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Chapter17.Composites

Chapter17.Composites
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[Chapter3.StructureofCrystals][Chapter4.Imperfections][Chapter5.Diffusion]
[Chapter6.MechanicalPropertiesofMetals][Chapter7.DislocationsandStrengtheningMechanisms]
[Chapter8.Failure][Chapter9.PhaseDiagrams][Chapter10:PhaseTransformationsinMetals]
[Chapter11.ThermalProcessingofMetalAlloys][Chapter13.CeramicsStructuresandProperties]
[Chapter14.CeramicsApplicationsandProcessing][Chapter15.PolymerStructures]
[Chapter16.Polymers.Characteristics,ApplicationsandProcessing][Chapter17.Composites]
[Chapter19.ElectricalProperties]

17.1Introduction
Theideaisthatbycombiningtwoormoredistinctmaterialsonecanengineeranewmaterialwiththe
desiredcombinationofproperties(e.g.,light,strong,corrosionresistant).Theideathatabetter
combinationofpropertiescanbeachievediscalledtheprincipleofcombinedaction.
NewHightechmaterials,engineeredtospecificapplications
Oldbrickstrawcomposites,paper,knownfor>5000years.
Atypeofcompositethathasbeendiscussedisperliticsteel,whichcombineshard,brittlecementitewith
soft,ductileferritetogetasuperiormaterial.
Naturalcomposites:wood(polymerpolymer),bones(polymerceramics).
Usualcompositeshavejusttwophases:
matrix(continuous)
dispersedphase(particulates,fibers)
Propertiesofcompositesdependon
propertiesofphases
geometryofdispersedphase(particlesize,distribution,orientation)
amountofphase
Classificationofcomposites:threemaincategories:
particlereinforced(largeparticleanddispersionstrengthened)
fiberreinforced(continuous(aligned)andshortfibers(alignedorrandom)
structural(laminatesandsandwichpanels)
Particlereinforcedcomposites
Thesearethecheapestandmostwidelyused.Theyfallintwocategoriesdependingonthesizeofthe
particles:
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largeparticlecomposites,whichactbyrestrainingthemovementofthematrix,ifwellbonded.
dispersionstrengthenedcomposites,containing10100nmparticles,similartowhatwasdiscussed
underprecipitationhardening.Thematrixbearsthemajorportionoftheappliedloadandthesmall
particleshinderdislocationmotion,limitingplasticdeformation.
17.2LargeParticleComposites
Propertiesareacombinationofthoseofthecomponents.Theruleofmixturespredictsthatanupper
limitoftheelasticmodulusofthecompositeisgivenintermsoftheelasticmoduliofthematrix(Em)
andtheparticulate(Ep)phasesby:
Ec=EmVm+EpVp
whereVmandVparethevolumefractionofthetwophases.Alowerboundisgivenby:
Ec=EmEp/(EpVm+EmVp)
Fig.17.3modulusofcompositeofWCparticlesinCumatrixvs.WCconcentration.
Concrete
Themostcommonlargeparticlecompositeisconcrete,madeofacementmatrixthatbondsparticlesof
differentsize(gravelandsand.)CementwasalreadyknowntotheEgyptiansandtheGreek.Romans
madecementbymixinglime(CaO)withvolcanicice.
Initsgeneralfrom,cementisafinemixtureoflime,alumina,silica,andwater.Portlandcementisafine
powderofchalk,clayandlimebearingmineralsfiredto1500oC(calcinated).Itformsapastewhen
dissolvedinwater.Itsetsintoasolidinminutesandhardensslowly(takes4monthsforfullstrength).
Propertiesdependonhowwellitismixed,andtheamountofwater:toolittleincompletebonding,too
muchexcessiveporosity.
Theadvantageofcementisthatitcanbepouredinplace,ithardensatroomtemperatureandevenunder
water,anditisverycheap.Thedisadvantagesarethatitisweakandbrittle,andthatwaterinthepores
canproducecrackwhenitfreezesincoldweather.
Concreteiscementstrengthenedbyaddingparticulates.Theuseofdifferentsize(stoneandsand)allows
betterpackingfactorthanwhenusingparticlesofsimilarsize.
Concreteisimprovedbymakingtheporessmaller(usingfinerpowder,addingpolymericlubricants,and
applyingpressureduringhardening.
Reinforcedconcreteisobtainedbyaddingsteelrods,wires,mesh.Steelhastheadvantageofasimilar
thermalexpansioncoefficient,sothereisreduceddangerofcrackingduetothermalstresses.Pre
stressedconcreteisobtainedbyapplyingtensilestresstothesteelrodswhilethecementissettingand
hardening.Whenthetensilestressisremoved,theconcreteisleftundercompressivestress,enablingitto
sustaintensileloadswithoutfracturing.Prestressedconcreteshapesareusuallyprefabricated.A
commonuseisinrailroadorhighwaybridges.
Cermets
arecompositesofceramicparticles(strong,brittle)inametalmatrix(soft,ductile)thatenhances
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toughness.Forinstance,tungstencarbideortitaniumcarbideceramicsinCoorNi.Theyareusedfor
cuttingtoolsforhardenedsteels.
Reinforcedrubber
isobtainedbystrengtheningwith2050nmcarbonblackparticles.Usedinautotires.
17.3DispersionStrengthenedComposites
Useofveryhard,smallparticlestostrengthenmetalsandmetalalloys.Theeffectislikeprecipitation
hardeningbutnotsostrong.Particleslikeoxidesdonotreactsothestrengtheningactionisretainedat
hightemperatures.
Fiberreinforcedcomposites
Inmanyapplications,likeinaircraftparts,thereisaneedforhighstrengthperunitweight(specific
strength).Thiscanbeachievedbycompositesconsistingofalowdensity(andsoft)matrixreinforced
withstifffibers.
Thestrengthdependsonthefiberlengthanditsorientationwithrespecttothestressdirection.
Theefficiencyofloadtransferbetweenmatrixandfiberdependsontheinterfacialbond.
17.4InfluenceofFiberLength
Normallythematrixhasamuchlowermodulusthanthefibersoitstrainsmore.Thisoccursatadistance
fromthefiber.Rightnexttothefiber,thestrainislimitedbythefiber.Thus,foracompositeunder
tension,ashearstressappearsinthematrixthatpullsfromthefiber.Thepullisuniformovertheareaof
thefiber.Thismakestheforceonthefiberbeminimumattheendsandmaximuminthemiddle,likein
thetugofwargame.
Toachieveeffectivestrengtheningandstiffening,thefibersmustbelargerthanacriticallengthlc,
definedastheminimumlengthatwhichthecenterofthefiberreachestheultimate(tensile)strengthf,
whenthematrixachievesthemaximumshearstrengthm:
lc=sfd/2tm
Sinceitisproportionaltothediameterofthefiberd,amoreunifiedconditionforeffectivestrengthening
isthattheaspectratioofthefiberisl/d>f/2m.
17.5InfluenceofFiberOrientation
Thecompositeisstrongeralongthedirectionoforientationofthefibersandweakestinadirection
perpendiculartothefiber.Fordiscontinuous,randomfibers,thepropertiesareisotropic.
17.6TheFiberPhase(notcovered)
17.7TheMatrixPhase(notcovered)
17.8PolymerMatrixComposites
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Largestandmostdiverseuseofcompositesduetoeaseoffabrication,lowcostandgoodproperties.
Glassfiberreinforcedcomposites(GFRC)arestrong,corrosionresistantandlightweight,butnotvery
stiffandcannotbeusedathightemperatures.Applicationsincludeautoandboatbodies,aircraft
components.
Carbonfiberreinforcedcomposites(CFRC)usecarbonfibers,whichhavethehighestspecificmodule
(moduledividedbyweight).CFRCarestrong,inert,allowhightemperatureuse.Applicationsinclude
fishingrods,golfclubs,aircraftcomponents.
Kevlar,andaremidfibercomposite(Fig.17.9)canbeusedastextilefibers.Applicationsincludebullet
proofvests,tires,brakeandclutchlinings.
Wood
Thisisoneoftheoldestandthemostwidelyusedstructuralmaterial.Itisacompositeofstrongand
flexiblecellulosefibers(linearpolymer)surroundedandheldtogetherbyamatrixofligninandother
polymers.Thepropertiesareanisotropicandvarywidelyamongtypesofwood.Woodistentimes
strongerintheaxialdirectionthanintheradialortangentialdirections.
17.9MetalMatrixComposites(notcovered)
17.10CeramicMatrixComposites(notcovered)
17.11CarbonCarbonComposites(notcovered)
17.12HybridComposites(notcovered)
17.13ProcessingofFiberReinforcedComposites(notcovered)
17.14LaminarComposites
Sheets(panels)withdifferentorientationofhighstrengthdirectionsarestackedandgluedtogether,
producingamaterialwithmoreisotropicstrengthintheplane.Examplesareplywoodandmodernskis.
17.15SandwichPanels
Strong,stiffendsheetsarebondedtolightweightcorestructure,forinstancehoneycomb(Fig.17.16)
whichprovidesstrengthtoshear.Itisusedinroofs,walls,andaircraftstructures.
Terms:
Ceramicmatrixcomposite
Cermet
Concrete
Dispersedphase
Dispersionstrengthenedcomposite
Fiber
Fiberreinforcedcomposite
Hybridcomposite
Laminarcomposite
Largeparticlecomposite
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Longitudinaldirection
Matrixphase
Metalmatrixcomposite
Polymermatrixcomposite
Prestressedconcrete
Principleofcombinedaction
Reinforcedconcrete
Ruleofmixtures
Sandwichpanel
Specificmodulus
Specificstrength
Structuralcomposite
Transversedirection
Whisker

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