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PRINTED

CIRCUIT BOARDS

TECHNICAL ENGINEERING GUIDE

Delivering Quality Since 1952.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

DELIVERING QUALITY SINCE 1952.


Epec Engineered Technologies designs and manufactures customized, built-to-print, performance-critical
products for all sectors of the electronics industry.
At Epec, we have a powerful story to tell a history of great achievements, world class talent, and
innovative breakthroughs, but most importantly, a story of helping our customers deliver their high quality
products to market, faster.
Epec has a sixty year history of reliability, on time delivery, and financial stability. Our continuous investment
in people, technology, and new ideas are making it easier for our customers to do great work.
We have built the industrys leading supply chain platform and technology team, with Epec UL certified
manufacturing operations in Shenzhen, Taipei, and North America, to seamlessly manage the needs of our
customers product life cycles.
With more than 100 dedicated employees throughout North America and Asia, Epec Engineered
Technologies has become one of the fastest growing companies in the Industry.

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
Epec has built one of the Industrys leading global supply chain and engineering platforms.
As one of North Americas leading PCB and built-to-print engineered product companies, Epecs annual
capital expenditures are consistently among the highest in the industry.
Our investments are focused on world class engineering design systems, such as EpecDFx, and on
continually improving our global technology platform, to accelerate our customers time to market.

ENGINEERING OVERVIEW
Epec's technical engineering and manufacturing solutions have helped thousands of leading companies
reduce their time to market.
With 24/7 North American engineering support we provide our customers the most in-depth feedback, with
exact accuracy, eliminating delays and quality problems.
Epec can provide complete engineering and design services on all our engineered products, from concept
through production in a quick and efficient time frame. With over sixty years of experience and knowledge
across diverse industries, Epec has the ability to think outside the box and create innovative designs and
solid manufacturing solutions.
Our technical staff will work with you to generate material specifications, product renderings, complete
documentation and prototypes.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

PCB LEAD TIMES

STANDARD PCB FEATURES

STANDARD LEAD TIME - 20 Working Day


Technology

Solder Mask..........Green, Blue, Red, Black, Clear

1 Day

2 Day

3 Day

5 Day

7 Day

10 Day

Maximum Board Size............................. 22 x 42

Max Copper Weight....................................... 6 oz

* Prototype and Production Quantities Available

Standard SMD Pitch..................................... .016

1 - 4 Layers
6 - 10 Layers
> 10 Layers

Min Solder Mask Web................................... .004


Max Board Thickness................................... .250

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD CAPABILITIES


Surface Finishes
ENIG
HASL
Pb Free HASL
Immersion Silver & Tin
ENEPIG
Hard Body Gold
Soft Bondable Gold
OSP

Materials
FR-4 ALL Types
CEM-1 & CEM-3
Heavy Copper
RF and High Speed Materials
Mixed Materials / FR-4 Teflon
Metal Backed Boards
Polyimide

Plating
Conductive Via Fill
Edge Plating
Castellations
Plated Slots
Gold Tabs
Plasma Etch Back
Peelable Solder Mask

Drill & Rout


Jump Score
Counter Sinks / Counter Bores
Control Depth & Laser Drilling
12:1 Aspect Ratio
Depth Controlled Milling
Design
1 to 18 Layers
3 Mil Lines & Spaces
IPC Class 2 / Class 3
Impedance Control +/-10%
Down to .006 Holes
Blind & Buried Vias
Silver Thru Hole
Via in Pad
Laser Direct Imaging
MicroVias

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD CAPABILITIES


Design Services
Flex & Rigid Flex
ITAR Registered
Thermal Management
High Density Interconnects

MIL-PRF-55110
Sequential Lamination
Net List Compare
Ionic Cleanliness
Free DFx File Check

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

TECHNOLOGY ROAD MAP


Standard

Advanced

18
.250"
20" x 23"
.006"
11:01
.020" (soldermask between pins)
.003"
Yes
Yes
+/- .003"
1%

26
.287"
20" x 24"
.005"
12:01
.016" (gang masked)
.002"
Yes
Yes
+/- .002
0.75%

4 ounces
6 ounces

4 ounces
8 ounces

+/- 10%
Blind/Buried
Yes
Yes
Yes
Non-Conductive

+/- 5%
Blind/Buried
Yes
Yes
Yes
Conductive

HASL
ENIG
Pb Free HASL
Immersion Tin

Immersion Silver
OSP
Immersion Gold
Electroplated Gold

FR-4 (140-220 Tg)


Polyimide
CEM-1
Rogers

Teflon
Thermagon
Arlon
Getek

Mechanical
Maximum Layer Count
Maximum Board Thickness
Maximum Board Size
Smallest Hole Size (Finished)
Aspect Ratio
Minimum Component Pitch
Minimum Core Thickness
Jump Scoring
Countersinks/Counterbores
Plated Hole Tolerance
Warpage

Copper Weight
Inner Layers
Outer Layers

Technology
Impedance Control
Via Technology
Laser Drilling (Microvias)
Plasma Etching
Laser Direct Imaging
Via Filling

Available Surface Finishes

Materials

Agency Qualifications
UL (File #E86319)
ISO-9001:2008
TS-16949
IPC-6012 Class 3
Standard - Everyday Capability
Advanced - Everyday Capability with a small premium.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

PROCESS CAPABILITIES
Standard

Advanced

Internal Minimum Pad Size

.016" larger than finished


hole size

.014" larger than finished


hole size with teardrop

External Minimum Pad Size

.016" larger than finished


hole size

.014" larger than finished


hole size with teardrop

Annular Ring

Increase pad size accordingly for annular ring requirements greater than .001". Vias may use pad .010" larger than Finished Hole Size
Holes requiring greater than .001" copper (i.e. 1 oz plated to 3 oz Finish) require and additional .004 pad diameter.

Plane Layer Clearance


PTH & NPTH Hole Clearance to Plane

.030" larger than finished hole size

.024" larger than finished hole size

PTH & NPTH Hole to Inner Layer Trace

.015" Spacing

.012" Spacing

Inner Layer Line width on Hoz copper

Minimum -.004"

Minimum - .004"

Inner Layer Line width on 1oz copper

Minimum-.005"

Minimum-.005"

Inner Layer Line width on 2 oz copper

Minimum -.008"

Minimum -.008"

Inner Layer Line width on 3 oz base copper or greater

Minimum -.012"

Minimum -.012"

Outer Layer Line width on H ounce base copper

Minimum-.004"

Minimum-.004"

Outer Layer Line width on 1oz base copper

Minimum -.005"

Minimum - .005"

Outer Layer Line width on 2 oz copper

Minimum -.008"

Minimum -.008"

Outer Layer Line width on 3 oz base copper or greater

Minimum -.012"

Minimum -.012"

Inner layer Feature to Feature on 1 oz or less base copper

Minimum -.005"

Minimum - .004"

Inner layer Feature to Feature on 2 oz Base Copper

Minimum -.008"

Minimum -.008"

Inner layer Feature to Feature on 3 oz copper or greater

Minimum -.012"

Minimum -.012"

Outer layer Feature to Feature on 1 oz or less base copper

Minimum -.005"

Minimum - .004"

Outer layer Feature to Feature on 2 oz Base Copper

Minimum -.008"

Minimum -.008"

Outer layer Feature to Feature on 3 oz copper or greater

Minimum -.012"

Minimum -.012"

Trace to Plane Spacing

Minimum -.008"

Minimum -.008"

Feature to Board Edge *does not include tabs

Minimum -.010"

Minimum -.008"

Feature to Score Edge

Minimum -.020"

Minimum -.015"

.005" Larger Than Feature Size

.004" Larger Than Feature Size

LPI Mask Clearance

.003" Minimum

.002" Minimum

LPI Mask Web

.005" Minimum

.004" Minimum

Line Width and Space

Solder Mask
LPI Conductor Overlap

Less than 4 mil web between component pins may result in loss of mask between SMT pads.

Silkscreen
Silk Screen Ink

.008" minimum aperture

.006" minimum aperture

Copper Features (ETCHED TEXT)

.010" minimum aperture

.010" minimum aperture

.065" minimum height

.045" minimum height

.006" minimum from feature

.006" minimum from feature

Font Height
Distance from Feature (clipping)

If the specifications of a board design fall into the advanced category it may be subject to additional charges.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ITEQ

NAN YA

Dielectric Constant
(1 MHz)

Dielectric Constant
(1 GHz)

Loss Tangent at
(1 MHz)

Loss Tangent at
(1 GHz)

IPC 4101A

Degradation
Temperature by TGA
(Celsius)

ISOLA

Glass Transition
Temperature Tg
(Celsius)

HONG TAI

Type

Flammability UL94

SHENGYI

Product

Electrical Strength
Minimum (volts/mil.)

Vendor

Arc Resistance
Minimum (sec.)

LAMINATE INFORMATION

S1000

Low CTE FR4

/24

100

V-0

175

335

4.8

0.013

S1130

FR4

/21

115

V-0

135

4.6

0.016

S1141

FR4

/21

115

V-0

140

4.5

0.016

S1155

FR4/Halogen
Free

/21

115

V-0

135

4.7

0.01

S1165

FR4/Halogen
Free

/94

127

V-0

170

260

4.8

0.007

S1170

FR4

/24

123

V-0

175

340

4.6

0.012

S1600

High CTI FR4

/21

126

V-0

135

4.7

0.016

0.008

S1860

FR4

/29

90

V-0

210

3.6

0.008

S1440

FR4/UV Block

/97

125

V-0

140

4.7

0.0015

S2130

CEM-3

115

V-0

132

4.6

0.0016

S3110

CEM-1

118

V-0

110

4.4

0.022

HTE-420

FR4

120

V-0

145

4.2-4.8

0.019

HTE-740

FR4

120

V-0

175

4.2-4.8

0.019

ED130UV

FR4

/21

100

V-0

135

4.7

4.34

0.02

0.016

FR406

FR4

/24, /26, /28

60

1000

170

295

FR408

FR4

/24

120

1400

180

370

3.63

0.013

P95

Polymide

/41

131

1200

V-0

260

4.4

4.2

0.016

0.014

Policlad 370HR

FR4

/24, /26, /98

115

54

V-0

180

350

4.7

4.5

0.016

0.017

Getek

PPO

/25

>60

1200

V-0

175-185

3.6-4.2

.010-.015

IS-410

FR4

/24, /26, /28

129

1100

V-0

180

350

IT140

FR4

/21

60

V-0

135

305

5.4

0.035

IT140G

FR4/Halogen
Free

/21

90

760

V-0

155

365

4.5

0.015

IT158

Low CTE FR4

/24

125

V-0

155

345

4.6

0.016

IT170G

FR4/Halogen
Free

/24

100

V-0

180

380

4.5

0.009

IT180

FR4

/24, /99

60

760

V-0

170

340

4.4

0.016

IT600

High CTI FR4

/21

60

V-0

140

305

4.8

0.018

NP-140

FR4

/21

V-0

140

311

4.2

0.015

NP-170TL

FR4

/24

V-0

175

312

4.22

0.013

NPG-170

FR4/Halogen
Free

/94

90

V-0

170

355

4.3

0.012

NP-180

FR4

/24

120

V-0

180

359

4.36

0.019

NPG-180

FR4/Halogen
Free

V-0

180

380

4.8

0.016

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ROGERS

ARLON

TACONIC

DUPONT

TAIFLEX

210-240

350

3.8

3.7

0.014

210-240

350

3.5

0.009

Loss Tangent at
(1 GHz)

1200
1000

Loss Tangent at
(1 MHz)

123
123

Dielectric Constant
(1 GHz)

/29
/29

Glass Transition
Temperature Tg
(Celsius)

PPE
PPE

IPC 4101A

Flammability UL94

N4000-13
N4000-13 SI

Type

Electrical Strength
Minimum (volts/mil.)

Dielectric Constant
(1 MHz)

NELCO

Product

Arc Resistance
Minimum (sec.)

Vendor

Degradation
Temperature by TGA
(Celsius)

LAMINATE INFORMATION

N4000-2

FR4

/21

65

1250

V-0

130-140

300

4.4

0.027

N4000-6

FR4 High Temp

/24, /26

65

1300

V-0

170-175

300

4.3

4.1

0.027

N4000-7

FR4

/24

124

1100

V-0

155

317

4.5

0.017

0.017

N5000

BT

/30

118

1200

185-220

334

3.8

3.6

0.014

N7000-1

Polymide

/40, /41

136

1350

V-1

250-260

389

3.9

3.9

0.015

3003

PTFE

V-0

500

0.0013

4003C

Ceramic

650

280

425

3.38

0.0027

4350B

Ceramic

800

V-0

280

390

3.48

0.0037

4450B

Ceramic

1000

V-0

>280

3.54

0.004

TMM3

Ceramic

650

>280

425

3.27

0.002

TMM4

Ceramic

650

>280

425

4.5

0.002

Ultralam 2000

PTFE

185

V-0

2.6

0.0022

25N

Ceramic

/10

260

3.38

0.0025

25FR

Ceramic

/11

V-0

260

3.58

0.0035

85N

Polyimide

/40

260

4.39

0.008

TLC

PTFE

>180

V-0

3.2

0.003

TLE

PTFE

>180

V-0

2.95

0.0028

TLT

PTFE

>180

V-0

2.5

0.0006

TLX

PTFE

>180

V-0

2.5

0.0019

PYRALUX AC

Polyimide

V-0

3.7

0.014

PYRALUX AP

Polyimide

V-0

220

3.4

0.003

2LPSE 1005

Polyimide

V-0

3.65

0.009

THKD050513

Polyimide

V-0

3.65

0.009

For more information on Laminates, visit the following websites.


SHENG YI ISOLA ITEQ NAN YA NELCO -

www.syst.com.cn
www.isola-group.com
www.iteq.com.tw
www.npc.com.tw
www.parkelectro.com

ROGERS ARLON TACONIC DUPONT TAIFLEX -

www.rogerscorp.com
www.arlon-med.com
www.taconic-add.com
www.dupont.com
www.taiflex.com

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

PCB DESIGN SERVICES


A Manufacturing Mentality
For more than 60 years, Epec has continued its tradition of perfection in engineering and manufacturing
printed circuit boards for the most discerning customers. Our years of manufacturing experience provide
us with a competitive edge when it comes to PCB layout and design. From a simple single sided board
to a complex multi-layer, double sided surface mount design, our goal is to provide you a design that
meets your requirements and is the most cost effective to manufacture.
We pride ourselves on providing high quality design and layout services, but it is equally important that
our customers can manufacturer their parts in the most cost effective manner. Our goal is to reduce the
overall cost of our customers product by designing a circuit board that can be easily manufactured by
Epec or anyone else in our industry.

REVERSE ENGINEERING AND SCANNING


With the consolidation of the printed circuit board industry over the last few years, many of our customers
find themselves needing to order boards but they have no electronic data. Their previous supplier may
have gone out of business and the only copies of the artwork or electronic data have been discarded.
At EPEC, we can create electronic data from virtually anything, including, films, drawings (DXF), 1 to 1
paper plots, and even boards themselves.
We have over 10 years of experience in creating electronic data from all types of media using our state of
the art scanning equipment and software. We have developed a systematic process to make sure that
all of the board features are double checked to ensure that everything has been replicated properly. We
understand how important it is to get even the smallest details right when it comes to our customers
circuit boards.
Please contact your sales representative for more specific details around our design and manufacturing
guidelines.

PCB DESIGN CAPABILITIES


Design Capabilities:
Single and Double Sided
Multi-layer (up to 20-Layers)
Flex and RigidFlex
High Density Surface Mount
(BGA, CGA)
Analog, Digital & Mixed Designs
Impedance Control
Matched Line Lengths
Differential Pairs
Auto routing for dense
multi-layer designs

PCB Software:
PADS
AutoCAD
CADSTAR
ORCAD
Accel
PCAD
Design Service:
Gerber completion in
as few as 5 days

PCB Layout:
Complete assembly
drawings for fabrication
In-Circuit Test Data Generation
Pick and Place
Data Generation
Panelization Drawings
Gerber Editing
Scanning

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS


EpecDFx ENGINEERING PLATFORM
EpecDFx is a whole new quality and manufacturability platform, combining the industry's latest, most
advanced technology and engineering expertise.
Prototype through production

Reduces overall costs

Accelerates time-to-market

EpecDFx IN ACTION
Typical example of a subtle, yet crucial engineering and design problem discovered before fabrication;
EpecDFx and Epecs engineering team detects and develops must-fix through optimal solutions.

EpecDFx issue shows:

Impact:

Isolated connection caused by


oversized plane clearances not caught by
CAD system resulting in netlist violation.

Electrical integrity of the design is invalid,


resulting in scrapped board.
Compromised thermal connection results
in poor solderability to connector pin.

Reduced thermal connection due to


proximity to large split plane line.

EpecDFx
Critical/Must Fix
Suggestion: Reduce plane
clearances for holes to
allow connection.
Result: Netlist integrity is
restored.

EpecDFx Better
Suggestion: Reduce plane
clearances for holes to allow
connection. Plus rotate
thermal relief 45 degrees.
Result: Netlist integrity is
restored, and thermal
properties are improved.

EpecDFx Best
Suggestion: Reduce plane
clearances for holes to allow
connection. Plus rotate
thermal relief 45 degrees and
reduce plane clearance line.
Result: Netlist integrity is
restored, and thermal
properties are maximized.

Experience EpecDFx, and how our engineering support gives customers the most in-depth feedback,
with exact accuracy, available anywhere in the printed circuit board Industry, eliminating delays and
quality problems.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

HEAVY COPPER PCBS


Epec has been building heavy copper circuit boards with traces and copper planes of up to 6 ounces or
over 20 years. Our expertise is in producing at a reasonable cost, heavy copper PCBs that are of proven
designs. Our engineering team can work with you to review your design to make sure that they can be
manufactured with the highest quality at the best overall cost.
Industries Served Using Heavy Copper:





Welding Equipment
Solar Panel Manufacturers
Power Supplies
Automotive
Electrical Power Distribution
Power Converters

Heavy Copper PCB Capabilities:
















Maximum Number of Layers = 16


Laminate FR-4 (All Tg Ranges), Teflon, Ceramic
Finished Thickness = .020 - .275
Green, Blue, Red, Black, Clear & White Solder Masks & Legend Inks
Minimum Soldermask Clearance 6 mils
Minimum Solder dam Width 5.5 mils
Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL)
Immersion Gold (ENIG) & Immersion Silver
Blind & Buried Vias
Minimum Drill Bit Hole Size = .012
Minimum Holes Size - .008 +.005/-.008
Maximum Hole Aspect Ratio = 10:1
Maximum Copper Weight = 6 oz. (UL Approved)
Controlled Impedance +/- 10%
Minimum Silkscreen Line Width 8 mils
Production Minimums

Measured in Inches

H oz

1 oz

2 oz

3 oz

4 oz

5 oz

6 oz

Min. Conductor Width

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.10

Min. Conductor Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. Pad to Pad Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. Conductor-to-Pad Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. PTH Annular Ring

0.006

0.006

0.008

0.009

0.011

0.013

0.014

Min. VIA Annular Ring

0.006

0.006

0.008

0.009

0.011

0.013

0.014

Min. Distance - Hole to Board Edge

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

THERMAL CLAD AND METAL BACKED PCBS


Epec offers Thermal Clad PCBs which is a dielectric metal base with a bonded copper circuit layer. This
creates superior heat transfer to help cool components while eliminating problems associated with managing
fragile ceramics. Thermal clad is a unique layered system comprised of the follow layers:
Circuit Layer: Printed circuit foil with thickness of 1 oz to 5 oz.
Dielectric Layer: Many different options which offer
electrical isolation with minimum thermal resistance.
Also used to bond the circuit layer and base material
together. Each specific dielectric has its own UL recognition.
Base Layer: Most often Aluminum, but can also be copper.
The most commonly used thickness is 0.040 (1.0 mm) although
many thicknesses are available.

THERMAL CLAD PCB APPLICATIONS


Power Conversion: Thermal clad offers a variety of thermal performances is compatible with mechanical
fasteners and is highly reliable.
LEDs: Using Thermal Clad PCBs assures the lowest possible operating temperatures and maximum
brightness, color and life.
Motor Drives: Thermal Clad dielectric choices provide the electrical isolation needed to meet operating
parameters and safety agency test requirements.
Solid State Relays: Thermal clad offers a very thermally efficient and mechanically robust substrate.
Automotive: The automotive industry uses Thermal clad boards as they need long term reliability under
high operating temperatures coupled with their requirement of effective space utilization.
Improve the durability and performance of your product by using Thermal Clad PCBs. Simple designs
and low thermal impedance of the dielectric out performs all other PCB insulators for power and
high-operating temperature components.
Thermal Clad PCB Materials:
Bergquist
Thermagon
Arlon
Denka
Thermal Clad PCB Specifications:
1 & 2 Layer Dielectrics
HASL, ENIG & Pb Free HASL finish
Up to 5 oz finished Cu
Al & CU base material up
to .250 thick

Thermal Clad PCB Benefits:


Lower Operating Temperatures
Improved Product Durability
Increased Power Density
Increased Thermal Efficiency
Reduced Number of Interconnects
Lower Junction Temperatures
Reduced PCB Size
Eliminates Older Hardware
Minimizes Labor Required for Assembly
Wide Variety of Form Factors
Minimize Thermal Impedance

10

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

HDI HIGH DENSITY INTERCONNECT PCB


HDI boards, one of the fastest growing technologies in PCBs, are now available at Epec. HDI Boards
may have blind and/or buried vias and often contain microvias of .006 or less in diameter. They have a
higher circuitry density than traditional circuit boards using less layer construction.
Since the late 1980's we have seen video cameras using cartridges the size of a novel, shrink to fit in the
palm of your hand. Mobile computing and working from home pushed technology further to make computers
faster and lighter, allowing the consumer to work remotely from anywhere.
HDI Technology is the leading reason for these transformations. Products do more, weigh less and are
physically smaller. Specialty equipment, mini-components and thinner materials have allowed for electronics
to shrink in size while expanding technology, quality and speed.
Key HDI Benefits
As consumer demands change, so must technology. By using HDI technology, designers now have the
option to place more components on both sides of the raw PCB. Multiple via processes, including via in pad
and blind via technology, allow designers more PCB real estate to place components that are smaller even
closer together. Decreased component size and pitch allow for more I/O in smaller geometries. This means
faster transmission of signals and a significant reduction in signal loss and crossing delays.
Via in Pad Process
Inspiration from surface mount technologies from the late 1980's has pushed the limits with BGA's, COB
and CSP into smaller square surface inches. The via in pad process allows for vias to be placed within the
surface of the flat lands while using eight additional steps to complete this unique process. Specialty
equipment and trained technicians follow the process closely to achieve the perfect hidden via.
Quality remains the most important factor for the consumer second to price. Using HDI technology during
design, it is possible to reduce an 8 layer through-hole PCB to a 4 layer HDI microvia technology packed
PCB. The wiring capabilities of a well-designed HDI 4 layer PCB can achieve the same or better functions
as that of a standard 8 layer PCB.

Via-in-Pad technology shown .005 laser drill


within .015 BGA capped and plated pads.

11

.005 via holes within .014 copper pads are


filled, capped and plated over allowing for
small component placement.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

HDI HIGH DENSITY INTERCONNECT PCB (continued)


Why Build Non-Conventional HDI Boards
With 60 years of experience in the printed circuit board industry, Epec has always made its top focus to be
our customer needs. With technology increases every day and devices get smaller, we are always
increasing our capabilities to exceed the demands of our customers, ensuring we deliver the highest quality
engineered products available.
With our engineering knowledge we welcome the opportunity to expand our HDI circuit board product
offering to our customers helping them stay on top in their market.
Industries That Utilize HDI:
Automotive Industry
Medical Industry
Aerospace & Military
Consumer Electronics
Products That Benefit From HDI:
Portable Devices
Mobile Devices
Hand Held Computing
Scanning Devices & Printers

Our HDI Technology Includes:


Prototype & Production Size Orders
Quick Turns & Standard Lead Times
Blind & Buried Micro-Vias
Sequential Lamination
Exotic Materials
Extreme Thicknesses
Stacked Micro-Vias
Staggered Micro-Vias
Thin Lines & Spacing
ITAR / Military

Our teams of engineers are always available 24/7 to help our customers design and manufacture state of
the art products for their respected industry. Whether you need a quick turn or a prototype order,
design help, or require ITAR or special certifications, we will meet your schedule to get your products
to market faster.

12

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS CAPABILITIES


Category
1. Microvia Diameter

2. Stagger & Stack

3. Material & Construction

Description

Sym.

Capability

1.1
Microvia Diameter at Target Land

100 um
0.004

1.2
Microvia Diameter at Capture Land

125 um
0.005

1.3
Microvia Target Land Size

0.012

1.4
Microvia Target Land Size

450 um
0.0177

2.1
Min. Staggered Via Pitch
Staggered Via Pitch

560 um
0.022

2.2
RCC Thickness
RCC

50 um
0.002

2.3
Blind Via Layers

3.1
Finished Board Thickness

0.012 - 0.250

3.2
Min. Inner Layer Thickness

H1

0.075 mm
0.003

3.3
Min. Dielectric Thickness

H2

0.05 mm
0.002

3.4
Max. Inner Layer Copper

T1

10 oz

3.5
Max. Outer Layer Copper

T2

6 oz

4.1
Warp and Twist (Max.)

AB

< 0.75%

5.1
Min. Finish Hole Size

0.005

5.2
Min. Land Size

0.018

5.3
Min. Annual Ring for Via

R1

IPC Class 2

5.4
Min. Annual Ring for Component

R1

0.05 mm
0.002, provided
designed per IPC

4. Warp

5. Pad

13

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS CAPABILITIES


Category

Description

Sym.

Capability

6.1
Tolerance for PTH Hole

0.08 mm
0.003

6.2
NPTH Hole Tolerance

0.05 mm
0.002

7.1
Registration for S/M to Pattern

S1-S2

0.0024

7.2
Registration for Legend to S/M

NA

0.005

8.1
Registration for Drill to Inner Layer

0.075 mm
0.003

8.2
Registration for Drill to Datum

0.05 mm
0.002

8.3
Registration for First Drill to
Second Drill

NA

0.005

9.1
Layer to Layer for 4 layers

0.08 mm
0.003

9.2
Layer to Layer for 6 layers

0.10 mm
0.004

9.3
Layer to Layer for 8 layers

0.13 mm
0.005

10.1
I/L Min. Width (0.5 oz)

W2

0.003

10.2
O/L Min. Width (0.5 oz)

W1

0.003

6. Drill

7. Registration for S/M

8. Registration for Drill

9. Registration for Layers

10. Line Width

14

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS CAPABILITIES


Category
11. Line Space

12. Drill Capability

13. S/M Thickness

14. S/M Capability

15. Carbon Capability

15

Description

Sym.

Capability

11.1
I/L Min. Space

S2

0.003

11.2
O/L Min. Space (0.5 oz)

0.003

12.1
Max. Aspect Ratio
(Board Thickness 0.063)

H/T

12.0

12.2
Min. Drill Hole Size
(Board Thickness 0.063,
After Plating)

0.0083

13.1
Max. Thickness on Copper

H1

0.025 mm
0.001

13.2
Max. Thickness at Shoulder

H2

0.0075 mm
0.0003

14.1
Min. SMD Space for Dam

W2

0.0078

14.2
Min. Dam Size

W1

0.0003

15.1
Max. Contact Resistance

NA

30 / sq

15.2
Max. Primary Resistance

NA

30

15.3
Min. Thickness

NA

0.0004

15.4
Min. Space

0.015

15.5
Max. Space for Registration

0.007

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS CAPABILITIES


Category
16. HAL Capability

Description

Sym.

Capability

16.1
Min. PCB Thickness for HAL

H2

0.6 mm
0.0236

16.2
Min. Pad Width/Space for HAL

0.25 mm
0.0098

16.3
HAL Thickness for any point

H1

0.001 mm ~ 0.025 mm
40 micro-inch ~ 0.001

0.015 mm ~ 0.030 mm
0.0006 ~ 0.0012

17.1
Outline Tolerance-Punching

AB

NA

17.2
Outline Tolerance-Routing

AB

0.005

18.1
Beveling Angle

200-600

18.2
Tolerance for Outline of Bevel

+ - 0.005

19.1
V-Cut Angle V-Cut

30

19.2
Range of Board Thickness

0.030 ~ 0.125

19.3
Tolerance of V-Cut Residual

0.05 mm
0.003

19.4
V-Cut Off Line V-Cut

0.125 mm
0.005

16.4
Thickness on QFP Pad
(0.05 Wide Quad)
17. HAL Capability

18. Beveling Capability

19. V-Cut Capability

16

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS CAPABILITIES


Category
20. Test Capability

Description

Sym.

Capability

20.1
Voltage

NA

5-500 VDC

20.2
Isolation

NA

500 M

20.3
Continuity

NA

20 ~ 100 K

20.4
Min. SMD PAD Pitch SMD

0.3 mm
0.0118

21.1
Impedance Control > 50

NA

+/- 10%

21.2
Impedance Control < 50

NA

+/- 10%

NA

+/- 10%

NA

+/- 10%

NA

+/- 10%

NA

+/- 10%

21. Impedance Control Capability

22. Differential Impedance Capability


22.1
Differential Impedance
Control > 50

22.2
Differential Impedance
Control < 50
22. Coplanar Impedance Capability
22.1
Coplanar Impedance
Control > 50

22.2
Coplanar Impedance
Control < 50

17

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

PCB PLUG VIA PROCESS


Epec offers a variety of printed circuit board manufacturing solutions for Plug Via Process requirements.
Whether you require vias flooded with mask, selective plugging in BGA areas, conductive and
non-conductive epoxy fill, or fully plugged and via in pad, we have you covered.
Our experienced engineering team will help you to get your product to market faster, while eliminating
delays and quality issues.
d2

pd

VH VM VB VP

bp

d1

bm
Feature

Symbol

1.27mm/
50mils

1.00mm/
0.3937mils

0.8mm/
0.031496

BGA Pad

bp

24

19

14

Must Be Avoided

Should Be Avoided

Should Be Avoided

Must Be Avoided

Must Be Avoided

(Cu defined)

bm

bp+5 (4 min)

bp+5 (4 min)

bp+5 (4 min)

pad+5 (4 min)

BGA Pad Dia. Dist.

pd

70.71

55.67

44.54

Via Pad

VP

22-25

22

20

Via Hole

VH

10-12

10

8-10

Via Mask (Zit via)

VM

VH+5 (4 min)

VH+5 (4 min)

VH+5 (4 min)

BGA Mask Dam

14.35-12.35 min

9.33-8.33

7.27-5.27

Via Button Print

VB

VH+15 (10 min)

VH+15 (10 min)

VH+15 (10 min)

BGA Mask

Discrete

d1

4 min

d2

10 min

* Based on 0.062 thick board, non solder mask defined BGA pads and plastic BGA packages.
* Cu defined pad infers no mask will be present on the capture pad.

18

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ENEPIG (Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold)


The perfect electronic product device should be as small and light as possible, while containing the
maximum amount of electronic functionality and operating at the highest possible speed. To meet these
needs, the electronic packaging industry has been driven to develop more and more advanced packaging
methods, both by increasing the density of integrated circuits on a single PCB and also by combining
multiple functionalities into single, dense packages.
Increased package and interconnection density have driven the evolution of assembly methods from
through-hole technology (THT) to surface mount technology (SMT) and have led an increased use of wire
bonding to attach devices to PCB substrates. Decreased interconnect pitch and the use of chip scale
packaging (CSP) have enabled the increases in device density, while multichip modules (MCM) / system in
package (SiP) approaches have allowed integration of functionalities that would be difficult to produce on a
single wafer substrate.
When the semiconductor industry has concentrated for many years on increasing the performance of
devices by reduction in critical dimensions, until recently, there has been less consideration of the fact that
devices in an electronic system must communicate with each other through the packages that contain them.
Large I/O requirements and signal transmission quality have emerged as key considerations for the
semiconductor packaging industry, as have the assembly process requirements and the final finish of PCB
substrates used to achieve reliable interconnections both within IC packages and for the second level
packaging of devices onto PCB substrates.
The below describes the key factors affecting interconnection reliability, especially focusing on the
performance of finishes for gold wirebonding applications.

ADVANTAGES OF ENEPIG
The key advantages of ENEPIG, combining both excellent solder joint and gold wire bonding reliability can
be summarized in the following points:
"Black Nickel" free no possibility of grain boundary corrosion of nickel surface by immersion gold
Palladium acts as an additional barrier layer to further reduce copper diffusion to surface, thus
ensuring good solderability
Palladium completely dissolves into solder, without leaving an excessively high P% rich interface,
exposing an oxide-free nickel surface allowing reliable formation of Ni/Sn intermetallic
Withstands multiple lead-free reflow soldering cycles
Demonstrates excellent gold wire bondability
Process costs substantially lower than electrolytic nickel gold or electroless nickel electroless gold
Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC is a global supplier of a comprehensive range of final finishes
including pretreatment chemistries, electroless nickel, electroless palladium and immersion gold and tin
products.

19

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ENEPIG - SURFACE FINISH OPTIONS FOR WIREBONDING


While electrolytic nickel gold provides excellent gold wirebonding performance, it suffers from three major
deficiencies, each of which is a major barrier to its use in leading edge applications:
1. The process cost is high, driven by to the relatively high gold thickness required
2. At the higher gold thicknesses normally used, solder joint reliability may be reduced due to the
formation of tin-gold intermetallics. Should the finish be combined with a second final finish, more
suitable for soldering applications, additional costs from secondary imaging operations are
also incurred
3. The electrical bussing required to make connections to the features during the plating process limit the
feature densities that can be achieved
These limitations have provided an opening for electroless process options. These include electroless nickel
immersion gold (ENIG), electroless nickel electroless gold (ENEG) and electroless nickel electroless
palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG).
Of these three options, ENIG is not generally considered to have an acceptable process window for high
reliability gold wire bonding (although it has been used for some lower end consumer applications) and
ENEG suffers from many of the same process cost issues as electrolytic nickel gold, with additional
challenges from operating more complex electroless gold processes.
While electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) first emerged in the late 1990's,
its market acceptance was delayed by the very volatile price of palladium metal around 2000. However, in
more recent years, the market demand has shown strong growth as users have begun to appreciate the
potential of ENEPIG to address many of the new packaging reliability needs, while also meeting
lead free / ROHS requirements.
Apart from the advantage of packaging reliability, the cost of ENEPIG has now become a positive
consideration. With recent increases in the price of gold price to levels above US$800 per troy oz, the
production cost of electronic device that required thick gold electroplating becomes extremely difficult to
control. Since the cost of palladium metal (US$300 per troy oz) has remained relatively low in comparison
to gold, an opportunity for cost saving by replacement of gold with palladium is now available.

ENEPIG - COMPARISON OF FINAL FINISHES


In the existing market, there are 4 primary lead-free final finishes for PCBs which are suitable for assembly
of fine pitch QFP / BGA devices:



Immersion Tin
Immersion Silver
Organic Solder Preservatives (OSP)
Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG)

20

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ENEPIG - COMPARISON OF FINAL FINISHES (continued)


The table below shows a comparison between these four final finishes and ENEPIG. None of the four
primary final finish options is perfect for lead-free assembly, due to a variety of different concerns
including multiple reflow cycle capability, shelf life before assembly and wire bond capability. In contrast,
ENEPIG shows substantial advantages combining excellent shelf life, solder joint reliability, gold wire
bondability and usage as a contact surface.
The protection of the electroless nickel interface with the formation of a thin electroless palladium layer,
prior to immersion gold, eliminates the potential for excessive gold attack on the electroless nickel surface.

OSP

ENIG

ENEPIG

Immersion
Silver

Immersion
Tin

< 12 Months

> 12 Months

> 12 Months

< 12 Months

3 6 Months

Must Be Avoided

Should Be Avoided

Should Be Avoided

Must Be Avoided

Must Be Avoided

SMT Land
Surface Planarity

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Multiple
Soldering Cycles

Fair To Good

Good

Good

Fair To Good

Fair To Good

Pth/Via Fill
Concerns

No Concerns

No Concerns

No Concerns

No Concerns

Characteristics
Shelf Life

(Controlled Conditions)

Handling / Contact
With Soldering
Surfaces

No Clean Flux Usage

Good Process

Good

Control Required To Avoid


"Black Pad"

Good

Interfacial Microvoid
Concerns

Good

No

No

Yes

No

No

Unless Solder Applied


During Assembly

Good

Good

Good

Good

Corrosion Risk
After Assembly

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Contact Surface
Applications

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

0.05 0.5 typical

1.0 1.1

Solder Joint Reliability


Gold Wire Bonding
Electrical Test Probing

Total Coating
Thickness (Micron)

Poor,

> 0.15

u 0.08 0.13
Ni 3.0 6.0

Soldering:
Au 0.03 0.05
Pd 0.05 0.1
Ni 3.0 5.0
Wirebonding:
Au 0.07 0.15
Pd 0.1 0.15
Ni 3.0 5.0

When we consider the final finish performance in a variety of different assembly methods, it can be seen that
ENEPIG is suitable for a wide range of assembly requirements.

21

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

PCB DESIGN AND LAYOUT


At Epec, we specializes in high-performance Printed Circuit Board physical design (layout) utilizing high-end
software programs complemented by leading edge hardware.
Our Capabilities Encompass The Full Design Flow From Start To Finish Including:
Micro BGA / Micro Via / Blind & Buried Vias
Rules Driven Designs
Schematic Capture
Library Development
Database Construction and Verification
Signal Integrity/Design Verification
EMI Checking
Full Document Package Creation
We are fully licensed and utilize industry leading
tools, including Cadence Allegro, Mentor Expedition,
Mentors PADS, Altium, Valor for DFM Analysis.
We customize and develop software in-house to
improve quality and compliment our design tools.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
We have the experience required to consistently meet the highest standards in the industry. Our experience
spans multiple market segments, including Telecom, Datacom, Computer & Storage, Medical,
Mil/Aero, Industrial, and consumer products.
Our expertise lies in High-Speed Circuitry Design up to 40GHz and Mesh Networking
(Optical: OC-48, OC-192, T1, E1, and Infiniband).
Other capabilities include Thermal Engineering, Signal Integrity Analysis, Software and Firmware Design,
including software integration and API design.
Digital/High-Speed and Analog Design Capabilities Include:
Circuit Design and Analysis
FPGA to ASIC Conversion
Component Analysis & Evaluation
Compliance and Value Engineering
Pulsed Circuits
Analog Circuit Simulation and much more!
Embedded Microprocessors & Chipsets for
Power PC, Intel x86, TI DSP, Mellanox, Broadcom
and various other chipsets used in Server, Telecom,
Industrial, and Commercial market segments

22

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Our Engineers have 30 years experience in Mechanical Engineering. We are capable of supporting any part
of the product lifecycle across multiple market segments. We utilize leading CAD platforms such as
AutoCAD Inventor, SolidWorks, and Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire.
Our Capabilities Include:
Packaging, Enclosure, and Industrial Design
Product/System Architecture
Detailed Mechanical Design
Stress Analysis (FEA) Shock/Vibration Simulation
Thermal Simulation
Material and Component Selection
Solid Modeling
PCB Linkage DFM / DFA & Cost reduction

Epec Can Provide:


Concept Sketches/Rendering
Product Specifications
Mock Ups
3D Rendering
Full Documentation

PCB FABRICATION
For over 60 years Epec has been your reliable PCB manufacture. From prototype to production runs our
engineers can support you in all your PCB needs 24/7. Why look elsewhere, from the simplest single sided
PCB to HDI, sequential laminated multilayers with multiple blind and buried vias weve got you covered.
Via in pad, silver filled, copper filled, epoxy, conductive, non-conductive via fill, Aluminum, RF, ENEPIG, our
specialty is customer service. As we continue to expand our PCB supply chain we have one goal in mind,
to provide our valued customers what they need when they need it. Supporting domestic 1, 2, 3 day quick
turns, 5 day turns from Asia and our guarantee to satisfy.

PCB FABRICATION
Our SI experts have years of experience in pre-design and post-design verification and analysis. This
experience and expertise, combined with powerful state-of-the-art software, helps ensure your design will
work the way you expect it to the first time and all the time. Although we can customize services to meet
your unique needs, we have included a list below of the services we provide.
Capabilities Include:
Up Front SI Risk Analysis
Pre and Post Route Simulations
Frequency Domain & Time Domain Modeling
3D Via Field Modeling and Optimization
Optimization of AC Coupling Cap Launches
Optimization of Connector Launches
Infiniband, PCIe (Gen 1 & 2), XAUI link Analysis
IEEE 802.3ap KR Compliance to 10 Gbps
StatEye Time Domain Analysis
DDR2 and DDR3 Optimization
Crosstalk and Timing Analysis
Detailed SI CAD Guidelines Generation
Real Time SI Support Throughout the CAD Layout Process

23

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ITAR COMPLIANT
What is ITAR?
The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is a set of regulations that govern
the export and re-export of certain controlled commodities, services, and, most
importantly, technologies. In order to be controlled under ITAR as a defense article,
a given component, subcomponent, part, assembly, subassembly, or integrated
system must have been specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted,
or modified for a military application controlled under the United States Munitions List.
It also restricts sensitive information and technologies to only to be shared with US Citizens unless
special approval is granted. In summary, this regulation makes sure that anything to do with US proprietary
defense secrets are not shared with anyone that our government has deemed not authorized to see or be in
possession of. Including non-US citizens in the US.
ITAR Compliance vs. ITAR Registered
ITAR requires that any person (company) who engages in the business of manufacturing defense articles or
furnishing defense services is required to register and keep their registration current with the United States
Department of State. Epec Engineered Technologies is registered with the Department of State.
Many companies claim that they are ITAR compliant, but havent taken the proper steps to register with the
Department of State. If you manage ITAR materials, it is your responsibility to assure that all of your
suppliers have the proper registrations and follow the ITAR procedures. The Department of State interprets
and enforces ITAR. Its goal is to safeguard US national security and further US foreign policy objectives.
Epecs ITAR Commitment
Being a global manufacturer of build to print products, ITAR compliance requires a significant commitment
from management and a substantial investment in systems. Epecs management has committed by
investing in separate and secure IT resources that ensure that all of our ITAR data is stored in a manner that
far exceeds the ITAR requirement.
Epecs ITAR PCB Manufacturing
Because our roots are in PCB manufacturing, we have traditionally focused most of our ITAR work in printed
circuit boards as printed circuit boards fall under Item 14-Category II of the United States Munitions List. Our
factory located in Detroit, MI focuses solely on quick turn, ITAR and military work. This focus has allowed us
to be profitable and to invest in the right equipment and people to allow us to exceed our customers
expectations.
Understanding ITAR & Your Supply Chain
Epec has long been an industry leader in supply chain management and we have used our many years of
experience to develop processes and procedures that assure ITAR compliance today and well into the
future. As a company that deals in ITAR articles it is our responsibility to make sure that all of our
subcontractors, employees, directors and sales representatives understand the compliance is not optional.
Our auditing process allows us to systematically check all of the effected parties to assure compliance. This
is another way that we add value to our customers.

24

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

ITAR COMPLIANT (continued)


What happens if you are not in compliance with ITAR?
The Arms Export Control Act (AECA) provides for criminal penalties of up to 10 years in prison and
$1 million in fines for each violation. In addition, the AECA provides for civil penalties of up to $500,000 per
violation and debarment from future exports. In FY 2006, law enforcement agencies initiated criminal actions
pursuant to the AECA and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) that resulted in 119 arrests, 92
indictments and 60 convictions.
Epec is serious about ITAR
We spent over 7 months reviewing and developing our ITAR management plan to assure that we did not
miss any of these details.

INVENTORY STOCKING SOLUTIONS


Epec offers its customers a variety of customized stocking and consigned inventory management programs
that support their individual logistic objectives. There are 4 Main Inventory Programs that Epec utilizes, and
each is customized to your particular objectives.
Owned Inventory: Customer places an order with Epec, we will bring the product into our inventory
until you require it. We will ship based upon your delivery requirements, and invoice with the shipment.
Consigned Inventory: Placing finished goods in the hands of the customer, but Epec retains
ownership until the goods are used. Can be invoiced weekly or monthly.
Kanban Inventory: Customer provides Epec with a forecast for us to build to. Customer then pulls
from Inventory and will be billed upon the pull. Epec will then replenish inventory based on the
next forecast.
Blanket Orders: Customer places an order with Epec that contains multiple delivery dates, scheduled
over a period of time, at predetermined pricing. Having a blanket order saves the customer from
holding large inventories and avoids the administrative expense of processing frequent purchase
orders, while favoring discount pricing through volume commitments.
Each of the inventory programs has a different level
of cost associated with increased operating
expenses and working capital requirements.
Epec is one of the few companies in the industry
with the financial capability to offer the flexibility
of inventory management programs.
It is our goal to help our customers create a
competitive advantage for themselves by
improving product lead times while at the same
time reducing inventory requirements.

25

AMERICA'S OLDEST. A HISTORY OF INNOVATION.


The 60-year story of Epec is connected to the development of the PCB and the electronics industry.
Epec, through the merger of Electralab and Printed Electronics Corp
(EPEC), are proudly two of the five founding members of the IPC,
the 2,900 member trade association supporting the $1.5 trillion
global electronics industry.
From pioneering innovation in the PCB Industry with R & D,
training and setting professional core values, the legacy of
Epec has now passed to a new generation of very bright
young people, but still continues the great
tradition of imagination.
In incubating new technologies, the Epec team continue
breaking new frontiers in engineering, and enjoying
exponential growth in related sectors of electronics, with
custom battery packs, membrane switches,
rubber keypads, and EC fans and drives.

CONTACT US
Our knowledgeable staff has many years of experience in the industry.
We welcome the opportunity to put our skills to work for you!
Please contact us with any questions or requests.
North American Headquarters
174 Duchaine Blvd.
New Bedford, MA 02745
Toll Free: (888) 995-5171
Tel: (508) 995-5171
Fax: (508) 998-8694
Contact Us By Email:
Sales
sales@epectec.com
Quotes
quoting@epectec.com
Engineering engineering@epectec.com
Quality
quality@epectec.com

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