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Power Flow Studies

Scenarios
Base Case
(Contingency)

Weaknesses
Jan-May 2010

Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Control of Power Flow


Prime mover and excitation control.
Switching of shunt capacitor banks, shunt
reactors, and static var systems.
Control of tap-changing and regulating
transformers.
FACTS elements.

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Power Flow

Quadratic convergence
mathematically

superior to Gauss-Seidel

method

More efficient for large networks


The Newton-Raphson equations are
cast in natural power system form

solving

for voltage magnitude and angle,


given real and reactive power injections

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Method

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Method

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Newton-Raphson

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson

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Power Flow Equations

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson

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Jacobian Matrix

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Jacobian Terms

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Jacobian Terms

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Iterative Process

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Newton-Raphson

Slack Bus / Swing Bus


The

voltage and angle are known for this bus.


bus is not included in the Jacobian matrix formation

PV (Voltage Controlled) Bus


have

known terminal voltage and real (actual) power


injection.
the bus voltage angle and reactive power injection
are computed.
bus is included in the real power parts of the
Jacobian matrix.

PQ (Load) Bus
have

known real and reactive power injections.


bus is fully included in the Jacobian matrix.
Jan-May 2010

Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Procedure

1. Set flat start


For

load buses, set voltages equal to the slack bus.


For voltage controlled buses, set the angles equal the
slack bus or 0.

2. Calculate power mismatch


For

load buses, calculate P and Q injections using the


known and estimated system voltages.
For voltage controlled buses, calculate P injections.
Obtain the power mismatches, P and Q

3. Form the Jacobian matrix


Use

the various equations for the partial derivatives


the voltage angles and magnitudes

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Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Procedure

4. Find the matrix solution


inverse

the Jacobian matrix and multiply by the


mismatch power.

compute and V
5. Find new estimates for the voltage
magnitude and angle.
6. Repeat the process until the mismatch
(residuals) are less than the specified
accuracy.

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Fast Decoupled Power Flow

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Fast Decoupled Power Flow

The matrix equation is separated into two decoupled


equations

requires considerably less time to solve compared to the full


Newton-Raphson method
JP and JQV submatrices can be further simplified to eliminate
the need for recomputing of the submatrices during each
iteration
some terms in each element are relatively small and can be
eliminated
the remaining equations consist of constant terms and one
variable term
the one variable term can be moved and coupled with the
change in power variable

the result is a Jacobian matrix with constant term


elements

Jan-May 2010

Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Fast Decoupled Power Flow


Jacobian calculations
can be simplified

Qi
Pi
Off-diagonal:
-|ViVj|Bij
= |V|

V
j
j
Qi
Pi
|V|
diagonal:
-|Vi|2 Bii
=
Vi
i

By manipulating the equations:


-Bii -Bij

i
j

-Bji -Bjj

|Vj|

|Vn|

-Bnn

Qi
|Vi|
Qj
|Vj|

Jan-May 2010

-Bni

|Vi|

B simple to calculate

-Bji -Bjj

Pn
|Vn|

-Bii -Bij

-Bnn

-Bni

Pi
|Vi|
Pj
|Vj|

Qn
|Vn|

Very fast calculations

Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Distribution Power Flow


Radial systems.
Ladder network.
Relationships between current on
branches and voltage at buses.

Jan-May 2010

Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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