

1540

Normalized PL Response

Relative Lasing Response (dB)

Wavelength PL (nm)
1450

0.2
1550

Wavelength Lasing (nm)

Figure 5.7: Spectra of both devices


From the Figure 5.7 one can also see that the second highest mode of the stacked AR
device is higher than the one of the single AR device, therefore the side-mode suppression ratio
of both devices is different and needs to be analyzed. The Figure 5.8 shows the spectra for both
devices as a function of the BTJ diameter measured at 20C at the thermal roll-over. From this
Figure one can already deduce, that the VCSELs with larger aperture diameters are multimode
(the modes in question are transverse modes (longitudinal mode spacing >60nm)). This behavior
can be further investigated by plotting the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) as a function of
46

BTJ diameter (Figure 5.9). The devices with BTJ diameter above 5m of both devices have a
relatively low SMSR and cant be considered single mode anymore, the comparison between
both devices also gets difficult in this range since the fiber coupling becomes an issue. On the
other hand the comparison between the 5m devices shows that the device with single active
region has a much higher SMSR, which can also be caused by the fabrication inaccuracy, the
other possibility is the effect of higher broadening, which increases the current density
dramatically in the first AR, thus changing the single-mode performance, as investigated in [25].
Wavelength (nm)

-20
-30

4m
5m
6m
9m

-10

Relative Response (dB)

Relative Response (dB)

-10

T = 20C
I = IRO

-40
-50
-60
-70
1505

1510

1515

1520

1525

1530

-20
-30

4m
5m
6m
9m
T = 20C
I = IRO

-40
-50
-60
-70
1520

1525

Wavelength (nm)

1530

1535

1540

1545

Wavelength (nm)

a)

b)

Figure 5.8: Spectra for the different BTJ diameter of a) single AR device, b) stacked AR
device

60
Stacked AR
Single AR

SMSR (dB)

50

T = 20C
I = IRO

40

30

20

10

0
4

10

DBTJ (m)
Figure 5.9: SMSR vs. BTJ diameter
47

11

For some laser applications wavelength tuning is desired, therefore the tuning dependency
on the heatsink temperature and on the applied current (the easiest methods of wavelength
tuning) was investigated.
The Figure 5.10 shows the spectra measured at different temperatures. The behavior is
further analyzed by plotting the wavelength and SMSR as the functions of temperature (Figure
5.11). For both devices the linear temperature tuning coefficient around 0.085nm/K was
calculated, which is slightly lower than a typical one of 0.1nm/K. The SMSR was found to
increase with temperature, especially for the stacked AR device (Figure 5.11b).

-10

Relative Response (dB)

-20
-30

Relative Response (dB)

20C
30C
40C
50C
60C

-10

DBTJ = 5m
I = 6mA

-40
-50
-60
-70
1505

1510

1515

1520

1525

1530

20C
30C
40C
50C
60C

-20
-30

DBTJ = 5m
-40

I = 6mA

-50
-60
-70
1520

1525

Wavelength (nm)

1530

1535

1540

1545

Wavelength (nm)

a)

b)

Figure 5.10: Spectra measured at different heatsink temperatures of a) single AR device, b)


stacked AR device

1537

55
Single AR
Stacked AR

1535

DBTJ = 5m

1534

I = 6mA

0.0877nm/K

SMSR (dB)

Wavelength (nm)

1536

1533
1522
1521
1520

50

45

DBTJ = 5m
I = 6mA

0.0813nm/K

1519

Stacked AR
Single AR

1518
40
290

300

310

320

330

340

290

Temperature (K)

300

310

320

330

340

Temperature (K)

a)

b)

Figure 5.11: Wavelength(a) and SMSR(b) as a function of the heatsink temperature


48

The dependence of the wavelength on the applied current was also analyzed, for that the
spectra at the constant temperature were measured (see Figure 5.12). From these measurements
the wavelength- and SMSR-current behavior were extracted, as shown in Figure 5.13. For the
wavelength tuning the model

(I in mA) was assumed. The important

parameters are a and b, since they define the tuning behavior: for the single AR device they were
0.041 and 0.099, respectively, and for single AR device 0.021 and 0.140. From the parameters
one can see that the wavelength is tuned stronger for the stacked AR device, which implies that
more heat is generated in the device. Since the current tuning is based on the internal heating of
the device, one can estimate the temperature increase in the cavity between operation at threshold
and at roll-over: 70K, which implies that excellent performance even above 90C can be
expected. The SMSR on the other hand decreases with applied current, due to current-crowding
(compare to [25]). The wavelength tuning is further investigated by plotting the wavelength as a
function of dissipated power (input power minus optical power), which is shown in Figure 5.14.
One can see that both devices have the same wavelength-power coefficient of 0.3nm/mW. This
shows that the same heat is generated at the same dissipated power in the device. For the stacked
AR device, however, lower heating was expected, which is not the case due to high current
spreading caused by the unstructured BTJ.

-10
1mA
3mA
5mA
7mA
9mA
11mA
13mA
15mA

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

Relative Response (dB)

Relative Response (dB)

T = 20C
DBTJ= 5m

-60
-70
-80
1505

1510

1515

1520

1525

-20
-30
-40
-50

Wavelength (nm)

T = 20C
DBTJ= 5m

-60
-70
-80
1520

1530

2mA
4mA
6mA
8mA
10mA
12mA
14mA

1525

1530

1535

1540

1545

Wavelength (nm)

a)

b)

Figure 5.12: Spectra at different applied currents of a) single AR device, b) stacked AR


device

49

50

T = 20C
DBTJ= 5m

Stacked AR
Single AR

1540

45

a = 0.041
b = 0.099

SMSR (dB)

40

1530

1525

1520

a = 0.022
b = 0.140

35
30
25

T = 20C
DBTJ= 5m

20

Stacked AR
Single AR

15

1515

10
0

10

12

14

16

Current (mA)

10

12

14

Current (mA)

a)

b)

Figure 5.13: Wavelength(a) and SMSR(b) as a function of the applied current

1540
Single AR
Stacked AR

1538
1536

Wavelength (nm)

Wavelength (nm)

= a*I + b*I + c

1535

0.292nm/mW

1534
1532
1530
1524
1522

0.306nm/mW

1520
1518
1516
0

10

15

20

25

Dissipated Power (mW)


Figure 5.14: Wavelength-Power Tuning

50

30

16

5.4.

High Speed Performance of the Devices

The most important feature needed for optical telecommunication is the High Speed
Performance of the laser diode (since it directly influences the transfer rates). Therefore it also
needs to be investigated for the processed devices. To examine the high speed properties of the
VCSEL first of all the small signal modulation performance was verified. For that the SParameters were measured (the Figure 5.15 shows the simplified measurement setup). The
measurements are carried out at different values of the bias current and constant heatsink
temperature. The current applied to the VCSEL is then directly sinusoidally modulated and the
response is measured by the high-bandwidth photo diode (f3dB = 40GHz), the data is compiled
using the network analyzer. The parameters of interest are the S11 and S21, since they describe
the electrical power reflected and the power transmitted by the VCSEL.

Figure 5.15: S-Parameter Measurement Setup

a)

b)

Figure 5.16: Measured data of the a) S11 b) S21 parameters

51

Figure 5.16 shows the typical measured data on both parameters. The S11

parameter (a) is plotted in the smith chart as the relative impedance

, the S22 (b) is

plotted as modulus square in dB.


From this data one can easily extract the high speed parameters for the measured device.
The Figure 5.17 shows the S21 parameter for both devices with the corresponding fit using
equation (3.12):

-3

-3

Response (dB)

Response (dB)

-6
-9
T = 35C

-12

1.27mA
2.03mA
3.29mA
5.06mA
7.34mA
10.12mA
13.40mA

-15
-18
-21

-6
-9
T = 35C
-12

2.18mA
2.30mA
2.73mA
3.65mA
4.94mA
6.59mA
8.61mA
11mA

-15
-18
-21

-24

-24
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Frequency (GHz)

10

12

14

16

18

20

Frequency (GHz)

a)

b)

Figure 5.17: Modulation Response at different applied currents a) single AR device, b)


stacked AR device (Theat sink = 35C)

As can be seen, the stacked AR device (Figure 5.17b) shows very irregular behavior at
some currents, which results in a wrong fit and complicates the parameter extraction. This also
shows, that the applied model doesnt describe the stacked AR device properly. Presumably, this
can be caused by the fact that the ARs have different current densities, which should result in
different resonance frequencies. The extracted parameters can be found in Table 5.3, the
maximum 3dB cut-off frequency was found to be around 15GHz for single AR device and
12GHz for stacked AR device.

52

I [mA]
1.27
2.09
3.29
5.06
7.34
10.12
13.4

[GHz]
19.45
26.51
37.72
54.45
78.08
104.06
105.57

fr [GHz]
3.18
6.23
9.64
12.49
16.35
17.95
18.10

fp [GHz]
11.35
6.22
7.24
8.43
7.64
10.4
8.68

I [mA]
2.18
2.3
2.73
3.65
4.94
6.59
8.61
11

[GHz]
25.79
25.82
49.02
65.63
82.11
97.70
111.61
119.16

fr [GHz]
3.64
4.17
8.02
11.38
14.48
18.13
19.64
18.42

fp [GHz]
19.04
18.20
4.89
7.21
7.21
7.18
7.27
7.71

a)
b)
Table 5.3: Extracted values of the relaxation-resonance frequency, intrinsic damping and parasitic
roll-off frequency for a)single AR b)stacked AR device
The achieved values are in good comparison with the previous ones from [17], which
results in an excellent high frequency performance.
The Figures 5.18 and 5.19 depict the high speed behavior of the both devices with the
maximum cut-off frequency and at the roll-over, respectively. In the Figure 5.18a one can easily
see the deviation between the measured data and the assumed model for the stacked AR device.
Figures 5.18b and 5.19b show the impedance Z of the devices (as real and imaginary part)
derived from the parameter S11. From the corresponding fits one can extract the values for R, C
and Rm mentioned in Chapter 3.3, which are given in the Table 5.4.

80

60

Resistance (Ohm)

Response (dB)

-3
-6
-9
-12
-15
-18

T = 35C

-21

Single AR
Stacked AR

Re(Z)
40

20

-20

Single AR
Stacked AR

Im(Z)

-24
0

Rm

10

12

14

16

18

-40

20

Frequency (GHz)

10

12

14

16

18

20

Frequency (GHz)

a)

b)

Figure 5.18: a) Modulation Response with the maximum cut-off frequency, b) the
corresponding impedance Z of the devices with the associated fits (Theat sink = 35C)

53

80

60

Resistance (Ohm)

Response (dB)

-3
-6
-9
-12
-15
-18

T = 35C

-21

Single AR
Stacked AR

Rm

Re(Z)
40

20

-20

Single AR
Stacked AR

Im(Z)

-24

-40
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Frequency (GHz)

10

12

14

16

18

20

Frequency (GHz)

a)

b)

Figure 5.19: a) Modulation Response at roll-over, b) the corresponding impedance Z of the


devices with the associated fits (Theat sink = 35C)

R []
C[pF]
Rm []
Device
R []
C[pF]
Rm []
50.73
0.527
7.34
Single AR
48.34
0.513
6.97
66.62
0.529
8.27
Stacked AR
54.43
0.519
7.34
a)
b)
Table 5.4: Extracted values for the electrical model of a VCSEL a)at maximum cut-off frequency
b)at roll-over

Device
Single AR
Stacked AR

As expected both devices have nearly the same parasitic capacitance of the blocking part
of the BTJ, since the structured BTJ is identical in both devices, also the contact resistance Rm is
nearly the same. On the other hand the resistance R is higher for the stacked AR device, which
also indicates the higher current spreading and higher layer resistance (additional p-cladding).
In general the high speed performance of the stacked AR device was found to be inferior
to the one of the single AR device, which is caused by the much higher current spreading and the
related degeneration of the laser performance, especially the temperature performance.

5.5.

Investigation of the Reliability of SC-VCSELs

Within the framework of this thesis the stability of the SC-VCSELs was investigated. One
of the issues of the SC-VCSELs is related to the dielectric mirror. The mirror is amorphous and is
evaporated partially on gold contact and partially on crystalline semiconductor, therefore the
sticking of the mirror is rather poor, which can cause problems in further handling of the device,
54

since the mirror could pop off rendering the device useless. Another problem can be caused by
the external heating of the VCSEL chip, since the mirror could degenerate, e. g. due to oxidation
of the mirror materials. These issues can occur especially while packaging, bonding and soldering
the VCSEL chips (which is necessary for any application), since the chips need to be exposed to
high temperatures. Thus the temperature stability of the VCSELs processed during this work was
studied, for that, a small piece of the sample (stacked AR) was heated on the hot plate in air for
10 minutes, the temperatures used were 180C, 240C and 300C. Optical inspection showed that
the mirrors were still intact and no visible change could be found, also after each heating step the
L-I-curve and spectrum at room temperature of the same device (4m BTJ diameter) were
measured. Figure 5.20 shows the achieved results. As one can see from the L-I-curves the
maximum output power of the device is reduced with each heating step, at the same time the
threshold current also goes down. The spectra show that after the first step (180C) the peak
position doesnt change, after the subsequent ones (240C, 300C) on the other hand the lasing
wavelength experiences a small blue-shift, which indicates the change of the optical cavity
length. The change of the threshold current is most significant after the 180C heating. The
power degrades strongly after the last heating step.

3.5

Output Power (a. u.)

2.5

Relative Response (dB)

04_03
D = 4m
Reference
10min @ 180C
10min @ 240C
10min @ 300C

3.0

T = 20C

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

-40

-60

-80
1510

10

Current (mA)

04_03
D = 4m
Reference
10min @ 180C
10min @ 240C
10min @ 300C

1515

1520

1525

1530

Wavelength (nm)

a)

b)

Figure 5.20: L-I-curves (a) and spectra (b) of the device after exposing it to different
temperatures (D = 4m, T = 20C)
The simplest explanation for the change seen in the L-I-characteristic is the increase of
the mirror reflectivity (mirror losses and out coupled power are reduced). In this case one can
apply an anti-reflection coating on top of the mirror to achieve the previous reflectivity, thus
55

verifying the change in the mirror reflectivity. As the anti-reflection coating sputtered silicon
dioxide was used, to achieve the necessary reflectivity the layer was deposited in multiple steps
and the L-I-characteristic was measured after each step, which are depicted in Figure 5.21.
The maximum anti-reflection effect can be reached by applying a /4-layer of low index
material, for sputtered SiO2 it is around 260nm, which is also evident from the data in Figure
5.21. From the L-I-measurements one can deduce that the threshold current of the reference
(before the heating) of around 2.5mA could be achieved, the maximum output power however
remained lower (2.25mW compared to 3.25mW). This together with the spectral measurements
in Figure 5.20b shows that both the mirror reflectivity and the cavity change after the heat
treatment.

2.25
04_03
D=4m
Reference
64.8nm SiO2

2.00

123.9nm SiO2

1.75

Power (mW)

183.1nm SiO2

1.50

269.5nm SiO2
334.2nm SiO2

1.25

T = 20C

1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
0

10

Current (mA)
Figure 5.21: L-I-curves after applying a SiO2 layer of different thickness on top of the mirror
The result of the investigation is that the heat treatment doesnt destroy the mirror; the
performance of the device drops slightly, also the mirror reflectivity increases. The changes
observed after heating the device at 300C for 10 min are a blue-shift of 5nm and the reduction of
the maximum output power by approximately 30% (at the same threshold current, adjusted by the
anti-reflection coating). For the 180C heating step one can assume that only the mirror
56

reflectivity increases, thus improving mirror quality. With the anti-reflection layer it was possible
to reverse the decrease of the threshold current, the measured relative increase of the output
power was even higher. The Table 5.5 shows the relative change (decrease after heating, increase
after applying anti-reflection coating) of the threshold current and maximum output power for
both cases.

After 10min@180C

Ith [%]

Pmax [%]

- 17.8

-16.5

After 269nm SiO2


+18.6
+25.1
Table 5.5: Relative change of maximum output power and threshold
current after 180 C and after applying anti reflection coating

57

6. Conclusion
During this thesis indium phosphide based short cavity vertical-cavity surface emitting
lasers with emission wavelength around 1.55m suitable for optical fiber telecommunication
were produced.
The devices described in this thesis were designed for high speed performance at room
temperature. The devices utilized a 3-cavity and a structured buried tunnel junction for defining
the aperture, also dielectric DBRs were used as mirrors to further reduce the effective cavity
length. Two different types of active regions were implemented in the devices: a single active
region and a stacked active region. The impact of this innovative active region on the device
performance was analyzed. In both active regions heavily compressively strained quantum wells
were used to increase the differential gain of the devices.
The number of quantum wells in the AR plays a crucial role in the VCSEL design: on one
hand the number of QWs has to be sufficient to provide enough gain, on the other hand the
increasing number of quantum wells also increases the threshold and decreases the overlap of the
AR with the maximum of the standing wave pattern. For the device with the single active region
6 QWs were chosen, placed at a single standing wave pattern maximum, which resulted in a
relative confinement factor of around 1.84. The device showed excellent performance up to 85C
(limited by the measurement setup). The lasers had the low threshold current and high output
power: 0.9mA and 3.9mW for 5m device respectively, which is one of the best values to date:
3mW for the same device reported in [17], 1mW for 8m device [19]. The differential quantum
efficiency was found to be around 58%, which is record high for this wavelength for single AR
device (previously achieved values: 50% for an edge emitting laser [22], 38% for a VCSEL [17]).
At 85C heatsink temperature the devices still had a reasonable performance with maximum
output power of 1.5mW (1.3mW at 80C [17], 0.4mW at 70C [24]). The thermal wavelength
tuning coefficient was found to be around 0.8nm/K. The high speed performance of the devices
was evaluated and resulted in the maximum cut-off frequency of 15 GHz at 35C heatsink
temperature, which is the same as the devices of the same structure introduced in [17].
To optimize the device performance, the stacked active region was introduced for the first
time in a SC-VCSEL. Compared to the single AR device mentioned above, 6 identical QWs were
59

used, however they were divided in two active regions with 3 QWs each separated by a tunnel
junction. Both active regions were placed at two different maxima of the standing wave pattern,
thus increasing the relative confinement factor to 1.94. Furthermore such structure should reduce
the threshold current (compared to the single active region with the same total number of QWs)
by a factor of two, at the expense of increasing the voltage drop by the same factor.
The measured threshold current of the stacked AR device wasnt halved, but in fact was
found to be twice as large compared to the reference (single AR device), the reason was found to
be the unusually high current spreading (6.65m compared to the 1.25m of the single AR
device), caused by the additional tunnel junction between the active regions. The extracted
threshold current density (taking into account the broadening) was found to be 1633 A/cm2 for
the stacked AR device and 2944 A/cm2 for the single AR device, which means that the current is
indeed halved, as assumed. The maximum output power of the stacked AR device was measured
to be the same as the one of the single AR device (due to current spreading before the second AR
in the stack). The differential quantum efficiency has been increased due to stacking 80% (40%
per AR). The reported values range from 125% (42% per AR) for a stack of 3 ARs in an edge
emitting laser [22], to 51% (17% per AR) for a stack of 3 ARs in a VCSEL [21]. The temperature
performance of the stacked AR device was slightly inferior to the one of the reference, due to the
different pumped area of two ARs, and therefore increased current density in the first AR.
Presumably this also caused the deterioration of the side-mode suppression ratio, and the slightly
lower cut-off frequency of 12 GHz.
Furthermore the thermal stability of the SC-VCSELs was investigated during this thesis.
The results show that heating of the device at 180C for 10 min improved the mirror reflectivity,
which was verified by subsequent deposition of the anti-reflection coating, further heating at
240C and 300C caused a 5nm blue-shift of the lasing wavelength and the reduction of power by
30%, which shows that the heating steps needed for packaging, bonding and soldering of the
VCSELs shouldnt pose a danger for the device.
During this thesis the first experiment of integrating stacked active region in the existing
SC-VCSEL design was carried out, which showed degrading of the laser parameters, mainly
caused by the diffusion broadening at the additional tunnel junction between the active regions.
One possibility to improve this behavior would be to structure this tunnel junction (identical to
60

the tunnel junction for the aperture), which would make an additional overgrowth necessary. The
major drawback of this solution is that one active region would be grown on the structured BTJ,
which results in inferior optical quality. Another approach is to structure the whole structure by
etching through both active regions, which would eliminate the diffusion broadening. The
problem here is on one hand the non-radiative surface recombination, on the other hand the
degradation of the active region, caused by the etching process. Another less cardinal concept is
to improve the tunnel junction between the active regions. First of all one could try to reduce the
doping which should greatly reduce the diffusion broadening, another possibility is to adjust the
thickness of the BTJ layers in a way that the space charge region caused by the p ++/n++-junction
would be the same as the thickness of the highly doped layers.

61

Acknowledgements
At this point I would like to express my gratitude to all the people, who contributed to the
successful competition of this thesis:

Prof. Dr. M.-C. Amann for providing the possibility to write this thesis at his chair E26
for Semiconductor Technology at the Walter Schottky Institut and to get the profound
knowledge about high speed laser diodes for optical telecommunication

Michael Mueller for his excellent supervision, his dedication and willingness to help
during processing of the devices, proof-reading of this thesis, his permanent support and
for sharing his knowledge and experience in the field of the High Speed VCSELs

Stephan Sprengel for his versatile support during this thesis, and willingness to answer
my questions and discuss the obtained results,

VERTILAS front-end team for helping with various processing steps during VCSEL
fabrication

Gerhard Boehm for the first-rate epitaxial growth of the structures used in this thesis,

Dr. Ralf Meyer for his support and his excellent organizational work at the chair,

the entire staff of the E26, Tobias Gruendl, Christian Grasse, Daniela Huber and,
especially, the cleanroom technicians Linda, Edith and Sepp for always being ready to
help and many useful tips,

finally my parents and friends for always supporting me.

63

References
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Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of , vol.6, no.6, pp.832-840, Nov.-Dec.
2000
[2] H. C. Casey, Jr, M. B. Panish, Heterostructure Lasers, Academic Press, Inc., 1978
[3] M.-C. Amann, Optoelectronics 1 Lecture notes, Munich, 2008
[4] L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits ,
A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995
[5] M.-C. Amann, Single-Mode and Tunable Laser Diodes, Academic Press, 1999
[6] W.

Hofmann,

InP-based

long-wavelength

VCSELs

for

high-speed

optical

communication, PhD Thesis, 2008


[7] M. S. Alias, S. Shaari, S. M. Mitani, Optimization of Electro-Optical Characteristics of
GaAs-based Oxide Confinement VCSEL, Laser Physics, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 806-810,
April 2010
[8] P. Moser, P. Wolf, A. Mutig, 85C error-free operation at 38 Gb/s of oxide-confined
980-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081103 (2012)
[9] R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, Operating Principles of VCSELs, University of Ulm,
Optoelectronics Department
[10] C. W. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers:
Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications, Cambridge University Press,
12. November 2001
[11] M.-C. Amann, J. Buss, Tunable Laser Diodes, Artech House Inc. (1. July 1998)
[12] K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988

65

[13] M. Mller, W. Hofmann, M. Horn, G. Bhm and M.-C. Amann, Low-Parasitics


1.55m VCSELs with Modulation Bandwidths beyond 17 GHz, Lasers and ElectroOptics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 2010
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[14] Fernando Rinaldi, Basics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Annual Report 2002,
Optoelectronics Department, University of Ulm
[15] S. Seki, T. Yamanaka, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, Theoretical analysis of differential
gain of 1.55 m InGaAsP/InP compressive-strained multiple-quantum-well lasers, J.
Appl. Phys. 75, 1299 (1994)
[16] S. Seki, T. Yamanaka, W. Liu, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Yokoyama, Pure strain effect on
differential gain of strained InGaAsP/InP quantum-well lasers, Photonics Technology
Letters, IEEE , vol.5, no.5, pp.500-503, May 1993
[17] M. Mueller, W. Hofmann, T. Gruendl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Rnneberg, G.
Boehm, D. Bimberg, M. C. Amann, 1550 nm High-Speed Short-Cavity VCSELs, IEEE
Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 1158-1166,
Sept./Oct., 2011.
[18] Y. Ohiso, C. Amano, Y. Itoh, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, Long-Wavelength
(1.55m) Vertical-Cavity Lasers with InGaAsP/InPGaAs/AlAs DBRs by Wafer Fusion,
Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of , vol.34, no.10, pp.1904-1913, Oct 1998
[19] S. Nakagawa, E. Hall, G. Almuneau, J. K. Kim, D. A. Buell, H. Kroemer, L. A. Coldren,
1.55-m InP-Lattice-Matched VCSELs With AlGaAsSbAlAsSb DBRs, Selected Topics
in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of , vol.7, no.2, pp.224-230, Mar/Apr 2001
[20] J. Getry, E. Skogen, L. Coldren, Segmented 1.55um Laser with 400% Differential
Quantum Efficiency, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, 2003. OFC 2003
[21] J.K. Kim, E. Hall, 0. Sjolund and L. A. Coldren, Room-temperature, electricallypumped, multiple-active-region VCSELs with high differential efficiency at 1.55m,
LEOS '99. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 12th Annual Meeting , vol.1,
no., pp.141-142 vol.1, 1999
66

[22] J. K. Kim, E. Hall, O. Sjlund, and L. A. Coldren, Epitaxially-stacked multiple-activeregion 1.55m lasers for increased differential efficiency, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3251
(1999)
[23] D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, and L. A. Coldren, InP-Based 1.31.6-um VCSELs With
Selectively Etched Tunnel-Junction Apertures on a Wavelength Flexible Platform,
Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE , vol.17, no.10, pp. 2017- 2019, Oct. 2005
[24] M.R. Park, O.K. Kwon, W.S. Han, J.H. Kim, S.H.K. Park, H.W. Song, V.H. Lee, S.J.
Park, B.S. Yoo, All-monolithic InAlGaAs/InP VCSELs for 1.3 ~ 1.5 m wavelength
ranges,

Optical

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Communication

Conference,

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Technical

Digest.

OFC/NFOEC , vol.4, no., pp. 3 pp. Vol. 4, 6-11 March 2005


[25] C. Degen, I. Fischer and W. Elsaber, Transverse modes in oxide confined VCSELs:
Influence of pump profile, spatial hole burning, and thermal effects, Optics Express, Vol.
5, Issue 3, pp. 38-47 (1999)

67

Appendix 01a: Design Sheet for Single AR Device

mit aktiver
Zone

R_serie

6,3

ja

R_spread

68,9

Widerstandberechnung

Verluste ()
0,0145

1/cm

Schichtdicken

Dielec.-DBR
Resonator

cb
vb
vb_hh
vb_lh
vb_so

ja
ja

2296,4

1469,1

current spr.
P-side

847,0

kritisch

nm (phy.)

d_MB

790
(nm)

nm (phy.)

2,2706E+11
d_Exp

1,7 x
#REF!

(nm)

nm (phy.)

d_PB

#REF! x

(nm)
(m)

Chrissi

EC

1,555

Simul.Tool

-5,41

EV

(eV)

0,797

-6,76

0,7973

0,797

Nr.

76

4,800
InP high doped 2e18

1141

76

spreading layer top


5,000
spreading layer bottom
5,200
2700 nm
5,400
GaSb low doped 5e17

1410

nm

1100

nm

L1 L2

8,0

quantum wells
barriers
Material

ZnS
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
n_In_100P_100_10E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_80E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_80E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E18
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
QW
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1 748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.263949
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_80E17
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1 _Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E
1
TK_p
1
TK_n
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
Au

x_Al

y_Ga

z_In

u_As

v_P

w_Sb

n -Doping

p -Doping

(cm-1)

C (cm)

2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
3,1610
3,1632
3,1437
3,1437
3,1619
3,1437
3,1437
3,1619
3,1610
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,3344
3,1985
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,7954
3,1954
3,8284
3,1954
3,7954
3,8284
3,5591
3,7954
3,5591
3,8284
3,5591
3,1988
2,7937
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1632
3,1437
3,1632
3,1632
3,1437
3,1632
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
0,5613

0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
1,91E-05
8,10E-06
1,45E-04
1,45E-04
1,44E-05
1,45E-04
1,45E-04
1,44E-05
1,91E-05
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
2,36E-07
1,12E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,83E-02
3,17E-02
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
8,10E-06
1,45E-04
8,10E-06
8,10E-06
1,45E-04
8,10E-06
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
9,84E+00

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
3,0
1,3
22,9
22,9
2,3
22,9
22,9
2,3
3,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
17,7
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
4454,0
4990,5
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
1,3
22,9
1,3
1,3
22,9
1,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0

2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,92E-03
4,97E-03
8,85E-04
8,85E-04
3,46E-03
8,85E-04
8,85E-04
3,46E-03
2,92E-03
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
2,20E-01
6,50E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
1,10E-03
5,55E-05
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
4,97E-03
8,85E-04
4,97E-03
4,97E-03
8,85E-04
4,97E-03
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01

8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
0,0149
0,0821
0,0135
0,0053
0,1281
0,0053
0,0135
0,0593
0,0149
1,1209
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,1313
0,6239
0,0005
0,0060
0,0010
0,0054
0,0016
0,0047
0,0021
0,0040
0,0026
0,0034
0,0031
0,0027
0,0036
0,0020
0,0042
0,0013
0,0047
0,0007
0,0052
0,0039
0,0001
0,0365
0,0851
0,5486
0,3470
0,2743
0,0744
0,0169
0,0744
0,0744
0,0169
0,0744
35,3798
20,7776
35,3798
20,7776
35,3798
20,7776
32,3330
9,7819

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

10

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

InP

11

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+18

10,0

InP

12

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

83,1

13

InP

13

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

14

InP

14

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

InP

15

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

8,00E+17

186,2

16

InP

16

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

17

InP

17

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

18

InP

18

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

8,00E+17

33,7

InP

19

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+18

10,0

20

Barriere

20

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

10,0

21

QW

21

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

22

Barriere

22

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

23

QW

23

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

24

Barriere

24

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

25

QW

25

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

26

Barriere

26

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

27

QW

27

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

28

Barriere

28

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

23

QW

23

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

24

Barriere

24

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

25

QW

25

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

26

Barriere

26

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

27

Barriere

27

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

3,0

28

InAlAs

28

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

8,00E+17

48,28

29

InGaAlAs

29

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

30

InAlAs

30

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

31

InGaAlAs

31

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

InAlAs

32

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

33

InGaAlAs

33

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

34

InAlAs

34

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

35

InGaAlAs

35

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

36

InAlAs

36

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

37

InGaAlAs

37

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

38

InAlAs

38

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

39

InGaAlAs

39

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

40

InAlAs

40

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

41

InGaAlAs

41

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

42

InAlAs

42

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

43

InGaAlAs

43

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

44

InAlAs

44

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

45

InGaAlAs

45

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

46

InAlAs

46

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

47

InGaAlAs

47

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

1,0

48

TK_p

48

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

18,0

TK_n

49

0,000

0,468

0,532

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

InP

50

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

10,0

InP

51

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

23,3

52

InP

52

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

150,5

53

InP

53

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

95,2

InP

54

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

75,2

InP

52

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

75,2

InP

53

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

95,9

54

InP

54

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

75,2

55

InP

55

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

75,2

InP

56

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

95,9

InP

57

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

AlF3

58

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

59

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

60

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

61

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

62

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

63

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

64

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

264,4

Au

65

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

80,0

8
9
10
11
12

15

19

32

1555

1555

1555

1555

l/4

l/2

l/4

l/4

49
50
51

54

1555

1555

l/4

l/2

52
53

56

1555

1555

l/2

l/2

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1421
180

/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4

15

Auenr. (m)

5
n !!!

BTJ (m)

d(nm)

500

vb(so)

EVsh

p
712
712
nm
nm
400
nm
vb(lh)
nm

-6,87

Thickness(nm)

AlF3

1543

ZnS

1555 nm
4,600
InP low doped 5e17

5484
Gasb high doped 2e18
3928
5,600
spreading layer top
688,8
5,800
spreading layer bottom
554,8
0
100
200
300
spreading layer top_VCSEL
299,9
Series1
spreading layer Series2
bottom_VCSEL vb(hh)
#REF!

394283

/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4

4,400

Status

nm (phy.)

0,9 x

Substrat
InP
6

Comment

4,200

berlegungen fr die Schichtdicke der Spreadingschichten

5,0E-04

3,0 x
443,0

4,000

1469
a/aGes (pm)

nm (phy.)

2,5 x

Temperatur (K)
300

dGes (nm)

nm (phy.)

1,73 x

current spr.
N-side

overgrowth

Skalierung fr die Zeichnung


scaling of conduction band
scaling of valence band

1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555

1352,9

Energy(eV)

Semic.-DBR

289,3

11,0

75,2

121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
3782,3196
2514,3267
1147,2395
448,1404
1750,3458
448,1404
1147,2395
4480,8853
3782,3196
285175,4022
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
111396,6415
32876,7579
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
558,1626
28,1163
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
2514,3267
448,1404
2514,3267
2514,3267
448,1404
2514,3267
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220

Appendix 01b: Design Sheet for Stacked AR Device

mit aktiver
Zone

R_serie

8,8

ja

R_spread

87,0

Widerstandberechnung

Verluste ()
0,0280

1/cm

Schichtdicken

Dielec.-DBR
p-Cladding-Dicke angepasst
nach Simu Stehwellenfeld!!!!!!!!!

cb
vb
vb_hh
vb_lh
vb_so

Resonator

ja
ja

1352,9

2296,4

1461,8

current spr.
P-side

600,6

Skalierung fr die Zeichnung


scaling of conduction band
scaling of valence band

nm (phy.)

d_MB

1037
(nm)

nm (phy.)

d_Exp

2,7167E+12
(nm)

nm (phy.)

d_PB

#REF! x

Substrat
InP

kritisch

1,2 x

Temperatur (K)
300

4,400

Status

nm (phy.)

0,9 x

#REF!

4,200

berlegungen fr die Schichtdicke der Spreadingschichten

4,1E-04

2,99 x
464,3

4,000

1462
a/aGes (pm)

nm (phy.)

2,5 x

current spr.
N-side

overgrowth

dGes (nm)

nm (phy.)

1,73 x

Energy(eV)

Semic.-DBR

532638
(nm)

(m)

Chrissi

EC

1,555

Simul.Tool

-5,41

EV

(eV)

0,797

-6,76

0,7973

0,797

1555 nm
4,600
InP low doped 5e17
4,800
InP high doped 2e18

n
1543

p
76

1141

76

spreading layer top


1410
nm
5,000
spreading layer bottom
1100
nm
5,200
2700 nm
n
p
5,400
GaSb low doped 5e17
5484
712
Gasb high doped 2e18
3928
712
5,600
spreading layer top
688,8
nm
5,800
spreading layer bottom
554,8
nm
0
100
200
300
400
spreading layer top_VCSEL
321,2
nm
Series1 layer bottom_VCSEL
Series2 Thickness(nm)
vb(hh)
vb(lh)
spreading
#REF!
nm

EVsh
-6,87

8,0

quantum wells
3 barriers

Comment
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555

/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4

Nr.

L1 L2

Material

ZnS
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
n_In_100P_100_10E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_80E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_80E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E18
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_80E17
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
TK_p
1
TK_n
1
n_In_100P_100_10E18
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
QW
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1 4242748Ga_20.2974771961542In_52.26394937957
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_80E17
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_47.74In_52.26As_100_20E18
1
p_Al_5.53Ga_44.21In_50.26As_100_20E18
1
TK_p
1
TK_n
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_10E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
n_In_100P_100_50E18
1
n_In_100P_100_50E17
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
ZnS
1
AlF3
1
Au

x_Al

y_Ga

z_In

u_As

v_P

w_Sb

n -Doping

p -Doping

(cm-1)

C (cm)

2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
3,1610
3,1632
3,1437
3,1437
3,1619
3,1437
3,1437
3,1619
3,1610
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,3344
3,1985
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,9017
3,1954
3,9017
3,1954
3,9017
3,9017
3,5591
3,9017
3,5591
3,9017
3,5591
3,1988
2,7937
3,1610
3,1649
3,1649
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,5110
3,3344
3,3344
3,1985
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,5591
3,1954
3,7954
3,1954
3,8284
3,1954
3,7954
3,8284
3,5591
3,7954
3,5591
3,8284
3,5591
3,1988
2,7937
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1649
3,1632
3,1437
3,1632
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
2,2878
1,3435
0,5613

0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
1,91E-05
8,10E-06
1,45E-04
1,45E-04
1,44E-05
1,45E-04
1,45E-04
1,44E-05
1,91E-05
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
2,36E-07
1,12E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,83E-02
3,17E-02
1,91E-05
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
1,66E-07
2,36E-07
2,36E-07
1,12E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,81E-04
3,71E-04
2,83E-02
3,17E-02
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
1,19E-06
8,10E-06
1,45E-04
8,10E-06
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
9,84E+00

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
3,0
1,3
22,9
22,9
2,3
22,9
22,9
2,3
3,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
17,7
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,4
44,3
58,4
44,3
58,4
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
4454,0
4990,5
3,0
0,2
0,2
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
17,7
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,3
58,5
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
44,2
58,5
4454,0
4990,5
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
1,3
22,9
1,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0

2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,92E-03
4,97E-03
8,85E-04
8,85E-04
3,46E-03
8,85E-04
8,85E-04
3,46E-03
2,92E-03
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
2,20E-01
6,50E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
1,10E-03
5,55E-05
2,92E-03
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
7,43E-02
2,20E-01
2,20E-01
6,50E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
3,37E-02
2,61E-02
1,10E-03
5,55E-05
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
1,83E-02
4,97E-03
8,85E-04
4,97E-03
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01
2,40E-01

8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
8,1162
35,3798
0,0149
0,0821
0,0135
0,0053
0,1281
0,0053
0,0135
0,0968
0,0149
1,1209
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,1313
0,8434
0,0005
0,0060
0,0010
0,0054
0,0016
0,0047
0,0021
0,0040
0,0026
0,0034
0,0031
0,0027
0,0036
0,0020
0,0042
0,0013
0,0047
0,0007
0,0052
0,0039
0,0001
0,0058
0,2204
0,0365
1,1209
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,0908
0,3065
0,1313
0,8830
0,0005
0,0060
0,0010
0,0054
0,0016
0,0047
0,0021
0,0040
0,0026
0,0034
0,0031
0,0027
0,0036
0,0020
0,0042
0,0013
0,0047
0,0007
0,0052
0,0039
0,0001
0,0365
0,0851
0,5486
0,3470
0,2743
0,0744
0,0169
0,0744
35,3798
20,7776
35,3798
20,7776
35,3798
20,7776
32,3330
9,7819

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

10

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

InP

11

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+18

10,0

InP

12

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

83,1

13

InP

13

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

14

InP

14

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

InP

15

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

8,00E+17

186,2

16

InP

16

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

17

InP

17

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

30,0

18

InP

18

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

8,00E+17

55,0

InP

19

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+18

10,0

20

Barriere

20

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

10,0

21

QW

21

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

22

Barriere

22

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

23

QW

23

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

24

Barriere

24

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

25

QW

25

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

26

Barriere

26

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

27

Barriere

27

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

3,0

28

InAlAs

28

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

8,00E+17

65,2662367

29

InGaAlAs

29

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

30

InAlAs

30

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

31

InGaAlAs

31

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

32

InAlAs

32

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

33

InGaAlAs

33

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

34

InAlAs

34

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

InGaAlAs

35

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

36

InAlAs

36

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

37

InGaAlAs

37

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

38

InAlAs

38

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

39

InGaAlAs

39

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

40

InAlAs

40

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

41

InGaAlAs

41

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

42

InAlAs

42

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

43

InGaAlAs

43

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

44

InAlAs

44

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

45

InGaAlAs

45

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

46

InAlAs

46

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

47

InGaAlAs

47

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

1,0

48

TK_p

48

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

18,0

49

TK_n

49

0,000

0,468

0,532

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

11,0

50

InP

50

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+18

10,0

InP

51

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

60,458

InP

52

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

10,0

53

Barriere

53

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

10,0

54

QW

54

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

55

Barriere

55

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

56

QW

56

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

57

Barriere

57

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

58

QW

58

0,087

0,203

0,710

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

6,1

59

Barriere

59

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

7,0

60

Barriere

60

0,274

0,203

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,00E+16

3,0

61

InAlAs

61

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

8,00E+17

68,3356989

62

InGaAlAs

62

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

63

InAlAs

63

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

64

InGaAlAs

64

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

65

InAlAs

65

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

66

InGaAlAs

66

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

67

InAlAs

67

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

InGaAlAs

68

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

69

InAlAs

69

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

70

InGaAlAs

70

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

71

InAlAs

71

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,5

72

InGaAlAs

72

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,6

73

InAlAs

73

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,4

74

InGaAlAs

74

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,7

75

InAlAs

75

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,3

76

InGaAlAs

76

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,8

77

InAlAs

77

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,2

78

InGaAlAs

78

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,9

79

InAlAs

79

0,477

0,000

0,523

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

0,1

80

InGaAlAs

80

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

2,00E+18

1,0

81

TK_p

81

0,055

0,442

0,503

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

18,0

TK_n

82

0,000

0,468

0,532

1,000

0,000

0,000

1,50E+20

11,0

InP

83

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

10,0

InP

84

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

23,3

InP

85

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

150,5

InP

86

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

95,2

InP

87

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,00E+17

75,2

InP

88

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

75,2

InP

89

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+18

95,9

InP

90

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

5,00E+17

AlF3

91

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

92

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

93

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

94

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

95

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

289,3

ZnS

96

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

169,9

AlF3

97

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

264,4

Au

98

0,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

1,000

0,000

80,0

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

15

19

35

51
52

68

1555

1555

1555

1555

1555

1555

l/4

l/2

l/4

l/4

l/4

l/4

82
83
84

1555

l/4

85
86
87

1555

l/2

88
89

1555

l/2

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98

1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1555
1421
180

/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4
/4

15

Auenr. (m)

5
n !!!

AlF3

BTJ (m)

d(nm)

ZnS

500

vb(so)

289,3

75,2

121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
121522,7430
311098,2220
3782,3196
2514,3267
1147,2395
448,1404
1750,3458
448,1404
1147,2395
4480,8853
3782,3196
285175,4022
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
111396,6415
32876,7579
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
558,1626
28,1163
1477,4686
9275,9785
9275,9785
285175,4022
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
37613,6343
111396,6415
111396,6415
32876,7579
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
17078,8541
13202,1935
558,1626
28,1163
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
9275,9785
2514,3267
448,1404
2514,3267
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220
311098,2220

Appendix 2: SC-VCSEL Process Plan


1

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER30c

Tunnelkontakt strukturieren
OK Anlage / Material

Digitalkamera
Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
80ml : 400ml
Ofen mit N2
ber Lackschleuder
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
/
AZ5214

Maske VER30c
Aceton, Propanol

MA6 /
Maske VER30c

Litho Enwicklerbank /
2 Quarzglser;
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Mikroskop /
saubere Objekttrger

Barrel - Etcher

Prozessschritt

Parameter Prozess
Pinzette "1. Mesa" / auskochen
Flat nach unten

Wafer fotografieren
HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung fr
Lackhaftung)
H2O abdampfen

Belackung
Positivprozess
1. Mesa

30 s DIP Pinzette "1. Mesa"


20 s H2O Quarzglser aus Litho
Wasserstrahl
150 C Stickstoff!!
10 min
Pinzette "1. Mesa"
2x 40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag Glaspipette!
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
120 s @ 115 C Hotplate auf Kreuzschlitz-Carrier
10 min Abkhlen
Absplen und Trockenblasen

Maske reinigen
Belichten
Positivprozess
1. Mesa
Entwicklung
Positivprozess
1. Mesa

1,80 s
50 s - 120 s
20 s
5s
20 s

Pinzette "1. Mesa"


Beschr. VERxx links oben
Belichten Vakuum-Kontakt; 0,1 WEC
Pinzette "1. Mesa"
Entwicklung 1. QuarzGlas(Farben noch
da); Entwicklung 2. QuarzGlas
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
2 m Mesa korrekt entwickelt?

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

ECR - RIE
(Modul 3)

Dummy M2595

Stoppuhr

Regenerieren 3 Zyklen

Ultraschall; Hotpl. /
Acet. / Prop. VLSI
Quarzglas AI
Quarzglas AII
Quarzglas AIII
Quarzglas P
Glasdose fr Wafer

Entlackung
1. Mesa

Mundschutz!
Glser reinigen: H2O + Aceton (200C)
Ultraschall kaltes Aceton
Ultraschall kaltes Aceton
heies Aceton
heies Propanol
Wafer in Glasdose wechseln

alpha - Step /
saubere Objekttrger

berhhung
Tunnelkontakt

Mikroskop /
saubere Objekttrger

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Barrel - Etcher
Stoppuhr

MBE-Termin; Chemie/
HCl : H2O = 1 : 2
80ml : 160ml
in kleines Quarzglas;
groes Quarzglas H2O;
heies DI-Wasser im
Erlmeierkolben

Lackreste veraschen
vor Endreinigung
Endreinigung
und
Einschleusen in die
MBE

Pos
1
2
3
4
5

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M4456: 28+39s

M4456: erst 3umMesa da

55% 250 W Pinzette "1. Mesa"


3 min Sauerstoffplasma

Trockentzung
Tunnelkontakt

Bemerkungen

Layer 5
(N2:H2:CH4 =
1:54:16 sccm)
MW = 31%
HF = 28 W

5 min @ 10%
3 min @ 10%
3 min @ 200C
1 min @ 300C

Testtzung Dummy (ca. 0,15 nm/s);


tzung VCSEL (ca. 0,12 nm/s) (78%)
tzzeit:
Prozessnummer:
____________ ____________

k Bereich, unkorrigiert
Mundschutz! - MDZ-Foto ganzen Wafer genau berprfen!!
10% 600 W Mundschutz / extra Uhrglas
30 min Sauerstoffplasma
Mundschutz!
3 x Splen der Schleuder
Auskochen Substratreinigunspinzette Ac
25 s HCl - Dip kl. Glas
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
50 s Kaltwasserschleudern
50 s Heiwasserschleudern

tztiefe(nm)

minimale tztiefe:
____________
tztiefe Soll:
____________

evtl. mit NMP

tztiefe Ist:
12.1nm

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0

VER3z

3x3 Alignmentmarker freilegen


OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

MBE-Termin
berwachsung

berwachsung

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl-Dip
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
(Oxidentfernung fr
Lackhaftung)
40ml : 200ml
Ofen mit N2
H2O abdampfen
ber Lackschleuder
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
Belackung
AZ5214
Image Reversal

MA6 /
Maske VER3z

Hotplate 125 C

Lackvernetzung

MA6

Flood-Exposure

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher

alpha - Step

HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
H3PO4 : H2O2 : H2O = 1
:1:8
50ml : 50ml : 400ml

HCl : H2O = 2 : 1
160ml : 80ml
25-50nm/s@RT

Entwicklung
IR-Prozess
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho
Lackdicke
HCl-Dip
+
nasschemische
tzung
Kontaktschicht

Prozess

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Hotpl. /Aceton /
Propanol
Spritze Entlackung
Glser AI, AII, P
Mikroskop

Entlackung
Image Reversal
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
tztiefe
Kontaktschicht+InPHeatspreader

1
2
3
4
5

Bemerkungen
Regrowth-Nr.:
____________

30 s DIP
20 s H2O
Wasserstrahl
150 C Stickstoff!!
10 min
2x 40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate
Beschr. VERxx links oben
1,8 s Belichten SOFT-Kontakt; 0,35 WEC
sonst klebt Maske!!
30 s Image Reversal Bake

MDZ Justage an
rechtes Objektiv

17s Flood-Exposure
15 s Entwicklung - kleine Lcher sichtbar
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Entwicklungszeit:
_____________
M5262: 17s

MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma
k Bereich, unkorrigiert

_______________

Ansetzung: 1. H2O; 2. H3PO4; 3. H2O2


30 s HCl-Dip
Wasserglas - dann direkt (nicht trocknen)
7 s Phosphorsure fr 15nm
Wasserglas - splen - trocknen

10 s HCl
nasschemische
tzung InP-Schicht

Mikroskop

alpha - Step

Belichten
Image Reversal

Parameter

30 s Wasserglas

Abzug!! 31.5nm/s
M5263:
M5264:

MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
3 min @ RT Spritze kaltes Aceton
3 min @ 200C Spritze heies Aceton
1 min @ 300C heies Propanol
MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert

tztiefe Soll:
____________
tztiefe Ist:

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0

VER31c

Kontaktschicht
OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung fr
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
Lackhaftung)
80ml : 400ml
Ofen mit N2
H2O abdampfen
ber Lackschleuder
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
/
Belackung
AZ5214
Positivprozess

MA6 /
Maske VER31c

Litho Enwicklerbank /
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Mikroskop

Belichten
Positivprozess

Entwicklung
Positivprozess

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Barrel - Etcher
Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
H3PO4 : H2O2 : H2O =
1:1:8
50ml : 50ml : 400ml

HCl-Dip
+
nasschemische
tzung
Kontaktschicht

Mikroskop

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Hotpl. /Aceton /
Propanol
Spritze Entlackung
Glser AI, AII, P
Mikroskop

alpha - Step

Entlackung
Pos. Prozess

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
tztiefe
Kontaktschicht

Parameter Prozess

Bemerkungen

30 s DIP
20 s H2O
Wasserstrahl

150 C Stickstoff!!
10 min
2x 40 s N2
Lackauftrag
Programm 4
120 s @ 115 C
10 min

abblasen
Glaspipette!
schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
Hotplate auf Kreuzschlitz-Carrier
Abkhlen

Beschr. VERxx links oben


1,8 s Belichten Vakuum-Kontakt; 0,1 WEC

50 s - 120 s Entwicklung
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 60s

2 m Mesa korrekt entwickelt?


55% 250 W Sauerstoffplasma
3 min
Ansetzung: 1. H2O; 2. H3PO4; 3. H2O2
30 s HCl-Dip
Wasserglas - dann direkt (nicht trocknen)
7 s Phosphorsure (fr 15nm)
Wasserglas - splen - trocknen
MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
3 min @ RT Spritze kaltes Aceton
3 min @ 200C Spritze heies Aceton
1 min @ 300C heies Propanol
MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert

tztiefe Soll:
____________
t ti f I t

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER33B

SiO2-Maske fr Chlor-Prozess
OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

Parameter

Prozess

2x 40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
AZ5214

Belackung
Image Reversal

MA6 /
Maske VER33B

Belichten
Image Reversal

Beschr. VERxx links oben


1,8 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC

Hotplate 125 C

Lackvernetzung

30 s Image Reversal Bake

MA6

Flood-Exposure

17 s Flood-Exposure

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Entwicklung
IR-Prozess

15 s Entwicklung - kleine Lcher sichtbar


5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher

Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml

HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung fr
Haftung SiO2)

30 s DIP
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

P-Anlage /
SiO2-Tiegel

Hotplate / Ac. / Prop.


Spritze MgF2
Glser Di2, AII, P

Mikroskop

Dektak

Barrel - Etcher
Stoppuhr

Chlortzung:

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Aufdampfung
SiO2-Maske
SiO2 Lift-Off
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Dicke tzmaske
Lackreste veraschen
nach Lift-Off

Bemerkungen

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 17s

JM-Foto
Mesen-Foto

5 /s 100 nm
10 /s 1000 nm mit Dummy dabei (Sicherheit)
in Excel-Sheet nachschauen ->SC
3 min kaltes Aceton; Di-LO -M Glas, SiO2-Spr.
3 min @ 200C heies Aceton
1 min @ 300C heies Propanol

direkt vor
Schleusung
p-Anlage
kein pre-Dummy;
eher dicker
Eigene Spritze!!

JM-Foto
Mesen-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,037 = Maske
I
10% 600 W
15 min Sauerstoffplasma

Probe

LO-Dummy Dicke SiO2-Mesa

M4456
M4595

ab 2.tem Min. 40s getzt (35s evtl. besser)


ab 2.tem Min. 15s getzt

Rauhigkeit

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske: VER33bz
0-

Chlor-Prozess VCSEL vereinzeln + InP nasschemisch


OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

RIE
(Modul 1)

Trockentzung
Tunnelkontakt

alpha - Step

tztiefe ChlorProzess

Mikroskop

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Parameter

Prozess

Bemerkungen

ICP RIE Anlage vorher konditionieren (5-10min) tztiefe (m) mit


"Mesa-etch InP"
Maskenrest:
In-Situ-Protokoll fhren!
____________
evtl. Cl2/N2 prozess Sichtkontrolle - evtl. 2 min nachtzen
x 1.052 =
____________
m Bereich; ber fixe JM in der Mitte
(z.B. nhe Defekt)

JM:
____________

JM-Foto
Mesen-Foto

FALLS in InP-Buffer (oder InGaAs-KS) gestoppt

Lackschleuder;
Hotplate /
AZ5214

Belackung
Positivprozess

MA6 /
Maske VER33bz

Belichten
Positivprozess

Litho Enwicklerbank /
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Entwicklung
Positivprozess

Mikroskop

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste
veraschen
nach Litho
HCl-Dip
+
nasschemische
tzung
Kontaktschicht

Barrel - Etcher
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
H3PO4 : H2O2 : H2O
=1:1:8
50ml : 50ml : 400ml

HCl : H2O = 2 : 1 (1 :
1)
160ml : 80ml
25-50nm/s@RT
Mikroskop

Hotpl. /Aceton /
Propanol
Spritze Entlackung
Glser AI, AII, P
Mikroskop

abblasen

schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)


Hotplate auf Kreuzschlitz-Carrier
Abkhlen
Beschr. VERxx links oben ??
1,8 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,1 WEC

50 s - 120 s Entwicklung
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Entlackung
Pos. Prozess

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

55% 250 W Sauerstoffplasma


3 min
Ansetzung: 1. H2O; 2. H3PO4; 3. H2O2 Falls in InGaAs
30 s HCl-Dip
gestoppt
Wasserglas - dann direkt (nicht
? s trocknen)
Phosphorsure (8.33 nm/s)
30 s Wasserglas
NICHT bertzen

Abzug!! 31.5nm/s
M5263:
M5264:

MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
3 min @ RT Spritze kaltes Aceton
3 min @ 200C Spritze heies Aceton
1 min @ 300C heies Propanol
MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert

tztiefe
Kontaktschicht

Entwicklungszeit:
____________

2 m Mesa korrekt entwickelt?

6-10 s HCl (fr 300 nm, tzung sichtbar)


nasschemische
tzung InP-Buffer

alpha - Step

2x 40 s N2
Lackauftrag
Programm 4
120 s @ 115 C
10 min

tztiefe Soll:
____________
tztiefe Ist:

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0-

Planarisieren mit BCB


OK Anlage / Material

Plasmalab 80plus
(Anlage 4)

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HF : H2O = 1 : 2

Prozessschritt

Prozess

20 min "SiO2-Maske entfernen"

SiO2-Maske
entfernen (nass)

10 s DIP
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
JM-Foto
Mesen-Foto

Mikroskop

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

alpha - Step

tztiefe
Chlor-Prozess

m Bereich; ber selbe JM in der Mitte


30 s
5s
20 s
800V
typ. Rate
4,5nm/min

HCl-Dip

SiO2-Sputtern
(Haftung BCB)

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Protokoll fhren;
Ziel 400nm: Peile 450 an.
(2x Dummy)

Spin-Kurve

tztiefe (m):
____________

Sputterdicke
Dummy:
_______________
BCB-U/min.:
____________

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
40 s N2
130 C /
Haftvermittler BCB Adh-P-Auftrag
Adhesion BCB
Programm 4
aufschleudern
Chuck!
120 s @ 130 C
Lackschleuder mit Papier
40 s N2
auslegen
BCB-Auftrag
BCB
Dry-etch-BCB
2x
aufschleudern

abblasen
Glaspipette
schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
Hotplate
abblasen
abgeschnittene Glaspipette schleudern
(1000/1000/7000rpm fr 2s/40s/4s)

Ofen ber
Entwicklerbank mit N2
Programm 1

1h
1h
1h
bis unter 100 C; Wafer auf Filterpapier

(alternativ!!)
HF-Schutzkleidung

Drehzahl BCB
bestimmen

Bemerkungen

SiO2-Maske
entfernen (trocken)

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 2000ml
Sputteranlage /
SiO2-Target

Parameter

Sputteranlage /
SiO2-Target

Probe
M4456

BCB
hard cure

SiO2-Sputtern
(Haftung BCB)
SiO2 400nm

50 C - 150 C
150 C - 250 C
250 C
cooldown

20 min @ 800V fr 100 nm


Protokoll fhren

SiO2 100nm
428 105-112

BCB U/min
1000/1000/1000

BCB vor Benutzen


3 Stunden
draussen stehen
lassen

Prozess-Nr.:
____________

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER34B

ffnung p-Mesa aus BCB


OK Anlage / Material

Lackschleuder 2500 U.;


Ofen 100 C;
Stoppuhr /
MAP 1275

Belackung
MAP 1275

MA6 /
Maske "Randweg 2mm"

Belichten
Rand weg MAP

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 3
2 Glser
MA6 /
Maske VER34b

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 3

DekTak
Mikroskop

Prozessschritt

Entwickeln
Rand weg MAP
Belichten
MAP 1275
Entwickeln
MAP 1275
Lackdicke

BCB-Mesen tzen

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Chemie

Entlackung
DekTak - Step

Dicke BCB
Barrel-Etcher

Mikroskop

40 s N2
Lackauftrag
2500 (2850)
rpm
20min @RT

abblasen
abgeschnittene Glaspipette
Programm (1000 f. 2s, 2500 rpm f. 40
s
Ausgasen (wg Rissbildung)
zentrisch justieren
300 s Belichten Soft-Kontakt; 0 WEC

90-120s Entwicklung
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl
GUT justieren
15 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC
90s - 105 s
5s
20 s
m

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Plasmalab 80plus
(Anlage 4)

Mikroskop

Parameter Prozess

Entlacken
+Foto
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

10 s
300 s
200 s
300 s

Entwicklung
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x
1,0237 =
alphaprofil-Foto
Mesen-Foto

Bemerkungen
M4456: 2800
M4173: 3000
evtl. 2500 ->
Parasitics

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 90s

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 50s
Maske Ist:_______
Justage OK??

Lack veraschen
siehe PlasmalabSiO2
Protokoll
BCB
SiO2 tzen - Programm "Mesen BCB"
JM-Foto
Mesen-Foto

Mesen mssen
frei sein!

3 min @ RT Spritze kaltes Aceton


3 min @ 200C Spritze heies Aceton
1 min @ 300C heies Propanol
k Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x
Mitte der EZ 1,004 =
Tiefe Cl2-tzung (5,2) _______+
Offset =
10%
600W
15min
alphaprofil JM, Mesen,
JM + Mesen-Foto

Offset Ist:_______
________ BCB ist

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER35B

p-Kontaktring
OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl-Dip
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
(Oxidentfernung fr
Lackhaftung)
40ml : 200ml
Ofen mit N2
H2O abdampfen
ber Lackschleuder
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
Belackung
AZ5214
Image Reversal

MA6 /
Maske 2mm Randweg

MA6 /
Maske VER35B

Belichten
Image Reversal
Belichten
Image Reversal

40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate
3 s Soft-Kontakt
Beschr. VERxx links oben
1,8 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC
30 s Image Reversal Bake

MA6

Flood-Exposure

17 s Flood-Exposure

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Entwicklung
IR-Prozess

Barrel - Etcher

Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
VT118 /
Pt-Tiegel

HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung vor
Metallisierung)

Infineon-Lift-Off
Ti-Pt-Au
Lift-Off

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher
Stoppuhr

15 s Entwicklung - deutlich sichtbar


5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl
Mesen-Ring-Foto

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Aufdampfung
p-Kontakt

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste veraschen
nach Lift-Off

Bemerkungen

30 s DIP
20 s H2O
Wasserstrahl
150 C Stickstoff!!
10 min

Lackvernetzung

Mikroskop

Prozess

Hotplate 125 C

Parameter

Alignment an Mesen
am Waferrand!!!

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 16s
alle Mesen da??

55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma
30 s
5s
20 s
30 nm
80nm
300nm
20min

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Ti, Pt schrg rotierend 30, Au
senkrecht wegen berlapp BTJ-Loch
mit Innenradius KR
Einweichen
sprhen bis weg

direkt vor
Schleusung VT118

Kontakt-Ring-Foto

alle Mesen da?


(evtl. Q-Tip)

15% 600 W
6 min Sauerstoffplasma

kein Ultraschall
(Metall-Brsel)
Rckseite frei?

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER36m

Dielektrischer Spiegel
OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

Parameter

Prozess

40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
AZ5214

Belackung
Image Reversal

MA6 /
Maske VER36m

Belichten
Image Reversal

Beschr. VERxx links oben


1,8 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC

Hotplate 125 C

Lackvernetzung

30 s Image Reversal Bake

MA6

Flood-Exposure

17 s Flood-Exposure

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Entwicklung
IR-Prozess

Bemerkungen

20 s Entwicklung - deutlich sichtbar


5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Entwicklungszeit:
____________

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher

p-Anlage /
ZnS-Tiegel + Dummy

Dummy
ZnS

Ist: _________ x F= _________


________ nm Soll: ________

TF neu:
__________

p-Anlage /
CaF2-Tiegel + Dummy

Dummy
CaF2

Ist: _________ x F = _________


________ nm Soll: ________

TF neu:
__________

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
p-Anlage /
ZnS-, CaF2-, Au-Tiegel

HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung vor
Metallisierung)

Aceton; Prop.-Fl.
Spritze MgF2, Glas DiE

Pt Lift-Off

Mikroskop

Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

Aufdampfung
Spiegel

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

alpha - Step
Dicke Spiegel

Barrel - Etcher
Stoppuhr

Ofen mit N2
ber Lackschleuder

Mesen-Foto

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Lackreste veraschen
nach Lift-Off
Tempern Spiegel

55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma

30 s
5s
20 s
3.5
_______ nm

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Paare ZnS / CaF2 + 100 nm Au
Stoppbandmitte

3 min kaltes Aceton, MgF2-Spritze


Propanol-Flasche

direkt vor
Schleusung
p-Anlage
249,8nm CaF2
147,2nm ZnS
225,1nm CaF2
kein Ultraschall
Rckseite frei?

Spiegel-Foto
JM-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,037 Ist:
Mitte Wafer =
_________ nm
Soll: _______ nm
10% 600 W
nicht gemacht
15 min Sauerstoffplasma
fr M4456
180 C Stickstoff!!
60 min

nicht gemacht
fr M4456

10

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER37A

BCB VIA + Sgestraen


OK Anlage / Material

Lackschleuder 2500 U.;


Ofen 100 C;
Stoppuhr /
MAP 1275
MA6 /
Maske "Randweg 2mm"
Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 3
2 Glser
MA6 /
Maske VER37A
Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 3

alpha - Step

Mikroskop

Prozessschritt
Belackung
MAP 1275

Belichten
Rand weg MAP
Entwickeln
Rand weg MAP
Belichten
MAP 1275
Entwickeln
MAP 1275

Lackdicke
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Plasmalab 80plus
(Anlage 4)
BCB-VIA tzung

Auge / Mikroskop
Aceton / Prop.-Flasche
Spritze MgF2
Glas DiE-lo

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Entlackung
MAP 1275

alpha - Step

Dicke BCB
Mikroskop
Ofen mit N2
ber Lackschleuder

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Tempern BCB
+ Spiegel

VT118

Aufdampfung
Au-Substrat Basis

Parameter Prozess
40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag abgeschnittene Glaspipette
2850 rpm
20min @ Ofen mit Stickstoff
100C
zentrisch justieren
300 s Belichten Soft-Kontakt; 0 WEC
3 min Entwicklung mit 2 Glsern
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Bemerkungen
evtl. langsamer
spinnen

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M4456: 60+70s

justieren
40 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC
ca. 65 s Entwicklung 1 Glas
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

m Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,0237


=
alphaprofil-Foto
50x-Foto
10 s
5 min
11 min
5 min

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M4456: 65s (mehr->
berentwickelt, z.B
85s)
Maske Ist:_______
M4456: 7,5um

Lack
SiO2
BCB
SiO2 tzen - Programm "BCB VIA"

Programm
VERTILAS

JM-Foto

Wafer spiegelt

3 min kaltes Aceton; DiE Glas, MgF2-Spritze


Aceton-Flasche
Propanol-Flasche
m Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,0237
Mitte der EZ =

alphaprofil VIA,
VIA + Mesen-Foto
150 C Stickstoff!!
60 min
30 nm Ti, Pt, Au schrg rotierend 30; 100nm Au
80nm @ 0.5nm/s, 580nm Au @ 1.5nm/s
680nm

Vorsicht!
Spiegel! / BCB!

________ BCB ist


M4456 v. Entl:
6.5um

11

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0

Galvanik
OK

Prozessschritt
Crystall Bond 509, GlasSlip mit Loch, Glas-Slip
klein ohne Loch, Scale,
Hotplate

Goldbad NEU
ansetzen

Puramet Goldbad
Goldbad
auffrischen

Golddraht, GlasHalterung, Elektroden,..


Galvanikbank

Start Galvanik

Bemerkungen
Hotplate 150C fr Wafer
200C fr CoverSlip auf Alublock
Mglichst keine Crystall-Bond-freien
Blasen zw. Glasplatte u. Coverslip
sowie Wafer & Glasplatte

mb=______________
ma=______________
Wafer mit & ohne
Glasplatte wiegen

11 g
198 ml
252ml
2ml
8min @ 30%

Au-Salz
H2O
Konzentrat Paramet 402
Ergnzer
US

Bad max. 2x
verwenden;Glser &
Lffel absplen &
neutralisieren

4,3 g
30 ml
no
2ml
5min @ 30%

Au-Salz
H2O
Konzentrat Paramet 402
Ergnzer
US

Bad max. 2x
verwenden;Glser &
Lffel absplen &
neutralisieren

weight Wafer
before & after
clueing

Puramet Goldbad

Parameter
Hotplate 150C

50-60m goal-thickness
<12mA/Wafer speed (start 1mA -- je 1min x2)
(mittel) 0.092 m/mA*h

End Galvanik
scale
weight Wafer
Aceton, Folie, AcetonGlas
Mikroskop

Remove Crystall
Bond

determine Gold-thickness
d=mass/density*Area
A=20cm2, density=19.3g/cm3
1 day in Aceton-glas upside-down

Bei zu hohem Strom


GoldSchwammbildung
Galvanik-Dauer:
____________
mass=__________
Thickness:_______
remove glas slip on
hole

picture 50x
Control, Picture

scale

m=_____________
Weight Wafer

12

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0

Substrat-Ablsung / n-KS-tzung
OK Anlage / Material

Lackschleuder
AZ 5214

Prozessschritt
Belackung
AZ 5214

Surebank, Flowbox,
Magnetrhrer

Substrat-tzung

Parameter Prozess
40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
1000 rpm 2s Programm 4
3000 rpm 10s nach 10s abbrechen
18 min in Glas I HCL:H20 4:1 (400ml:100ml)
ca. 10 min in Glas II bis vereinzelt durchgetzt
in Glas III HCL:H20 2:1 (160ml:80ml)
bis vollstndig entfernt

Mikroskop

Etch-Stop-/
Buffer-LayerRemoval

30s HCl-Dip 5:1


23s/30s H3PO4:H2O2:H2O (1:1:8)
90s(+60s) HCl:H20 (2:1)

DekTak

HINWEIS

ACHTUNG

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
/
AZ5214

MA6 /
Maske VER310b F&E

Litho Enwicklerbank /
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Dektak
Mikroskop /
saubere Objekttrger
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
H3PO4 : H2O2 : H2O =
1:1:8
50ml : 50ml : 400ml
Mikroskop

Belichten
Positivprozess

Entwicklung
Positivprozess

Lackhhe

2x 40 s N2
Lackauftrag
Programm 4
120 s @ 115
C

abblasen
schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
Hotplate auf Kreuzschlitz-Carrier
Abkhlen

2,5 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,1 WEC


50 s - 120 s Entwicklung
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262: 50s
nicht berentw. >KS

an Mesa Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,0237 hvorher=________


=
an Mesa

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
HCl-Dip
+
nasschemische
tzung
Kontaktschicht
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Entlackung

Dektak

Mesen plan?
Before BufferRemoval: remove
edge ridge
h=___________
hsoll=dInP-Bufferdbertzung

nicht extra entlacken,


Muss belackt sein fr KS-tzung!!!!

Rckseite belackt
lassen

Belackung
Positivprozess

am Ort von
Mikrorissen kann
ein pyramidenfrmiger Grat
stehen bleiben

nicht extra entlacken

Rckseite belackt
lassen

Chemie

Hhenunterschied BCB- zu KSSchichtoberkante entspricht Chlormesabertzung

Hhe bertzung
bestimmen

NICHT auf
Hotplate!!!
Ausgasen lassen
(5min)

Durchmesser des Fues der Chlormesa bei


vereinzelten VCSELn bestimmen

Sichtkontrolle
Surebank, Flowbox,
Magnetrhrer

Bemerkungen

tztiefe vor und


nach entlacken

Ansetzung: 1. H2O; 2. H3PO4; 3. H2O2


30 s HCl-Dip
Wasserglas - dann direkt (nicht trocknen)
15 s Phosphorsure ()
Wasserglas - splen - trocknen
MDZ-Foto
Mesen-Foto
3 min @ RT Spritze kaltes Aceton
Aceton Flashe
Propanol Flasche
an Mesa Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,0237
=

M5262: 15s

13

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M5263,M5264
berw.:

Maske:
0 VER310m F&E

n-Kontakt Pads
OK

Prozessschritt
Skalpell, Metallsockel,
Cleaveplatz

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
VT118 /
Ti-Tiegel

Mikroskop

Multimeter

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
AZ5214
MA6 /
Maske VER310m F&E

Hotplate 125 C

MA6

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
80ml : 400ml
VT118 /
Ti-, Pt-, Au-Tiegel

Ac. / Prop.
Gasmaske
Sprhflasche Infineon

Mikroskop

remove ridges at
the edge of the
wafer and at
dislocations
HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung
vor Metallisierung)

Parameter

Bemerkungen
Dektak-Kontrolle

30 s
5s
20 s
40 nm

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Ti 30 rotierend

Aufdampfung TiSchicht
Control, Picture
Test Conductivity
Belackung
Image Reversal

Belichten
Image Reversal

Lackvernetzung
Flood-Exposure
Entwicklung
IR-Prozess
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste
veraschen
nach Litho
HCl-Dip

Aufdampfung
n-Kontaktring & pad

Lift-Off
Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Kein veraschen von
Lackresten

wichtig fr
anschlieendes
Lackaufspinnen &
Alignen
direkt vor
Schleusung VT118
dicke je nach Rauhigkeit Chlortzung
M4456: 40nm

picture 50x
Leitfhigkeit an gegenberliegenden
Enden des Wafers test.
2x 40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate
Beschr. VERxx RECHTS UNTEN??? Ausrichtung an
1,8 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,35 WEC
"Fadenkreuz" &
VCSELN. Bei
schlechter Chlortzung schwierig
30 s Image Reversal Bake
17s Flood-Exposure
15 s Entwicklung - kleine Lcher sichtbar
5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl
Pad-VCSEL-Foto
Alignmentmarken-Foto
55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma

Entwicklungszeit:
____________
M5262:16s

30 s DIP
20 s H2O
Wasserstrahl
20 nm Ti 10 - 30 rotierend aufgedampft:
100nm Pt 10% (CAR-Einst. 2027) bei Substrat300nm Au tztiefe <100nm
20% (1850) <-> 100-200nm
30% (1675)<-> >200nm
>15min kopfber in Acetonbad; danach
Absprhen
Hinweis: nur Temperaturen <100C
anwenden
Pad-VCSEL-Foto
Alignmentmarken-Foto
Gold wird evtl. oxidiert

(Oxidentfernung fr
niedrigeren
Kontaktwiderstand)
Substrattztiefe
entspricht
Hhenunterschied
zw. SiO2/BCB &
epitakt. Spiegel
kein Ultraschall;
Alternativ auch
Standard Metall-LiftOff mit Spritze mgl

14

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M4173
berw.: M4195

Maske:
VER312b F&E

n-Kontakt Padverstrkung / Galvanik


OK

Prozessschritt
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
/
AZ5214

Lackschleuder; Hotplate
100 C /
AZ5214

MA6 /
Maske VER312b F&E

Litho Enwicklerbank /
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Mikroskop
Barrel - Etcher

Dektak
Photolack, Waferhalter
Linda (Klammern),
passende glasscheiben,
Pipette
Galvanikaufbau, fr
Heatsink verwendeten
Ansatz verwenden

Dektak

Mikroskop

Ac. , Prop.
Spritze Metall
Entlackung
Glser Metall AI, AII, P
HF-Behlter,
Schutzkleidung,
HF:H2O=1:9
(25ml : 225ml)
Mikroskop

Belackung
Positivprozess

Belackung
Rckseite

Parameter
2x 40 s N2
Lackauftrag
Programm 4
120 s @ 115 C
10 min
2x 40 s N2
Lackauftrag
Programm 4
100 s @ 100 C

Belichten
Positivprozess

4,0 s

Entwicklung
Positivprozess

50 s - 120 s
5s
20 s

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste
veraschen
nach Litho

Solldicke bei 1,5mA, sehr langsam <->


1-1,5 um Schwmme
start - 0.1mA -- je 1min x2
Differenz Lackoberflche zu
Padoberflche messen
Pad-Foto

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto

Beschr. VERxx links oben!!! Maske


180 zurckgedreht
Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,35 WEC
(Hinweis: Gold haftet in Galvanik
hauptschlich auf Au bei nicht zu
hohen Strmen)
Entwicklung 1. Glas bis noch Farben
da
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl

Differenz Lackoberflche zu
Padoberflche messen
Teflon-Halter
(Wafer mit Fotolack ankleben)

Lackhhe

HF-Dip

schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)


Hotplate

Chuck evtl.
reinigen!
Mit Rckseite
auf vorgeheizte
Siedesteinde legen
vorher reinigen

Entwicklungszeit:
M5262 :40s
____________

55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma

Wafer einbauen

Entlackung

schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)


Hotplate
ausgasen
abblasen

Kontaktpadseite
zuerst belacken

Pad-Foto

Lackhhe

Galvanik ansetzen,
starten

Bemerkungen
abblasen

h_vorher=______

Dauer:________
Strom:________
M4456: 99+57min
910nm
h_nachher=
______________

3min Spritze kaltes Aceton


3min @ 100C Spritze heies Aceton
rinse with Propanol
<~7s
20s
Wasserstrahl

tzt HF InP??? Liegt nmlich frei!!!


Auf sicht tzen

Zeit=__________
M5262: 6s

15

Stoppbandmitte:
0 nm

Basis: M4173
berw.: M4195

Maske:

VER33B F&E

Dielektrischer Spiegel
OK Anlage / Material

Prozessschritt

Parameter

Prozess

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl-Dip
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
(Oxidentfernung vor
Metallisierung)
40ml : 200ml
Ofen mit N2
Wasser verdampfen
ber Lackschleuder
Lackschleuder; Hotplate
90 C /
Belackung
AZ5214
Image Reversal

MA6 /
Maske VER33b F&E

Belichten
Image Reversal

Hotplate 125 C

Lackvernetzung

30 s Image Reversal Bake

MA6

Flood-Exposure

17 s Flood-Exposure

Litho Enwicklerbank
AZ400K : H2O = 1 : 4

Entwicklung
IR-Prozess

20 s
5s
20 s
100C
10 min

Bemerkungen

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Stickstoff!!

40 s N2 abblasen
Lackauftrag
Programm 4 schleudern (1000/3000rpm fr 2/40s)
90 s @ 90 C Hotplate
Beschr. VERxx rechs unten
2 s Belichten Hard-Kontakt; 0,4 WEC

20 s Entwicklung - deutlich sichtbar


5 s Stoppglas Wasser
20 s Wasserstrahl

Entwicklungszeit:
____________

Mikroskop

Barrel - Etcher

p-Anlage /
ZnS-Tiegel + Dummy

Dummy
ZnS

Ist: _________ x 1,037 = _________


________ nm Soll: ________

TF neu:
__________

p-Anlage /
CaF2-Tiegel + Dummy

Dummy
CaF2

Ist: _________ x 1,037 = _________


________ nm Soll: ________

TF neu:
__________

HCl-Dip
(Oxidentfernung vor
Metallisierung)

Chemie / DI-Wasser
HCl : H2O = 1 : 5
40ml : 200ml
p-Anlage /
ZnS-, CaF2-, Au-Tiegel

Aceton; Prop.-Fl.
Spritze MgF2, Glas DiE

Pt Lift-Off

Mikroskop

Dektak

Barrel - Etcher
Stoppuhr

Ofen mit N2
ber Lackschleuder

Mesen-Foto

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Lackreste veraschen
nach Litho

Aufdampfung
Spiegel

Sichtkontrolle
+Foto
Dicke Spiegel
Lackreste veraschen
nach Lift-Off
Tempern Spiegel

55% 250 W
3 min Sauerstoffplasma

20 s
5s
20 s
3.5
_______ nm

DIP
Stoppglas Wasser
Wasserstrahl
Paare ZnS / CaF2 + 100 nm Au
Stoppbandmitte

3 min kaltes Aceton, MgF2-Spritze


Propanol-Flasche

direkt vor
Schleusung
p-Anlage

kein Ultraschall
Rckseite frei?

Spiegel-Foto
JM-Foto
k Bereich, unkorrigiert:_________ x 1,015 Ist:
Mitte Wafer =
_________ nm
S ll
10% 600 W
15 min Sauerstoffplasma

NEIN

180 C Stickstoff!! Zu Hei?!?!? 100C


60 min

nicht ntig