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Liceul Teoretic Pavel Dan

Profil Real-Stiine ale naturii

Intensiv Englez

Lucrare de atestat
Limba Englez

Candidat: Trif Adela-Mihaela

Profesor coordonator: Mandik Ioana

Table of contents
1. Argument...........4


3. Coffee Quotes6


History of Coffee


An Ethiopian Legend.7


The Arabian Peninsula8


Coffee Comes to Europe....9


The New World.10


Coming to the Americans..11

4. 10 Steps from Seed to Cup.13

5. Popular Types of Coffee







Caffe Latte.25


Caffe au Lait...26


Caffe Mocha (Mochaccino)27


Caramel Macchiato.28

6. Is Coffee good or bad for

7. Reasons We Should Drink Coffee
8. The Most Expensive Coffee In The World.31
9. Conclusion...32

10. Bibliography33

My passion for coffee begun a bit to early, I believe. I was only fifteen when I drank my
first cup of coffee. It wasnt ,actually, a genuine cup of real coffee. It was a cheap plastic glass,
filled with hot water, sugar and some sort of powder.
Years have passed and with them my passion for coffee developed. I started to consider
coffee not only a simple energy-shot anymore, but an art. Drinking coffee has become since
then, a daily ritual for me. My cup of coffee turned into a refuge from the every day hassle and
I now drink coffee not as a
necessity, but as a true pleasure,
enjoying every sip of it and being
thankful to the nature for giving us
such a noble, healthy and
energising drink.

2.What is Coffee?
Everyone recognizes a roasted coffee bean, but you might not recognize an actual coffee
Coffee trees are pruned short to conserve their energy and aid in harvesting, but can grow
to more than 30 feet (9 meters) high. Each tree is covered with green, waxy leaves growing
opposite each other in pairs.
Coffee cherries grow along the
branches. Because it grows in a
continuous cycle, its not unusual
to see
flowers, green fruit and
ripe fruit simultaneously on a single tree.

It takes nearly a year for a cherry to mature after first flowering, and about 5 years of
growth to reach full fruit production. While coffee plants can live up to 100 years, they are
generally the most productive between the ages of 7 and 20. Proper care can maintain and even
increase their output over the years, depending on the variety. The average coffee tree produces
10 pounds of coffee cherry per year, or 2 pounds of green beans.
All commercially grown coffee is from a region of the world called the Coffee Belt. The
trees grow best in rich soil, with mild temperatures, frequent rain and shaded sun.

I think If I were a woman Id wear coffee as a
perfume. - John Van Drute

Coffee is the common mans gold, and like gold, it brings to

every person the feeling of luxury and nobility. - Sheik-Abdal-Kadir

I would rather suffer with coffee than be senseless. Napoleon Bonaparte

Without my morning coffee Im just like a dried up piece of

roast goat. - Johann Sebastian Bach

I'd rather take coffee than compliments just now. - Louisa

May Alcott, Little Women

Even bad coffee is better than no coffee at all. - David


I believe humans get a lot done, not because were smart,

but because we have thumbs so we can make coffee. Flash Rosenberg

. This

tNo one knows exactly how or when coffee was discovered,

though there are many legends about its origin.

4.1. An Ethiopian Legend

Yu wrote Cha Jing (The Classic of Tea), an early
work on the subject. The about tea's origins in the south
, Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage to the ancient coffee forests on the
Ethiopian plateau. Coffee trees still grow as they have for centuries in the Ethiopian highlands,
where legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans.

It is said that Kaldi discovered coffee after noticing that his goats, upon eating berries from a
certain tree, became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night.
Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery who made a drink with the berries
and discovered that it kept him alert for the long hours of evening prayer. The abbot shared his
discovery with the other monks at the monastery, and slowly knowledge of the energizing berries
began to spread. As word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, it began a
journey which would spread its reputation across the globe.

4.2.The Arabian Peninsula

Coffee cultivation and trade began on the Arabian Peninsula. By the 15th century, coffee
was being grown in
the Yemeni district of
Arabia and by the
16th century it was
known in Persia,
Egypt, Syria, and
Coffee was not
only enjoyed in homes, but also in the many public coffee houses called qahveh khaneh
which began to appear in cities across the Near East. The popularity of the coffee houses was
unequaled and people frequented them for all kinds of social activity.

Not only did the patrons drink coffee and engage in conversation, but they also listened to
music, watched performers, played chess and kept current on the news. Coffee houses quickly
became such an important center for the exchange of information that they were often referred to
as Schools of the Wise.
With thousands of pilgrims visiting the holy city of Mecca each year from all over the
world, knowledge of this wine of Araby began to spread.

4.3.Coffee Comes to Europe

European travelers to the Near East brought back stories of an unusual dark black
beverage. By the 17th century, coffee had made its way to Europe and was becoming popular
across the continent.
Some people reacted to this new beverage with suspicion or fear, calling it the bitter
invention of Satan. The local clergy condemned coffee when it came to Venice in 1615. The

controversy was so great that Pope Clement VIII was asked to intervene. He decided to taste the

beverage for himself before making a decision, and found the drink so satisfying that he gave it
papal approval.
Despite such controversy, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity
and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Holland. In
England penny universities sprang up, so called because for the price of a penny one could
purchase a cup of coffee and engage in stimulating conversation.
Coffee began to replace the common breakfast drink beverages of the time, beer and
wine! Those who drank coffee instead of alcohol began the day alert and energized, and not
surprisingly, the quality of their work was greatly improved. (We like to think of this a precursor
to the modern office coffee service.)
By the mid-17th century, there were over 300 coffee houses in London, many of which
attracted like-minded patrons, including merchants, shippers, brokers and artists.
Many businesses grew out of these specialized coffee houses. Lloyd's of London, for
example, came into existence at the Edward Lloyd's Coffee House.

4.4.The New World

In the mid-1600's, coffee was brought to New Amsterdam, a location later called New
York by the British.
Though coffee houses rapidly began to appear, tea continued to be the favored drink in the New
World until 1773, when the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King


George III. The revolt, known as the Boston Tea Party, would forever change the American
drinking preference to coffee.


"Coffee - the favorite drink of the civilized

world." - Thomas Jefferson
demand for the beverage continued to spread, there was fierce competition to cultivate coffee
outside of Arabia.
The Dutch finally got seedlings in the latter half of the 17th century. Their first attempts
to plant them in India failed, but they were successful with their efforts in Batavia, on the island
of Java in what is now Indonesia.
The plants thrived and soon the Dutch had a productive and growing trade in coffee.
They then expanded the cultivation of coffee trees to the islands of Sumatra and Celebes


4.5. Coming to
the Americans
In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented
a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of
France. The King ordered it to be planted in the
Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. In 1723, a young
naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu obtained a seedling
from the King's plant. Despite a challenging voyage
complete with horrendous weather, a saboteur who tried to destroy the seedling, and a pirate
attack he managed to transport it safely to Martinique.
Once planted, the seedling not only thrived, but its credited with the spread of over 18
million coffee trees on the island of Martinique in the next 50 years. Even more incredible is that
this seedling was the parent of all coffee trees throughout the Caribbean, South and Central
The famed Brazilian coffee owes its existence to Francisco de Mello Palheta, who was sent by
the emperor to French Guiana to get coffee seedlings.
The French were not willing to share, but the French
Governor's wife, captivated by his good looks, gave
him a large bouquet of flowers before he left buried
inside were enough coffee seeds to begin what is today
a billion-dollar industry.

Missionaries and travelers, traders and colonists continued to carry coffee seeds to new
lands, and coffee trees were planted worldwide. Plantations were established in magnificent
tropical forests and on rugged mountain highlands. Some crops flourished, while others were

nations were established on coffee economies. Fortunes were made and lost. By the end of the
18th century, coffee had become one of the world's most profitable export crops. After crude oil,
coffee is the most sought commodity in the world.


The coffee you enjoy each day has taken a long journey to arrive in your cup. Between
the time theyre planted, picked and purchased, coffee beans go through a typical series of steps
to bring out their best

A coffee bean is actually a seed. When dried, roasted and ground, its used to brew coffee. If the
seed isnt processed, it can be planted and grow
into a coffee tree.
Coffee seeds are generally planted in large beds
in shaded nurseries. After sprouting, the
seedlings are removed from the seed bed to be
planted in individual pots in carefully
formulated soils.
The seedlings will be watered frequently and shaded from bright sunlight until they are hearty
enough to be permanently planted. Planting often takes place during the wet season so that the
soil remains moist while the roots become firmly established.

2.Harvesting the Cherries

Depending on the variety, it will take approximately 3 to 4 years for the newly planted
coffee trees to bear fruit. The fruit, called the coffee cherry, turns a bright, deep red when it is
ripe and ready to be harvested.

There is typically one major harvest a year. In countries like Colombia, where there are
two flowerings annually, there is a main and secondary crop.
In most countries, the crop is picked by hand in a labor-intensive and difficult process,
though in places like Brazil where the landscape is relatively flat and the coffee fields immense,
the process has been mechanized. Whether by hand or by machine, all coffee is harvested in one
of two ways:
Strip Picked: All of the cherries are stripped off of the branch at one time, either by
machine or by hand.
Selectively Picked: Only the ripe cherries are harvested, and they are picked
individually by hand. Pickers rotate among the trees every eight to 10 days, choosing only the
cherries which are at the peak of ripeness. Because this kind of harvest is labor intensive and
more costly, it is used primarily to harvest the finer Arabica beans.
A good picker averages approximately 100 to 200 pounds of coffee cherries a day, which
will produce 20 to 40 pounds of coffee beans. Each worker's daily haul is carefully weighed, and
each picker is paid on the merit of his or her work. The day's harvest is then transported to the
processing plant.


3.Processing the Cherries

Once the coffee has been picked,
processing must begin as quickly as
possible to prevent fruit spoilage.
Depending on location and local
resources, coffee is processed in one of
two ways:
The Dry Method is the age-old method
of processing coffee, and still used in many countries where water resources are limited. The
freshly picked cherries are simply spread out on huge surfaces to dry in the sun. In order to
prevent the cherries from spoiling, they are raked and turned throughout the day, then covered at
night or during rain to prevent them from getting wet. Depending on the weather, this process
might continue for several weeks for each batch of coffee until the moisture content of the
cherries drops to 11%.
The Wet Method removes the pulp from the coffee cherry after harvesting so the bean is dried
with only the parchment skin left on. First, the freshly harvested cherries are passed through a
pulping machine to separate the skin and pulp from the bean.
Then the beans are separated by weight as they pass through water channels. The lighter beans
float to the top, while the heavier ripe beans sink to the bottom. They are passed through a series
of rotating drums which separate them by size.


After separation, the beans are transported to large, water-filled fermentation tanks. Depending
on a combination of factors -- such as the condition of the beans, the climate and the altitude -they will remain in these tanks for anywhere from 12 to 48 hours to remove the slick layer of
mucilage (called the parenchyma) that is still attached to the parchment. While resting in the
tanks, naturally occurring enzymes will cause this layer to dissolve.
When fermentation is complete, the beans feel rough to the touch. The beans are rinsed by going
through additional water channels, and are ready for drying.

4.Drying the Beans

If the beans have been processed by the wet method, the pulped and fermented beans
must now be dried to approximately 11% moisture to properly prepare them for storage.
These beans, still inside the parchment envelope (the endocarp), can be sun-dried by spreading
them on drying tables or floors, where they are turned regularly, or they can be machine-dried in
large tumblers. The dried beans are known as parchment coffee, and are warehoused in jute
or sisal bags until they are readied for export.



5.Milling the Beans

Before being exported, parchment coffee is processed in the following manner:
Hulling machinery removes the parchment layer (endocarp) from wet processed coffee. Hulling
dry processed coffee refers to removing the entire dried husk the exocarp, mesocarp and
endocarp of the dried cherries.
Polishing is an optional process where any silver skin that remains on the beans after hulling is
removed by machine. While polished beans are considered superior to unpolished ones, in
reality, there is little difference between the two.
Grading and Sorting is done by size and weight, and beans are also reviewed for color flaws or
other imperfections.
Beans are sized by being passed through a series of screens. They are also sorted
pneumatically by using an air jet to separate heavy from light beans.
Typically, the bean size is represented on a scale of 10 to 20. The number represents the size of a
round hole's diameter in terms of 1/64's of an inch. A number 10 bean would be the approximate
size of a hole in a diameter of 10/64 of an inch, and a number 15 bean, 15/64 of an inch.


Finally, defective beans are removed either by hand or by machinery. Beans that are
unsatisfactory due to deficiencies (unacceptable size or color, over-fermented beans, insectdamaged, unhulled) are removed. In many countries, this process is done both by machine and
by hand, ensuring that only the finest quality coffee beans are exported.

6.Exporting the Beans

The milled beans, now referred to
as green coffee, are loaded onto ships in
either jute or sisal bags loaded in
shipping containers, or bulk-shipped
inside plastic-lined containers. World
coffee production for 2015/16 is
forecast to be 152.7 million 60-kg bags,
per data from the USDA Foreign
Agriculture Service.

7.Tasting the Coffee

Coffee is repeatedly tested for quality and taste. This process is referred to as cupping and
usually takes

place in a room


designed to

facilitate the



First, the taster usually called the cupper evaluates the beans for their overall
visual quality. The beans are then roasted in a small laboratory roaster, immediately
ground and infused in boiling water with carefully-controlled temperature. The
cuppernoses the brew to experience its aroma, an essential step in judging the

coffee's quality.
After letting the coffee rest for several minutes, the cupper breaks the crust by
pushing aside the grounds at the top of the cup. Again, the coffee is nosed before

the tasting begins.

To taste the coffee, the cupper slurps a spoonful with a quick inhalation. The
objective isto spray the coffee evenly over the cupper's taste buds, and then
weigh it on the tongue before spitting it out.

Samples from a variety of batches and different beans are tasted daily. Coffees are not only
analyzed to determine their characteristics and flaws, but also for the purpose of blending
different beans or creating the proper roast. An expert cupper can taste hundreds of samples of
coffee a day and still taste the subtle differences between them.


8.Roasting the Coffee

Roasting transforms green coffee into the aromatic brown beans that we purchase in our favorite
stores or cafs. Most roasting machines maintain a temperature of about 550 degrees Fahrenheit.
The beans are kept moving throughout the entire process to keep them from burning.
When they reach an internal temperature of about 400 degrees Fahrenheit, they begin to turn
brown and the caffeol, a fragrant oil locked inside the beans, begins to emerge. This process
called pyrolysis is at the heart of roasting it produces the flavor and aroma of the coffee we
After roasting, the beans are immediately cooled either by air or water. Roasting is generally
performed in the importing countries because freshly roasted beans must reach the consumer as
quickly as possible.


9.Grinding Coffee
The objective of a proper grind is to get the most flavor in a cup of coffee. How coarse or fine
the coffee is ground depends on the brewing method.
The length of time the grounds will be in contact with water determines the ideal grade of grind
Generally, the finer the grind, the more quickly the coffee should be prepared. Thats why coffee
ground for an espresso machine is much finer than coffee brewed in a drip system.

Espresso machines use 132 pounds per square inch of

pressure to extract coffee.
We recommend taking a moment to examine the beans and smell their aroma in fact, the scent
of coffee alone has been shown to have energizing effects on the brain.


10.Enjoy your Coffee!

Popular Types of Coffee


Espresso is a strong black coffee made by forcing steam through dark-roast aromatic coffee
beans at high pressure in an espresso machine. A perfectly brewed espresso will have a thick,
golden-brown crema (foam) on the surface. If the crema is good, the sugar you add will float on
the surface for a couple of seconds before slowly sinking to the bottom.


Espresso is the foundation for a wide variety of specialty coffee drinks, such as the cappuccino,
but many aficionados and purists insist that adding anything (besides a bit of sugar) is
blasphemy, akin to Scotch lovers mixing their single malt with Coke.
How to have it: Espresso should be taken either on its own or with a small teaspoon of sugar.
Having it "short" means that it has less water and is therefore more concentrated, and "long"
conversely uses more water and does not taste as strong.
Give it a twist: Adding a dollop of steamed milk creates an espresso macchiato ("macchiato"
means stained or marked). Topping an espresso with whipped cream makes it an espresso con
panna. Espresso corretto(which translates to "corrected") is made by adding a splash of grappa,
cognac or sambuca.


This hugely popular coffee drink has become a staple that even the most common of corner
coffee shops carries (or at least a version of it). A true cappuccino is a combination of equal parts
espresso, steamed milk and milk froth. This luxurious drink, if made properly, can double as a
dessert with its complex flavors and richness.
How to have it: It is common to sprinkle your cappuccino froth with a bit of unsweetened cocoa
powder or grated dark chocolate.
Give it a twist: Asking for your cap "scuro" (dark) means you want less milk than usual, while
"chiaro" (light) means you want more. Iced cappuccino makes a great summer drink, and a
"skinny" cappuccino is made with skim or nonfat milk.


An Americano is a single shot of espresso added to a cup of hot water. The name is thought to
have originated as a bit of an insult to Americans, who had to dilute their espresso when it first
gained popularity on this side of the pond. Many coffee houses have perfected it, however, and
the result has become a creamy, rich espresso-based coffee that you can sip and savor before
jumping on your Vespa and heading to the soccer field.
How to have it: Many like to drink it as they would their regular brewed coffee, with milk
and/or sugar, but connoisseurs suggest keeping milk to a minimum to get the most flavor from
the espresso.
Give it a twist: Americano is not commonly taken with a twist, but having it "iced" is a great
treat on a hot day.


Caffe Latte
A caffe latte is a single shot of espresso to three parts of steamed milk.
How to have it: Sugar your latte to taste and discover the wonderful world of dipping. Cookies,
sponge-type cake slices and even fresh Italian bread can transform your coffee into a breakfast
that even my nonna(grandmother) would approve of.
Give it a twist: Not commonly taken with a twist.

Caf au Lait
This traditional French drink is similar to a
caffe latte except that it is made with brewed
coffee instead of espresso, in a 1:1 ratio with steamed milk. It is considered a weaker form of
caffe latte.


How to have it: Sugar to taste, and it is also great for dipping.
Give it a twist: Not commonly taken with a twist.

Caf Mocha (Mochachino)

This is a cappuccino or a caffe latte with chocolate syrup or powder added. There can be wide
variations in exactly how this is prepared, so ask your coffee house how they do it before you
How to have it: Like your "cap," you can top it with cocoa powder or grated chocolate.
Give it a twist: Garnish with whipped cream.


Caramel Macchiato
This is another variation that is prepared in a number of ways by different coffee houses. The
most common method is combining espresso, caramel and foamed milk, though some use
steamed milk. Often, vanilla is added to provide extra flavor.
How to have it: You can add sugar, but taste it first, as it may be sweet enough as is.
Give it a twist: Drizzled with caramel sauce, of course. This highly addictive drink needs
nothing else to make it a heavenly java experience.


Is Coffee good or bad for us?

Coffee has a long history of being blamed for many ills from stunting your growth to
claims that it causes heart disease and cancer. But recent research indicates that coffee may not
be so bad after all. So which is it good or bad? The best answer may be that for most people
the health benefits outweigh the risks.
Recent studies have generally found no connection between coffee and an increased risk
of cancer or heart disease. In fact, most studies find an association between coffee consumption
and decreased overall mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality, although this may not be
true in younger people who drink large amounts of coffee.
Why the apparent reversal in the thinking about coffee? Earlier studies didn't always take
into account that known high-risk behaviors, such as smoking and physical inactivity, tended to
be more common among heavy coffee drinkers at that time.
Studies have shown that coffee may have health benefits, including protecting against
Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease, including liver cancer. It also appears to
improve cognitive function and decrease the risk of depression.
However, the research appears to bear out some risks. High consumption of unfiltered
coffee (boiled or espresso) has been associated with mild elevations in cholesterol levels. And
some studies found that two or more cups of coffee a day can increase the risk of heart disease in
people with a specific and fairly common genetic mutation that slows the breakdown of
caffeine in the body. So, how quickly you metabolize coffee may affect your health risk.


Although coffee may have fewer risks compared with benefits, keep in mind that other
beverages, such as milk and some fruit juices, contain nutrients that coffee does not. Also, adding
cream and sugar to your coffee adds more fat and calories. Some coffee drinks contain more than
500 calories.

Reasons We Should Drink Coffee

Every Day
1. Drinking coffee could help keep your brain healthier for longer.
2. Coffee may make you more intelligent.
3. Coffee can make you a better athlete.
4. Coffee can make you feel happier.
5. Just smelling coffee could make
you less stressed.
6. It boosts your metabolism by 11%.
7. It keeps your system cleansed.


8. It keeps you calm(er).


The Most Expensive Coffee In The World

Kopi luwak is the worlds most expensive coffee. The main factor of its
high price is the uncommon method of producing such a coffee. It has been
produced from the coffee beans which have been digested by a certain
Indonesian cat-like animal called then palm civet or also civet catThis is the
reason kopi luwak is also called cat poop coffee or civet cat coffee. The feces of
this cat will be collected, finished and sold as kopi luwak.


What Does Coffee Mean To Me?
It would normally take about an hour to answer this question but the short
answer is obviously quality. Pure flavours, interesting flavours and also
the adventure in flavours. Speciality coffee is also about the processing behind it.
Going back to the roots at the farm and then in a coffee shop how the coffee is
introduced towards the customers. The whole chain is speciality coffee for me
its not a coffee itself it is about the connections that takes place before my cup of
coffee is brewed.
An encouraging quote to end my thoughts, As long as there is coffee in the
world, how could things be bad? I stand as a strong believer in this quote because
I know that with all things a balance is required and that with coffee moderation is