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2.0

PROCESS DEPARTMENT

2.1

Block Diagram
The flow diagrams of a plant, showing the material and energy streams,
are the most useful documents to visualize the process in its globality
and understand the sequence of the unit operations foreseen in that
plant.
In the block diagram, a
modules (block), each one
equipment performing a
blocks are connected by
materials.

complex plant is divided in a sequence of


representing a unit, a sub-unit or a group of
certain operation or function. The several
arrows, which represent the main flow of

Normally the feedstocks are entering at the left side of the sheet, and
the succession of the blocks is from left to right. The final products are
normally obtained at the right side of the diagram.
Each block contains a name describing its function, and the lines
between blocks are also identified by the description of the stream and,
eventually, by its flow rate.

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In Fig. 01 a typical refinery block diagram is shown. In this diagram


each block refers to a refinery unit, and the streams connecting the
blocks represent the petroleum cuts and the final products.

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Fig. 01

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HOLD-UP TIMES

Service

Level Emergency Span (1) [min]

Level Normal Span [min] HL - LL

HHL-HL

LL-LLL

Feed to Unit

10

Feed to fractionator

Feed to furnace

Product to storage

Reflux to column (2)

Compressor K.O. Drum (3)

Fuel Gas K.O. Drum

5 (4)

Steam Flash Drum

5 (4)

Steam Boiler

2 (5)

Hot Oil expansion tank

(6)

Sour Water Stripper Surge Drum

60

Crude Oil / Gas separator

5 (7)

Crude Oil / Gas separator

(API 12 J)

12

Oil gravity < 0.85

24

0.85 < Oil gravity < 0.934


0.934 < Oil gravity < 1
Flare K.O. Drum

10 - 30 (8)

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Note:
1.

applicable only if HHl or LLL independent alarms /shutdown are foreseen;

2.

for reflux drum consider the gold-up times for both the reflux and the product streams;

3.

if no liquid is entering the K.O. Drum, assume a liquid mass flow rate equal to 5% of gas flow
rate;

4.

volume shall be at least equal to the volume of 15 m of inlet pipe;

5.

volume shall be not greater than 1/3 of Boiler volume;

6.

volume (calculated between ambient temp. and max operat. temp.) shall be not greater than 1/2
of total volume;

7.

HL not higher than 60 % of diameter;

8.

based on maximum liquid discharge to flare system.

2.2

Process Plant Definition

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2.2.1 Process Simulation


The first activity to be performed by the process engineer is the
definition of all the unit operations, with the correct sequence, required
to obtain the desired products, starting from a given feedstock.
Normally this activity needs equilibrium calculation of multicomponent
mixtures, which can be more easily performed by a process simulator.
These dedicated softwares enable the users to characterize the
feedstock, selecting the chemical components (or pseudo-components)
or defining a crude assay. Then it is possible to select the appropriate
thermodynamic property package to be applied for flash calculations,
and finally the user will select the unit operations to be performed
sequentially along the plant.

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The unit operations taken into account to simulate the plant are all
those which may vary a process parameter (pressure, temperature, flow
rate, composition) of a stream. Typical unit operations are:

L/V separation, corresponding to an equilibrium calculation at T


& P of the stream; in the plant this is performed by a vessel
separator;

heating / cooling of a stream, to obtain an increase / decrease of


its temperature, in conjunction with a pressure decrease; this
operation can be performed by a heat exchanger, with or without
change of phase;

compression / pumping of a gaseous / liquid stream, to impose


an increase of its pressure; this operation implies also an
increase in temperature;

flow through valve,


depressurization;

distillation, to calculate the separation obtained through a


distillation column; this is the most difficult process calculation,
due to the complexity of simultaneous energy and material
balance among the components, stage by stage.

causing

an

adiabatic

(isoenthalpic)

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STP-011/13

The way to proceed to carry out the process simulation is the following:

a preliminary scheme with all necessary unit operations is


prepared, characterizing all the input streams (feedstock);

process variables have to be adjusted in order to obtain the


optimum operating conditions, necessary to get the desired
product;

if applicable, a sensitivity analysis shall be conducted, by varying


some process variable in order to optimize the equipment sizing;
this shall be done for the distillation column: the required
product separation may be obtained with a low number of trays
and a greater reboiler duty, or alternatively with a greater number
of trays and a reduced reboiler duty;

after the preliminary process simulation has been completed,


the corresponding Process Flow Diagram (PFD - see paragraph
2.2) shall be prepared; always during the preparation of the PFD
some modifications to the scheme are necessary: for instance the
temperature at the exit of a cooler shall be increased because the
cooling water temperature has been assumed lower than actual
one, or an operating pressure at one vessel should be increased
because the contribution of some control valves has been
underestimated, etc.

after the modifications of the PFD, the process simulation shall be


finalized incorporating all necessary changes of process
parameters.

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A printout of a process simulation scheme is shown in Fig. 02.

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Fig. 02

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2.3

Process Flow Diagram


The Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is always used by the process engineer
in the design work and in process study.
The PFD represents the heart of the process design, because in this
diagram it is possible to see:

the correct sequence of unit operations (pumps, heat exchangers,


L/V separators, distillation columns, etc.) needed to get the plant
performance;

the routing of the main process streams, with their flow rates;

all the operating conditions (pressure & temperature);

all process controls foreseen in the plant;

eventual information regarding energy streams (power


machinery, duties of furnaces and heat exchangers, etc.);

the stream numbers, from which it is possible to find a complete


stream characterization in the document "Heat and Material
Balance" (see paragraph 2.4);

of

It is quite obvious that the finalization of the PFD is obtained only after
the optimization of the process scheme, with all relevant process
calculations (flash, distillations, heating/cooling, phase change, etc.).
Each modification to material balance, operating conditions and
equipment change (addition or deleting) has to be reflected into PFD.

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Some simple rules are used when preparing PFD:

all equipment (having an item) shall be represented in the PFD.


This means that all items are shown on PFD;

all engines (compressors and pumps) and eventual tanks shall be


drawn in the lower side of the sheet, over an hypothetic grade line
placed at one quarter of the sheet height from the lower edge;
vessels, column and heaters will be drawn in the superior side,
leaving the middle space free for exchangers and connecting lines;
column condensers and reboilers will be drawn beside their
pertinence equipment; air condensers will be represented on the
horizontal trace of the overhead line, while the water condensers
will be placed upon or below the receiver;

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spare equipment do not need to be represented separately from


the main equipment: for istance the pumps P-1 A/S (A is the
main and S is the spare pump) will be represented as a single
pump, but showing the item P-1 A/S;

the incoming streams shall be located preferably on the left side


of the sheet, while the outgoing streams should leave the sheet
from the right side;

lines connecting the equipment shall be vertical or horizontal;


oblique lines are not allowed; in case of intersection of two lines,
the less important one will be interrupted. The order of
importance is:
- main process line
- secondary process line
- utility line
- instrument line

In case of intersection of two lines of equal importance, the vertical one


will be interrupted.

starting from the second issue of the diagram, every modification


made on the previous revision shall be evidenced by a revision
cloud around the modified elements; this will help the reader to
identify the modifications made, without analyze the whole
drawing.

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A typical PFD is shown in Fig. 03.

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Fig. 03

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2.4

Heat and Material Balance


After the finalization of the PFD and the process simulation, it is
necessary to prepare the "Heat and Material Balance", containing a
detailed characterization of each stream.
This document is mainly constituted by a table, where for each stream
the following physical properties and characteristics are shown:

stream label (as shown on PFD)

temperature & pressure

flow rates, volumetric and mass

vapour fraction

molecular weight

physical properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity,


viscosity, surface tension)

stream enthalpy

stream composition

These data are used to fill the data sheets of equipment and to make all
subsequent process calculations. These information are available from
the printout of the process simulation, if it has been done, or shall be
calculated, case by case, if the particular system does not require a
simulation.

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In Fig. 04 an extract of a typical material balance is shown.

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Fig. 04

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2.5

Data Validation
It is important to check and validate the quality and the correctness of
the documents described in this chapter, i.e. PFD, Process Simulation,
Heat and Material Balance, because any mistake done at this first stage
of the project may have tremendous impact on plant performance. Any
change in operating conditions will cause changes in flow rates of the
relevant streams, and a re-sizing of the connected equipment could be
needed. If the changes happen at a late stage of the project, when all
equipment have been already supplied, the economic consequences will
be significant.

2.6

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

2.6.1 General
The Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID) have the scope to show
all equipment, all pipe elements and all the instrumentation existing in
a plant. P&ID is a schematic drawing, but the sequences in which all
the plant elements are installed must be faithfully represented;

2.6.2 Graphic Representation in P&ID


While preparing a P&ID it is necessary to consider that during the
subsequent engineering phases additional elements may be required.
For this reason in the first draft of the drawing it is opportune to leave
sufficient free space in the drawing area.

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The graphic representation shall follow these general principles:


a. Equipment distribution in the drawing area should be uniform in
order to avoid areas with excessive concentration of drawing
elements. If the drawing is particularly empty, it is not advisable
to spread drawing elements over all available drawing area,
especially if it leads to separate elements which functionally
operate close one to the other. The placement of the objects on
the drawing shall be as much as possible rational and
aesthetically pleasant, to facilitate the reading and the
interpretation of the drawing.The way of the lines shall be chosen
in order to reduce the number of curves and intersections with
other lines.

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b. Equipment dimensions shall be selected to maintain, as much as


possible, the real proportionality scale: a pump should be smaller
than a tank and bigger than an instrument symbol.
c. Main drains, sample connections, all the manoeuvring valves,
insulated / jacketed / steam traced lines, slop lines, start-up
lines, drainage systems, etc., shall always be indicated.
d. All the machines (compressors and pumps) and eventual tanks
shall be drawn in the bottom side of the drawing area,
horizontally aligned on a hypothetic ground line placed more or
less at a quarter of the drawing height. Vessels, columns and
heaters will be drawn in the upper side, leaving the middle space
available for the interconnecting lines and exchangers. It is
obvious that the condensers and the reboilers will be represented
beside their pertinence equipment.
e. The air condensers will be represented on the horizontal run of
the overhead line while the water condensers will be placed on the
vertical run upon or below the receiver, depending on their
effective installation.
f. Minimum elevation above grade shall always be indicated for each
vessel. The elevation shall refer to the bottom tangent line for
vertical equipment and to the bottom line for horizontal
equipment. Moreover if some elevation difference between
equipment and/or piping runs is mandatory to guarantee a
correct plant operation, it shall be clearly shown on P&ID.
g. Whenever a complex equipment requires the representation of
many components / instruments (for instance a furnace with
several coils, skin thermocouples, fuel to burners, snuffing steam
and soot blowers), it would be opportune to use multiple sheets to
represent all details required. In this case on the first diagram
where the relevant equipment is drawn, it must be written the
number of drawings where these details are shown.

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h. If the diagram is made of several sheets, all the pipes going to


consecutive P&ID, or coming from the previous P&ID, shall be
extended at left or right side of drawing, and the height shall be
correspondent to the height of the same line on linked P&ID; so
that two sequential drawings can be overlapped and all the lines
pass from one to the other.

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i. If any pipe is not connected to any equipment in one or more


sheet, it shall be represented only in the drawing where the
equipment is shown. This means that it is not necessary to draw
a line sequentially along all sheets, if this is not specifically
required to represent some elements (fitting or instrument) on
these sheets. Pipes incoming and outgoing from the sheet shall
show the fluid indication, the destination (From\To), the origin /
destination drawing number, on the panel in which they are
connected.
j. In the pipes incoming (feed) and outgoing (products) from the
plant, the battery limits shall be clearly represented, with the
eventual block valves and/or spectacle blind. Limits relevant to
the scope of supply (for packages, parts of plant, equipment, etc.)
shall be clearly represented, with indication of each responsible
for the supply (for instance: Client, packages vendor, EPC
contractor, etc.) at the transition point. Supply limit shall be
shown also for instrument (for instance between a local
transmitter, by package vendor, and DCS controller, by
Contractor).
k. Generally the equipment item shall be placed under the machines
and storage tanks, while for vessels, heaters, columns etc., it
shall be placed upon.
The equipment service shall be indicated under its item.

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Two different solutions could be actuated for the graphic location of


the equipment item and service:

In the drawing area, next to the equipment the item only shall be
indicated, and in the lowest/highest side of the sheet, vertically
aligned with the equipment, it is represented the item, the service
and any other information relevant to that equipment; these
information shall be located in the bottom side if referring to
machines (pumps and compressors), in the upper side for all
other equipment.

Item and service of equipment are indicated next to the same


equipment in the drawing area.

Solution 1 is normally the preferred one.


The equipment items normally used in P&ID are listed in paragraph
2.6.3.

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l. The connection lines of the equipment shall be horizontal or


vertical while the oblique lines, unless particular exceptions, shall
be avoided.
m. In case of interception of two lines, vertical line is interrupted if
both lines have the same importance, otherwise the less
important line will be interrupted. The line importance level is:

Main process lines

Secondary process lines

Utility lines

Instrument lines

n. Starting from the second issue, any modification of the elements


of the drawing shall be identified by revision clouds, with a
revision index.
o. Line numbers or pipe diameters shall be written:

in horizontal position upon the line, if it is horizontal;

in vertical position (bottom-up) on the left of the line if


it is vertical.

If next to the line there is no space for writing its number, this shall be
placed in close proximity to it. An arrow shall be used to connect the
line number / diameter to the interested line.
The list of the equipment represented in the P&ID shall be indicated
over the template. This list shall be readable with the drawing folded in

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A4.

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2.6.3 Item of Equipment


All equipment is identified with an "item". Equipment item is assigned
by the process manager as soon as it is inserted into the process
scheme. It may also be necessary, in order to meet the Client needs, to
rename the equipment previously itemized with other items names.
Equipment item will be assigned according to the following criteria
(unless some modifications requested by the Client).
The item is structured as:
TTT-UUNN (X//Z)

to include the following information:

TTT:

equipment typology

UU:

plant/unit of the equipment

NN:

progressive number (within typology and unit)

X//Z:

functional class if required (parallel, main or spare)

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The equipment typology is identified by means of 3 letters maximum in


accordance with the following Table 1:

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STP-011/13

Item
A
B
BC
C
CB
CF
CT
D
DE
DH
DR
DS
E
EA
EG
F
FL
GE
H
I
J
K
LA
LP
M
MCC
MX
P
PC
R
SG
SL
SC
SWG
T
TG
TR
TK
TS
U
UPS
V
W
X
Z

Table 1
Equipment Type
Equipment Type
Basins Pits
Fans Blowers
Battery Charger
Columns
Power Factor Improvement Groups
Centrifuges
Cooling towers
(as second letter) Diesel Engine
Diesel Emergency Generators
Deaerators
Dryers
Desuperheaters
Heat exchangers
Air Coolers
Electric Generators
Filters
Flares
(as 2nd and 3rd letter) Machinery Gas Engines
Fired Heaters - Furnaces
Equipment for Solid Handling (belts, lifting equipment, etc.)
Ejectors
Compressors
Loading Arms
Local Panels
(as 2nd letter) Machinery Electric Motor
Motor Control Center
Mixers (both agitator and static mixers)
Pumps
Low Voltage Panels
Reactors
Boilers
Silos
Steam trap
Medium Voltage Panel
(as 2nd letter) Machinery Turbine
Gas Turbine
Transformers
Tanks
Steam Turbine (generator)
Various no process Equipment (balances, bridge cranes, etc.)
Uninterrupted Power Supply
Vessels
"Package" Unit
Miscellaneous
Special Equipment

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The equipment of the same typology shall be numbered with 4 digits,


where the first and the second will represent the unit and the other two
the progressive number.
For instance a Pumps of Unit 02 will be numbered as: P-0201, P-0202,
P-0203, etc.
When the same service is provided by two or more equipment, the
functional class indicates if the equipment are working in parallel or if
the other one is spare.
The working equipment shall be identified with alphabetic letters
starting from A. The spare equipment will be identified with the letter S.
For instance the item P-0203 A/B/S identifies the 3rd pump of the unit
02, and it indicates that 3 pumps are installed (A, B, S), where two (A,
B) are working in parallel, and one (S) is kept as spare.
When an equipment belongs to a "package" or to a complex equipment,
such as a compressor or a gas turbine, its item shall be written after the
main equipment item.
For instance the item W-1202-P-01 S identifies the pump P-01 S
(therefore spare) related to the package W-1202.
2.6.4 Fluid Identification

Each fluid moving along the Plant is identified by a code, made of


maximum 3 alphabetic characters. Fluid can be categorized as process
fluid or utility fluid.
When a project starts, the Fluid List is prepared by the Process
Department, in order to allow the selection of suitable Piping Classes.
The process fluids can be generically identified with a P letter.
Different code can be adopted if it is required by the Client.

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The utility fluids codes will be in accordance with the Table 2, unless
otherwise requested by Client.

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Item
HW
CHW
CW (S)
CW (R)
BW
HBW
LBW
SW
DM
PW
DW
RW
FW
HHS
HS
MS
IS
LS
LLS
HPC
MPC
LPC
SC
PA
IA
NI
IG
HNI
OX
FG
NG
FO
CA
CAS
NH
SA
HO

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BD
ABD
AF
HF
CSR
OSR
SSR
WSR
CD

Table 2
Codes for Utility Fluids
Fluid
WATER
Hot Water
Chilled Water
Cooling Water (Supply)
Cooling Water (Return)
Boiler Feed Water
High Pressure Boiler Feed Water
Low Pressure Boiler Feed Water
Sea Water
Demineralised Water
Process Water
Drinking Water
Raw Water
Fire Water
STEAM & CONDENSATE
Very High Pressure Steam
High Pressure Steam
Medium Pressure Steam
Intermediate Pressure Steam
Low Pressure Steam
Very Low Pressure Steam
High Pressure Condensate
Medium Pressure Condensate
Low Pressure Condensate
Suspect Condensate
COMPRESSED GASES
Plant Air
Instrument Air
Nitrogen
Innert Gas
High Pressure Nitrogen
Oxygen
FUELS
Fuel Gas
Natural Gas
Fuel Oil
CHEMICAL
Caustic Solution
Spent Caustic
Ammonia
Sulphuric Acid
Hot Oil
FLARE & BLOWDOWN
Blow Down
Acid Blow Down
Acid Flare
Hydrocarbon Flare
SEWERS
Chemical Sewer
Oily Sewer
Sanitary Sewer
Water Sewer
Closed Drain

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2.6.5 Line Classification


Each line shall be classified to permit the procurement of the adequate
instrument and piping bulk material.
Each line shall have its own number. A unique line number can be
assigned to contiguous runs of piping having the same piping class, the
same operating temperature and the same design conditions.
In order to assign a specific piping class to a line, it is necessary to
select, within the piping classes having the material and the corrosion
allowance specified for the specific fluid, the one with the flange rating
suitable to the design conditions of that line.
Material and corrosion allowance to be applied for a certain fluid are
normally defined in the Material Selection Diagram, document
prepared by the process team before the development of the P&IDs.
If the change of the piping class (and line number) is operated between
two contiguous lines, it is necessary to show the exact point of the
change. In this case a class transition segment (spec-break) with the
indication of the two contiguous line numbers shall be inserted. If the
change of the line number is due to the necessity to change the material
of the line (i.e. the piping class), at the transition point it shall be shown
the change in piping class instead of the change of line number.
The lines numbering shall be carried out in accordance with the Client
Standards. In absence of specific requirements by the Client the here
below described APS standards shall be used.
The line number is a text cell which contains the following character
groups:

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DDDD-FFF- NNNNN-CCCC-L

DDDD: nominal pipe size, in inches or, whenever required by the


Client, in millimetres; maximum of 4 digits;

FFF: fluid code; maximum of 3 digits;

NNNNN: line number, eventually combined with the unit number;


5 digits maximum;

CCCC: piping class; 4 digits maximum

L: insulation code; 2 digits maximum;

Example: 12"-LS-25523-AB01-H

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Line number shall be made of the unit number followed by a


progressive number of 3 digits (from 001 to 999).
Process lines shall use progressive numbers from 001 to 499 (within
each unit). The numbers from 500 to 999 shall be used for the utility
lines.
As soon as the project starts it shall be decided the units numeration
and the numbers range to be used for each utility in the Plant (for
example: LS from 501 to 550, MS from 551 to 600, CW from 601 to 650,
etc.).

Table 3
Insulation Codes
Item
A
N
V
C
H
P
S
E
U
X
W

Insulation
Anti Sweetening Insulation
Not Insulation and Not Painting
Painting
Cold Insulation
Heat Conservation
Personnel Protection
Steam Tracing
Electrical Tracing
Underground Line
Acoustical Insulation
Jacketing

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Note:
1 - Those codes may be incremented to meet specific project needs. Whenever the lines need more
than one insulation type (for example for heat conservation and acoustical insulation) it will be
possible to use the double code.

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2.7

Process Calculation
In a previous paragraph has been described the process simulation, to
be performed during the development of the Process Flow Diagrams,
which finalize the flows of the streams within the plant and the
operating variable. After that, before the preparation of the process data
sheets of equipment and instrumentation, the process engineer is called
to calculate, from a process point of view, most of the plant
components. It is important to note that the complete design of a plant
component (like a vessel for instance), requires the contribution of
several engineering specialties: the process engineer, who identifies
some basic data, the mechanical engineer, who calculate the
mechanical details and identifies the exact materials to be used for each
part of the equipment, the piping engineer who identifies the orientation
of nozzles, etc.. In the next paragraphs it is described the main
calculation to be carried out by the process engineer, necessary for the
subsequent preparation of the process data sheets.

2.7.1 Line Sizing


This calculation is required to identify the diameter of each pipe of the
plant. The calculation is based on the following input data:

type of fluid (liquid, vapour, mixed phase)

flow rate

fluid characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.)

expected pipe length

available pressure drop

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At the beginning of the project, when the routing and the components of
the pipes has not yet finalized, the pipe length is simply estimated on
the basis of the distance of the connected equipment.

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Using dedicated software, or graphs collection, it is possible to obtain,


for each line, the following two characteristic parameters:

fluid velocity

specific pressure drop

On the basis of extensive experience, the correct size of the pipe is


chosen in order to keep these two parameters within a range of
acceptable value.

STP-011/13

In the following tables 4-1 A-C are indicated the acceptable range for
velocity and specific pressure drop, which could be used for pipe size
selection.

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Table 4-1 A
Liquid Service
Service

Pressure Drop

Velocity

[bar/km]

[m/s]

- C1,C2, C3 at boiling point

0.4 0.7

0.5 max

- liquid at boiling point

0.6 0.9

1.0 max ( 18")

- subcooled by 25 C

2.3 3.5

1.5 max ( > 18")

2.

Pump discharge

3.0 5.0

3.0 max

3.

Natural circulation (reboiler inlet)

0.2 0.4

---

4.

Column side extraction

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1.

Pump suction:

- 8"

0.7 max

- 8" < 16"

0.9 max

- 16" <

1.1 max

5.

Inlet to L/L separator

1.0 max

6.

Cooling Water
- branches to users

2.3 3.5

2.5 max

- interconnecting headers

0.6 1.0

2.5 max

7.

Utility Water

3.0 4.5

1.5 3.0

8.

Boiler Feed Water


- P 50 bar

3.0 4.5

1.5 3.0

- P > 50 bar

7.0 9.0

9.

Steam condensate

0.3 0.6

10.

Sea water

2.0 2.5

11.

Hot Oil

1.0 min

12.

Gravity Lines

13.

Drain Lines

0.2 0.5

1.0 max

1.0 max
1.0 max ( 2")

Table 4-1 B

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Service
1.

2.

Gas Service
Pressure Drop
[bar/km]

Velocity
[m/s]

Process Gas
- general

18 24

- with CO2 > 1 % vol.

15 max

Compressors suction / discharge


- centrifugal

max allowed:
{- 2.2608X3 + 9.2286X2
21.332X + 28.931}
with X=Log10 (Density)
expressed as kg/m3

- reciprocating

max allowed:
{- 2.186X3 + 7.6539X2
12.444X + 15.618}
with X=Log10 (Density)
expressed as kg/m3

3.

Vacuum

4.

Steam to users
P 10 bar

0.5 2.0

30 max

10 < P 30 bar

1.0 2.5

45 max

30 bar < P

1.0 2.5

50 max

P 10 bar

0.1 0.2

30 max

10 < P 30 bar

0.2 1.0

45 max

30 bar < P

0.2 1.0

50 max

6.

Column overhead

0.2 0.6

7.

Plant Air

30 max

8.

Instrument Air

30 max

9.

Fuel Gas

40 max

10.

Flare header

0.7 Mach max

11.

Safety Valve discharge

0.5 Mach max

5.

STP-011/13

4 % Abs. Press. max

Steam to headers

v2 < 60'000 kg/ms2

Page 71 of 462

Table 4-1 C
Mixed Phase
Service
1.

Preliminary Sizing

2.

Inlet to V/L separator:

Pressure Drop
[bar/km]

Velocity
[m/s]

5'000<v2 < 60'000


kg/ms2

- no inlet device

v2 < 1'000 kg/ms2

- half open pipe

v2 < 1'500 kg/ms2

- high efficiency inlet device

v2 < 6'000 kg/ms2

3.

Mixed phase condensates

0.2 0.3

10 20

4.

Reboiler return line

0.2 0.4

7 12

5.

Partial condenser outlet

0.3 0.6

6.

Mixed phase at compressor delivery

0.4 1.0

7.

Vacuum mixed phase

70 max (gas)
0.8 Mach max (gas)

Notes:

STP-011/13

1) Slug flow pattern should not be accepted.

Page 72 of 462

2.7.2 Vessel Calculation


2.7.2.1 Liquid / Gas Separator
These vessels shall be sized in order to keep vapor velocity sufficiently
low and facilitate the separation of the two phases.
Whenever suspended droplets of liquid must be removed from the vapor
to the maximum extent (e.g. process compressor suction separators),
mist eliminators shall be installed.
The L/V inlet nozzle shall be always equipped with internal distributor
promoting the separation of the phases.
Vessels with vapor flow only, such as compressor KO drum, shall be
designed as for liquid-vapor separators, assuming that the
characteristics of liquid are those of the liquid in equilibrium with the
vapors.
The recommended hold up times shall be in accordance with the Table
here enclosed.
The installation of a high liquid level alarm shall be foreseen (and the
corresponding hold-up shall be considered) on the following services:

compressor suction separators

unit surge drum

The installation of a low liquid level alarm shall be foreseen (and the
corresponding hold-up shall be considered) on the following services:

critical pump suction vessels

L/V separator feeding liquid to a downstream vessel by pressure


difference.

The min. liquid level in L/V separators (horizontal or vertical) shall be at


least 250 mm.

STP-011/13

In horizontal L/V separators, the vapor space, or space above the


maximum liquid level, shall not be less than 20% of diameter.

Page 73 of 462

For vertical separators, the following geometric constraints shall be


satisfied:

the height between the bottom of inlet nozzle and the max liquid
level shall be not less than 300 mm or inlet nozzle diameter,
whichever is greater;

the height between the top of inlet nozzle and the top tangent line
of the vessel (without demister) shall be not less than 50 % of
vessel diameter, with a minimum of 500 mm and a maximum of
900 mm;

the height between the top of inlet nozzle and the bottom of the
demister shall be not less than 250 mm plus the 25 % of vessel
diameter, with a minimum of 500 mm;

the height between the top of the demister and the top tangent
line of the separator shall be not less than 250 mm plus the 7.5
% of vessel diameter, with a minimum of 450 mm;

Vessel height or length should be within the range of 2-4 times vessel
diameter.
The maximum allowable vapor velocity may be calculated following
several methods, here below described.

Critical velocity method


The critical velocity of the vapor phase is defined as follows:
VC = 0.048 * [(L/V) - 1]0.5
where:
VC = critical velocity, m/sec.
L = liquid density at cond., kg/m3

STP-011/13

V = vapor density at cond., kg/m3


The area used for calculating critical velocity is the one available for
vapor flowing: in a horizontal vessel is the cross sectional area above
the max liquid level, and in a vertical vessel the total cross sectional
area.

Page 74 of 462

The L/V separators shall be sized for a maximum allowable vapor


velocity as specified on Table 4-2 A.

Table 4-2 A
Max Allowable Vapor Velocity (% of Critical Velocity)

Service

without Demister

with Demister

Vertical

Horiz.

Vertical

Horiz.

Separator (P < 35 Bar g)

125

220

220

220

Separator (P 35 Bar g)

100

165

165

165

100

---

175

---

80

---

133

---

125

---

220

---

---

---

110

110

---

---

180

180

---

275

---

---

Compressor K.O. Drum


(P < 35 Bar g)
Compressor K.O. Drum
(P 35 Bar g)
Steam Flash Drum
Vacuum Service
(P < 0.17 Bar A)
Vacuum Service
(0.17 P < 1.013 Bar A)
Flare K.O. Drum

STP-011/13

API RP 521 Practice


Following this practice, for a liquid drop of a fixed diameter dispersed in
the gaseous stream it is possible to calculate the dropout velocity and
subsequently the time required to travel vertically down to the liquid
level. If the residence time of the gas phase inside the separator is
greater than the descent time of the liquid particle, the particles of such
particular diameter will be separated.
The minimum diameter of particles to be separated are defined in Table
4-2 B as function of the service.

Page 75 of 462

Table 4-2 B
Diameter of Liquid Drop to be Separated
Service

Diameter [m]

Flare K.O. Drum

300 - 600

API 12 J Specification
Following this practice, specifically relevant to gas / oil separators, the
L/V separation is considered adequate if the actual gas velocity is not
greater than the maximum allowable superficial velocity VA:
VA = K * [(L/V) - 1]0.5
where L and V have the same meaning as in the critical velocity
expression, and K is a constant depending upon design and operating
conditions, which should be not greater than:
0.5 * (L/10) 0.56 where L is the separator length, in feet.
2.7.2.2 Liquid Liquid Separators
These vessels shall be sized in such a way that the settling time for each
liquid phase from the other is less than its residence in the vessel itself.
Settling velocity for the dispersed droplets is calculated using Stokes,
Newtons or an intermediate law, according to field of application. The
dimensions to be assumed for the droplets are defined in Table 4-2 C

Table 4-2 C

STP-011/13

Diameter of Dispersed Droplets

Light phase density (@ 15 C)

Heavy phase

Drop Diameter [mm]

850 kg/m3 or lower

Water or caustic solution

0.12

over 850 kg/m3

Water or caustic solution

0.08

Page 76 of 462

A maximum settling velocity of 250 mm/minute shall be assumed for


light hydrocarbons.
It should also be verified that the hold-up time necessary for any phase
for settling satisfies process hold-up requirements.

STP-011/13

In Fig.05 is shown a typical calculation sheet for an horizontal V/L/L


separator.

STP-011/13

Page 77 of 462

Fig. 05

Page 78 of 462

2.7.2.3 K.O. Drum on Reciprocating Compressor

The analogic study of reciprocating compressor circuit will be extended


up to the suction KO drum, when the minimum volume of the drum
itself is calculated as follows:
V = (10*C*A)/(2*n/60)
where:
V = vessel volume [m3 ]
C=

gas sonic velocity [m/sec]

A = cross section of piping between KO drum and compressor [m2 ]


n = Compressor rpm. Assume 300 during design phase and verify after
compressor definition.

2.7.3 Pump Calculation

Overdesign
Pump design flow rates shall include a minimum of 5% margin on max.
operating flow rate for pump with rated power higher than 150 kW and
10% for pump with lower rated power.
For reflux and pumparound pumps, design flow rate shall include a
margin of 20% on max. operating flow rate.
Pump differential head indicated in the specification sheet shall be
calculated at design flow-rate.
NPSH Calculation
Suction line losses shall be calculated at design flow rate of the pump.

STP-011/13

Pressure drop through the suction strainer shall be taken into account.
Pressure drop across the strainer will be assumed equal to 0.5 m of
liquid column.
For subcooled liquids, the source pressure shall be the minimum
normal operating pressure and the vapor pressure shall be at specified
pumping temperature.

Page 79 of 462

Static suction head shall be measured from the minim liquid level to the
centreline of a horizontal centrifugal or rotary pump, or the suction
nozzle of a vertical centrifugal pump or reciprocating pump.
Static suction head for pumps connected to storage tanks shall be
calculated at the lowest specified liquid level in the tank a which design
pump flow rate is required.
If vortex breaker is required, the pressure drop through it shall be
considered.
For horizontal centrifugal pumps, the elevation of the pump centreline
shall normally be 0.6 m minimum above grade, unless the actual
elevation is know.
Available NPSH values not higher than 7 m shall be shown on pump
specifications, even if actually available. Maximum value of NPSH = 7
shall be shown on pump specification in case of a higher value will be
calculated.

STP-011/13

In Fig. 06 is shown a typical calculation sheet for pumps.

Page 80 of 462

STP-011/13

Fig. 06

Page 81 of 462

2.7.4 Column and Tray Calculation


Column diameter will be calculated using an over design of 10% of
normal flow rates.
In general, valve or sieve trays shall be used, together with rain deck
trays (or equivalent) and packing (unless otherwise required).
Sieve trays may be used in fouling service.
Valve tray columns will be specified with the following max. flooding
factors:

77% for Vacuum Tower

82% for other services

70% for column diameter under 900 mm

Tray hydraulic calculations and hence column diameter confirmation


shall be performed by the tray vendor. The following sizing criteria shall
be recommended to tray vendors.
Required tray flexibility shall be 50 110% unless otherwise specified.

STP-011/13

The following values are minimum recommended for tray spacing of


valve tray towers:

Page 82 of 462

Table 4-4 A
Tray Spacing
Tower

Fouling Service
Clean Service

Diameter (ID)

1 pass

2 or more passes

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

ID 1500

300

450

---

1500 < ID 2300

300

525

450

2300 < ID 3100

375

600

525

3100 < ID 6000

450

675

600

6000 < ID

525

750

675

Note:
1) If a manhole is present, minimum tray spacing shall be 600 mm or 150 mm more
than manhole diameter, whichever is greater;

Indicative pressure drop values per tray are listed below according to
operating pressure:

Table 4-4 B

STP-011/13

Tray Pressure Drop


Column Pressure

Pressure Drop

[Bar abs]

[Bar] / tray

0.05

0.004

1.013 (ATM)

0.005 0.008

30

0.01

Vapor load for a column with high liquid load can be increased using
multi-pass trays.
Being more expensive, however, this option is only justified by an
effective saving in total column costs (by utilising smaller column
diameters).

Page 83 of 462

Downcomer clearance, vertical distance between the tray and the


downcomer bottom, is generally not less than 25mm, 40 mm for dirty
liquid.
Downcomer clearance velocity should be lower than 0.3 m/sec.
Weir height value is usually 50 mm, with a total lenght not lower than
60% of column diameter.
Weir loading, to avoid blowing, should be

0.01 lt/min cm.

Downcomer back-up shall not be higher than 50% of tray spacing plus
weir height.
A lower value (40%) should be used for services with high or moderate
foaming tendencies, or with a tray spacing < 610 mm.
Foaming tendency of a distillation system will be kept into account by
the attribution of an adequate Foam Factor, in accordance with the
following tables.

Table 4-4 C

STP-011/13

Foaming Factors vs. Foaming Tendency

Foaming Tendency

Foam (System) Factor

Non Foaming

1.0

Low

0.9

Moderate

0.75

High

0.6

In the following Fig. 07 a typical tray calculation sheet is shown.

STP-011/13

Page 84 of 462

Fig. 07

Page 85 of 462

2.8

Process Data Sheets


The process data sheets are formats (one type for each class of
equipment) with fixed cells relevant to representative parameters for
that class of equipment, to be filled in by the process engineer.
Once the process data sheet has been compiled, it can be passed to the
engineering section for further design development.
The process parameters which need to be specified on all data sheets
are typically:

operating conditions (pressure and temperature)

design conditions (pressure and temperature)

construction material (for istance "carbon steel" or "stainless


steel") and corrosion allowance

connection nozzles size and rating

For pumps, compressors, filters, etc., in general for all the equipment
which are sized taking into account the flow rate and quality of the fluid
handled in the equipment, it will be necessary to specify:

nature of the fluid

flow rate

physical properties of the fluid (at operating conditions)

presence of corrosive / toxic materials

STP-011/13

In addition to these data, each class of equipment is identified by


additional peculiar parameters, as shown below.

Page 86 of 462

Vessel / Column Data Sheets

diameter

height / length

liquid level (high, low) inside the equipment

elevation of some particular nozzle

need for insulation

Pump Data Sheet

differential height

NPSH available

Compressor Data Sheet

differential pressure

gas composition / molecular weight

gas Cp/Cv

Filter Data Sheets

degree of filtration required

efficiency of filtration

STP-011/13

Heat Exchanger Data Sheets

Duty exchanged

Physical properties of both cold / hot fluids

Vaporization / condensation enthalpy curve (in case of change of


phase)

The following Fig. 08 - 10 show some typical process data sheet for
vessel, pump and heat exchanger.

STP-011/13

Page 87 of 462

STP-011/13

Page 88 of 462

STP-011/13

Page 89 of 462

STP-011/13

Page 90 of 462