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# Unit Name

## Total Number of Lessons

Subtopic

Topic 2: Mechanics
26 (22 hours teaching)

## Topic 2.1 Motion

Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
Motion may be described and analysed by the use of graphs and equations.
Nature of Science
Observations: The ideas of motion are fundamental to many areas of physics, providing a link to the consideration of forces and
their implication. The kinematic equations for uniform acceleration were developed through careful observations of the natural
world. (1.8)
Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and
Knowledge)
Understandings:
Distance and displacement
Speed and velocity
Acceleration
Graphs describing motion
Equations of motion for uniform
acceleration
Projectile motion
Fluid resistance and terminal
speed
Applications and skills:

Determining instantaneous
and average values for
velocity, speed and
acceleration

Teaching Methodology

Suggestions

Utilization:

Guidance:

## Calculations will be restricted to those neglecting

air resistance
Projectile motion will only involve problems using a
constant value of g close to the surface of the
Earth
The equation of the path of a projectile will not be
required

## Diving, parachuting and similar

activities where fluid resistance
affects motion
The accurate use of ballistics
requires careful analysis
Biomechanics (see Sports, exercise
and health science SL sub-topic
4.3)
Mathematics HL sub-topic 2.6;
Mathematics SL sub-topic 2.4;
Mathematical studies SL sub-topic
6.3)
The kinematic equations are
treated in calculus form in
Mathematics HL sub-topic 6.6 and

## Solving problems using

equations of motion for
uniform acceleration
Sketching and interpreting
motion graphs
Determining the acceleration
of free-fall experimentally
Analysing projectile motion,
including the resolution of
vertical and horizontal
components of acceleration,
velocity and displacement
Qualitatively describing the
effect of fluid resistance on
falling objects or projectiles,
including reaching terminal
speed

Aims:
Aim 2: much of the development of
classical physics has been built on the
Aim 6: experiments, including use of
data logging, could include (but are
not limited to): determination of g,
estimating speed using travel
timetables, analysing projectile
motion, and investigating motion
through a fluid
Aim 7: technology has allowed for
more accurate and precise
measurements of motion, including
video analysis of real-life projectiles
and modelling/ simulations of terminal
velocity
Lesson 1 Introduction to Kinematics
Investigating Motion using simulations:
Students are asked to select ONE of the following
simulations to explore motion
(A) PhET simulations:
The Moving Man, Energy Skate Park, Forces and
Motion, Projectile Motion, Forces and motion, The
(B) Eduweblabs Simulations:
Velocity, Acceleration, Inclined Acceleration
They are to write a report on what the simulation can
do & what aspects of motion were manipulated or
observed.
Lesson 2 Motion Graphs, Gradients & Areas
Under the Curves
Physics with Vernier Exp 01 Matching motion graphs
activity
Powerpoint - Motion graphs
Worksheet Graphs of Motiom

Resources:

Online Simulations:
PhET Motion Simulations:
s/category/physics/motion
Eduweblabs Simulations:
http://eduweblabs.com/TOC/Physics/P
hysics.html

Resources:

Apparatus:
Vernier Go-motion sonic ranger; GoLink, Vernier Logger Pro

## Lesson 3 Equations of Uniformly Accelerated

Motion
Powerpoint Equations of uniformly accelerated
motion (showing derivation of the different equations)
Worksheet Uniformly Accelerated Motion
Worksheet.
Lesson 4 Experiment Determination of a Value
for g
Experiment to determine a value for g using either:
a) Water drops falling from a burette tap onto an
upturned Al plate.
b) timing the motion of a falling object using light
gates or a ticker-timer.
Lesson 5 Projectile Motion Lesson #1
Students explore the following aspects of projectile of
mass of projectile
(i) Effect of mass of projectile
(ii) Effect of launch velocity
(iii) Effect of launch angle
on the range of a projectile using the PhET Projectile
Motion simulation
Lesson 6 Projectile Motion Challenge
Students work in small groups to launch a projectile
horizontally off a lab bench and using a determination
of the horizontal launch velocity and the vertical
distanc eof fall to predict the location of the point of
impact with the floor. They place a bullseye at the
determined location and launch 5 balls off the ramp
to score points based on the proximity of the actual
impact points relative to the predicted location.

Resources:

## Lesson 7 Solving Projectile Motion Problems

Students complete a worksheet on answering
examination-style questions.

Resources:

Resources:

Resources:

## PhET Projectile Motion

/legacy/projectile-motion

Resources:

Apparatus:
Ramp, steel ball bearing, light gate
and either Pasco Smart-Timer or
LabQuest 2, plastic bucket, plumb
bob, A4 white paper, celllotape, A4
carbon paper, Vernier caliper, metre
rule or tape measure, paper Bullseye
Target
Powerpoint: Projecile motion
challenge
Worksheet: Projectile Motion
Questions

## Lesson 8 Terminal Velocity

(i) Students explore terrminal velocity by any of the
following methods:
a) Dropping marbles through cooking oil
b) Using a motion sensor to monitor the vertical
velocity of falling coffee filters or cup cake casings
(ii) Students complete Terminal Velocity Worksheet

Resources:

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

The independence of horizontal and vertical motion in projectile motion seems to be counter-intuitive. How do scientists work
around their intuitions? How do scientists make use of their intuitions?
Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.

## International Mindedness (Reference to Local, National and World Issues)

International cooperation is needed for tracking shipping, land-based transport, aircraft and objects in space .

Subtopic

## Topic 2.2 Forces

Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
Nature of Science
Collaboration: Scientists in the 19th century made valuable progress on the modern theories that form the basis of
thermodynamics, making important links with other sciences, especially chemistry. The scientific method was in evidence with
contrasting but complementary statements of some laws derived by different scientists. Empirical and theoretical thinking both
have their place in science and this is evident in the comparison between the unattainable ideal gas and real gases. (4.1)
Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and
Knowledge)

Teaching Methodology

Suggestions

Understandings:

Utilization:

## Objects as point particles

Free-body diagrams
Translational equilibrium
Newtons laws of motion
Solid friction

## Applications and skills:

Representing forces as
vectors

## Sketching and interpreting

free-body diagrams
Describing the consequences
of Newtons first law for
translational equilibrium
Using Newtons second law
quantitatively and
qualitatively
Identifying force pairs in the
context of Newtons third law
Solving problems involving
forces and determining
resultant force
Describing solid friction
(static and dynamic) by
coefficients of friction

Guidance:

## Students should label forces using commonly

accepted names or symbols (for example: weight
or force of gravity or mg)
Free-body diagrams should show scaled vector
lengths acting from the point of application
Examples and questions will be limited to constant
mass
mg should be identified as weight
Calculations relating to the determination of resultant
forces will be restricted to one- and two-dimensional
situations

## Motion of charged particles in

fields (see Physics sub-topics 5.4,
6.1, 11.1, 12.2)
Application of friction in circular
motion (see Physics sub-topic 6.1)
Construction (considering ancient
and modern approaches to safety,
longevity and consideration of local
weather and geological influences)
Biomechanics (see Sports, exercise
and health science SL sub-topic
4.3)

## Aims: work is often described by the

Aims 2 and 3: Newtons quote from a
letter he wrote to his rival, Robert
Hooke, 11 years before the publication
of Philosophi Naturalis Principia
Mathematica, which states: What
Descartes did was a good step. You
have added much several ways, and
especially in taking the colours of thin
plates into philosophical
consideration. If I have seen a little
further it is by standing on the
shoulders of Giants. It should be
remembered that this quote is also
inspired, this time by writers who had
been using versions of it for at least
500 years before Newtons time.
Aim 6: experiments could include
(but are not limited to): verification of
Newtons second law; investigating
forces in equilibrium; determination of
the effects of friction

## Lesson 1 - Force is a Vector Quantity & F.B.Ds

(i) Lab Station setup for exploring forces with three
seaparate stations involving:
a) Tension forces
b) Normal forces
c) Friction forces
(ii) PhET simulation investigation Forces and motion
(iii) Forces Exit ticket

Resources:

## Lesson 2 - Newtons First Two Laws of Motion

(i) Eduweblabs Simulation Investigation (ii) Investigation of Newtons first two Laws of motion
using PhET Force and Motion simulation

Resources:

## Lesson 3 - Finding Mass of a Lab Cart from

Newtons Second Law
Experiment where students use a typical Newtons
Second Law setup to gather data on Accelerating
Force and Acceleration of the cart + hanging mass
system to construct a graph whose gradient is the
mass of the cart.
Lesson 4 - Newtons Third Law of Motion
Demonstration: Newtons Third Law using egg on a
lab trolley moving until it strikes the end-stop of the
dynamics track.
Powerpoint: Newtons Third Law Examples
Worksheet: Newtons Laws
Lesson 5 - Solving Connected Body Problems
Powerpoint Solving Connected Bodies
Problems
Students provide the working to arrive at the correct
answer for each problem in the Worksheet: Bodies in
Contact and Connected Bodies.

Resources:

Online simulation:
PhET Forces and Motion
/legacy/forces-and-motion
Sheet
Student directions_Force and Motion
Activity 2 Graphing Motion
Forces Exit ticket
Student directions_Force and Motion
Activity 2 Graphing Motion
Apparatus:
Lab cart, dynamics track (if available)
or lab benchtop, bench pulley, mass
hanger and slotted masses, video
camera or motion sensor or light
gates.

Resources:

Worksheet:
Newtons Laws

Resources:

Worksheet:
Bodies in Contact & Connected Bodies

## Lesson 6 Static and Kinetic Friction

Experiment where students use a force sensor to
measure the magnitude for the maximum static
friction force and the kinetic friction for for a
cardboard box loaded with mass on each of different
surfaces.
Lesson 7 Force and Motion on an Incline
Experiment where students explore motion on an
inclined planes by using a motion sensor (sonic
ranger) to monitor the motion of a cart:
(i) is tilted upward until the cart moves down the
slope at constant velocity
(ii) pushed so that it moves up the inclined plane
before coming to a stop and accelerates back down
the slope.
Lesson 8 Solving Dynamics Problems
Worksheet Forces and Motion
(Students work in pairs to solve problems and peer
assess other groups responses)

Resources:
Apparatus:

Resources:
Apparatus:
Dynamics track with end-stops, lab
jack, dynamics cart, sonic ranger, GoLink, Logger Pro

Resources:

Worksheet:
Forces and Motion

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

Classical physics believed that the whole of the future of the universe could be predicted from knowledge of the present state.
To what extent can knowledge of the present give us knowledge of the future?
Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.

Subtopic

## Topic 2.3 Energy, work & power Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
The fundamental concept of energy lays the basis upon which much of science is built.
Nature of Science
Theories: Many phenomena can be fundamentally understood through application of the theory of conservation of energy. Over
time, scientists have utilized this theory both to explain natural phenomena and, more importantly, to predict the outcome of
previously unknown interactions. The concept of energy has evolved as a result of recognition of the relationship between mass
and energy. (2.2)
Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and
Knowledge)
Understandings:

Teaching Methodology

Utilization:

Kinetic energy
Gravitational potential energy
Elastic potential energy
Work done as energy transfer
Power as rate of energy transfer
Principle of conservation of
energy
Efficiency

## Discussing the conservation

of total energy within energy
transformations
Sketching and interpreting
forcedistance graphs
Determining work done
including cases where a
resistive force acts
Solving problems involving
power
Quantitatively describing

Suggestions

Guidance:

## Cases where the line of action of the force and the

displacement are not parallel should be
considered
Examples should include forcedistance graphs for
variable forces

## Energy is also covered in other

group 4 subjects (for example, see:
Biology topics 2, 4 and 8;
Chemistry topics 5, 15, and C;
Sports, exercise and health science
topics 3, A.2, C.3 and D.3;
Environmental systems and
societies topics 1, 2, and 3)
Energy conversions are essential
for electrical energy generation
(see Physics topic 5 and sub-topic
8.1)
Energy changes occurring in simple
harmonic motion (see Physics subtopics 4.1 and 9.1)

Aims:
Aim 6: experiments could include
(but are not limited to): relationship of
kinetic and gravitational potential
energy for a falling mass; power and
efficiency of mechanical objects;

## comparison of different situations

involving elastic potential energy
Aim 8: by linking this sub-topic with
topic 8, students should be aware of
the importance of efficiency and its
impact of conserving the fuel used for
energy production
Lesson 1 - Kinetic and Gravitational Potential
Energy
Simulation investigation using PhET Energy Skate
Park simulation.

Resources:

## Lesson 2 Elastic Potential Energy and Hookes

Law
Either classic Hookes Law experiment using mass
hanger, masses and soft spring
OR
Same activity using PhET Masses and springs
simulation
Extension (x) versus (weight) force applied is graphed
to produce a linear graph whose gradient is the
spring constant, k.
Lesson 3 - Work is the Transfer of Energy
Simulation investigation using either:
a) PhET The Ramp sim
b) Eduweblabs Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
simulation

Resources:

Online simulation:
PhET Energy Skate Park
Energy Skate Park
Apparatus:
Soft coiled spring, mass hanger,
masses, metre rule or 30 cm rule,
filter ring, retort stand.
Online simulation:
s-spring-lab/mass-springlab_en.html

Resources:

Online simulation:
PhET The Ramp
/legacy/the-ramp
http://eduweblabs.com/Database/L

ab_FoldersP/ForceHeat/ForceHeat.h
tml
Lesson 4 Power is the Rate of Energy Transfer
(i) PowerPoint Power.
(ii) Eduweblabs Simulation Investigation - Power

Resources:

## Lesson 5 Law of Conservation of Energy

Resources:

Online simulation:
Eduweblabs Power simulation
http://eduweblabs.com/Database/Lab_
FoldersP/Power/Power.html

## Students explore Law of conservation of momentum

using:
1 PhET Collisions lab simulation
2.Eduweblabs Ballistic Pendulum OR
3. Eduweblabs Monentum Simulation
findings.

Online simulations:
ation/legacy/collision-lab
http://eduweblabs.com/Database/
Lab_FoldersP/Momentum/Moment
um.html
http://eduweblabs.com/Database/
Lab_FoldersP/Ballistic/Ballistic.ht
ml

Lesson 6 Efficiency
Powerpoint Efficiency
Worksheet Power and Efficiency

Resources:

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

To what extent is scientific knowledge based on fundamental concepts such as energy? What happens to scientific knowledge
when our understanding of such fundamental concepts changes or evolves?
Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.
International Mindedness (Reference to Local, National and World Issues)
International cooperation is needed for tracking shipping, land-based transport, aircraft and objects in space

Subtopic

## Topic 2.4 Momentum and

Impulse

Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
Conservation of momentum is an example of a law that is never violated.
Nature of Science
The concept of momentum and the principle of momentum conservation can be used to analyse and predict the outcome of a
wide range of physical interactions, from macroscopic motion to microscopic collisions. (1.9)

Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and Knowledge)
Understandings:
Newtons second law expressed
in terms of rate of change of
momentum
Impulse and forcetime graphs
Conservation of linear
momentum
Elastic collisions, inelastic
collisions and explosions
Applications and skills:

Applying conservation of
momentum in simple isolated
systems including (but not
limited to) collisions,
explosions, or water jets
Using Newtons second law
quantitatively and
qualitatively in cases where
mass is not constant
Sketching and interpreting
forcetime graphs
Determining impulse in
various contexts including
(but not limited to) car safety
and sports
Qualitatively and
quantitatively comparing
situations involving elastic
collisions, inelastic collisions
and explosions

Teaching Methodology

Suggestions
Utilization:
Jet engines and rockets

Guidance:
Students should be aware that F = ma is equivalent of
only when mass is constant
Solving simultaneous equations involving conservation of
momentum and energy in collisions will not be required
Calculations relating to collisions and explosions will be
restricted to one-dimensional situations
A comparison between energy involved in inelastic
collisions (in which kinetic energy is not conserved) and
the conservation of (total) energy should be made

Martial arts

## Lesson 1 - Newtons Second Law & Rate of

Change of Momentum
Powerpoint Newtons Second Law and Change in
Momentum
Video: Impulse
Lesson 2 Impulse-Momentum Theorem
(ii) Students watch Youtube video on ImpulseMomentum theorem
(iii) Students complete questions on impulse-

Resources:

## Particle theory and collisions (see

Physics sub-topic 3.1)
Aims:
Aim 3: conservation laws in science
disciplines have played a major role in
outlining the limits within which
scientific theories are developed
Aim 6: experiments could include
(but are not limited to): analysis of
collisions with respect to energy
transfer; impulse investigations to
determine velocity, force, time, or
mass; determination of amount of
transformed energy in inelastic
collisions
Aim 7: technology has allowed for
more accurate and precise
measurements of force and
momentum, including video analysis
of real-life collisions and
modelling/simulations of molecular
collision
v=ph48Xwj_eS8

Resources:

Websites:
Physics Classroom: ImpulseMomentum Theorem
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/clas

momentum theorem.

s/momentum/Lesson-1/Momentumand-Impulse-Connection
Physics Classroom: Real World
Applications: The Impulse-Momentum
Change Theorem
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/clas
s/momentum/Lesson-1/Real-WorldApplications
v=fdeH6Ksedwk

## Lesson 3 Collisions: Elastic v Inelastic

Either:
(i) Practical investigation using carts on dyanamics
track & video analysis to investitigate elastic &
inelastic collisions
OR
(ii) Collisions investigation using PhET Collisions
Lab simulation.
Lesson 4 Mechanics & Car Safety
Physics principles involved using the folowing
websites:
a) BBC Car Safety Features
b) Physics and Car Safety
c) HyperPhysics seatbelts
(ii) Students make or model a system that represents
an application of the Laws of Physics and Car Safety.

Resources

Online simulations
PhET Collisions Lab

Resources:

Websites:
BBC Car Safety Features:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebite
rces/crumplezonesrev1.shtml
Physics and Car Safety:
http://tristanmac.tripod.com/
Hyperphysics - Seatbelts
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/seatb2.html

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

Do conservation laws restrict or enable further development in physics?

Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.

## International Mindedness (Reference to Local, National and World Issues)

Automobile passive safety standards have been adopted across the globe based on research conducted in many countries