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Advanced Quantum Field Theory

(Version of November 2015)

Jorge Crispim Rom


ao

Physics Department
2015

Appendix D

Feynman Rules for the Standard


Model
D.1

Introduction

To do actual calculations it is very important to have all the Feynman rules with consistent
conventions. In this Appendix we will give the complete Feynman rules for the Standard
Model in the general R gauge.

D.2

The Standard Model

One of the most dicult problems in having a consistent set of of Feynman rules are the
conventions. We give here those that are important for building the SM. We will separate
them by gauge group.

D.2.1

Gauge Group SU(3)c

Here the important conventions are for the eld strengths and the covariant derivatives.
We have
Ga = Ga Ga + gf abc Gb Gc , a = 1, . . . , 8
(D.1)
where f abc are the group structure constants, satisfying
i
h
T a , T b = if abc T c

(D.2)

and T a are the generators of the group. The covariant derivative of a (quark) eld q in
some representation T a of the gauge group is given by

D q = i g Ga T a q

(D.3)

In QCD the quarks are in the fundamental representation and T a = a /2 where a are
the Gell-Mann matrices. A gauge transformation is given by a matrix
U = eiT
375

a a

(D.4)

376

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

and the elds transform as


q eiT

a a

q = iT a a q

i
Ga T a U Ga T a U 1 U U 1
g

1
Ga = a + f abc b Gc
g

(D.5)

where the second column is for innitesimal transformations. With these denitions one
can verify that the covariant derivative transforms like the eld itself,
(D q) = i T a a (D q)

(D.6)

ensuring the gauge invariance of the Lagrangian.

D.2.2

Gauge Group SU(2)L

This is similar to the previous case. We have


a
W
= Wa Wa + gabc Wb Wc ,

a = 1, . . . , 3

(D.7)

where, for the fundamental representation of SU (2)L we have T a = a /2 and abc is the
completely anti-symmetric tensor in 3 dimensions. The covariant derivative for any eld
L transforming non-trivially under this group is,

D L = i g Wa T a L
(D.8)

D.2.3

Gauge Group U(1)Y

In this case the group is abelian and we have


B = B B

(D.9)

with the covariant derivative given by



D R = + i g Y B R

(D.10)

where Y is the hypercharge of the eld. Notice the dierent sign convention between
Eq. (D.8) and Eq. (D.9). This is to have the usual denition1
Q = T3 + Y .

(D.12)

It is useful to write the covariant derivative in terms of the mass eigenstates A and
Z . These are dened by the relations,
(
(
Z = W3 cos W + B sin W
W3 = Z cos W A sin W
.
(D.13)
,
A = W3 sin W + B cos W
B = Z sin W + A cos W
1

For this to be consistent one must also have, under hypercharge transformations, for a field of hypercharge Y ,
1
(D.11)
= e+iY Y , B = B Y .
g
This is important when finding the ghost interactions. It would have been possible to have a minus sign
in Eq. (D.10), with a definition W W + . This would also mean reversing the sign in the exponent
of the hypercharge transformation in Eq. (D.11) maintaining the similarity with Eq. (D.5).

D.2. THE STANDARD MODEL

377

Field

uL

dL

uR

dR

T3

21

1
2

1
2

12

1
2

12

21

12

1
6

1
6

2
3

13

1
2

1
2

2
3

13

2
3

13

Table D.1: Values of T3f , Q and Y for the SM particles.


For a eld L , with hypercharge Y , we get,



g
g
3

+
+

D L = i W + W i 3 W + ig Y B L
(D.14)
2
2

 

g  3
g
2
+
+

Q sin W Z L
= i W + W + ie Q A i
cos W 2
2
where, as usual, = (1 i2 )/2 and the charge operator is dened by
1

and we have used the relations,

+Y

21 + Y

(D.15)

e = g sin W = g cos W ,

(D.16)

Q=

and the usual denition,


W =

W1 i W2

.
2

(D.17)

For a singlet of SU (2)L , R we have,




D R = + ig Y B R


g
2
= + ie Q A + i
Q sin W Z R .
cos W

(D.18)

We collect in Table D.1 the quantum number of the SM particles.

D.2.4

The Gauge Field Lagrangian

For completeness we write the gauge eld Lagrangian. We have


1 a a 1
1
W
B B
Lgauge = Ga Ga W
4
4
4
where the eld strengths are given in Eqs. (D.1), and (D.9).

(D.19)

378

D.2.5

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

The Fermion Fields Lagrangian

Here we give the kinetic part and gauge interaction, leaving the Yukawa interaction for a
next section. We have
X
X
X
LFermion =
(D.20)
iq D q +
iL D L +
iR D R
quarks

where the covariant derivatives are obtained with the rules in Eqs. (D.3), (D.14) and
(D.18).

D.2.6

The Higgs Lagrangian

In the SM we use an Higgs doublet with the following assignments,

= v + H + iZ

(D.21)

The hypercharge of this doublet is 1/2 and therefore the covariant derivative reads



g
g
g
3
+
+

(D.22)
D = i W + W i 3 W + i B
2
2
2

 

g  3
g
2
+
+

Q sin W Z
= i W W + ie Q A i
cos W 2
2

The Higgs Lagrangian is then


2
LHiggs = (D ) D + 2

(D.23)

If we expand this Lagrangian we nd the following terms

1
1
1
1
LHiggs = + g2 v 2 W3 W 3 + g2 v 2 B B + gg v 2 W3 B + g2 v 2 W+ W
8
8
4
4
 i
1
i
+ v Z g B + gW3 + gvW + gvW+
(D.24)
2
2
2
The rst three terms give, after diagonalization, a massless eld, the photon, and a massive
one, the Z, with the relations given in Eq. (D.13), while the fourth gives the mass to the
charged W boson. Using Eq. (D.13) we get,
1
2
LHiggs = + MZ2 Z Z + MW
W+ W
2
+ MZ Z Z + iMW W + W+
where

(D.25)

1 1
1
1
gv =
MW
(D.26)
MW = gv, MZ =
2
cos W 2
cos W
By looking at Eq. (D.25) we realize that besides nding a realistic spectra for the gauge
bosons, we also got a problem. In fact the terms in the last line are quadratic in the elds
and complicate the denition of the propagators. We now see how one can use the needed
gauge xing to solve also this problem.

D.2. THE STANDARD MODEL

D.2.7

379

The Yukawa Lagrangian

Now we have to spell out the interaction between the fermions and the Higgs doublet that
after spontaneous symmetry breaking gives masses to the elementary fermions. We have,
e uR + h.c.
LYukawa = Yl L R Yd Q dR Yu Q

(D.27)

where sum is implied over generations, L (Q) are the lepton (quark) doublets and,

v + H iZ

e = i 2 =

(D.28)
2

D.2.8

The Gauge Fixing

As it is well known, we have to gauge x the gauge part of the Lagrangian to be able to
dene the propagators. We will use a generalization of the class of Lorenz gauges, the
so-called R gauges. With this choice the gauge xing Lagrangian reads
LGF =

1
1
1
1 2
FG FA2 FZ2 F F+
2
2
2

(D.29)

where
FGa = Ga ,

FA = A ,

F+ = W+ iMW + ,

FZ = Z MZ Z
F = W + iMW

(D.30)

One can easily verify that with these denitions we cancel the quadratic terms in Eq. (D.25).

D.2.9

The Ghost Lagrangian

The last piece in writing the SM Lagrangian is the ghost Lagrangian. As it is well known,
this is given by the Fadeev-Popov prescription,
LGhost


4 
X
(F+ )
(F+ )
(FZ )
(FA )
c+
+ c
+ cZ
+ cA
ci
=
i
i
i
i
i=1

8
X

a,b=1

(FGa ) b

(D.31)

where we have denoted by a the ghosts associated with the SU (3)c transformations
dened by,
a a
U = eiT , a = 1, . . . , 8
(D.32)
and by c , cA , cZ the electroweak ghosts associated with the gauge transformations,
U = eiT

a a

a = 1, . . . , 3,

U = eiY

(D.33)

380

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

For completeness we write here the gauge transformations of the gauge xing terms needed
to nd the Lagrangian in Eq. (D.31). It is convenient to redene the parameters as
=

1 2

Z =3 cos W + 4 sin W
A = 3 sin W + 4 cos W

(D.34)

We then get
FGa = a + gs f abc b Gc
FA = A
FZ = (Z ) MZ Z
F+ = (W+ ) iMW +
F = (W ) + iMW

(D.35)

Using the explicit form of the gauge transformations we can nally nd the missing pieces,

(D.36)
Z = Z + ig cos W W+ W +


W+ = + + ig + (Z cos W A sin w ) (Z cos w A sin W ) W+


W = ig (Z cos W A sin w ) (Z cos w A sin W ) W

and


1
g
Z = g + + + +
Z (v + H)
2
2 cos W

g cos 2W +
g
Z + ie + A
+ = i (v + H + iZ )+ i
2
2 cos W
g
g cos 2W
=i (v + H iZ ) + i
Z ie A
2
2 cos W

D.2.10

(D.37)

The Complete SM Lagrangian

Finally the complete Lagrangian for the Standard Model is obtained putting together all
the pieces. We have,
LSM = Lgauge + LFermion + LHiggs + LYukawa + LGF + LGhost

(D.38)

where the dierent terms were given in Eqs. (D.19), (D.20), (D.23), (D.27), (D.29), (D.31).

D.3. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR QCD

D.3

381

The Feynman Rules for QCD

We give separately the Feynman Rules for QCD and the electroweak part of the Standard
Model.

D.3.1

Propagators
g
, b

, a

D.3.2

iab

k k
g
(1 ) 2 2
2
k + i
(k )

ab

k2

i
+ i

(D.39)

(D.40)

Triple Gauge Interactions


, c
gf abc [ g (p1 p2 ) + g (p2 p3 )

p3

+g (p3 p1 ) ]

p2
, a

p1

, b

p1 + p2 + p3 = 0
(D.41)

D.3.3

Quartic Gauge Interactions

ii) Vertice quartico dos bos


oes de gauge
, d

, c

p4

p3

p1

p2

, a

, b

ig 2

feab fecd (g g g g )
+feac fedb (g g g g )
i
+fead febc (g g g g )

(D.42)

p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = 0

D.3.4

Fermion Gauge Interactions


, a
p3
p2
, i

p1

, j

ig( ) Tija

(D.43)

382

D.3.5

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

Ghost Interactions
, c
p3

g C abc p1

p2
a

D.4
D.4.1

p1

(D.44)
p1 +p2 + p3 = 0

The Feynman Rules for the Electroweak Theory


Propagators

g
k k
i 2
(1 ) 2 2
k + i
(k )

(D.45)

k2

ig
2 + i
MW

(D.46)

k2

ig
MZ2 + i

(D.47)

i(p/ + mf )
m2f + i

(D.48)

p2

i
Mh2 + i

(D.49)

i
p2 m2Z + i

(D.50)

i
m2W + i

(D.51)

p2

p2

D.4. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE ELECTROWEAK THEORY

D.4.2

383

Triple Gauge Interactions

W
p
k

ie [g (p k) + g (k q) + g (q p) ]

(D.52)

ig cos W [g (p k) + g (k q) + g (q p) ]

(D.53)

W+
W
p
k

W+

D.4.3

Quartic Gauge Interactions

W+

W+

W+

W+

W+

ie2 [2g g g g g g ]

(D.54)

ig 2 cos2 W [2g g g g g g ]

(D.55)

ieg cos W [2g g g g g g ]

(D.56)

ig 2 [2g g g g g g ]

(D.57)

384

D.4.4

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

Charged Current Interaction


u,d

g
1 5
i
2
2

d,u

D.4.5

Neutral Current Interaction


f

Z
i

g
cos W

where
gVf =

D.4.6

(D.58)



f
5
gVf gA

1 3
T Qf sin2 W ,
2 f

ieQf (D.59)

f
1
f
gA
= Tf3 .
2

(D.60)

Fermion-Higgs and Fermion-Goldstone Interactions


f
h

g mf
2 mW

(D.61)

f
f
Z

g Tf3

mf
5
mW

(D.62)

d,u

u,d

D.4.7

g
i
2

mu
md
PR,L
PL,R
mW
mW

(D.63)

Triple Higgs-Gauge and Goldstone-Gauge Interactions


+

p+
A

i e (p+ p )

(D.64)

D.4. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE ELECTROWEAK THEORY


+

p+
Z

385

ig

cos 2W
(p+ p )
2 cos W

(D.65)

p
W

i
g (k p)
2

(D.66)

g
(k p)
2

(D.67)

g
(k p)
2 cos

(D.68)

k
Z

A
ie mW g

(D.69)

ig mZ sin2 W g

(D.70)

W
h
W

ig mW g

(D.71)

386

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

h
Z

g
mZ g
cos W

(D.72)

D.4.8

Quartic Higgs-Gauge and Goldstone-Gauge Interactions

i 2
g g
2

(D.73)

i 2
g g
2

(D.74)

i g2
g
2 cos2 W

(D.75)

i g2
g
2 cos2 W

(D.76)

D.4. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE ELECTROWEAK THEORY


+

A
2i e2 g

Z
i
2

W+

g cos 2W
cos W

(D.77)

2

(D.78)

i 2
g g
2

(D.79)

i g 2

sin2 W
g
2 cos W

(D.80)

g2

sin2 W
g
2 cos W

(D.81)

i
eg g
2
h

387

(D.82)

388

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL

W
1
eg g
2

Z
i eg

D.4.9

cos 2W
g
cos W

(D.83)

(D.84)

Triple Higgs and Goldstone Interactions


+

i m2
g h
2 mW

(D.85)

m2
3
ig h
2 mW

(D.86)

i m2
g h
2 mW

(D.87)

h
Z

D.4. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE ELECTROWEAK THEORY

D.4.10

389

Quartic Higgs and Goldstone Interactions

m2
i
g2 2h
2
mW

(D.88)

m2
i
g2 2h
4
mW

(D.89)

m2
i
g2 2h
4
mW

(D.90)

m2
3
i g2 2h
4
mW

(D.91)

m2
i
g 2 2h
4 mW

(D.92)

390

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL


Z

m2
3
i g2 2h
4
mW
Z

D.4.11

(D.93)

Ghost Propagators
cA
k2

(D.94)

i
k2 m2W + i

(D.95)

i
m2Z + i

(D.96)

cZ
k2

D.4.12

i
+ i

Ghost Gauge Interactions


c

p
A

ie p

(D.97)

ig cos W p

(D.98)

ig cos W p

(D.99)

c
c

p
Z

c
c

p
W

cZ

D.4. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE ELECTROWEAK THEORY


c

391

p
W

ie p

(D.100)

ig cos W p

(D.101)

ie p

(D.102)

cA
cZ

p
W

c
cA

p
W

D.4.13

Ghost Higgs and Ghost Goldstone Interactions


c
Z

g
mW
2

(D.103)

i
g mW
2

(D.104)

ig
mZ
2 cos W

(D.105)

c
c
h

c
cZ
h

cZ

392

APPENDIX D. FEYNMAN RULES FOR THE STANDARD MODEL


cZ

i
g mZ
2

(D.106)

c
c

ig

cos 2W
mW
2 cos W

(D.107)

cZ
c

cA

ie mW

(D.108)