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# Power Flow Studies

Scenarios
Base Case
(Contingency)

Weaknesses
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## Control of Power Flow

Prime mover and excitation control.
Switching of shunt capacitor banks, shunt
reactors, and static var systems.
Control of tap-changing and regulating
transformers.
FACTS elements.

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## Newton-Raphson Power Flow

mathematically

superior to Gauss-Seidel

method

## More efficient for large networks

The Newton-Raphson equations are
cast in natural power system form

solving

## for voltage magnitude and angle,

given real and reactive power injections

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## Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Method

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## Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Method

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Newton-Raphson

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Newton-Raphson

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Newton-Raphson

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Jacobian Matrix

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Jacobian Terms

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Jacobian Terms

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## Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Iterative Process

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Newton-Raphson

The

## voltage and angle are known for this bus.

bus is not included in the Jacobian matrix formation

have

## known terminal voltage and real (actual) power

injection.
the bus voltage angle and reactive power injection
are computed.
bus is included in the real power parts of the
Jacobian matrix.

have

## known real and reactive power injections.

bus is fully included in the Jacobian matrix.
Jan-May 2010

## Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Procedure

For

## load buses, set voltages equal to the slack bus.

For voltage controlled buses, set the angles equal the
slack bus or 0.

For

## load buses, calculate P and Q injections using the

known and estimated system voltages.
For voltage controlled buses, calculate P injections.
Obtain the power mismatches, P and Q

Use

## the various equations for the partial derivatives

the voltage angles and magnitudes

Jan-May 2010

## Power Systems Analysis ECNG 3012

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Newton-Raphson Procedure

inverse

## the Jacobian matrix and multiply by the

mismatch power.

compute and V
5. Find new estimates for the voltage
magnitude and angle.
6. Repeat the process until the mismatch
(residuals) are less than the specified
accuracy.

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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equations

## requires considerably less time to solve compared to the full

Newton-Raphson method
JP and JQV submatrices can be further simplified to eliminate
the need for recomputing of the submatrices during each
iteration
some terms in each element are relatively small and can be
eliminated
the remaining equations consist of constant terms and one
variable term
the one variable term can be moved and coupled with the
change in power variable

elements

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## Fast Decoupled Power Flow

Jacobian calculations
can be simplified

Qi
Pi
Off-diagonal:
-|ViVj|Bij
= |V|

V
j
j
Qi
Pi
|V|
diagonal:
-|Vi|2 Bii
=
Vi
i

## By manipulating the equations:

-Bii -Bij

i
j

-Bji -Bjj

|Vj|

|Vn|

-Bnn

Qi
|Vi|
Qj
|Vj|

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-Bni

|Vi|

B simple to calculate

-Bji -Bjj

Pn
|Vn|

-Bii -Bij

-Bnn

-Bni

Pi
|Vi|
Pj
|Vj|

Qn
|Vn|

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