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ME 2253 / EMM

ME 2253 Engineering Materials and Metallurgy


Date &
duration

Description of topics

3rd Jan
6.30pm /
2 hours

Constitution Of Alloys Solid Solutions, Substitutional and Interstitial Solid Solutions, Phase Diagrams - types,
Isomorphous, Eutectoid, Eutectic, Peritectic, and Peritectoid Reactions

2 hours

Iron Iron Carbide Equilibrium Diagram, Classification Of Steel and Cast Iron, Microstructure,
Properties and Applications.

2 hours

Definition Full Annealing, Stress Relief, Recrystallisation and Spheroidizing Normalising,


Hardening and Tempering Of Steel. Isothermal Transformation Diagrams

2 hours

Isothermal Transformation Diagrams Cooling Curves Superimposed On I.T. Diagram, CCR - Hardenability, Jominy
End Quench Test Austempering, Martempering

2 hours

Case Hardening - Carburising, Nitriding, Cyaniding, Carbonitriding, Flame and Induction Hardening

2 hours

Mechanism Of Plastic Deformation, Slip and Twinning Types Of Fracture

3 hours

Testing Of Materials Under Tension, Compression and Shear Loads Hardness Tests (Brinell, Vickers
And Rockwell), Impact Test - Izod And Charpy, Fatigue and Creep Tests, Fracture Toughness Tests.

2 hours

Effect Of Alloying Elements On Steel (Mn, Si, Cr, Mo, V, Ti & W) - Stainless And Tool Steels HSLA - Maraging
Steels Cast Irons - Grey, White Malleable, Spheroidal Graphite, Alloy Cast Irons

2 hours

Copper and Copper Alloys - Brass, Bronze And Cupronickel Aluminum and Al-Cu Alloy Precipitation Hardening
Bearing Alloys.

10

2 hours

Polymers Types Of Polymer, Commodity and Engineering Polymers Properties and Applications Of PE, PP, PS,
PVC, PMMA, PET, PC, PA, ABS, PI, PAI, PPO, PPS, PEEK, PTFE Polymers

2 hours

Urea and Phenol Formaldehydes Engineering Ceramics Introduction To Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

S.No

Unit

1
I

II

III

IV

V
11

Remarks

Text Books
Sydney H.Avner Introduction to Physical
Metallurgy McGraw Hill Book Company, 2007
Kenneth G.Budinski and Michael K.Budinski
Engineering Materials Prentice-Hall of India
Private Limited, 4th Indian Reprint 2002.
O.P. Khanna , A text book of Materials Science
and Metallurgy, Khanna Publishers, 2003
Dieter G. E., Mechanical Metallurgy, Mc Graw
Hill Book Company, 1988.
Jayakumar, Engineering Materials and
Metallurgy

Materials
Properties of materials
Material Science
- as science dealing the relationships that exist
between the structures and properties of materials,
which are useful in practice of engineers profession
Classification of Materials
Metals
Ceramics
Polymers

Alloys

Properties of materials
All solid engineering materials are
characterized for their properties.
All important properties can be grouped into
six categories: Mechanical, Electrical, Thermal,
Magnetic, Optical, and Deteriorative.
Based on several criteria on which the final
decision is based on.
A need to trade off between number of
factors

Modern Material needs


Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures;
requires high temperature structural materials
Use of nuclear energy requires solving problems with
residue, or advance in nuclear waste processing
Hypersonic flight requires materials that are light, strong
and resist high temperatures
Optical communications require optical fibers that
absorb light negligibly.
Civil construction materials for unbreakable windows.
Structures: materials that are strong like metals and
resist corrosion like plastics

Alloys
Alloy is a substance that has metallic properties and
is composed of two or more chemical elements, of
which at least one is a metal
Major proportion of the metal is called as base
metal and
Minor proportion of the metal or element is
alloying element.

Classification of Alloys
Alloys can be according to classified by
Based on the no of components
Based on the no of equilibrium or phases
Based on the structures

Phase
A phase can be defined as a homogeneous
portion of a system that has uniform physical
and chemical characteristics with a given
chemical composition and structure.
i.e. it is a physically distinct from other phases,
chemically homogeneous and mechanically
separable portion of a system.

Pure Metal
In nature 100% pure metal is impossible to get,
hence only 99.99% of pure metal can exist with
0.01% of impurities.
In the equilibrium conditions, all the metals
exhibit a definite melting or freezing point
This condition implies extremely slow heating
and cooling (i.e for any change is to occur
sufficient time must be allowed)
The cooling cure for the pure metal will be a
horizontal line at the melting or freezing point

Cooling Curve of a Pure Metal


Under equilibrium conditions, all metals
exhibit a definite melting or freezing point.
If a cooling curve is plotted for a pure metal

Based on the no of components


Binary alloy system The system if made up of
two elements (A& B)
Ternary alloys system - The system is made up
of three elements (A, B & C)

Based on the structures


Alloy

Homogeneous

Mixture

Intermediate
alloy phase

Any combination of
solid phases

Solid Solution

Substitutional

Interstitial

Intermetallic Interstitial

Electron

Solid Solution
A solid solution is formed when two metals are completely
soluble in liquid state and also completely soluble in solid
state.
In other words, when homogeneous mixtures of two or more
kinds of atoms (of metals) occur in the solid state, they are
known as solid solutions.
Solvent (The more abundant atomic form) + Solute (the less
abundant atomic form)
For example
sterling silver (92.5 percent silver and the remainder copper) is a
solid solution of silver and copper
Brass is a solid solution of copper (64 percent) and zinc (36
percent).
In this case copper atoms are solvent atoms whereas zinc atoms are
solute atoms.

Types of Solid Solution based on saturation

Saturated Solid Solution


Unsaturated Solid Solution
Super Saturated Solid Solution

Types of Solid Solutions


Solid solutions are of two types.
(a) Substitutional solid solutions.
(b) Interstitial solid solutions.

Substitutional Solid Solutions


If the atoms of the solvent or parent metal are
replaced in the crystal lattice by atoms of the solute
metal then the solid solution is known as
substitutional solid solution.
The substitutional solid solution is further
subdivided into
Disordered substitutional solid solution (where the solute
atoms are randomly substituted for the solvent atoms)
Ordered substitutional solid solution (where the solute
atoms are orderly substituted for the solvent atoms)
Example, copper atoms may substitute for nickel atoms
without disturbing the F.C.C. structure of nickel (Fig. a)

Interstitial Solid Solutions


The solute atom does not displace a solvent
atom, but rather it enters one of the holes or
interstices between the solvent atoms.
Interstitial solid solutions normally have a limited
solubility
Example is iron-carbon system

Intermetallic Compounds
Intermetallic compounds are generally formed when
one metal (for example magnesium) has chemical
properties which are strongly metallic and the
other metal (for example antimony, tin or bismuth)
has chemical properties which are only weakly
metallic.
Examples of intermetallic compounds are Mg2Sn,
Mg2Pb, Mg3Sb2.
These intermetallic compounds have higher melting
point than either of the parent metal.
This higher melting point indicates the high strength
of the chemical bond in intermetallic compounds.

Intersitial
It is formed between transition elements
Transition element are half filled with the
outer most d subshell
Like B, C, N, Fe, Ti, W etc.
Properties are high hardness and toughness

Hume Rothery rules Controls the range of


Solubility in alloy system

(a) Crystal structure factor:


complete solid solubility, the two elements should have the same type of crystal
structure
i.e., both elements should have either F.C.C. or B.C.C. or H.C.P. structure.

(b) Relative size factor:


the size (atomic radii) difference between two elements increases, the solid solubility
becomes more restricted
For extensive solid solubility the difference in atomic radii of two elements should be
less than about 15 percent
If the relative size factor is more than 15 percent, solid solubility is limited

(c) Chemical affinity factor:


Solid solubility is favoured when the two metals have lesser chemical affinity
If greater it leads to compound formation

(d) Relative valence factor:


If the solute metal has a different valence from that of the solvent metal, the number of
valence electrons per atom called the electron ratio
It is found that a metal of lower valence tends to dissolve more of a metal of higher
valence than vice versa.
For example in aluminium-nickel alloy system, nickel (lower valance) dissolves 5 percent
aluminium but aluminium (higher valence) dissolves only 0.04 percent nickel.

Phase Diagrams

Component
either pure metal and/or compounds of which an alloy is composed.
The components of a system may be elements, ions or compounds.
They refer to the independent chemical species that comprise the system.

System
it can either refer to a specific body of material under consideration or it may relate to the
series of possible alloys consisting of the same components but without regard to alloy
composition.

Solid solution
it consists of atoms of at least two different types where solute atoms occupy either
substitutional or interstitial positions in the solvent lattice and the crystal structure of the
solvent is maintained.

Solubility limit
for almost all alloy systems, at a specific temperature, a maximum of solute atoms can dissolve
in solvent phase to form a solid solution.
The limit is known as solubility limit.
In general, solubility limit changes with temperature.
If solute available is more than the solubility limit that may lead to formation of different
phase, either a solid solution or compound.

Gibbs Phase Rule


In a system under a set of conditions, the relationship between
number of phases (P) exist can be related to the number of
components (C) and degrees of freedom (F) by Gibbs phase
rule.
P+F=C+2

Where,
P no of phases (solid, liquid, Gaseous etc)
C No of components in the alloy
F Degrees of freedom refers to the number of
independent variables (e.g.: pressure, temperature) that
can be varied individually to effect changes in a system.

Thermodynamically derived Gibbs phase rule

In practical conditions for metallurgical and


materials systems, pressure can be treated as
a constant (1 atm.). Thus Condensed Gibbs
phase rule is written as:
P+F=C+1

Polymorphism
is a physical phenomenon where a material may
have more than one crystal structure.
A material that shows polymorphism exists in
more than one type of space lattice in the solid
state.
If the change in structure is reversible, then the
polymorphic change is known as allotropy.
The prevailing crystal structure depends on both
the temperature and the external pressure.

Fe Example for Allotropy


(bcc) (fcc) (bcc) Liquid

Fe Example for Allotropy


The best known example for allotropy is iron.
When iron crystallizes at 2800 oF(1536oC) it is
B.C.C. (d -iron), at 2554 oF(1391oC) the
structure changes to F.C.C. (g -iron or
austenite), and at 1666oF(914oC)it again
becomes B.C.C. (a -iron or ferrite).

Solubility
Unlimited Solid Solubility: Solute and solvent are
mutually soluble at all concentrations, e.g., Cu-Ni
system Meets the requirements of the HumeRothery Rules,result is a single phase alloy
Limited or Partial Solid Solubility: There is a limit
to how much of the solute can dissolve in the
solvent before saturation is reached, e.g., Pb-Sn
and most other systems. Does not meet the
requirements of the Hume-Rothery Rules. Results
in a multi-phase alloy

Equilibrium Phase Diagrams


A diagram that depicts existence of different phases of a
system under equilibrium is termed as phase diagram.
It is also known as equilibrium or constitutional diagram.
Equilibrium phase diagrams represent the relationships
between temperature and the compositions and the
quantities of phases at equilibrium
In general practice it is sufficient to consider only solid and
liquid phases, thus pressure is assumed to be constant (1
atm.) in most applications.

Equilibrium Phase Diagrams


Important information, useful for the scientists and engineers
who are involved with materials development, selection, and
application in product design, obtainable from a phase
diagram can be summarized as follows:
To show phases are present at different compositions and
temperatures under slow cooling (equilibrium) conditions.
To indicate equilibrium solid solubility of one element/compound
in another.
To indicate temperature at which an alloy starts to solidify and the
range of solidification.
To indicate the temperature at which different phases start to
melt.
Amount of each phase in a two-phase mixture can be obtained.

Phase diagrams are classified based on the number of


components in the system.

Single component systems have unary


diagrams,
Two-component systems have binary
diagrams,
Three-component systems are represented by
ternary diagrams, and so on.

Experimental Methods
The data for the construction of equilibrium
diagrams are determined experimentally by a
variety of methods, the most common
methods are:
Metallographic Methods
X-ray Diffraction Technique
Thermal Analysis

Cooling Curve of a Solid Solution

When solidification of the solution starts, the


temperature may be higher or lower than the
freezing point of the pure solvent. Most solid
solutions solidify over a range in temperature

Series of cooling curves for different alloys in a


completely soluble system. The dotted lines
indicate the form of the phase diagram.

Construction of Cooling Curve

Phase Diagram of alloy A+B

Binary phase diagrams


Hence, binary systems are classified according to their solid solubility.
Components completely soluble in the liquid state and completely soluble
in the solid state Type I
Components completely soluble in the liquid state and insoluble in the
solid state Type II
Components completely soluble in the liquid state and partly soluble in
the solid state Type III
Components completely soluble in the liquid state and formation of
congruent-melting intermediate phase Type IV
The Peritectic reaction Type V
Components partly soluble in liquid state Monotectic reaction Type
VI
Components insoluble in the liquid state and insoluble in the solid state
Type VII
Transformation in solid state

Allotropic change
Order Disorder
The Eutectoid reaction
The Peritectoid reaction

Components completely soluble in the liquid


state and completely soluble in the solid state
Type I
If both the two components are completely
soluble in each other in both solid and liquid
state, then the system is called isomorphous
system.
Hence it can be called as Binary Isomorphous
phase diagram or system
E.g.: Cu-Ni, Ag-Au, Ge-Si, Al2O3-Cr2O3.

Type - I
Extent solid solubility for a system of two metallic
components can be predicted based on HumeRuthery conditions, summarized in the following:
Crystal structure of each element of solid solution
must be the same.
Size of atoms of each two elements must not differ by
more than 15%.
Elements should not form compounds with each
other i.e. there should be no appreciable difference in
the electro-negativities of the two elements.
Elements should have the same valence.

Unary Phase Diagram

i) At the triple point, there are zero degrees of


freedom.
Along the freezing line of pure water, there is one
degree of freedom.

Unary Phase Diagram

Type I

Micro-structures

Tie Line or Isotherm Line

28

74

Liquid percent= (cV/UV) X 100


Solid percent% = (cU/UV) X 100
U 28 percent
V 74 percent
c 50 percent
Hence cV = 74 50 = 24 and cU = 50 28 =22,
UV = 74-28 = 46
Liquid percent = 24 / 46 = 52.18 percent
Solid percent = 22 / 46 = 47.82 percent

Type II

Binary Systems with Partial Solid Solubility


(Binary Eutectic System)
Type - III

Type - III

Type IV

Example

Type V Peritectic Reaction

Invariant Reactions

Iron-Carbon System
Typical metal (e.g. Cu)
T

Iron
T(oC)
Liquid

Liquid

1538
Tm

Ferrite (BCC)

1394

Austenite (FCC)
Solid

912
Ferrite (BCC)

Iron Iron Carbide Phase diagram

Iron Iron Carbide Phase diagram

The IronIron Carbide Phase Diagram

E
2.14

L + Fe3C

4.30

F
G

M
O

0.76

0.022

Cementite Fe3C
C
6.70

The iron carbon equilibrium diagram has


Peritectic point,
Eutectic point, and
Eutectoid point,
(i) Peritectic reaction equation may be written as
Delta () + Liquid (L) -->Austenite

(ii) Eutectic reaction equation may be written as


Liquid (L) --> Austenite + Cementite (Eutectic mixture (Ledeburite))

(iii) Eutectoid reaction equation may be written as


Solid () --> Ferrite + Cementite (Heating Eutectoid mixture (Pearlite))

Eutectoid cooling

Hypoeutectoid Alloys
Cooling below eutectoid
composition.
c: homogeneous g solid.

d: a + g coexistence. a-phase
nucleate at the grain boundaries
(Why?).
e -> f:
- crossing eutectoid isotherm will
cause all remaining g-phase into
eutectoid structure.
- a-phase that formed prior to
eutectoid isotherm are called
proeutectoid ferrite.
C 0.022
Fraction of pearlite = W p o
0.76 0.022
Fraction of proeutectoid a =

Wa '

0.76 Co
0.76 0.022

Hypereutectoid Alloys
Cooling above the eutectoid
composition
Compositions and wt% can be found
similarly as hypoeutectoid cooling.
Instead of proeutectoid a,
proeutectoid cementite appears.

Example problem
For 0.35 wt% C, at T just below
eutectoid isotherm,
determine:
a) Fractions of total ferrite and
cementite phases.
b) Fractions of proeutectoid
ferrite and pearlite.
c) Fraction of eutectoid ferrite.

Phases in FeFe3C Phase Diagram


-Ferrite - solid solution of C in BCC Fe
Stable form of iron at room temperature.
The maximum solubility of C is 0.022 wt%
Transforms to FCC g-austenite at 912 C

Austenite - solid solution of C in FCC Fe


The maximum solubility of C is 2.14 wt %.
Transforms to BCC d-ferrite at 1395 C
Is not stable below the eutectic temperature (727 C) unless cooled
rapidly

-Ferrite solid solution of C in BCC Fe


The same structure as a-ferrite
Stable only at high T, above 1394 C
Melts at 1538 C

Fe3C (iron carbide or cementite)


This intermetallic compound is metastable, it remains as a
compound indefinitely at room T, but decomposes (very slowly, within
several years) into a-Fe and C (graphite) at 650 - 700 C

Fe-C system constitutes four invariant


reactions
Peritectic reaction at 1495 C and 0.16%C,
-ferrite + L -iron (austenite)

Monotectic reaction 1495 C and 0.51%C,


L L + -iron (austenite)

Eutectic reaction at 1147 C and 4.3 %C,


L -iron + Fe3C (cementite) [ledeburite]

Eutectoid reaction at 723 C and 0.8%C,


-iron ferrite + Fe3C (cementite) [pearlite]

Heat Treatment

Annealing
Normalizing
Hardening
Tempering

Objectives of TTT Diagram


1. Describe how nucleation and growth
processes are affected by supercooling
and superheating
2. Use a TTT diagram to design a cooling
process to produce a desired
microstructure
3. Explain the microstructure produced on a
TTT diagram in terms of nucleation and
growth mechanisms

Formation of New Phases Follows A


Nucleation + Growth Process

In solidification undercooling affects rates

Equilibrium Phase Diagram will give


-Accurate identification of phases at a
given temperature.
-Phase breakdown for slow processes

Equilibrium Phase Diagram will NOT tell you


-Non-equilibrium structures
-Phases present in rapidly cooled parts
For this you need a TTT diagram

Time Temperature Transformation Diagram


-Identifies non-equilibrium structures
produced in processing
-Realistic cooling rates

Iron Carbon
TTT

Four Microstructures in Steel


Austenite: FCC iron w/ carbon
Pearlite: Layers of a ferrite and Fe3C
Coarse- Produced just below eutectoidthick layers
Fine- Produced @540 C, thin layers
Bainite: 200 500 C Transformation
Martensite: Rapid Cooling

Heat Treatment for hardening begins


with Austenite
-FCC Iron
-High Carbon Solubility
Softening Heat Treatments just
require reheating.

TTT Diagram

Time- Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Curves Isothermal Transformation


Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)

800
723

Eutectoid temperature

Austenite

Coarse

Pearlite

600

Pearlite + Bainite

500
400

300
Not an isothermal
transformation

200
100

Fine

Bainite

Ms

Austenite

Mf
Martensite

0.1

102
10
t (s)

103

104

105

Time- Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Curves Isothermal Transformation


Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)

800
723

Eutectoid temperature

Austenite
Pearlite

600
a + Fe3C

500

Pearlite + Bainite

400

Bainite

300
200
100

Ms

Mf
Martensite

0.1

102
10
t (s)

103

104

105

Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Curves

Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)

800
723

Austenite

Eutectoid temperature

600

Pearlite

500
Original TTT lines

400

300
Cooling curves
Constant rate

200
100

Ms
Mf
Martensite

0.1

T2

T1

102
10
t (s)

103

104

105

Different cooling treatments

Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)

800
723

M = Martensite 600
P = Pearlite
T

500
400

300
200

Coarse P

100
M
0.1

Fine P

M +P
102
10
t (s)

103

104

105

Pearlite

[1]

[1]

g a + Fe3C

Nucleation and growth


Heterogeneous nucleation at grain boundaries
Interlamellar spacing is a function of the temperature of transformation
Lower temperature finer spacing higher hardness
[1] Physical Metallurgy for Engineers by Donald S Clark and Wilbur R Varney (Second Edition) Affiliated EastWest Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1962

Bainite

[1]

[1]
Bainite formed at 348oC

Bainite formed at 278oC


g a + Fe3C**

Nucleation and growth


Acicular, accompanied by surface distortions
** Lower temperature
carbide could be carbide (hexagonal structure, 8.4% C)
Bainite plates have irrational habit planes
Ferrite in Bainite plates possess different orientation relationship
relative to the parent Austenite than does the Ferrite in Pearlite
[1] Physical Metallurgy for Engineers by Donald S Clark and Wilbur R Varney (Second Edition) Affiliated EastWest Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1962

Martensite

g ( FCC )
0.8 %C

Quench

a ' ( BCT )
0.8 %C

Possible positions of
Carbon atoms
Only a fraction of
the sites occupied

FCC
Austenite

C along the c-axis


obstructs the contraction
FCC
Austenite
Alternate choice of
Cell

20% contraction of c-axis


12% expansion of a-axis

Tetragonal
Martensite

Austenite to Martensite 4.3 % volume increase

In Pure Fe after
the Matensitic transformation
c=a
Refer Fig.9.11 in textbook

Martensite
The martensitic transformation occurs without composition change

The transformation occurs by shear without need for diffusion


The atomic movements required are only a fraction of the interatomic
spacing

The shear changes the shape of the transforming region


results in considerable amount of shear energy
plate-like shape of Martensite
The amount of martensite formed is a function of the temperature to
which the sample is quenched and not of time
Hardness of martensite is a function of the carbon content
but high hardness steel is very brittle as martensite is brittle
Steel is reheated to increase its ductility
this process is called TEMPERING

Hardness (Rc)

60
Harness of Martensite as a
function of Carbon content
40

20

% Carbon
0.2

0.4

0.6

Properties of 0.8% C steel


Hardness (Rc)

Tensile strength (MN / m2)

Coarse pearlite

16

710

Fine pearlite

30

990

Bainite

45

1470

Martensite

65

Martensite tempered at 250 oC

55

1990

Constituent

Tempering

a ' ( BCT )
Martensite

Temper

a ( BCC ) Fe3C (OR)


Ferrite

Cementite

Heat below Eutectoid temperature wait slow cooling


The microstructural changes which take place during tempering
are very complex

Time temperature cycle chosen to optimize strength and toughness


Tool steel: As quenched (Rc 65) Tempered (Rc 45-55)

MARTEMPERING

To avoid residual stresses generated during quenching


Austenized steel is quenched above Ms for homogenization of temperature
across the sample
The steel is then quenched and the entire sample transforms simultaneously
800
Tempering follows
Eutectoid temperature
723
Austenite
Pearlite
600
a + Fe3C
T

Martempering

500

Pearlite + Bainite

400

Bainite

300

Austempering
AUSTEMPERING

Ms

200
Mf

100

Martensite
0.1

10

To avoid residual stresses generated during quenching


Austenized steel is quenched above Ms
Held long enough for transformation to Bainite

102
t (s)

103

104

105

In Austempering process, the end product is


100% bainite.
It is accomplished by first heating the part to the
properr austenitizing temperature followed by
cooling rapidly in a slat bath which is maintained
between 400 and 800 oF.
The part is left in the bath until the
transformation to bainite is complete. The steel
is caused to go directly from austenite to bainite.

Advantages of Austempering:
(1) Less distortion and cracking than martempering,
(2) No need for final tempering (less time
consuming and more energy efficient)
(3) Improvement of toughness (impact resistance is
higher than the conventional quench and
tempering)
(4) Improved ductility

ALLOY STEELS

Various elements like Cr, Mn, Ni, W, Mo etc are added to plain carbon
steels to create alloy steels
The alloys elements move the nose of the TTT diagram to the right
this implies that a slower cooling rate can be employed to obtain
martensite increased HARDENABILITY

The C curves for pearlite and bainite transformations overlap in the


case of plain carbon steels in alloy steels pearlite and bainite
transformations can be represented by separate C curves

ROLE OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS


Interstitial
Segregation / phase separation
Solid solution

Substitutional

Element Added
Compound (new crystal structure)

Plain Carbon Steel

Alloying elements

+ Simplicity of heat treatment and lower cost


Low hardenability
Loss of hardness on tempering
Low corrosion and oxidation resistance
Low strength at high temperatures
hardenability
Provide a fine distribution of alloy carbides during tempering
resistance to softening on tempering
corrosion and oxidation resistance
strength at high temperatures
Strengthen steels that cannot be quenched
Make easier to obtain the properties throughout a larger section
Elastic limit (no increase in toughness)
Alter temperature at which the transformation occurs
Alter solubility of C in a or g Iron
Alter the rate of various reactions

Jominy End Quench Test

Case Hardening
Carburizing

Carburizing

Depth of Hardening:
There is no technical limit to the depth of hardening with carburizing
techniques, but it is not common to carburize to depths in excess of 0.050 in.

Carburizing Time:
4 to 10 hours

Carburizing Temperature:
1750 oF (above the upper critical temperature-Austenite area)

Quenching:
All of the carburizing processes (pack, gas, liquid) require quenching from the
carburizing temperature or a lower temperature or reheating and quenching.
Parts are then tempered to the desired hardness.

Pack Carburizing
In this process, the part that is to be carburized is packed
in a steel container so that it is completely surrounded by
granules of charcoal.
The charcoal is treated with an activating chemical such as
Barium Carbonate (BaCO3) that promotes the formation
of Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
This gas in turn reacts with the excess carbon in the
charcoal to produce carbon monoxide, CO.
Carbon Monoxide reacts with the low-carbon steel
surface to form atomic carbon which diffuses into the
steel.
Carbon Monoxide supplies the carbon gradient that is
necessary for diffusion.

The carburizing process does not harden the steel.


It only increases the carbon content to some
predetermined depth below the surface to a
sufficient level to allow subsequent quench
hardening.
Carbon Monoxide reaction:
CO2 + C ---> 2 CO
Reaction of Cementite to Carbon Monoxide:
2 CO + 3 Fe --->Fe3C + CO2

Quenching Process:
It is difficult to quench the part immediately, as the sealed
pack has to be opened and the part must be removed from
the pack.
One technique that is used often is to slow cool the entire
pack and subsequently harden and temper the part after it is
removed from the sealed pack.
Depth of Hardening:
There is no technical limit to the depth of hardening with
carburizing techniques, but it is not common to carburize to
depths in excess of 0.050 in.
Carburizing Time:
4 to 10 hours

Gas Carburizing
Can be done with any carbonaceous gas, such as
methane, ethane, propane, or natural gas.
Most carburizing gases are flammable and controls
are needed to keep carburizing gas at 1700 oF from
contacting air(oxygen).
The advantage of this process over pack carburizing is
an improved ability to quench from the carburizing
temperature.
Conveyor hearth furnaces make quenching in a
controlled atmosphere possible.

Liquid Carburizing
Can be performed in internally or externally heated
molten salt pots.
Carburizing salt contains cyanide compounds such as
sodium cyanide (NaCN). Cycle times for liquid cyaniding
is much shorter (1 to 4 hours) than gas and pack
carburizing processes.
Disadvantage is the disposal of salt. ( environmental
problems)and cost (safe disposal is very expensive).

Nitriding

In this process, nitrogen is diffused into the surface of the steel being treated.

The reaction of nitrogen with the steel causes the formation of very hard iron and alloy
nitrogen compounds.

The resulting nitride case is harder than tool steels or carburized steels.

The advantage of this process is that hardness is achieved without the oil, water or air
quench.

As an added advantage, hardening is accomplished in a nitrogen atmosphere that prevents


scaling and discoloration.

Nitriding temperature is below the lower critical temperature of the steel and it is set
between 925 oF and 1050oF.

The nitrogen source is usually Ammonia (NH3).

At the nitriding temperature the ammonia dissociates into Nitrogen and Hydrogen.

2NH3 ---> 2N + 3H2


The nitrogen diffuses into the steel and
hydrogen is exhausted

Carbonitriding

This process involves with the diffusion of both carbon and nitrogen into the steel surface.

The process is performed in a gas atmosphere furnace using a carburizing gas such as
propane or methane mixed with several percent (by volume) of ammonia.

Methane or paropane serve as the source of carbon, the ammonia serves as the source of
nitrogen.

Quenching is done in a gas which is not as severe as water quench. As a result of les severe
quench, there is less distortion on the material to be treated.

A typical carbonitriding system is shown in the following slide. Case hardnesses of HRC 60 to
65 are achieved at the surface.( Not as high as nitrided surfaces.)

Case depths of 0.003 to 0.030 in can be accomplished by carbonitriding.

One of the advantages of this process is that it can be applied to plain carbon steels which
give significant case depths.

Carbonitriding gives less distortion than carburizing. Carbonitriding is performed at


temperatures above the transformation temperature of the steels (1400 oF -to 1600 oF)

Cyaniding

It is similar to carbonitriding, and involves the diffusion of both carbon and


nitrogen into the surface of the steel .

The source of the diffusing element in this method is a molten cyanide salt such
as sodium cyanide.

It is a supercritical treatment involving temperatures in the range of 1400oF to


1600oF.

Case depths are between 0.010 in. and 0.030 in.

Diffusion times are less than one hour.

Water or oil quench is required.

This type of cases present a significant distortion.

Advantage of this method is the short time it requires to complete the diffusion,
otherwise it should be avoided because of high distortion.

Induction Hardening

In this process an electric current flow is induced in the workpiece to produce a


haeting action.

Every electrical conductor carrying a current has a magnetic field surrounding the
conductor.

Since the core wire is a dead-end circuit, the induced current cannot flow anyplace,
so the net effect is heating of the wire.

The induced current in the core conductor alternates at frequencies from 60 cycles
per second (60 Hz) to millions of Herz.

The resistance to current flow causes very rapid haeting of the core material.

Heating occurs from the outside inward. Indusction hardening process includes
water quench after the haeting process.

The big advantage of this system is its speed and ability to confine haeting on small
parts.

The major disadvantage is the cost.

Flame hardening

Flame hardening is the process of selective hardening with a combustible gas flame as
the source of heat for austenitizing. (The material should have at least 0.40 % Carbon
content to allow hardening.)

Water quenching is applied as soon as the transformation temperature is reached.

The heating media can be oxygen acetylene, propane, or any other combination of fuel
gases that will allow reasonable heating rates.

This procedure is applied to the gear teeth, shear blades, cams, ways on the lathes, etc.

Flame hardening temperatures are around 1500oF. Up to HRC 65 hardness can be


achieved.

For best results the hardness depth is 3/16 inch.There are three methods:
(1) SPOT Flame Hardening: Flame is directed to the spot that needs to be heated and
hardened.
(2) SPIN Flame Hardening: The workpiece is rotated while in contavct with the flame
(3) PROGRESSIVE Flame Hardening: The torch and the quenching medium move across
the surface of the workpiece.

How to Select the Right Surface


Hardening Method
(1) Carburizing is the best method for low carbon steels.
(2) Nitriding is a lower distortion process than carburizing
but it can be used for certain type of steels such as
chromium-molybdenum alloy steels or Nitralloy-type steels.
(3) Flame hardening is preferred for heavy cases or selective
hardening of large machine components.
(4) Induction hardening works best on parts small enough
and suitable in shape to be compatible with the induction
coil.
(5) Electron beam and laser hardening are limited to the low
alloy steels and plain carbon steels only