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DEC 2015


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I, Ritesh Dhuri, student of Prin. L. N. Welingkar
institute of management development & research, with admission no.
HPGD/JL14/3471, hereby declare that I have completed this project
ISR DESABILITY, NGO ASMITA, in the academic year 2015.
The information submitted is true and original to the best of my

Ritesh Dhuri


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What is social responsibility
How does an individual becomes socially
What is Disability
Types of disabilities
Sociology of disabilities
Social impact of disability
Economical impact on disability
Disabilities- impact of disabilities on family
Challenges faced by people with disabilities
Few major challenges face by disable people
National policy for person with disabilities
Mission and vision
Development program initiated by Asmita
Challenges and opportunities which are been face
by Asmita


1. The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all
individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including persons with
disabilities. In the recent years, there have been vast and positive changes in the perception of
the society towards persons with disabilities. It has been realized that a majority of persons
with disabilities can lead a better quality of life if they have equal opportunities and effective
access to rehabilitation measures.
2. According to the Census 2001, there are 2.19 crore persons with disabilities in
India who constitute 2.13 percent of the total population. This includes persons with visual,
hearing, speech, locomotors and mental disabilities. Seventy five per cent of persons with
disabilities live in rural areas, 49 per cent of disabled population is literate and only 34 per
cent are employed. The earlier emphasis on medical rehabilitation has now been replaced by
an emphasis on social rehabilitation. There has been an increasing recognition of abilities of
persons with disabilities and emphasis on mainstreaming them in the society based on their

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capabilities. The Government of India has enacted three legislations for persons with
disabilities viz.
(i) Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation)
Act, 1995, which provides for education, employment, creation of barrier free environment,
social security, etc.
(ii) National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Pa lsy, Mental Retardation
and Multiple Disability Act, 1999 has provisions for legal guardianship of the four categories
and creation of enabling environment for as much independent living as possible.
(iii) Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992 deals with the development of manpower for
providing rehabilitation services.
3. In addition to the legal framework, extensive infrastructure has been
developed. The following seven national Institutes are working for development of manpower
in different areas, namely:
* Institute for the Physically Handicapped, New Delhi.
* National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Dehradun
* National Institute for Orthopedically Handicapped, Kolkata
* National Institute for Mentally Handicapped, Secunderabad.
* National Institute for Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai
* National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research, Cuttack.
* National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities, Chennai.
4. There are five Composite Rehabilitation Centres, four Regional
Rehabilitation Centres and 120 District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs) providing
various kinds of rehabilitation services to persons with disabilities. There are also several
national institutions under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare working in the field of
rehabilitation, like National Institute of Mental Mealth and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore; All
India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mumbai; All India Institute of Speech
and Hearing, Mysore; Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, etc. In addition, certain State
Government institutions also provide rehabilitation services. Besides, 250 private institutions
conduct training courses for rehabilitation professionals.
5. National Handicapped and Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC) has
been providing loans on concessional terms for undertaking self-employment ventures by the
persons with disabilities through State Channelizing Agencies.
6. Panchayati Raj Institutions at Village level, Intermediary level and District
level have been entrusted with the welfare of persons with disabilities.
7. India is a signatory to the Declaration on the Full Participation and Equality
of People with Disabilities in the Asia Pacific Region. India is also a signatory to the Biwako
Millennium Framework for action towards an inclusive, barrier free and rights based society.

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India is currently participating in the negotiations on the UN Convention on Protection and

promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities.


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2. What Is Social Responsibility?

We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give. Winston Churchill.

Being Socially Responsible means that people and organisations

must behave ethically and with sensitivity toward social,
cultural, economic and environmental issues. Striving for social
responsibility helps individuals, organisations and governments
have a positive impact on development, business and society
with a positive contribution to bottom-line results.
Individual Social Responsibility (ISR) to achieve Corporate Social Responsibility (CSP)
ISP may appear to be a new concept in relation to CSP, but it is a concept as old as The
Golden Rule Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. ISR expands on this by
promoting a proactive stance
towards positively influencing and affecting the people and environments outside your
immediate circle. ISR is at the roots of CSR, because a corporate comprises of individuals and
hence determines the social responsibility culture it creates. This is the intermingled
relationship between CSR and ISR. Individuals are becoming more socially responsible and,
in response to this Corporations and Companies need to become more socially responsible to
meet consumer demand.
The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) states: In the wake of increasing
globalisation, we have become increasingly conscious not only of what we buy, but also how
the goods and services we buy have been produced. Environmentally harmful production,
child labor, dangerous working environments and other inhumane conditions are examples of
issues being brought into the open. All companies and organisations aiming at long-term
profitability and credibility are starting to realise that they must act in accordance with norms
of right and wrong. Socially responsible individuals are demanding companies and
organisations to become more socially responsible.


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2.1How Does an Individual Become Socially Responsible?

The Workshop for Civic Initiatives Foundation (WCIF), Bulgaria, describes ISR in its
position statement on Social Responsibility as,
The individual social responsibility includes the engagement of each person towards the
community where he lives, which can be expressed as an interest towards whats happening in
the community, as well as in the active participation in the solving of some of the local
problems. Under community we understand the village, the small town or the residential
complex in the big city, where lives every one of us. Each community lives its own life that
undergoes a process of development all the time. And everyone of us could take part in that
development in different ways, for example by taking part in cleaning of the street on which
he lives, by taking part in organization of an event, connected with the history of the town or
the village or by rendering social services to children without parents or elderly people. The
individual social responsibility also could be expressed in making donations for significant for
the society causes social, cultural or ecological. There are many ways of donating, as for
example donating of goods or donating money through a bank account or online
Social Responsibility can be negative, in that it is a responsibility to refrain from acting
(resistance stance) or it can be positive, meaning there is a responsibility to act (proactive
stance). Being socially responsible not only requires participating in socially responsible
activities like recycling, volunteering and mentoring, but to actually make it a lifestyle. Only
through a commitment to embrace and embed social responsibility into your personal value
and belief system can you truly become socially responsible in all you do.


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According to The Harris Poll #57 , June 18, 2007, when it comes to individual social
responsibility, there are
three types of people:
1.Two-thirds of adults have Good Intentions they believe that social responsibility is a
good idea, and they what they can in terms of volunteering, but they do not sacrifice huge
amounts of time or money.
2.At the top end of the spectrum, 8 percent of adults Practice What They Preach and for
this group, individual, as well as corporate, social responsibility is extremely important.
3.One-quarter of adults, however, follow a philosophy of To Thine Own Self Be True and,
for this group, social responsibility has little consequence in their lives.
On the other hand the trends show that the biggest growth for big charitable organisations in
the world is coming through individuals and not through Corporations and Governments.
To take a proactive stance, ISR can start off as a simple act of philanthropic behaviour. My
husband and I actually budget for giving, just like we do for living or car expenses. Add to
this the campaigner, volunteer and activist in you that picks-up and supports issues affecting
society. You may just start off volunteering once a month somewhere that suits your skills,
abilities or interests. The other day, I asked a friend if he could teach my son guitar. We
determined a tuition cost but instead of me paying him, he asked me if I could pay the charity
of his choice. If you have the choice of two products and one product supports a good cause
or was produced in a more ethical way, then purchase that product. You may only be one
person but if everyone did their part, we could change the world!
All Social responsibility, both individual and corporate, is voluntary; it is about going above
and beyond what is called for by the law(legal responsibility). It involves an idea that it is
better to be proactive toward a problem rather than reactive to a problem. Social responsibility
means eliminating corrupt, irresponsible or unethical behavior that might bring harm to the
community, its people, or the environment before the behavior happens.


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3. What is Disability?
Disability is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory,
emotional, developmental, or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth,
or occur during a person's lifetime.
Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation
restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a
difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is
a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus, disability is a complex
phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a persons body and features of the society
in which he or she lives.
World Health Organization
Individuals may also qualify as disabled if they have had an impairment in the past or are seen as
disabled based on a personal or group standard or norm. Such impairments may include physical,
sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities. Mental disorders (also known as psychiatric or
psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic disease may also qualify as disabilities.
Some advocates object to describing certain conditions (notably deafness and autism) as "disabilities",
arguing that it is more appropriate to consider them developmental differences that have been unfairly
stigmatized by society. Others argue that disability is a result of exclusion from mainstream society
and not because of impairment.


3.1Types of Disability
The term "disability" broadly describes an impairment in a person's ability to function, caused
by changes in various subsystems of the body, or to mental health. The degree of disability
may range from mild to moderate, severe, or profound. A person may also have multiple
disabilities. Disability can be measured objectively (observed) or subjectively (self-report).
Conditions causing disability are classified by the medical community as:
1. Inherited (genetically transmitted);
2. Congenital, meaning caused by a mother's infection or other disease during pregnancy,
embryonic or fetal developmental irregularities, or by injury during or soon after birth;
3. Acquired, such as conditions caused by illness or injury;
4. of unknown origin.
Types of disability may also be categorized in the following way:
Physical disability
Any impairment which limits the physical function of limbs, fine bones, or gross motor ability
is a physical impairment, not necessarily a physical disability. The social model of disability
defines physical disability as manifest when an impairment meets a non-universal design or
program, e.g. a person who cannot climb stairs may have a physical impairment of the knees
when putting stress on them from an elevated position such as with climbing or descending
stairs. If an elevator were provided, or a building had services on the first floor, this
impairment would not become a disability. Other physical disabilities include impairments
which limit other activities of daily living, such as severe sleep.

Sensory disability
Sensory disability is impairment of one of the senses. The term is used primarily to refer to
vision and hearing impairment, but other senses can be impaired.
Vision impairment
Vision impairment (or "visual impairment") is vision loss of a person to such a degree as to
qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability
resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be
corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery. This
functional loss of vision is typically defined to manifest with
1.best corrected visual acuity of less than 20/60, or significant central field defect,
2.significant peripheral field defect including homonymous or heteronymous bilateral visual,
field defect or generalized contraction or constriction of field, or
3.reduced peak contrast sensitivity with either of the above conditions.


Hearing impairment
Hearing impairment or hard of hearing or deafness refers to conditions in which individuals
are fully or partially unable to detect or perceive at least some frequencies of sound which can
typically be heard by most people. Mild hearing loss may sometimes not be considered a
Olfactory and gustatory impairment
Impairment of the sense of smell and taste are commonly associated with aging but can also
occur in younger people due to a wide variety of causes.
There are various olfactory disorders:
Anosmia inability to smell
Dysosmia things do not smell as they "should"
Hyperosmia an abnormally acute sense of smell
Hyposmia decreased ability to smell
Olfactory Reference Syndrome psychological disorder which causes patients to imagine
they have strong body odor
Parosmia things smell worse than they should
Phantosmia "hallucinated smell", often unpleasant in nature
Complete loss of the sense of taste is known as ageusia, while dysgeusia is persistent
abnormal sense of taste,
Somatosensory impairment
Insensitivity to stimuli such as touch, heat, cold, and pain are often an adjunct to a more
general physical impairment involving neural pathways and is very commonly associated
with paralysis (in which the motor neural circuits are also affected).
Balance disorder
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example
when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by symptoms of being giddy, woozy, or
have a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body
systems working together. The eyes (visual system), ears (vestibular system) and the body's
sense of where it is in space (proprioception) need to be intact. The brain, which compiles this
information, needs to be functioning effectively.
Intellectual disability Intellectual disability is a broad concept that ranges from mental
retardation to cognitive deficits too mild or too specific to qualify as mental retardation.
Intellectual disabilities may appear at any age. Mental retardation is a subtype of intellectual
disability, and the term intellectual disability is now preferred by many advocates in most
English-speaking countries.


Mental health and emotional disabilities

A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern generally
associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and perceived by
the majority of society as being outside of normal development or cultural expectations. The
recognition and understanding of mental health conditions has changed over time and across
cultures, and there are still variations in the definition, assessment, and classification of
mental disorders, although standard guideline criteria are widely accepted.
Pervasive developmental disorders
The diagnostic category of pervasive developmental disorders refers to a group of five
developmental disabilities characterized by differences in the development of multiple basic
functions including socialization and communication. The DSM-IV-TR listed the pervasive
developmental disorders as autistic disorder, Asperser syndrome, Rett syndrome,childhood
disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). The DSM-5 does not describe individual diagnosis of any of the pervasive
developmental disorders, replacing all of them with a unified diagnosis of autism spectrum
disorder. The ICD-10 also includes the diagnosis of overactive disorder associated with
mental retardation and stereotyped movements.
Developmental disability
Developmental disability is any disability that results in problems with growth and
development. Although the term is often used as a synonym or euphemism for intellectual
disability, the term also encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental
or intellectual components, for example spina bifida.
Nonvisible disabilities
Several chronic disorders, such as diabetes, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, epilepsy,
narcolepsy, fibromyalgia, and some sleep disorders may be counted as nonvisible disabilities,
as opposed to disabilities which are clearly visible, such as those requiring the use of a


3.2Sociology of Disability

Different terms have been used for people with disabilities in different times and places. The
euphemism treadmill and changing fashions have caused terms to rise or fall in popularity.
At this time, disability or impairment are commonly used, as are more specific terms, such as
blind (to describe having no vision at all) or visually impaired (to describe having limited
Handicap has been disparaged as a result of ales folk etymology that says it is a reference to
begging. It is actually derived from an old game, Hand-i'-cap, in which two players trade
possessions and a third, neutral person judges the difference of value between the possessions.
The concept of a neutral person evening up the odds was extended to handicap racing in the
mid-18th century. In handicap racing, horses carry different weights based on the umpire's
estimation of what would make them run equally. The use of the term to describe a person
with a disabilityby extension from handicap racing, a person carrying a heavier burden than
normalappeared in the early 20th century.
Handicap replaced terms that are now considered insulting, such as crippled.
People-first language
Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped.
"Cerebral Palsy: A Guide for Care" at the University of Delaware offers the following
Impairment is the correct term to use to define a deviation from normal, such as not being
able to make a muscle move or not being able to control an unwanted movement. Disability is
the term used to define a restriction in the ability to perform a normal activity of daily living
which someone of the same age is able to perform. For example, a three-year-old child who is
not able to walk has a disability because a normal three-year-old can walk independently.
Handicap is the term used to describe a child or adult who, because of the disability, is unable
to achieve the normal role in society commensurate with his age and socio-cultural milieu. As
an example, a sixteen-year-old who is unable to prepare his own meal or care for his own
toileting or hygiene needs is handicapped. On the other hand, a sixteen-year-old who can walk
only with the assistance of crutches but who attends a regular school and is fully independent
in activities of daily living is disabled but not handicapped. All disabled people are impaired,
and all handicapped people are disabled, but a person can be impaired and not necessarily be
disabled, and a person can be disabled without being handicapped.
The American Psychological Association style guide states that, when identifying a person
with an impairment, the person's name or pronoun should come first, and descriptions of the
impairment/disability should be used so that the impairment is identified, but is not modifying
the person. Improper examples are "a borderline", "an compulsive man," or "a mentally ill
person"; more acceptable terminology includes "a woman with Down syndrome" or "a man
who has


schizophrenia". It also states that a person's adaptive equipment should be described

functionally as something that assists a person, not as something that limits a person, for
example, "a woman who uses a wheelchair" rather than "a woman in/confined to a
A similar kind of "people-first" terminology is also used in the UK, but more often in the form
"people with impairments" (such as "people with visual impairments"). However, in the UK,
the term "disabled people" is generally preferred to "people with disabilities". It is argued
under the social model that while someone's impairment (for example, having a spinal cord
injury) is an individual property, "disability" is something created by external societal factors
such as a lack of wheelchair access to the workplace. This distinction between the individual
property of impairment and the social property of disability is central to the social model. The
term "disabled people" as a political construction is also widely used by international
organizations of disabled people, such as Disabled Peoples' International (DPI).
The use of people-first terminology has given rise to the use of the acronym PWD to refer
to person(s) (or people) with disabilities (or disability). The acronym is frequently used by
people with disabilities and advocacy organizations.
According to author Daniel J. Wilson, the characteristics of masculinity include strength,
activeness, speed, endurance, and courage. These characteristics are often challenged when
faced with a disability and the boy or man must reshape what it means to be masculine. For
example, rather than define "being a man" through what one can physically do, one must redefine it by how one faces the world with a disability and all the obstacles and stereotypes
that come with the disability.
In Leonard Kriegel's book, Flying Solo, he describes his fight with poliomyelitis and the
process of accepting his disability in a world that values able-bodiedness. He writes, "I had to
learn to be my own hero, my own role model which is another way of saying that I had to
learn to live with neither heroes nor role models".
Some note that women who are disabled face what is called a "double disability", meaning
they must not only deal with the stereotypes and challenges posed by emininity, but they must
also deal with those posed by being disabled. Culture also tends to view women as fragile and
weaker than men, stereotypes which are only heightened when a woman has a disability.
According to the "Survey of Income and Program Participation", as described in the 2005
book Gendering Disability, 74 percent of women participants and 90 percent of men
participants without disabilities were employed. In comparison, of those with a form of
disability, 41 percent of women and 51 percent of men were employed. Furthermore, the
nondisabled women participants were paid approximately four US dollars less per hour than
the nondisabled men participants. With a disability, women were paid approximately $1.00
less than the nondisabled women participants and the men were paid approximately $2.00 less
than the nondisabled men participants. As these results suggest, women without disabilities
face societal hardships as compared to men; disability added to the equation increases the
Disability and poverty
There is a global correlation between disability and poverty, produced by a variety of factors.
Disability and poverty may form a vicious circle, in which physical barriers make it more

difficult to get income, which in turn diminishes access to health care and other necessities for
a healthy life.

The World report on disability indicates that half of all disabled people cannot afford health
care, compared to a third of non-disabled people. In countries without public services for
adults with disabilities, their families may be impoverished.
Disability and disasters
There is limited research knowledge, but many anecdotal reports, on what happens when
disasters impact people with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are greatly affected by
disasters. Those with physical disabilities can be at risk when evacuating if assistance is not
available. Individuals with cognitive impairments may struggle with understanding
instructions that must be followed in the event a disaster occurs. Those who are blind, hearing
impaired, etc. may have difficulty communicating during the emergency. All of these factors
can increase the degree of variation of risk in disaster situations with disabled individuals.
Research studies have consistently found discrimination against individuals with disabilities
during all phases of the disaster cycle. The most common limitation is that people cannot
physically access buildings or transportation, as well as access disaster-related services. The
exclusion of these individuals is caused in part by the lack of disability-related training
provided to emergency planners and disaster relief personnel.



According to the Disability Funders Network, more than 20 million out of the United States'
69.6 million families have at least one family member who has a disability. The impacts of
disability include economic, political, psychological and social factors. Specifically, social
impacts are those consequences of disability that are experienced at the individual, family and
community level. These include poverty, issues of access as well as social exclusion. These
social impacts further affect how individuals and communities cope with disability.

Families living and caring for a person with disability experience both positive and negative
impacts. Disability can bring about a sense of cohesion and closeness within the family and
community as awareness on how to cope with disability increases. But disability can also be a
source of family strain between spouses and also between parents and children. According to
the Medscape website, families with special-needs children are predisposed to divorce and
tension because of the psychological and emotional strains that disability can bring about.

Risk of Poverty
According to a study by Tania Burchardt of the London School of Economics, disability
increases the risk of a person's slide into poverty. Results from this research indicate that 14
percent of those studied and had a disability slid into poverty. Families or individuals with
disability slid into poverty twice as fast as those that had not experienced a disability. Poverty
as a social impact of disability is mainly due to a loss of paid employment. Even though there
are provisions against discrimination such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, many
disabled people still have difficulty gaining meaningful employment.


Social Exclusion
Social exclusion as a result of disability means a lack of belonging in a given social context.
A person with disability may face limitations in interacting with colleagues at work, fellow
students and also family members. This may be as a result of his pushing these people away
or from the stereotypes and societal attitudes toward disability. The impact of exclusion is that
a person with disability may lack social support and social skills, such as communication, to
cope with the disability.

Society still holds biased stereotypes toward people with disability. The social mode of
disability indicates that the problem is with society's attitude toward disability and not with
the person with disability. There are increased efforts to ensure that people with disability can
easily access education, employment and social amenities. But the impact of this is that it has
resulted in the provision of segregated services for those with disability and those without
disability. According to the social model of disability, this segregation of services and
limitation to access is not helpful for people with disability. It is also not helpful in eradicating
stereotypes and discrimination.



Economy and Disability
The linkages between disability and poverty have been increasingly recognized in
international development literature (Yeo, 2005). Poor people are much more likely to live in
unhealthy conditions without access to clean water or adequate nutrition. In times of illness,
poor people are less likely to be able to afford treatment, often leading to chronic conditions
or lifelong impairments. Conversely, impairment can lead to poverty and social exclusion by
fostering financial dependency on handouts, the state and the extended family. Thus, disabled
people are more likely to be poor than their non-disabled counterparts, and people living in
poverty are more likely to become disabled than the non-poor. The relationship between
poverty and disability has been referred to as a vicious circle (Elwan, 1999; Yeo, 2005).
However, just as disability is not simply a matter of bodily variations but is caused by social
exclusion, poverty too is not merely a matter of inadequate incomes. According to the Poverty
Assessment Study Report (1995) (cited in Dube and Charowa, 2005, p. 9), poverty is a
symptom of structural inequities, social exclusion, powerlessness, and economic, political and
socio-cultural deprivation. Poverty results from having limited or no access to basic services
and is exacerbated by inadequate access to land, credit, technology and resources for
sustainable livelihoods. Thus, poverty is an inevitable consequence of the way socioeconomic systems are organized. However, hitherto most anti-poverty work has viewed
poverty as a lack of individual or household incomes. As Sen (2007) emphasizes, a limited
conception of poverty as lowness of personal income overlooks socio-political and economic
processes that perpetuate poverty. Any efforts to eliminate poverty would, therefore, be
unsuccessful if structural processes and socio-economic inequities are unaddressed. Sen cites
the example of Europe where poverty was reduced by state provision of public health care,
educational facilities, shared legal protections and other such common resources.
Yet, in the last two decades, under pressure from international financial institutions (IFIs)
such as the World Bank and IMF, many countries in the global South have introduced
economic reforms characterized by opening domestic markets to global competition,
increasing transnational capital flows, and weakening the role of governments. These
economic policies aimed at accelerated global economic integration ('globalization') (Razavi,
2008) believe in the ideology of neo-liberalism that maintains state intervention is an obstacle
to economic growth because it creates inefficiency and market distortions. Therefore,
government expenditures should be reduced, allowing provision of services through the
private sector that is more efficient due to profit incentives (Gershman & Irwin, 2000). These
principles have lead to privatization of health and social services, education, transport and,
increasingly, water and food provision in many parts of the world. Neo-liberalism that

underpins the current era of globalization has major implications for disabled persons;
however, disability definitions and discourse have paid insufficient attention to this
phenomenon. Given the virtual absence of literature on the impact of economic globalization
for persons with disabilities in India, the next section explores this topic in greater detail.
Economic Globalization, Privatization and Disability: A View from India
A mounting burden of debt and balance of payments crisis led India to adopt economic
reforms on the lines of IMF-World Bank structural adjustment programs. These reforms,
known as the New Economic Policy (NEP), were introduced in July 1991. The NEP included
standard measures including the devaluation of the rupee (India's currency); privatization of
government-owned entities; reduction in public expenditure; cutbacks to food, agricultural
and fertilizer subsidies; increase in imports and foreign investment in capital-intensive and
high-tech industries; liberalization of trade regulations; and structural changes in the economy
aimed at export-led growth (Upadhyay, 2000).
The NEP has resulted in far-reaching effects on the economy and society. While reforms have
led to record economic growth, they have also led to unprecedented economic inequalities,
environmental degradation, rise in food prices, and unrest in several states that has further
hurt historically disadvantaged groups (Bidwai, 1995, 2000; Kumar, 2008). Bidwai (2000)
observes as reform policies pry open India's markets to attract multinational
telecommunications, information technology and automobile corporations, there is little
dispute that economic globalization has benefited India's 40 million middle-class and elite;
however, these policies have been ruthless to its 500- million-plus miserably poor.
Amidst these diverse forces impacting the lives of ordinary people in the country, the situation
of people with disabilities is particularly concerning given that their exclusion from
government census and surveys translates into denial of their citizenship rights and
entitlements to existing state programs for the poor and disabled. In this section, we assess
reform-induced changes in the arenas of social programs, education, employment,
accessibility, health, water, agriculture and food security, and land acquisition from a
disability perspective.


3.5 Disabilities - Impact Of disabilities on families

Disability places a set of extra demands or challenges on the family system; most of these
demands last for a long time. Many of these challenges cut across disability type, age of the
person with the disability, and type of family in which the person lives. There is the financial
burden associated with getting health, education, and social services; buying or renting
equipment and devices; making accommodations to the home; transportation; and
medications and special food. For many of these financial items, the person or family may be
eligible for payment or reimbursement from an insurance company and/or a publicly funded
program such as Medicaid or Supplemental Security Income. However, knowing what
services and programs one is eligible for and then working with a bureaucracy to certify that
eligibility (often repeatedly) is another major challenge faced by families. Coordination of
services among different providers (such as a physician, physical therapist, occupational
therapist, dietician, social worker, teacher, and counsellor) who often are not aware of what
the other is doing and may provide discrepant information is another challenge faced by
families. While care coordination or case management is often the stated goal of service
programs, there are many flaws in implementation. Families experience the burden of this
lack of coordination.
The day-to-day strain of providing care and assistance leads to exhaustion and fatigue, taxing
the physical and emotional energy of family members. There are a whole set of issues that
create emotional strain, including worry, guilt, anxiety, anger, and uncertainty about the cause
of the disability, about the future, about the needs of other family members, about whether
one is providing enough assistance, and so on. Grieving over the loss of function of the person
with the disability is experienced at the time of onset, and often repeatedly at other stages in
the person's life.
Family life is changed, often in major ways. Care-taking responsibilities may lead to changed
or abandoned career plans. Female family members are more likely to take on care giving
roles and thus give up or change their work roles. This is also influenced by the fact that
males are able to earn more money for work in society. When the added financial burden of
disability is considered, this is the most efficient way for families to divide role
New alliances and loyalties between family members sometimes emerge, with some members
feeling excluded and others being overly drawn in. For example, the primary caregiver may
become overly involved with the person with disability. This has been noted particularly with
regard to mothers of children with disabilities. In these families, fathers often are under
involved with the child and instead immerse themselves in work or leisure activities. This
pattern usually is associated with more marital conflict. It is important to note, however, that
there does not appear to be a greater incidence of divorce among families who have a child
with a disability, although there may exist more marital tension (Hirst 1991; Sabbeth and
Leventhal 1984).

The disability can consume a disproportionate share of a family's resources of time, energy,
and money, so that other individual and family needs go unmet. Families often talk about

living "one day at a time." The family's lifestyle and leisure activities are altered. A family's
dreams and plans for the future may be given up. Social roles are disrupted because often
there is not enough time, money, or energy to devote to them.
Friends, neighbours, and people in the community may react negatively to the disability by
avoidance, disparaging remarks or looks, or overt efforts to exclude people with disabilities
and their families. Despite the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, many
communities still lack programs, facilities, and resources that allow for the full inclusion of
persons with disabilities. Families often report that the person with the disability is not a
major burden for them. The burden comes from dealing with people in the community whose
attitudes and behaviours are judgmental, stigmatizing, and rejecting of the disabled individual
and his or her family. Family members report that these negative attitudes and behaviours
often are characteristic of their friends, relatives, and service providers as well as strangers.
Overall, stress from these added demands of disability in family life can negatively affect the
health and functioning of family members. Numerous studies report that there is all increased
risk of psychological and behavioural symptoms in the family members of persons with
disabilities (Cadman et al. 1987; Singer and Powers 1993; Vance, Fazan, and Satterwhite
1980). However, even though disability increases the risk for these problems, most adults and
children who have a member with a disability do not show psychological or behavioural
problems. They have found ways to cope with this added stress in their lives. Increasingly, the
literature on families and disabilities emphasizes this adaptive capacity of families. It has been
called family resilience (Patterson 1991b; Singer and Powers 1993; Turnbull et al. 1993).
Many families actually report that the presence of disability has strengthened them as a family
they become closer, more accepting of others, have deeper faith, discover new friends,
develop greater respect for life, improve their sense of mastery, and so on.
While there are many commonalities regarding the impact of disabilities on families, other
factors lead to variability in the impact of disability on the family. Included in these factors
are the type of disability, which member of the family gets the disability, and the age of onset
of the disability.
Disabilities vary along several dimensions, including the degree and type of incapacitation
(sensory, motor, or cognitive); the degree of visibility of the disability; whether the course of
the condition is constant, relapsing, or progressive; the prognosis or life expectancy of the
person; the amount of pain or other symptoms experienced; and the amount of care or
treatment required. John Rolland (1994) has outlined a typology of chronic conditions based
on some of these factors and has described the psychosocial impact on families based on these
factors. His argument, and that of several others (Perrin et al. 1993; Stein et al. 1993), is that
the variability in the psychosocial impact of chronic conditions is related more to
characteristics of the condition than to the diagnosis.
Consider the course of the condition. When it is progressive (such as degenerative arthritis or
dementia), the symptomatic person may become increasingly less functional. The family is
faced with increasing caretaking demands, uncertainty about the degree of dependency and
what living arrangement is best, as well as grieving continuous loss. These families need to
readjust continuously to the increasing strain and must be willing to find and utilize outside
resources. If a condition has a relapsing course (such as epilepsy or cancer in remission), the
ongoing care may be less, but a family needs to be able to reorganize itself quickly and
mobilize resources when the condition flares up. They must be able to move from normalcy to

crisis alert rapidly. An accumulation of these dramatic transitions can exhaust a family.
Disabilities with a constant course (such as a spinal cord injury) require major reorganization
of the family at the outset and then perseverance and stamina for a long time. While these
families can plan, knowing what is ahead, limited community resources to help them may
lead to exhaustion.
Disabilities where mental ability is limited seem to be more difficult for families to cope with
(Breslau 1993; Cole and Reiss 1993; Holroyd and Guthrie 1986). This may be due to greater
dependency requiring more vigilance by family members, or because it limits the person's
ability to take on responsible roles, and perhaps limits the possibilities for independent living.
If the mental impairment is severe, it may create an extra kind of strain for families because
the person is physically present in the family but mentally absent. This kind of incongruence
between physical presence and psychological presence has been called boundary ambiguity
(Boss 1993). Boundary ambiguity means that it is not entirely clear to family members
whether the person (with the disability in this case) is part of the family or not because the
person is there in some ways but not in others. Generally, families experience more distress
when situations are ambiguous or unclear because they do not know what to expect and may
have a harder time planning the roles of other family members to accommodate this
In addition to cognitive impairment, other characteristics of disabilities can create ambiguity
and uncertainty for families. For example, an uncertain life expectancy makes it difficult to
plan future life roles, to anticipate costs of care, or to make decisions about the best living
arrangements for adults requiring assistance in the activities of daily living. For example,
from 1970 to 1991, survival for children with cystic fibrosis increased 700 percent, to a life
expectancy of twenty-six years in the United States (Fitzsimmons 1991). These young adults
now face difficult family decisions, such as whether to marry and whether to have children. In
more extreme cases related to severe medical conditions, persons may have their lives
extended by using advances in biomedical science and technology. When this happens,
families can be faced with very difficult decisions about what techniques and equipment
should be used, for how long, with what expected gains, at what cost, and so on. Society is
facing new issues in biomedical ethics, but there is no social consensus about how
aggressively to intervene and under what circumstances. Family members who bear the
emotional burden of these decisions do not always agree on a course of action and,
furthermore, may be blocked by hospitals and courts from carrying out a particular course of
action. While these kinds of cases may not yet be widespread, they have sparked intense
debate and raised the consciousness of many families about issues they may face.
In addition to type of impairment, there is variability in the severity of impairment. The
degree to which a person with disability is limited in doing activities or functions of daily
living (e.g., walking, feeding oneself, and toileting) can be assessed and is called functional
status. The lower the person's functional status, the more assistance he or she will need from
other people and/or from equipment and devices. Family members are a primary source of
this needed assistance (Biegel, Sales, and Schulz 1991; Stone and Kemper 1989). Providing
this assistance can create a burden for family caregivers, which may result in physical or
psychological symptoms of poor health. For example, parents, especially mothers, experience
more depression when their children with disabilities have lower functional status (Patterson,
Leonard, and Titus 1992; Singer et al. 1993). For elderly caregivers, physical strain may be a
limiting factor in how much and for how long assistance can be provided for the disabled
individual (Blackburn 1988).

The age of the person when the disability emerges is associated with different impacts on the
family and on the family's life course, as well as on the course of development for the person
with disability (Eisenberg, Sutkin, and Jansen 1984). When conditions emerge in late
adulthood, in some ways this is normative and more expectable. Psychologically it is usually
less disruptive to the family. When disability occurs earlier in a person's life, this is out of
phase with what is considered normative, and the impact on the course of development for the
person and the family is greater. More adjustments have to be made and for longer periods of
When the condition is present from birth, the child's life and identity are shaped around the
disability. In some ways it may be easier for a child and his or her family to adjust to never
having certain functional abilities than to a sudden loss of abilities later. For example, a child
with spina bifida from birth will adapt differently than a child who suddenly becomes a
paraplegic in adolescence due to an injury.
The age of the parents when a child's disability is diagnosed is also an important consideration
in how the family responds. For example, teenage parents are at greater risk for experiencing
poor adaptation because their own developmental needs are still prominent, and they are less
likely to have the maturity and resources to cope with the added demands of the child. For
older parents there is greater risk of having a child with certain disabilities, such as Down
syndrome. Older parents may lack the stamina for the extra burden of care required, and they
may fear their own mortality and be concerned about who will care for their child when they
The course of the child's physical, psychological, and social development will forever be
altered by the chronic condition. Since development proceeds sequentially, and since relative
success at mastering the tasks of one stage is a prerequisite for facing the challenges of the
next stage, one could anticipate that the earlier the onset, the greater the adverse impact on
development (Eisenberg, Sutkin, and Jansen 1984).
There are many ways in which the accomplishment of development tasks is complicated for
persons with disabilities. This, in turn, has an effect on their families as well as on which
family roles can be assumed by the person with disability (Perrin and Gerrity 1984). For
example, in infancy, disability may frighten parents, or the infant may be unresponsive to their
nurturing efforts such that attachment and bonding necessary for the development of trust are
compromised. The parent may feel inadequate as a caregiver, and parenting competence is
undermined. For a toddler, active exploration of the social environment, needed to develop a
sense of autonomy and self-control, may be restricted because of the child's motor, sensory, or
cognitive deficits. Parents, fearing injury or more damage to their young child, may restrict
their child's efforts to explore and learn, or they may overindulge the child out of sympathy or
guilt. If other people react negatively to the child's disability, parents may try to compensate
by being overly protective or overly solicitous. These parent behaviours further compromise
the child's development of autonomy and self-control.
As children with disabilities move into school environments where they interact with teachers
and peers, they may experience difficulties mastering tasks and developing social skills and
competencies. Although schools are mandated to provide special education programs for
children in the least restrictive environment and to maximize integration, there is still
considerable variability in how effectively schools do this. Barriers include inadequate
financing for special education; inadequately trained school personnel; and, very often,

attitudinal barriers of other children and staff that compromise full inclusion for students with
disabilities. Parents of children with disabilities may experience a whole set of added
challenges in assuring their children's educational rights. In some instances, conflict with
schools and other service providers can become a major source of strain for families (Walker
and Singer 1993). In other cases, school programs are a major resource for families.
Developmental tasks of adolescence developing an identity and developing greater
autonomyare particularly difficult when the adolescent has a disability. Part of this process
for most adolescents generally involves some risk-taking behaviours, such as smoking and
drinking. Adolescents with disabilities take risks too, sometimes defying treatment and
procedures related to their condition, such as skipping medications or changing a prescribed
diet. Issues related to sexuality may be particularly difficult because the person with disability
has fears about his or her desirability to a partner, sexual performance, and worries about ever
getting married or having children (Coupey and Cohen 1984). There is some evidence that
girls may be at greater risk for pregnancy because of their desire to disavow their disability
and prove their normalcy (Holmes 1986). Teens with mental impairment may be subjected to
sexual exploitation by others.
When disability has its onset in young adulthood, the person's personal, family, and vocational
plans for the future may be altered significantly. If the young adult has a partner where there
is a long-term commitment, this relationship may be in jeopardy, particularly if the ability to
enact adult roles as a sexual partner, parent, financial provider, or leisure partner are affected
(Ireys and Burr 1984). When a couple has just begun to plan a future based on the assumption
that both partners would be fully functional, they may find the adjustment to the disability too
great to handle. The development of a relationship with a significant other after the disability
is already present is more likely to lead to positive adjustment. Young adulthood is that
critical transition from one's family of origin to creating a new family unit with a partner and
possibly children. When disability occurs at this stage, the young adult's parents may become
the primary caregivers, encouraging or bringing the young person home again. The risk is that
the developmental course for the young adult and his or her parents may never get back on

This is influenced in part by the extent to which there are independent living options for
persons with disabilities to make use of in the community.
When the onset of disability occurs to adults in their middle years, it is often associated with
major disruption to career and family roles. Those roles are affected for the person with the
disability as well as for other family members who have come to depend on him or her to
fulfill those roles. Some kind of family reorganization of roles, rules, and routines is usually
required. If the person has been employed, he or she may have to give up work and career
entirely or perhaps make dramatic changes in amount and type of work. The family may face
a major loss of income as well as a loss in health and other employee benefits. If the person is
a parent, childrearing responsibilities may be altered significantly. The adult may have to
switch from being the nurturer to being the nurtured. This may leave a major void in the
family for someone to fill the nurturing role. If the person is a spouse, the dynamics of this
relationship will change as one person is unable to perform as independently as before. The
partner with the disability may be treated like another child. The sexual relationship may
change, plans for having more children may be abandoned, lifestyle and leisure may be

altered. Some spouses feel that their marital contract has been violated, and they are unwilling
to make the necessary adjustments. Children of a middle-aged adult with a disability also
experience role shifts. Their own dependency and nurturing needs may be neglected. They
may be expected to take on some adult roles, such as caring for younger children, doing
household chores, or maybe even providing some income. How well the family's efforts at
reorganization work depends ultimately on the family's ability to accommodate ageappropriate developmental needs. In families where there is more flexibility among the adults
in assuming the different family roles, adjustment is likely to be better.
The onset of disability in old age is more expectable as bodily functions deteriorate. This
decline in physical function is often associated with more depression. An older person may
live for many years needing assistance in daily living, and the choices of where to get that
assistance are not always easily made. Spouses may be unable to meet the extra caretaking
needs indefinitely as their own health and stamina decline (Blackburn 1988). Adult children
are often in a position of deciding where their elderly parent or parents should live when they
can no longer care for themselves. Having their parents move in with them or having them
move to a nursing home or seniors' residence are the most common options. However, each of
these choices carries with it emotional, financial, and social costs to the elderly person as well
as to his or her adult children. This responsibility for elderly parents is not always shared
among adult children. Adult daughters are more likely than adult sons to be involved in
providing direct care for their elderly parents (Brody 1985). The many decisions and
responsibilities can be sources of tension, conflict, and resentment among extended family
members. This period of disability in old age can go on for a very long time, given the
medical capability to sustain life. While the practice is still not widespread, more elderly
people are preparing a living will, which is a legal document preventing extraordinary means
from being used to prolong their lives.


4.Challenges Faced by People with Disabilities

Disability is a socially constructed problem.
It is the way that our physical environment is organised, for example, [that] makes all sorts of
difficulties for people who use a wheelchair or who have hearing impairment.
The sorts of challenges which persist for people with disabilities, their Carers and families are
those that make the navigating day-to-day life difficult. Like access to services, buildings,
technology, education and training, telecommunications and any other ordinary everyday
activities or issues that most able persons would take for granted. Other issues which are
faced include limited access to services, lack of service options, issues of funding and
resourcing, and jurisdictional challenges between state and federal government servicing and
In Australia, groups such as national ethnic disability Alliance (NEDA), Women with
Disabilities Australia (WWDA) and the Australian Federation of Disability Organisations
(AFDO), and others have played an integral role in empowering people with disabilities by:
ensuring that government policy and disability service design is responsive to the needs of
persons with disability and their families; by highlighting human rights issues; and by seeking
to redefine social inclusion to embrace broader cultural and social contexts.




6.National Policy for Persons with Disabilities

The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals and
implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including persons with disabilities. In the
recent years, there have been vast and positive changes in the perception of the society
towards persons with disabilities. It has been realized that a majority of persons with
disabilities can lead a better quality of life if they have equal opportunities and effective
access to rehabilitation measures.
2. According to the Census 2001, there are 2.19 crore persons with disabilities in India who
constitute 2.13 percent of the total population. This includes persons with visual, hearing,
speech, locomotors and mental disabilities. Seventy five per cent of persons with disabilities
live in rural areas, 49 per cent of disabled population is literate and only 34 per cent are
employed. The earlier emphasis on medical rehabilitation has now been replaced by an
emphasis on social rehabilitation. There has been an increasing recognition of abilities of
persons with disabilities and emphasis on mainstreaming them in the society based on their
capabilities. The Government of India has enacted three legislations for persons with
disabilities viz.

Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full

Participation) Act, 1995, which provides for education, employment, creation of
barrier free environment, social security, etc.


National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation
and Multiple Disability Act, 1999 has provisions for legal guardianship of the four
categories and creation of enabling environment for as much independent living as


Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992 deals with the development of manpower
for providing rehabilitation services.

3. In addition to the legal framework, extensive infrastructure has been developed. The
following seven national Institutes are working for development of manpower in different
areas, namely,

Institute for the Physically Handicapped, New Delhi.

National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Dehradun

National Institute for Orthopedically Handicapped, Kolkata

National Institute for Mentally Handicapped, Secunderabad.

National Institute for Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai

National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research, Cuttack.

National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities, Chennai.


4. There are five Composite Rehabilitation Centres, four Regional Rehabilitation Centres and
120 District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs) providing various kinds of
rehabilitation services to persons
with disabilities. There are also several national institutions under the Ministry of Health &
Family Welfare working in the field of rehabilitation, like National Institute of Mental Health
and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore; All India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,
Mumbai; All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysore; Central Institute of Psychiatry,
Ranchi, etc. In addition, certain State Government institutions also provide rehabilitation
services. Besides, 250 private institutions conduct training courses for rehabilitation
5. National Handicapped and Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC) has been
providing loans on concessional terms for undertaking self-employment ventures by the
persons with disabilities through State Channelizing Agencies.
6. Panchayati Raj Institutions at Village level, Intermediary level and District level have been
entrusted with the welfare of persons with disabilities.
7. India is a signatory to the Declaration on the Full Participation and Equality of People with
Disabilities in the Asia Pacific Region. India is also a signatory to the Biwako Millennium
Framework for action towards an inclusive, barrier free and rights based society. India is
currently participating in the negotiations on the UN Convention on Protection and Promotion
of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities.
National Policy Statement
8. The National Policy recognizes that Persons with Disabilities are valuable human resource
for the country and seeks to create an environment that provides them equal opportunities,
protection of their rights and full participation in society. The focus of the policy shall be on
the following:
I. Prevention of Disabilities
9. Since disability, in a large number of cases, is preventable, there will be strong emphasis on
prevention of disabilities. Programme for prevention of diseases, which result in disability and
the creation of awareness regarding measures to be taken for prevention of disabilities during
the period of pregnancy and thereafter will be intensified and their coverage expanded.
II. Rehabilitation Measures
10. Rehabilitation measures can be classified into three distinct groups:

physical rehabilitation, which includes early detection and intervention, counseling &
medical interventions and provision of aids & appliances. It will also include the
development of rehabilitation professionals.


educational rehabilitation including vocational education and


economic rehabilitation for a dignified life in society.

II A. Physical Rehabilitation Strategies

(a) Early Detection and Intervention
11. Early detection of disability and intervention through drug or non-drug therapies helps in
minimization of impact of disability. Therefore, there will be emphasis on early detection and
early intervention, and necessary facilities will be created towards this end. Government will

take measures to disseminate information regarding availability of such facilities to the people
especially in rural areas.
(b) Counselling & Medical Rehabilitation
12. Physical rehabilitation measures including counselling, strengthening capacities of
persons with disabilities and their families, physiotherapy, occupational therapy,
psychotherapy, surgical correction and intervention, vision assessment, vision stimulation,
speech therapy, audio logical rehabilitation and special education shall be extended to cover
all the districts in the country by active involvement and participation of State Governments,
local level institutions, NGOs including associations of parents and persons with disabilities.
13. Currently, rehabilitation services are largely available in and around urban areas. Since
seventy five percent persons with disabilities live in rural areas, the services run by
professionals will be extended to cover uncovered and un-served areas. Privately owned
rehabilitation service centres shall be regulated for maintenance of minimum standards which
shall be laid down.
14. To expand coverage in rural and unnerved areas, new District Disability Rehabilitation
Centres (DDRCs) will be set up with support from the State Government.
15. The National Rural Health Mission through Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)
addresses the health needs of rural population, especially the vulnerable sections of society.
The ASHA inter-alia will take care of the comprehensive services to the persons with
disabilities at the grass root level.
(c) Assistive Devices
16. The Government of India has been assisting persons with disabilities in procuring durable
and scientifically manufactured, modern aids and appliances of ISI standard that can promote
their physical, social and psychological independence by reducing the effect of disabilities.
17. Every year through National Institutes, State Governments, DDRCs and NGOs, persons
with disabilities are provided with devices such as prostheses and outhouses, tricycles, wheel
chair, surgical footwear and devices for activities of daily living, learning equipments (Braille
writing equipments, Dictaphone, CD player/ tape recorder), low vision aids, special mobility
aids like canes for blind, hearing aids, educational kits, communication aids, assistive &
alerting devices and devices suitable for the persons with mental disabilities. The availability
of devices will be expanded to cover uncovered and under-serviced areas.
18. Private, public and joint sector enterprises involved in the manufacture of high tech
assistive devices for persons with disabilities will be provided financial support by the public
sector banks.
(d) Development of Rehabilitation Professionals
19. Human resource requirements for rehabilitation of persons with disabilities will be
assessed and development plan will be prepared so that the rehabilitation strategies do not
suffer from lack of manpower.
II B. Education for Persons with Disabilities
20. Education is the most effective vehicle of social and economic empowerment. In keeping
with the spirit of the Article 21A of the Constitution guaranteeing education as a fundamental
right and Section 26 of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, free and compulsory
education has to be provided to all children with disabilities up to the minimum age of 18
years. According to the Census, 2001, fifty-one percent persons with disabilities are illiterate.
This is a very large percentage. There is a need for mainstreaming of the persons with
disabilities in the general education system through Inclusive education.
21. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) launched by the Government has the goal of eight years of
elementary schooling for all children including children with disabilities in the age group of

6-14 years by 2010. Children with disabilities in the age group of 15-18 years are provided
free education under Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme.
22. Under SSA, a continuum of educational options, learning aids and tools, mobility
assistance, support services etc. are being made available to students with disabilities. This
includes education through an open learning system and open schools, alternative schooling,
distance education, special schools, wherever necessary home based education, itinerant
teacher model, remedial teaching, part time classes, Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR)
and vocational education.
23. IEDC Scheme implemented through the State Governments, Autonomous Bodies and
Voluntary Organizations provides hundred percent financial assistance for various facilities
like special teachers, books and stationery, uniform, transport, readers allowance for the
visually handicapped, hostel allowance, equipment cost, removal/ modification of
architectural barriers, financial assistance for purchase/ production of instructional material,
training of general teachers and equipment for resource rooms.
24. There will be concerted effort on the part of the Government to improve identification of
children with disabilities through regular surveys, their enrolment in appropriate schools and
their continuation till they successfully complete their education. The Government will
endeavor to provide right kind of learning material and books to the children with disabilities,
suitably trained and sensitized teachers and schools which are accessible and disabled
25. Government of India is providing scholarships to students with disabilities for pursuing
studies at post school level. Government will continue to support the scholarships and expand
its coverage.
26. Facilities for technical and vocational education designed to inculcate and bolster skill
development suited to various types of productive activities by adaptation of the existing
institutes or accelerated setting up of institutes in un-served / underserved areas will be
encouraged. NGOs will also be encouraged to provide vocational training.
27. Persons with disabilities will be provided access to the Universities, technical institutions
and other institutions of higher learning to pursue higher and professional courses.
II C. Economic Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities
28. Economic rehabilitation of Persons with disabilities comprise of both wage employment
in organized sector and self-employment. Supporting structure of services by way of
vocational rehabilitation centres and vocational training centres will be developed to ensure
that disabled persons in both urban and rural areas have increased opportunities for productive
and gainful employment. Strategies for economic empowerment of persons with disabilities
would be the following.
(i) Employment in Government Establishments
The PWD Act, 1995 provides for 3% reservation in employment in the establishments of
Government of India and Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) against identified posts. The
status of reservation for Government in various Ministries / Departments against identified
posts in Group A, B, C & D is 3.07%, 4.41%, 3.76% and 3.18% respectively. In PSUs, the
reservation status in Group A, B, C & D is 2.78%, 8.54%, 5.04% and 6.75%, respectively.
Government will ensure reservation in identified posts in the Government sector including
public sector undertakings in accordance with the provisions of the PWD Act, 1995. The list
of identified posts, which was notified in 2001, will be reviewed and updated.


(ii) Wage employment in Private sector

Development of appropriate skills in persons with disabilities will be encouraged for their
employability in private sector. Vocational rehabilitation and training Centres engaged in
developing appropriate skills amongst persons with disabilities keeping in view their potential
and abilities will be encouraged to expand their services. Considering rapid growth of
employment opportunities in service sector, persons with disabilities will be encouraged to
undertake skill training suitable to the market requirement. Pro-active measures like
incentives, awards, tax exemptions etc. will be taken to encourage the employment of persons
with disabilities in the private sector.
(iii) Self-employment
Considering slow pace of growth in employment opportunities in the organized sector, selfemployment of persons with disabilities will be promoted. This will be done through
vocational education and management training. Further, the existing system of providing
loans at softer terms from the NHFDC will be improved to make it easily accessible with
transparent and efficient procedures of processing. The Government will also encourage selfemployment by providing incentives, tax concessions, exemptions from duties, preferential
treatment for procurement of goods and services by the Government from the enterprises of
persons with disabilities, etc. Priority in financial support will be given to Self Help Groups
formed by the persons with disabilities.
III. Women with disabilities
29. According to Census-2001, there are 93.01 lakh women with disabilities, which constitute
42.46 percent of total disabled population. Women with disabilities require protection against
exploitation and abuse. Special programmes will be developed for education, employment
and providing of other rehabilitation services to women with disabilities keeping in view their
special needs. Special educational and vocation training facilities will be setup. Programmes
will be undertaken to rehabilitate abandoned disabled women/ girls by encouraging their
adoption in families, support to house them and impart them training for gainful employment
skills. The Government will encourage the projects where representation of women with
disabilities is ensured at least to the extent of twenty five percent of total beneficiaries.
30. Steps shall be taken to provide short duration stay homes for women with disabilities,
hostels for working disabled women, and homes for aged disabled women.
31. It has been noted that women with disabilities have serious difficulty in looking after their
children. The Government will take up a programme to provide financial support to women
with disabilities so that they may hire services to look after their children. Such support will
be limited to two children for a period not exceeding two years.
IV. Children with Disabilities
32. Children with disabilities are the most vulnerable group and need special attention. The
Government would strive to: a. Ensure right to care, protection and security for children with disabilities;
b. Ensure the right to development with dignity and equality creating an enabling
environment where children can exercise their rights, enjoy equal opportunities and
full participation in accordance with various statutes.


c. Ensure inclusion and effective access to education, health, vocational training along
with specialized rehabilitation services to children with disabilities.
d. Ensure the right to development as well as recognition of special needs and of care,
and protection of children with severe disabilities.
V. Barrier-free environment
33. Barrier-free environment enables people with disabilities to move about safely and freely,
and use the facilities within the built environment. The goal of barrier free design is to provide
an environment that supports the independent functioning of individuals so that they can
participate without assistance, in everyday activities. Therefore, to the maximum extent
possible, buildings / places / transportation systems for public use will be made barrier free.
VI. Issue of Disability Certificates
34. The Government of India has notified guidelines for evaluation of the disabilities and
procedure for certification. The Government will ensure that the persons with disabilities
obtain the disability certificates without any difficulty in the shortest possible time by
adoption of simple, transparent and client-friendly procedures.
VII. Social Security
35. Disabled persons, their families and care givers incur substantial additional expenditure
for facilitating activities of daily living, medical care, transportation, assistive devices, etc.
Therefore, there is a need to provide them social security by various means. Central
Government has been providing tax relief to persons with disabilities and their guardians. The
State Governments / U.T. Administrations have been providing unemployment allowance or
disability pension. The State Governments will be encouraged to develop a comprehensive
social security policy for persons with disabilities.
36. Parents of severely disabled persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and
multiple disabilities feel a sense of insecurity regarding the welfare of their wards after their
death. National Trust for persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple
disabilities has been providing legal guardians through Local Level Committee. They are also
implementing the Supported Guardianship Scheme to provide financial security to persons
with the above-mentioned severe disabilities who are destitute and abandoned by supporting
the cost of guardianship. This scheme, which is presently implemented in a few districts, shall
be expanded to cover other areas in a phased manner.
VIII. Promotion of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
37. The National Policy recognizes the NGO sector as a very important institutional
mechanism to provide affordable services to complement the endeavours of the Government.
The NGO sector is a
vibrant and growing one. It has played a significant role in the provisions of services for
persons with disabilities. Some of the NGOs are also undertaking human resource
development and research activities. Government has also been actively involving them in
policy formulation, planning, implementation, monitoring and has been seeking their advice
on various issues relating to persons with disabilities. Interaction with NGOs will be enhanced
on various disability issues regarding planning, policy formulation and implementation.
Networking, exchange of information and sharing of good practices amongst NGOs will be
encouraged and facilitated. The following programmes will be undertaken:i.

A Directory of NGOs working in the field of disability will be prepared properly

mapping them by geographic regions along with their major activities. For NGOs


supported by the Central / State Governments, their resource position, both financial
and manpower will also be reported. Disabled persons organizations, family
associations and advocacy groups of parents of disabled persons shall also be covered
in the directory identifying them separately.

There are regional / State imbalances in the development of the NGO movement.
Steps will be taken to encourage and accord preference to NGOs working in the
underserved and inaccessible areas. Reputed NGOs shall also be encouraged to take
up projects in such areas.


NGOs will be encouraged to develop and adopt minimum standards, codes of conduct
and ethics.


NGOs will be provided opportunities for orientation and training of their human
resource. Training in management skill which is already being provided, will be
strengthened. Transparency, accountability, procedural simplification etc. will be
guiding factors for improvement in the NGO-Government partnership.


The NGOs shall be encouraged to mobilize their own resources to reduce the
dependence on grants-in-aid from the Government and also to improve the availability
of funds in the sector. Tapering of assistance in a schematic manner will also be
considered so that the number of NGOs to be helped within the available resources
could be maximized. Towards this end, NGOs will be trained in resource mobilization.

IX. Collection of regular information on Persons with Disabilities

38. There is a need for regular collection, compilation and analysis of data relating to socioeconomic conditions of persons with disabilities. The National Sample Survey Organization
has been collecting information on Socio-economic conditions of persons with disabilities on
regular basis once in ten years since 1981. The Census has also started collection of
information on persons with disabilities from the Census-2001. The National Sample Survey
Organization will have to collect the information on persons with disabilities at least once in
five years. The differences in the definitions adopted by the two agencies will be reconciled.
39. A comprehensive web site for persons with disability will be created under the Ministry of
Social Justice & Empowerment. Organizations both in public and private sector will be
encouraged to make their web sites accessible to the visually impaired using Screen Reading
X. Research
40. For improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities, research will be supported on
their socio-economic and cultural context, cause of disabilities, early childhood education
methodologies, development of user-friendly aids and appliances and all matters connected
with disabilities which will significantly alter the quality of their life and civil society's ability
to respond to their concerns. Wherever persons with disabilities are subjected to research
interventions, their or their family member or caregiver's consent is mandatory.

XI. Sports, Recreation and Cultural life

41. The contribution of sports for its therapeutic and community spirit is undeniable. Persons
with disabilities have right to access sports, recreation and cultural facilities. The Government


will take necessary steps to provide them opportunity for participation in various sports,
recreation and cultural activities.
XII. Amendments to existing Acts dealing with the Persons with Disabilities
42. Ten years have passed since the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection
of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 came into operation. With the experience gained in
the implementation of the Act and developments in the disability sector, certain amendments
to the Act have become necessary. These amendments will be carried out in consultation with
the stakeholders. RCI and National Trust Acts will also be reviewed and if necessary, required
amendments would be made.



About Asmita
Asmita is an organization registered under Public Trust Act 1950 vide Reg. No.482/77 dated
It imparts services in the field of Social, Cultural, and Educational since May 1976.
Today we are 11 members on board, as a board of trustees with Mr.P.L.Wankhede, CA by
profession, as the president and Mr.Jagdish Samant as the Executive president on board. Trust
has 250 members including life members.


7.1 History
In 1976, Asmita implied You take one step and well take ten and arose as a trust in
Jogeshwari with various social initiatives. In the journey of last 34 years established land
marks are Asmita Bhavan on western express highway, Chhatrapati Shivaji Shishu Vikas
Mandir in Bandrekarwadi, Manohar Hariram Chogle Centre for Physically Challenged.
Asmita started in 1976 with 400 members. Asmitas logo has symbols like theatrical door
resembling cultural activities, writing hand resembling education and Mashal (batton) to
instigate socialist feelings. With the magical wand A Few Drops of Your Blood Can save
Several Lives people have been donating blood in the camps organized by Asmita. Get the
ball roll in this aspect we started with mobile Blood Donation Projects since the very
beginning of 1976 .
In the same year a Book Bank was started to support educational needs of students. The
volunteers collected used newspaper to raise money for this book bank. Then in 1978 1st
classes were started with 51 students of Shishu Bal Vikas Mandir. Asmita had 1st school
building Chhatrapati Shivaji Shishu Vikas Mandir in Bandrekarwadi in 1980 and Asmita
Bhavan on western express highway in 1997. Today more than thousand students are learning.
School activities like Diwali Shibhir, Prabhat Phari ,Students Counsel, External Examinations,
Sports, Hastalikhit are conducted for all round development of students. Initiatives like Palak
Mandal, Maji Vidhyarti Sangh has ensured family feeling between Teachers, Students and
Asmitas activities for women started with Haldi kunku function of thousand ladies. This
followed by stitching classes, stitching machines, Makar Sankraman utasav , Balsanskar
Kendra, training centre for the Balwadi Teachers. For around 15 years Asmita held
Natyamotsava in Jogeshwari where professional Shows of Marathi theatre were held on the
ground of Ismail Yusuf College. Also held Hemant Vyakhyanmala wherein many well known
speakers came to jogeshwari.
Asmita has been working for the physically challenged as well. It started with survey of
physically challenged. Then held checkups camps for them. Now it has Manohar Hariram

Chogle Centre for supporting physically challenged with Artificial organs ,operations
exercise, ambulance, educational rehabilitation , cultural activities ,sports , financial
rehabilitation. Since 1978, Asmita distributes Rakhees prepared by physical challenged on the
occasion of Raksha Bandhan.

7.2 Mission and Vision

Asmita came into existence on 1st May 1976 in the slum areas of Jogeshwari, Mumbai. In
those days there was a critical situation and even the basic amenities like electricity, water and
road were absent. The area, then, was also a center of anti-social elements.
Mission: The mission of serving the poor and deprived people of the area, Asmita decided to
take up activities in social, cultural and educational fields. Soon, Asmita became familiar and
grew popular amongst the residents of the locality for its small but selfless services.
Vision: To grow from a small sapling to a big tree, from small services to multiple and large
scale service projects touching, todays lives of few thousand families living in the area.

7.3 Development programs initiated by Asmita Foundation

Asmita is a NGO based in Mumbai. It runs many projects, amongst which, runs a small
vocational training centre for physically challenged people in Ashokvan, Borivali (West),
Mumbai. Their motto Hum bhi kisi se kam nahi is not just on paper, but we could see that
motto being carved out into the hearts of many students undergoing various kind of trainings
at the institute.
The centre mainly targets handicapped people who are confined to their homes due to their
disabilities and lack of self confidence. Asmita volunteers go to the society (which targets
mainly slums) looking for such students and persuading their parents to send them to the
centre. Recently they have started involving college social project teams to reach out to
physically challenged people in the society. Each batch consists of about 15-20 students who
are trained for about 2 years. The main aim is to build self confidence within these students so
that they have the confidence to face the society and the required skills to earn a livelihood for
themselves. Up till now the trust has helped more than 1000 handicapped people (called as
'AmrutPutra' and 'AmrutKanya' ) in the centre.
The activities in the centre include sewing, wood/board panel cutting and painting, making
greeting cards, making paper plates, stitching (bags, aprons, mats, etc), agarbattis, other
handicrafts used by KG schools, teaching computer basics, etc. At the end of their training
period, the students are provided with machinery and equipment to enable them to earn a
sustainable living.

7.4 Challenges and opportunities which are been faced by ASMITA

1) Lack of Funds: ASMITHA is expressing difficulty in finding sufficient, appropriate and
continuous funding for their work. They find accessing donors as challenging as dealing with
their funding conditions. They perceive there to be certain cartels of individuals and NGOs
that control access to donor funds. They have limited resource mobilization skills and are
often not looking for funds that are available locally, preferring to wait for international
donors to approach them. There is a high dependency of donors and a tendency to shift
interventions to match donor priorities. There is a lack of financial, project and organizational
2) Poor Governance: It was recognized within the sector as a whole, within the NGO
Council and within individual NGOs. Knowledge of good governance varied widely, with
some regions
indicating very little understanding of why NGOs are required to have Boards or what their
roles and functions should be. Many other participants explained that it is difficult to achieve
good governance with founders who wished to own their NGOs for their own purposes.
Participants with better understanding of good governance appreciated that this is
fundamental to ASMITHAs accountability and transparency.
3) Absence of Strategic Planning: Lack of strategic plan for the further expansion and the
growth are missing out with ASMITHA as it lacks the professionalism and skills of
4) Poor Networking: was identified as a major challenge. It is the cause of duplication of
efforts, conflicting strategies at community level, a lack of learning from experience and an
inability of ASMITA to address local structural causes of poverty, deprivation and underdevelopment.
5) Parents and PWDs: People with disabilities often have low awareness of rights &
entitlements. Physically disable have barrier and restriction from family as they are not
allowed to work as they are given the corner in the house. Suppose if the NGO want to help
the physically disable person the challenge is to convey the family member to send them to
work or to entitle any kind of home based business to them.
The other minor challenges which are been faced by are:
1) Poor communication
2) Limited capacity
3) Development approach

1)Local Resource Mobilization provides potential for ASMITHA to raise funds from local
businesses, individuals, government and locally generated income. To do this ASMITHA must
have strong governance and accountability mechanisms, clear strategies and local credibility.
2) Local Networking provides opportunities for mutual learning, identifying appropriate
development initiatives, generating learning resources, improving coordination and
cooperation with local government, harmonizing approaches to development, and pursuing
effective local advocacy. Form consortia to source funding from the donor community (larger
projects to access larger donors)
3) Government devolved funds and new funding mechanisms: The CDF, Constituency
Aids Funds, Youth, Women, Water, LATF and other locally available development funding is
available to local NGOs and CBOs, which should also be more involved in the management
of these funds New basket funding from central government, through the NGO Board, is also
a possibility. They can take help of these governmental bodies which are available for raising
the funds for the development of NGOs.


As this volume illustrates, civil society generally and NGO in particular have played and
continue to play an important role in ensuring the optimal effectiveness and success of the
human right system and its aim to prohibit where possible, NGO must include torture and
other ill treatments of detainees and the provisions of the character are converted into concrete
and effective guarantees. Regarding the engagement at the regional level, NGO are advised to
purse more effectively the strategies of setting standards to their work.
The NGO like Asmita works for the goodwill of physically disable people who are actually
given a corner in their homes as they are not allowed to work or given any kind of
opportunities to show there capability to the world, Asmita has given the opportunity to
physically disable people to show abilities to the world and also have generated the self
respect within their selves.



Reports of Asmita foundation