Anne Boyle David
Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects

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Mouton-CASL Grammar Series

Editors
Anne Boyle David
Claudia M. Brugman
Thomas J. Conners
Amalia Gnanadesikan

Volume 1

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Anne Boyle David

Descriptive Grammar
of Pashto
and its Dialects
Edited by
Claudia M. Brugman

DE GRUYTER
MOUTON

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Funding/Support: This material is based upon work supported, in whole or in part, with funding
from the United States Gouvernment. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the University of Maryland, College Park and/or any agency or entity of the United States
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The Contracting Officer’s Representative for this project is John Walker, Gouvernment Technical
Director at CASL, (301) 226-8912, jwalker@casl.umd.edu.

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To my teacher, Eric P. Hamp

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Foreword
It is remarkable that, in this age of unprecedented global communication and interaction, the majority of the world’s languages are as yet not adequately described. Without basic grammars and dictionaries, these languages and their communities of speakers are in a real sense inaccessible to the rest of the world. This state of affairs is antithetical to today’s interconnected global mindset.
This series, undertaken as a critical part of the mission of the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL), is directed at remedying this
problem. One goal of CASL’s research is to provide detailed, coherent descriptions
of languages that are little studied or for which descriptions are not available in English. Even where grammars for these languages do exist, in many instances they are
decades out of date or limited in scope or detail.
While the criticality of linguistic descriptions is indisputable, the painstaking work
of producing grammars for neglected and under-resourced languages is often insufficiently appreciated by scholars and graduate students more enamored of the latest theoretical advances and debates. Yet, without the foundation of accurate descriptions of
real languages, theoretical work would have no meaning. Moreover, without professionally produced linguistic descriptions, technologically sophisticated tools such as
those for automated translation and speech-to-text conversion are impossible. Such
research requires time-consuming labor, meticulous description, and rigorous analysis.
It is hoped that this series will contribute, however modestly, to the ultimate goal
of making every language of the world available to scholars, students, and language
lovers of all kinds. I would like to take this opportunity to salute the linguists at CASL
and around the world who subscribe to this vision as their life’s work. It is truly a noble
endeavor.

Richard D. Brecht
Founding Executive Director
University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language

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literacy and media are very sparse. the availability of source material in the target language varies widely: in some cases. Gnanadesikan Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. but had never been collected into a single overview. corpora of naturalistic speech and text. accompanied where relevant by Romanization. which for every language continues to be warranted. All grammars in the series.Series Editors’ Preface This series arose out of research conducted on several under-described languages at the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language. We look forward to the publication of many such works. Claudia M. We hope that our empirical work will provide a base for theoretical. we were surprised at how many of the world’s major languages lack accessible descriptive resources such as reference grammars and bilingual dictionaries. We found the descriptive state of each language in the series to be different from that of the others: in some cases. However. The conditions for data-gathering—and hence our approach to it—vary with the particular situation. Brugman Thomas J. The authors have worked with the available resources to provide descriptions as comprehensive as these materials. the native speaker consultants. Similarly. For that reason the authors have worked to make the volumes accessible by providing extensive exemplification and theoretically neutral descriptions oriented to language learners as well as to linguists. we realize that in many cases they will supply that role as well. In commencing our work. Each of the grammars is presented as a springboard to further research. some in regions associated with political. and. Conners Anne Boyle David Amalia E. The languages covered by the series represent a broad range of language families and typological phenomena. social. while for other communities plentiful written texts exist. In cases where such fieldwork was impractical.186. include the native orthography. While they are not intended as pedagogical grammars. these circumstances often make it difficult to conduct intensive.189. furthermore. virtually no materials in English existed. and pedagogical developments in the future. Providing resources for these languages is therefore of particular importance. in other cases. One of our goals is for these grammars to reach a broad audience. They are spoken in areas of international significance. Among the ongoing projects at the Center is the development of such resources for various under-described languages. or environmental instability. This series of grammars presents some of the linguistic description we have undertaken to fill such gaps. and their own corpora allow. in-country fieldwork.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . the authors of that grammar have relied on close working relationships with native speakers. much work had been done. computational. comparative. where possible.

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the current political situation makes in-country fieldwork highly problematic. Shafeev. In addition. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Manfred Lorenz. and migrating peoples. such that the descriptions and explications contained within this grammar will be of use not only to descriptive linguists. D. Among the features our grammar adds to the corpus of Pashto research are some new analyses of previously described data and coverage of all the regional dialects in a single volume. Taylor Roberts. Naseer Hoonar Pashtoon and Zeeya A.186. among them J. demographic shifts. complete with full interlinearization of the example sentences: a native script line. We provide extensive examples and full paradigms. has led to alternating cycles of isolation and upheaval in the various Pashto-speaking regions. including Lebedev 1996. it is particularly useful not only to the language expert but also to the language learner. Daniel Septfonds. although the description 1 We have been made aware of a substantial literature on Pashto written in Russian (Lutz Rzehak.). Any abstract description of a language is necessarily informed by theory at some level. and complex contact situations have contributed to significant dialectal variation. The data for this grammar come from a wide range of printed resources. D.Preface Pashto is a challenging language to study and describe. However. data presented in both native orthography and transcription. has undergone longterm influence from the many neighboring Indo-Aryan languages.c. Lorimer.G.189. Lebedev 2003. Wilma Heston. In our description we have attempted to be theory-neutral without being simplistic. available online for download to purchasers of this volume. and finally. Centuries of political turmoil. Farooq Babrakzai. a formal grammar which can be used to feed a morphological parser. and Grjunberg 1987.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .A. along with a detailed exposition of the dialectal situation. Pashtoon. Two areas in particular that we wish we could devote more time to are syntax and prosody. This grammar builds on the considerable previous work of many scholars. complemented by naturalistic corpora and work with native speaker consultants. p. a member of the Iranian language group itself. A descriptive grammar is never really finished. and David Pate. invaders. our primary loyalty is to the language being described and not to a particular theoretic approach to Language. Herbert Penzl.¹ Without their diligent scholarship we would not have been able to begin this task. We aim to be theoretically informed in as broad a way as possible. for several reasons. Georg Morgenstierne.N. MacKenzie. a phonemic transcription. at the heart of a historical crossroad for traders. Although native orthography is frequently omitted from descriptive grammars. Habibullah Tegey and Barbara Robson. Its location in areas of rugged terrain. a morpheme-bymorpheme gloss line. we have unfortunately been able to consult Grjunberg only briefly and Lebedev not at all. but also to those from a variety of theoretic backgrounds. and a free translation. Furthermore. Pashto.

Paul Rodrigues. Craig Kopris. Richard Brecht—as well as Pashto language experts in the United States Government. Wilma Heston. Evelyn Browne. and for never losing their senses of humor. And finally. those that remain fall to me alone. We also thank the generous native speakers of Pashto who worked with us patiently.xii  Preface of Pashto syntax provided here is more detailed than previous overviews available in English and benefits from analyses of individual phenomena made by other scholars. Tristan Purvis. Farooq Babrakzai. Many people have helped in the creation of this book. Zeeya Pashtoon. CASL’s Executive Director. All of these people have worked with scrupulous care to ensure that as few mistakes and misstatements crept into this book as possible. Katherine Burk. Individuals who have had a part in producing this manuscript or advising our research include Nikki Adams. Nathanael Lynn. Thomas Conners. There remains much work to be done on Pashto. and without whom this volume would not exist. who is much missed since his retirement. for being willing to disagree with me when I was wrong. Anne Boyle David Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Mohammed Shahab Khan. I especially thank Claudia Brugman for her conscientious editing of this entire book and Sarah Goodman for her tireless work finding and making sense of naturally occurring example sentences. and we view this volume as a springboard for scholars to continue working on this fascinating language in all its varieties.186. Amalia Gnanadesikan. always stimulating project. and Tamara Wehmeir.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . The authors would like to thank all our colleagues at the University of Maryland Center for the Advanced Study of Language for their support—in particular. I would like to thank my co-authors for devoting themselves so diligently to this sometimes frustrating. and our founding Executive Director. infectious enthusiasm for the enterprise of language description. Our colleague and patron David Cox. James Caron.189. also deserves special mention for his assistance in promoting the idea of this series and for his constant. Amy Weinberg. Shawna Rafalko. Michael Marlo.

2.2.Contents Foreword  vii Series Editors’ Preface  ix Preface  xi 1 About this Grammar  1 1.2.1.2 The Pashto Language  7 Background  7 Population of speakers  7 History and classification  8 Dialectal variation  8 3 Phonology and Orthography  9 3.1.1 Inventory  10 3.2 “Elegant” consonants  9 3.189.2.2.1.3.1.1.2.3 Tables and examples  2 1.1.3 Representation of vowels  25 3.1.1 2.1.2 Vowels  10 3.2.2.2.1 Word-initial vowels  25 3.186.3 Stress  15 3.1.2.1.2 Word-internal vowels  26 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4 Middle dialect vowels  13 3.2 2.2 Orthography  1 1.2 Vowel transcription  11 3.1.3.1 Letters unique to Pashto  16 3.2.1 Inventory  9 3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .1.1 Consonants  9 3.1 Phonetics and phonology  9 3.1 The script  15 3.1.2.2 Tables of letters and numerals  18 3.1.3 “Elegant” vowels  13 3.4 Abbreviations and symbols  4 2 2.1.1 Scope of this book  1 1.2 Orthography  15 3.1.1 2.

1 Dialect marking in this work  34 4.3 The four dialects of General Pashto  35 4.3.3.2.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri  61 5.5 Split ergativity  50 5.1 International differences  36 4.3 Contents Word-final vowels  28 Rationale for transcription system  28 Orthographic variation  29 4 Pashto Dialects  31 4.2.3.2 Middle dialect consonants  39 4.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns  67 5.1.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects  31 4.1 Dialect marking in tables  34 4.3.2.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples  34 4.3 3.2 Number  46 5.1 Middle dialect vowels  37 4.1.3.xiv  3.3.2.1 Introduction  51 5.186.4.2.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto  55 5.3.3.1.2 Three dialects  42 5 Nouns  45 5.189.1.1.1.3 Ablative case  48 5.2 Oblique case  48 5.1.3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .2.5.2.1 Overview  52 5.2.3.1.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  62 5.1.3 Case  47 5.5.1.2 Class I masculine nouns  55 5.4 Vocative case  49 5.1.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns  69 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.1 Introduction  31 4.1 Inflection  45 5.2.4 Animacy  50 5.2 3.2.1 Two dialects  40 4.3.2.4 The Middle dialects  37 4.1 Direct case  48 5.2.3.1.2.2.2.2.3 Class I  52 5.1 Gender  45 5.2.4.3.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  67 5.2.3.3.2 Inflectional affixation  51 5.2.2 Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations  52 5.3.3.5 Other approaches  40 4.

4 5.1 Case-marking suffixes  104 6.1.1.2 Stem allomorphy  104 6.2.2.6 5.2.1 5.2.4.2.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  103 6.1.2 5.5.4.1 5.1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives  103 6.4 5.3.2.2.2 General Pashto Class II  109 6.1.4.2.5.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy  115 6.1 General Pashto Class I  104 6.3 5.2 5.2.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy  105 6.1.2.2.2.4.2.1.5 Animacy in Class I adjectives  108 6.1.2.2.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns  71 Class II  73 Overview  73 General Pashto Class IIa  75 General Pashto Class IIb  79 Class III  80 Overview  80 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto  80 Class IIIa  84 Masculine Class IIIa nouns  84 Feminine Class IIIa nouns  85 Class IIIb  87 Masculine Class IIIb nouns  87 Feminine Class IIIb nouns  88 Class III in Waziri  89 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto  92 Kinship terms  93 Arabic borrowings  95 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  97 Derivational morphology and loanwords  98 Derivational morphology of nouns  98 Nouns derived with suffixes  98 Compounds  101 Reduplication of nouns  101 Loanwords  102 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers  103 6.1.3.186.2.1.2.5.2.2.2 Stem allomorphy  110 6.5.4.2.2.1.2.2.5.4.4.2.5.1.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xv .2.1.1 5.2.1 5.1.3 General Pashto Class III  116 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.1 5.1.3 5.4 5.2.2.5 5.1.2 5.Contents  5.3.1.5.5.2.1.2 5.1 Case-marking suffixes  109 6.1 Introduction  103 6.1.3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy  111 6.2 5.2.6.1 5.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy  107 6.3 5.1.6.2 5.2.3.1.1 5.4.2 5.2.2.2.1 5.2.3 5.189.2.5.2.

8 6.2 6.1 6.3.2 6.1.8.1 6.2.4 6.3.9.2 6.2 6.2.8.2 6.8.2.8.6 6.1 7.5.1 6.1 7.2.4 7 7.1.9.3 6.2.4 6.5.xvi  6.1 6.2 6.2.8.3.5 6.1.8.2 6.4.2.3 6.3 6.4 6.2 7.3 Contents Class IIIa  116 Class IIIb  118 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives)  119 Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives  121 Waziri Class I  121 Waziri Class II  122 Waziri Class III  122 Determiners and definiteness  124 Demonstrative determiners  124 The indefinite determiner /yaw/ ‘one’  130 Non-numerical noun quantifiers  130 The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’  130 The quantifier /har/.1 6.1.2.9.2.8.9.2.1 6.1.1 6.4. /ar/ ‘every’  131 The quantifier /heʦ/ ‘none’  132 Number names  132 Cardinal numbers in Pashto  133 Morphology  133 Inventory  137 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri  144 Reduplication of number names  146 Interrogative adjectives  147 Inflection of conjoined adjectives  149 Derivation of adjectives  150 Derivational suffixes  150 Some Class I derivational suffixes  150 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes  152 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes  152 Negators  152 Compound adjectives  153 Reduplication of adjectives  153 Usage  154 Attributive and predicative adjectives  154 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives  155 Comparatives and superlatives  156 Adjectives as adverbs  156 ‫یو‬ ‫ټولـ‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هیڅ‬ Pronouns  157 Overview  157 Strong personal pronouns  157 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects  157 Usage  161 Strong possessive pronouns  163 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.2 6.3 6.2 7.186.2 6.3 6.2.1 6.5.1.3.2.9 6.3 6.189.5.2 6.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .4.1 6.3 6.1.7 6.1.5.

5.1 Properties of verbs  185 8.7 7.1 7.1.2.6.5.4 Simplex and complex verbs  196 8.2.1 Overview  196 8.3 7.1 7.1.6 7.2. /dər/.2.2 Classifying verbs  186 8.2 Verb components  187 8.189.2.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/  212 8.2 7.5.10 7.8 7.1 The four verb bases  214 8.2.2.4.2.4 Second conjugation  209 8.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects  207 8.3 The infinitive  194 8.3.5.1 Overview of conjugation classes  203 8.3.5.186.9 7.2 a-initial verbs  196 8.4.2.4. and /wər/  169 Oblique pronominal clitics  170 Directional verbal clitics  171 Deictic prefixes  172 Demonstratives  172 Interrogative pronouns  176 Indefinite pronouns  179 Relative pronouns  181 Expressions of coreference  181 Reciprocal pronouns  184 Other pro-forms  184 ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ 8 Verbs  185 8.5.2.1 Overview  185 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xvii .4 7.5 Third conjugation  210 8.2 7.2 Personal suffixes  191 8.4.3.4 Denominal verb constructions  200 8.2.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs  210 8.1 Structure of the verb  187 8.2.2.3.2 7.3 Prefixed verbs  198 8.5.2 Weak verbs (one stem)  215 ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.5.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto  204 8.2.5 7.2.5 Conjugation classes  203 8.6 Stem classes and the four bases  212 8.2.2.5.2.2.4.1 7.3 7.6.Contents  7.11 Weak personal pronouns  164 Forms  164 Usage  166 Occurrence restrictions  166 Possessive constructions  168 Deictoids: /rā/.2.4.4.

4.189.2 8.2.2.1.1 8.3.7 8.2 8.2.2 8.1.1.9 8.2 8.5.5.2.1 8.6 8.2 8.2.1 8.8.3 8.5.8 8.2 8.5.3.2.5.8 8.8.2.6.3 8.9.2.2. to do’  239 Participles  246 Present participle  246 Past participle  247 Irregularities among past participles  249 Simple verb constructions  249 Present continuous  249 Present aorist  252 Past continuous  254 Past aorist  256 Continuous imperative  258 Aorist imperative  260 Continuous optative  261 Aorist optative  263 Compound verb constructions  265 Perfect constructions  265 Present perfect  265 Past perfect  267 Potential constructions  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 Verb usage  269 Uses of the verb to be  269 to be as a copula  269 to be as an auxiliary verb  270 Simple verb constructions  270 Present continuous  270 Negation of present tense verbs  272 Present continuous for expressing future events  273 Present aorist  274 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/  275 Other uses of the present aorist  275 Past continuous  279 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2 8.1 8.6.2.1.5.6.2.1 8.3 8.1 8.4.2.2.5 8.3 8.2 8.2.2.1.2.1 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM ‫کول‬ .3.5.4.1 8.5.2.3.6.1.7 8.186.3 Contents Strong verbs (more than one stem)  217 Strong verbs with two stems  218 Strong verbs with three or four stems  219 List of strong verbs  224 The causative morpheme  227 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/  228 Forms of to be  229 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.xviii  8.5.3.5.4 8.2.3.2 8.2.2 8.2.3.4 8.3 8.2.2.2 8.5.9.9.5 8.4.3.3.1 8.2.1 8.2 8.1 8.4.4.1 8.3.2.3 8.3.8.

Contents 

8.5.2.4
8.5.2.5
8.5.3
8.5.3.1
8.5.3.2
8.5.3.3
8.5.4
8.5.4.1
8.5.4.2
8.5.4.3
8.5.4.4
8.5.5
8.5.5.1
8.5.5.2
8.5.6

Past aorist  281
Imperative  283
Compound constructions: perfect  287
Present perfect  287
Past perfect  290
Negation of perfect tenses  291
Compound constructions: potential  293
Expressing potential present events  293
Expressing potential past events  294
Expressing potential future events  295
Negative  298
Infinitives  299
Infinitives as nouns  299
The periphrastic passive  300
Present participles  303

9
Adpositions  305
9.1
Overview  305
9.2
Adpositions and case assignment  306
9.2.1
Assignment of oblique case  307
9.2.2
Assignment of ablative case  308
9.2.3
Assignment of direct case  309
9.2.4
Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions  311
9.3
Prepositions  312
9.3.1
The prepositions /də/, /de/, /ye/, /e/ ‘of’  312
9.3.1.1
The General Pashto preposition /də/  312
9.3.1.2
Complex adpositions using /də/  313
9.3.1.3
The Middle dialect prepositions /de/, /ye/, /e/  314
9.3.1.4
Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/  315
9.3.2
The General Pashto preposition /lə/ ‘from’  316
9.3.3
The preposition
/be/ ‘without’  317

‫د‬

9.3.4
9.3.4.1
9.3.4.2
9.3.4.3
9.3.4.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3

‫د‬

‫له‬
‫بې‬
The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/  317
The locational ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘on’  318
The instrumental ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘with, by means of’  319
The temporal ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘at, on’  320
With aspectual verbs  322
The preposition /tər/ ‘'up to'’  323
The preposition
/leka/ ‘like’  324
Postpositions  325
Overview  325
The postposition /ta/ ‘to, for’  326
The postposition
/səra/ ‘with’  327

‫تر‬
‫لکه‬

‫ته‬
‫سره‬

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xix

xx 

9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.4.7
9.4.8
9.5
9.5.1
9.5.1.1
9.5.1.2
9.5.1.3
9.5.2
9.5.2.1
9.5.2.2
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.5.5
9.6
9.6.1
9.6.2
9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2
9.7.3
9.7.4
9.7.5

Contents

‫ضدی‬
‫و ړاندې‬
‫غوندې‬
‫باتدې‬

The postposition
/zidi/ ‘against’  327
The postposition
/wṛānde/ ‘before’  328
The postposition
/ɣunde/ ‘like’  328
The postposition
/bānde/  328
Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects  329
Circumpositions  329
Circumpositions with /də/  334
General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/  334
Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/, /e/  336
Complex circumpositions with /də/  337
General Pashto circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP simple circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP complex circumpositions with
/lə...na/  350
Circumpositions with /pə/  353
Circumpositions with /tər/  357
A Middle dialect circumposition with /wə/  359
Coalesced adpositional phrases  360
Pro-adpositional phrases  360
The adpositional phrase
/kara/ ‘at the home of’  361
Adposition usage  362
/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object  363
/də/ and strong pronoun objects  363
/pə/ and
/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction  363
Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions  364
Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics  365

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫له‬

‫له‬
‫نه‬...‫له‬

‫په‬
‫تر‬

‫و‬

‫کره‬

‫نه‬
‫د‬
‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

10
Other Lexical Elements  367
10.1
Particles  367
10.1.1
The existential particle
/šta/  367
10.1.2
Modal particles  369
10.1.2.1
The modal clitic /bə/  369
10.1.2.2
The modal particles
/de/ and
/bāyad/  372
10.1.2.3
The modal particle
/ṣāyi/ ‘may; must’  373

‫شته‬

‫به‬

10.1.2.4
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.1.6
10.2
10.2.1

‫دې‬
‫باید‬
‫ښایي‬
The optative particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/  373
Affirmation particles  374
The emphatic clitic
/xo/  375
Vocative particles  375
Interjections  376
Adverbs  377
Adverbs of time  378

‫خو‬

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Contents 

10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.3.1
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.2.8
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2

Adverbs of place  380
Adverbs of manner  382
The adverb
/səra/  385
Adverbs of degree  386
Adverbs borrowed from Arabic  387
Adverbial interrogatives  388
Adjectives as adverbs  391
Reduplication of adverbs  392
Reduplication  393
Full (morphological) reduplication  393
Partial reduplication: echo words  393

‫سره‬

11
Syntax  399
11.1
Overview  399
11.2
Phrasal syntax  399
11.2.1
Noun phrases  399
11.2.2
Adpositional phrases  400
11.2.3
Verb phrases  401
11.2.3.1
Light verb constructions  401
11.2.3.2
Elements in the verbal group  403
11.2.3.2.1 The verbal group in General Pashto  403
11.2.3.2.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects  405
11.2.3.2.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase  406
11.3
Main clause sentence types  410
11.3.1
Declaratives  411
11.3.1.1
Order of elements in declaratives  411
11.3.1.2
Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses  413
11.3.1.3
Locative alternation  413
11.3.1.4
Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics  414
11.3.1.5
Passive clauses  414
11.3.2
Interrogatives  417
11.3.2.1
Yes-or-no questions with the particle
/āyā/  417
11.3.2.2
Information questions with interrogative pronouns  418
11.3.2.3
Affirmation questions with the particle
/kə na/  419
11.3.3
Imperatives  419
11.3.3.1
The imperative verb form  419
11.3.3.2
The negative imperative particle
/má/  420
11.3.4
Generic and existential sentences with
/šta/  421
11.3.5
Other principles of word order in main clauses  421
11.3.5.1
Weak pronouns  421
11.3.5.2
Particles  424
11.3.5.3
Adpositional phrases in main clauses  424

‫آیا‬

‫که نه‬

‫مه‬

‫شته‬

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xxii  Contents

‫د‬

11.3.5.4
Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/  424
11.4
Some subordinate clause types  425
11.4.1
Relative clauses  425
11.4.2
Noun complement clauses  428
11.4.3
Verb complement clauses  429
11.4.3.1
Reported speech  432
11.4.4
Subordinate clauses as modifiers  434
11.4.4.1
Subordinate clauses with time reference  434
11.4.4.2
Conditional and counterfactual clauses with
/kə/ ‘if’  435
11.4.4.3
Subordinate clauses with
/ʣəka/ ‘because’  436
11.4.4.4
Subordinate clauses expressing result  438
11.4.4.5
Subordinate clauses expressing reason  439
11.4.4.6
Subordinate clauses expressing purpose  439
11.4.4.7
Subordinate clauses of concession  440
11.5
Periphrastic causatives  440
11.6
Conjunction  442
11.6.1
Coordinating conjunctions  443
11.6.1.1
/aw/ ‘and’  443
11.6.1.2
/yā/ ‘or’  444
11.6.1.3
/xo/ ‘but’  445
11.6.1.4
/(aw) byā/ ‘then’  446
11.6.2
Correlative conjunctions  446
11.7
Principles of case-marking and agreement  448
11.7.1
Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity  448
11.7.2
Agreement of conjoined items  450
11.7.3
Concordant adverbs  450
11.7.4
Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference  450
11.7.4.1
Four denominal verbs of sensation  450
11.7.4.2
Denominal
/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like, enjoy’  451
11.7.4.3
Three more expressions of preference  452
11.7.5
An unergative or middle voice construction  453
A
Structure of this Grammar  455
A.1
Overview  455
A.2
Audience  456
A.3
More on uses of this grammar  457
A.3.1
The grammar as a basis for computational tools  457
A.3.1.1
Building a parser and generator  458
A.3.2
The grammar as a description  460
A.4
Spell correction  461
A.5
Grammar adaptation  462
A.5.1
Manual grammar building  462
A.5.2
Automated grammar adaptation  463

‫ځکه‬

‫که‬

‫او‬
‫یا‬
‫خو‬
‫)او( بیا‬

-‫خوښېږ‬

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List of Tables 

A.6

Formatting the grammar for viewing  464

B
B.1
B.2

Sources of Pashto Data  467
Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  467
List of web pages mined for language data  474

Bibliography  477
Index  487

List of Figures

4.1
4.2

Pashto dialects  32
Waziri metaphony  39

List of Tables

‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’  3
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make, to do’  4

1.1
1.2

Class I, stem alternation:
Present continuous of

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

Pashto consonants  9
“Elegant,” or formal, consonants  10
Pashto vowels  10
Pashto diphthongs  11
Comparison among vowel transcription systems  12
Comparison among M vowel transcription systems  14
Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak  16
Pashto letters with dot below and dot above  17
Pashto affricate letters based on  17
Pashto letters based on  17
Pashto alphabet  19
Positional variants of letters  22

‫ی‬

‫ح‬

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xxiii

xxiv 

List of Tables

3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18

Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals  24
Short vowel diacritics  25
Word-initial vowels  26
Pashto initial digraphs  26
Word-internal vowels  27
Word-final vowels  28

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects  33
Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words  33
Four dialects of General Pashto  35
Tribal and geographical associations by dialect  36
Waziri metaphony  38
Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP  40
Alternative dialect codes  40
Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto  42
Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared  43
Three-dialect approach  44
Pronunciation of  44

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23

GP Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
Middle dialect Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
GP Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
Middle dialect Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
GP Class I Masc. animate—morphophonemic alternations  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/wextə́/ ‘hair’  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bandá/ ‘slave’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bāzú/ ‘arm’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/darzí/ ‘tailor’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/plandár/ ‘stepfather’  60
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/pil/ ‘elephant’  60
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’  62
Class I Masc. inanimate—stem allomorphy  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣar/ ‘mountain’  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/daftár/ ‘office’  64
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’  65
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/psə/ ‘sheep’  65
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’  65

‫ژ‬

‫وېښته‬
‫بنده‬
‫ډاکو‬
‫بازو‬
‫میرزا‬
‫ماما‬
‫درزي‬
‫پلندر‬
‫پیل‬

‫غر‬
‫دفتر‬
‫غوږ‬
‫پسه‬

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List of Tables 

5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28

Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’  66
GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy  67
GP Class I Fem. animate:
/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’  68

5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
5.35
5.36
5.37
5.38
5.39
5.40
5.41
5.42
5.43
5.44
5.45
5.46
5.47
5.48
5.49
5.50
5.51
5.52
5.53
5.54
5.55

GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/bizó/ ‘monkey’  68
GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/brexnā/ ‘lightning’  69
GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy  69
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/áspa/ ‘mare’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/miāšt/ ‘mouth’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/raṇā́/ ‘light’  71
Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’  72
GP Class IIa noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIb noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy  75
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/tanúr/ ‘oven’  77
GP Class IIa animate/inanimate:
/ɣal/ ‘thief’  78
GP Class IIa animate:
/melmá/ ‘guest’  78
GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy  79
GP Class IIb:
/duxmán/ ‘enemy’  80
GP Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  81
GP Class IIIa Fem. noun suffixes  82
GP Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIb Fem. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIa Masc. animate:
/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’  84
GP Class IIIa Masc. inanimate:
/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’  85
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’  86
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/koranə́y/ ‘family’  86

5.56
5.57
5.58
5.59
5.60
5.61
5.62
5.63
5.64

‫خواښې‬

‫بیزو‬
‫برېښنا‬

‫اسپه‬
‫میاشت‬
‫رڼا‬

‫پالېز‬
‫پښتون‬
‫تنور‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫غل‬

‫دښمن‬

‫سپی‬
‫ګډی‬
‫سپۍ‬
‫کورنۍ‬
GP Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’  87
GP Class IIIb Masc.: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’  88
GP Class IIIb Fem.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’  89
Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-áy/  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-o/  91
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-yé/  91
Waziri Class IIIa Masc. animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’  91

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xxv

xxvi  List of Tables

5.65
5.66
5.67
5.68
5.69
5.70
5.71
5.72
5.73
5.74
5.75

Waziri Class III Masc. inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’  91
Waziri Class III Fem.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’  91
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’  92
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’  92
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/mor/ ‘mother’  93
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’  94
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/zoy/ ‘son’  94
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/lur/ ‘daughter’  95
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’  96
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mawzó'/ ‘topic’  96
Derived noun suffixes  98

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

GP Class I adjective suffixes  104
GP Class I, stem alternation:
/spək/ ‘light’  106
GP Class I,
/wár/ alternation:
/zṛawár/ ‘brave’  106
GP Class I,
/ján/ alternation:
/ɣamján/ ‘sad’  107
GP Class I, consonant-final adjective, no alternation:
/palwánḍ/
‘fat’  108
GP Class II adjective suffixes  109
GP Class II, -ə́-final adjective:
/terə́/ ‘sharp’  111
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/pox/ ‘cooked, ripe’  112
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/ṛund/ ‘blind’  112
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/tod/ ‘hot’; stem = /tawd/  113
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’; stem = /xwag/
or /xwaẓ/  114
GP Class II, Syncope II:
/sur/ ‘red’  114
GP Class II, Syncope II and epenthesis:
/trix/ ‘bitter’  115

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21
6.22
6.23
6.24
6.25
6.26

‫مور‬
‫وراره‬
‫زوی‬
‫لور‬
‫مجاهد‬
‫موضوع‬

‫سپک‬
‫زړهور‬
‫غمجن‬

‫ـور‬
‫ـجن‬

‫پلونډ‬

‫تېره‬

‫پوخ‬
‫ړوند‬
‫تود‬
‫خوږ‬

‫سور‬

‫تریخ‬

‫اوم‬

GP Class II, consonant-final adjective, no stem allomorphy:
/um/
‘raw, green’  116
GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes  117
GP Class IIIa:
/zalmáy/ ‘young’  117
GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes  118
GP Class IIIb:
/sə́way/ ‘burnt’  119
GP Class IV:
/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’  120
GP Class IV:
/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’  120
GP Class IV:
/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’  121
Waziri Class I adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class II adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class III adjective suffixes  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’  123

‫زلمی‬

‫سوی‬
‫ښایسنه‬
‫یوازي‬
‫هوسا‬

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List of Tables 

‫دا‬
‫دغه‬

6.27
6.28
6.29
6.30
6.31
6.32
6.33
6.34
6.35

Proximal demonstrative /dā/  124
Proximal demonstrative
/dáɣa/  126
Medial demonstratives  128
Distal demonstratives  129
GP /yaw/ ‘one’  133
Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’  134
GP
/dwa/ ‘two’  134
Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’  134
GP
/dre/ ‘three’  135

6.36
6.37
6.38
6.39
6.40
6.41
6.42
6.43

GP
/ʦalor/ ‘four’  135
Waziri plural forms of declinable number names  137
GP numerals and number names  138
Waziri number names that differ from GP forms  144
GP Class I:
/lasám/ ‘tenth’  145
Waziri irregular ordinal number names  146
GP interrogative adjectives  147
Waziri interrogative adjectives  147

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21

GP strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
GP strong pronouns, 3rd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 3rd person  159
Distal 3rd person pronoun
/haɣá/  159
Possessive pronouns  164
GP weak pronouns  165
Middle dialect weak pronouns  165
Distribution pattern for weak pronouns  166
Oblique pronominal clitics  171
GP proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
Middle dialect proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
GP proximal demonstrative
/daɣá/  174
Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
GP medial demonstrative
/haɣ-ə́/  175
Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
GP distal demonstrative
/huɣ-ə́/  176
GP human interrogative pronoun
/ʦok/  177
Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/  177

8.1
8.2

Structure of weak (one stem) verbs  188
Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs  189

‫یو‬

‫دوه‬

‫درې‬
‫څلور‬

‫لسم‬

‫هغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫هوغه‬

‫څوک‬

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xxvii

xxviii 

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17
8.18
8.19
8.20
8.21
8.22
8.23
8.24
8.25
8.26
8.27
8.28
8.29
8.30
8.31
8.32
8.33
8.34
8.35
8.36
8.37
8.38
8.39
8.40
8.41
8.42

List of Tables

Stem shapes  190
GP verbs: personal suffixes  192
Waziri verbs: personal suffixes  193
Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes  193
Infinitives  195
Deictic verb prefixes  198
Non-productive verb prefixes  199
Examples of prefixed verbs  200
Behavior of denominal verbs  202
Examples of denominal verbs  203
GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases  205
GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases  206
Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense)  209
Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense)  211
Verbs and their stems: strong and weak  213
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive)  216
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive)  216
Weak verb bases: second conjugation  217
Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems)  218
Strong suppletive verb, first conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases:
/kawə́l/ ‘to do’  220
Strong verb bases:
/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’  221
Strong verb bases:
/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’  221
Strong verb bases:
/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’  221
Strong verb bases:
/kedə́l/ ‘to become’  222
Strong verb bases:
/tlə́l/ ‘to go’  222
Strong verb bases:
/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’  222
Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  224
Strong verbs  224
Causative verbs  228
GP present continuous of to be  230
Waziri present continuous of to be  230
Dzadrani present continuous of to be  231
GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231

‫کول‬
‫وړل‬
‫بېول‬
‫ایښودل‬
‫کېدل‬
‫تلل‬
‫راتلل‬

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62 8. first conjugation (transitive)  250 Present continuous. to do’  244 Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.76 8.79 8.55 8.66 8. to do’  239 Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.70 8.59 8.49 8.52 8.67 8. to do’  241 Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’  240 GP present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.50 8.47 8. second conjugation  253 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.65 8.53 8.61 8.48 8.51 8.82 8. to do’  245 Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.189.81 8. to do’  242 GP past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.58 8.69 8.71 8.43 8. to do’  243 GP past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.54 8.List of Tables  8. to do’  242 Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. third conjugation  251 Present aorist.83 Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231 Dzadrani present aorist of to be  232 GP past of to be  232 Waziri past of to be  233 Dzadrani past of to be  233 Imperative of to be  233 GP present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 GP present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  236 GP past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 GP past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  239 GP present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.63 8.75 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  252 Present aorist.60 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xxix .186.77 8. to do’  241 Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. second conjugation  251 Present continuous. to do’  243 Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.46 8.78 8.72 8.73 8.80 8. to do’  245 Present participles  246 Present participle: declension  247 Past participles  248 Past participle: declension  248 Past participles built on aorist bases  249 Present continuous. first conjugation (transitive)  252 Present aorist. to do’  240 Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.57 8.64 8.68 8.74 8.45 8.44 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  250 Present continuous.56 8.

84 8.6 Element ordering in negative future constructions  407 Negative placement  409 GP additional interrogative adverbs  418 Case-marking pattern for nouns  449 Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns  449 Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns  449 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. first conjugation (transitive)  255 Past continuous.6 10. first conjugation (transitive)  257 Past aorist.107 8.1 10.100 8. negative  260 Aorist imperative.98 8.92 8. second conjugation  259 Continuous imperative.3 10. first conjugation  259 Continuous imperative.108 Present aorist. first conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative.104 8. third conjugation  266 Past perfect  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 9.87 8. third conjugation  253 Past continuous. first conjugation (intransitive)  254 Past continuous.7 Some adverbs of time  379 Some adverbs of place  381 Some adverbs of manner  384 Some adverbs of degree  386 Arabic adverbs in Pashto  388 Some other interrogative words  389 Some doublets and their base stems  397 11.89 8.2 Some GP simple circumpositions  331 Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP  333 10.97 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  256 Past aorist. third conjugation  256 Past aorist.186.xxx  List of Tables 8.102 8.1 11.94 8.105 8.86 8.88 8.5 11.99 8.189.4 11. first conjugation  260 Aorist imperative.2 11. third conjugation  260 Continuous imperative. second conjugation  261 Aorist imperative.3 11.4 10.95 8.2 10. second conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative. third conjugation  261 Continuous optative forms  262 Aorist optative forms  264 Present perfect.1 9. third conjugation  258 Continuous imperative. second conjugation  257 Past aorist.85 8.91 8.5 10.106 8.103 8.101 8.96 8. second conjugation  255 Past continuous.93 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .90 8. third conjugation. first and second conjugations  265 Present perfect.

we consulted a variety of sources. influence of other languages. by separating an aorist prefix from its stem).g. If no Middle-specific form of a particular feature is described. is constantly evolving. Speakers were asked to provide complete paradigms and examples of usage. which may Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. apparent word boundaries can vary as well. Pashto. we presume that it conforms to General Pashto. or. Morphological and some lexical features specific to the Middle dialects are given their own sections.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . We present all authentic written examples as we found them. asking for grammatical judgments about specific examples and more open-ended commentary on general issues.165. After providing detailed personal language background information. each speaker was recorded pronouncing single word examples from prescribed lists. Pashto writing varies significantly according to a number of factors such as region. and our data collection strategy enabled us to include examples from a wide swath of dialectal situations.2 Orthography Except for the fact that written Pashto always uses the Perso-Arabic script. with greatest emphasis on morphology. Where Middle dialects (abbreviated as “M”) and General Pashto (“GP”) are not known to differ—for example. conversely. and so on. with their original spellings and word boundaries. Chapter 4 contains a more complete description of the differences among Pashto dialects. and consultations with native speakers. 1. however. For instance. by joining a preposition with the word it governs). as described in Chapter 4). treat forms we believe to be bound forms as if they are free (e. including previously published grammars. Native speakers from several dialect areas were consulted on issues ranging from basic pronunciation to the appropriate use of complex syntactic constructions. Over the course of several sessions. corresponding to their counterparts in General Pashto (the set of dialects that exist in contrast to the Middle dialects.1 About this Grammar 1. We were able to consult speakers about phenomena that were insufficiently or inconsistently described in the literature. some writers orthographically treat forms we assert to be free forms as if they are bound forms (e. the speaking tasks increased in complexity. and many words may have multiple widely-accepted spellings. publicly available data on the internet. in their syntax—only one description is given.g.126.1 Scope of this book This grammar covers the four standard dialects and the Middle dialects—including Waziri—of modern Pashto. as a living language spoken in a politically volatile region. In order to describe the wide range of Pashto dialects with precision. we represent words as consistently as possible from one transcription and morpheme-by-morpheme gloss to the next. Additionally.

• The masculine plural ablative and vocative. respectively. we have adapted the Romanization system or the morpheme glossing used by the author in order to elucidate the point at hand. identical to the form to its left). this is more likely in Middle dialects than in General Pashto. The complete absence of a form is denoted by a dash in the cell. In Table 1. Table 1. where relevant.1. we have retained as much information as the original example provides. or if the form above it is separated with a horizontal line.2  About this Grammar result in examples in which a single word in the Pashto script is represented as multiple words in the gloss. or in which multiple words in the Pashto script are represented as a single word in the gloss. Where no alternate forms are given. the feminine singular ablative and vocative.1 and Table 1. Where we have cited examples from other scholarly works. the contents of that table are presumed to hold for all dialects (General Pashto and Middle dialects). Where the authentic text represents variance from what we believe to be standard conventions of spelling or word boundaries. Authentic spoken examples are represented in the dialect of the speaker and this dialect information is indicated in subscript. and the feminine plural oblique. 1. with information about the dialect(s) concerned.2. Where different dialect forms exist.2 are examples showing these table layouts. A complete table of the transcription schema used in this book is given in Table 3. when known. with the initial of the dialect name in subscript after the form. To more easily represent widespread syncretism in Pashto grammatical forms.) In some instances. the form in the table should be taken as applying to all dialects. • The masculine singular vocative form is the same as the masculine singular ablative. and • The masculine plural direct form is the same as the masculine singular direct.3 Tables and examples Table titles are marked.11. (If such an example does not contain script. In Table 1. Where there is no dialect information in the table title. the tables in this grammar use an empty cell to represent a form which is identical to the form above it (or.126. unless we were certain of their transcription system. the feminine singular oblique. and the feminine plural ablative and vocative forms are the same as the masculine plural oblique. • The masculine singular oblique form is the same as the masculine singular direct. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. we have not added it. Forms whose existence is uncertain are represented with a question mark. a standardized version of the Pashto script is presented in an accompanying footnote. these are shown vertically. if there is no form above it.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .165.

with the Pashto script followed by the transcription in phonemic slashes and the gloss in single quotation marks: /spək/ ‘light’. Some of these forms are spelled the same but pronounced differently from one dialect to the next. ə∼o∼e Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 1. ‫سپک‬ (1.PRS.F ‘Building schools means growing our youth!’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR building-F. with the Pashto script in the first line.165. Examples of phrases and complete sentences appear in numbered four-line interlinear examples. and the translation of the sentence in the last line.CONT. the morpheme-by-morpheme gloss in the third.1 is a sample of an interlinear example. and • Both the third person plural forms are the same as the third person singular form. stem alternation: spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Examples of Pashto words appear occasionally in text.DIR building-F.1: Class I.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .DIR people-M.1) !‫ انسان جوړونه ده‬،‫ښوونځی جوړونه‬ xuwəndz-ay joṛawəna-Ø insān-Ø joṛawəna-Ø school-M.3SG. 1.126.Tables and examples  3 • The third person feminine singular form is the same as the third person masculine singular form. the transcription in the second.DIR da be. while other forms have different spellings as well as different pronunciations.

165.eva. 1. and the free translation may be bolded if the English words clearly correspond to the Pashto. the Pashto script is never bolded.mpg. to do’ When an interlinear example is used to illustrate a particular word or morphological concept. The transcription and morpheme gloss are always bolded in such instances.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules. the term appears in bold type.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .php Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2: Present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. morpheme glosses in this grammar follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules.¹ a set of formatting conventions widely adopted in the linguistics community. For ease of reading. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 1. Commonly used abbreviations in this grammar include the following: *: non-existent or unacceptable form ∼: variation in forms (within or across dialects) [ ]: non-overt element Ø: zero morpheme 1: first person pronominal clitic 1DVC: first person directional verbal clitic 2: second person pronominal clitic 2DVC: second person directional verbal clitic 3: third person pronominal clitic 1 http://www.4  About this Grammar ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.4 Abbreviations and symbols Where possible.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM 5 .126.165.Abbreviations and symbols  3DVC: third person directional verbal clitic ABL: ablative ADJ: adjective ADJZ: adjectivizer ANIM: animate AOR: aorist C: consonant COMIT: comitative COMP: complementizer CONT: continuous DIR: direct DZA: Dzadrani (dialect) E: Eastern (dialects) ECHO: echo word EMPH: emphatic EXT: existential particle F: feminine GP: General Pashto INF: infinitive IMP: imperative INSTR: instrumental LVC: light verb construction M: (as diacritic) Middle (dialect) M: (in glosses) masculine N: noun NE: Northeastern (dialect) NEC: modal of necessity or obligation NEG: negative particle NMLZ: nominalizer NW: Northwestern (dialect) OBL: oblique OPT : optative PL: plural PNG: person-number-gender POSS: possessive PRS: non-past PTCP: participle PST: past Q: question particle SE: Southeastern (dialect) SG: singular STR: strong Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

example comes from Lorimer WK: weak WOULD: modal of irrealis or habitual events Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .6  About this Grammar SW: Southwestern (dialect) V: vowel VOC: vocative W: Western (dialects) WAZ: Waziri (dialect) WAZ-L: Waziri (dialect).

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . this appears to be a fairly sound figure when compared to the estimate of 41. Skjærvø 1989).g. Until recently. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. central (Kabul.1 Background Pashto is considered to be the second-most important Iranian language. 2. and small populations of Pashto speakers have been documented in Tajikistan (Lewis.¹ At the upper end of this range.. including demographic information. Farah) regions. after Persian. Pashto is a relatively dominant language.165.5 1 Though itself dominated by neighboring languages such as Dari and Urdu in some spheres. Khost. Laghman. In Pakistan it is primarily spoken in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province). although there may be some attrition through marriage.126. southwestern (Kandahar. Zabul). etc. southeastern (Ghazni. This section provides an overview of the Pashto language. and western (Herat. so it is reasonable to expect that Pashtun ethnicity corresponds roughly with Pashto language acquisition. Tegey & Robson 1996). the numbers are probably more than offset by speakers of other languages who adopt Pashto as a second language. immersion in non-Pashto speaking urban settings. spoken primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan.Anne Boyle David 2 The Pashto Language 2. and available linguistic resources.42% of Pakistan’s total population of 176 million (Directorate of Intelligence 2009a. including the city of Quetta. 2009). Communities of Pashto-speaking migrant laborers from Afghanistan and Pakistan are reportedly found in Iran and the United Arab Emirates. Wardak).3 million speakers that can be derived from the World Factbook’s population projections and ethnic percentage figures: 42% of Afghanistan’s 33. Lorenz 1982.2 Population of speakers Pashto is an Indo-Iranian language of the East Iranian branch. and its long literary tradition dating back to or before the 16th century (MacKenzie 1992. given its widespread use in Afghanistan and Pakistan. MacKenzie 1992) to above 20 million (Inozemtsev 2001. Logar. Austin (2008) sets the range at 30–50 million speakers. linguistic classification. Paktiya. ranging from 13 million (a figure widely quoted from Penzl 1955. dialectal variation. Lockwood 1972. and in northeastern Balochistan. its official status in Afghanistan.6 million inhabitants and 15. Paktika). figures have tended to be outdated or otherwise underestimated. the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (including Waziristan). Directorate of Intelligence 2009b). Furthermore. Kunar). In Afghanistan it is predominantly spoken in the eastern (Nangarhar. Ethnologue tentatively reports 49. MacKenzie 1987. Uruzgan. Helmand. see e. Babrakzai (1999) notes that most estimates of the number of Pashto speakers in available linguistic studies and encyclopedic descriptions are quite rough.

Lorimer 1902). For example. meaning it is closely related to other Iranian languages such as the Pamir languages (also in the East Iranian branch) and Persian. the retroflex fricatives. On the lower end.1 History and classification Pashto belongs to the East Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. 2. and Sindhi. Beyond the classification of Pashto as an East Iranian language.126. Another result is the assignment of several alternative values to the pronunciation of the relevant Pashto letters. there are competing views and descriptions regarding the exact subclassification of Pashto and the degree of affinity between Pashto and certain related languages. especially Ormuri and Parachi.11 in Section 3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 2009). especially for the dialects classified as Middle (M) in Section 4.2 Dialectal variation Pashto can be divided into numerous dialects. MacKenzie 1987). or /x/.42% ethnic population. The Southwest (Kandahar) dialect makes use of retroflex fricatives /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ and of the dental affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/. in which case the World Factbook’s estimated 8% Pashto language use would be a more conservative indicator than the 15. 2. Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. shown in Table 3. /ç/. and Balochi (in the West Iranian branch). Kurdish. Dialectal differences in Pashto are primarily phonological in nature. depending on dialect. are replaced with other phonemes.4.2. One result of this dialectal variation is the use of both Pakhto and Pashto as Romanized spellings of the language’s name. It is somewhat less closely related to the neighboring Nuristani languages and to Indo-Aryan languages such as Urdu. a posthumously updated version of MacKenzie’s description in The World's Major Languages places the number at about 25 million (MacKenzie 2009.1.165. Punjabi. and sometimes also the dental affricates. Attrition is more likely in Pakistan. or varieties.8  The Pashto Language million speakers of Pashto in all countries (Lewis. cf. where Pashto is a less dominant language.2. as described in more detail in Chapter 4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . Southwest /ṣ/ is elsewhere pronounced as /š/. and more distantly related to other Indo-European languages. In other dialects.2.2. which differ more from other dialects of Pashto than the other dialects do among themselves (Hallberg 1992.

these are listed in Table 3.1.126. It is possible that this discrepancy is due Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. as shown in Table 3.1.165. That is. when speaking in what they regard as a formal situation.1 Phonetics and phonology 3. Tegey & Robson (1996) reported 41 years later that it does occur in some speakers’ formal speech.1. Penzl (1955) did not seem to think that the voiced pharyngeal fricative was ever pronounced in Pashto.2. Consonants not used by all speakers are parenthesized. The representation of these segments in the written language is discussed in Section 3.1: Pashto consonants 3.Retroflex Palatal alveolar Velar pb td ṭḍ kg Stops Affricates (ʦ ʣ) čj š (ž) Fricatives (f) sz Nasals m n Lateral Approximants (ṣ ẓ) (ç ʝ) Glottal xɣ h ṇ l w r y ṛ   Table 3.1. many educated speakers will approximate the Arabic pronunciations of those consonants.1.1 Consonants 3.2 “Elegant” consonants Depending on how closely speakers wish to approximate Arabic sounds not otherwise present in Pashto. however.1 Inventory Pashto has consonants at seven possible places of articulation. Labial Dental Palato.Corey Miller and Anne Boyle David 3 Phonology and Orthography 3.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . they may use what are sometimes called “elegant” consonants.

165. Elfenbein (1997: 742) notes that /h/ is often dropped and is only retained in some dialects as an “elegance”.2: “Elegant.10  Phonology and Orthography Arabic consonant Educated. formal Pashto Uneducated or informal Pashto ‫ ء‬glottal stop ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ع‬voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ or ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ح‬voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ h (or not pronounced) ‫ ق‬voiceless uvular stop q k   Table 3. consonants to an ongoing linguistic change under Arabic influence or to a difference between the dialects being reported on.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .” or formal. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

2. Front High i Mid e Low a Central Back u ə o ā   Table 3.1.3 and Table 3.1.3). we provide the corresponding transcriptions of the vowel sounds in Table 3.Phonetics and phonology 3.4. makes a distinction between /ey/ for and /ei/ for .2.1.1.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .1 Inventory Most dialects of Pashto have seven vowels and seven diphthongs (Heston.4: Pashto diphthongs 3. and does not include /oy/ in his inventory. as shown in Table 3. Note that Tegey and Robson’s distinction between both /i/ and /ɪ/ (row 1) and /u/ and /ʊ/ (row 2) may correlate with the presence or absence of and respectively in the spelling of the word (see Section 3.2 Vowel transcription For the sake of comparison with other sources.2  11 Vowels 3.2. 1992).165.5. Penzl.3: Pashto vowels Front Central High Back uy Mid əy Low oy ay āy aw āw   Table 3. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ۍ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. who describes the Kandahari dialect.

5: Comparison among vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ɪ u ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ u u u.165. wor ‘fire’ o oo o a ‫ لس‬las ‘ten’ a a a ā ‫ کال‬kāl ‘year’ ɑ aa ā uy ‫ دوی‬duy ‘they’ uj uy uy əy ‫ لکۍ‬lakəy ‘tail’ əj ey.126.12  Phonology and Orthography This grammar Example IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson i ‫ امتحان‬imtihān ‘test’ i i i.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . ʊ e ‫ یې‬ye ‘you are’ e ee e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə e ə o ‫ اور‬or. ei əy oy ‫ زوی‬zoy ‘son’ oj uy oy ay ‫ سړی‬saṛay ‘man’ aj ay ay āy ‫ ځای‬ʣāy ‘place’ ɑj aay āy aw ‫ یو‬yaw ‘one’ aw aw aw āw ‫ واوره‬wāwra ‘snow’ ɑw aaw āw   Table 3.

Lorimer (1902). Lorimer’s use of ü (presumably IPA /y/) as a variant of /i/.4 Middle dialect vowels The vowel inventory for the Middle dialects described in Chapter 4 differs slightly from that described in Section 3.126. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ 3.4).165. they all fall under the M rubric as described in Chapter 4. One issue is the phenomenon described as “Waziri Metaphony” in Section 4. however. or speakers of the Northeastern dialect (Section 4.2.6. respectively) are sometimes pronounced with long vowels by educated speakers. Due to variation in pronunciation. We have provided two examples of the /e/ vowel: one that shares an /e/ with other dialects of Pashto.Phonetics and phonology  13 3. the short vowels /i/ and /u/ are now sometimes represented in Pashto writing with and .2. these may be called “elegant” vowels.3 “Elegant” vowels Persian or Arabic loanwords that contain an etymologically long /ī/ or /ū/ (spelled with mārufa ye and wāw. Lorimer and Hallberg distinguish between /a/ and /ā/. There does not seem to be a reliable contrast in M between /o/ and /u/.3).6.1 and Section 3. whereas Septfonds does not. As can be seen in Table 3. Lorimer also employs a sequence of two symbols. aṇ. we compare three treatments of the M vowel system. In order to compare these treatments to each other. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. we provide example words representing each class of sounds. For example. despite the usual convention of not representing short vowels in Arabic scripts. and ö (presumably IPA /ø/) as a variant of /e/ may reveal that there existed “midway” points between the GP vowels and their metaphony targets (see Section 4.1. and Hallberg (1992).2. we have provided Pashto script reflecting the General Pashto pronunciation. While the objects of study in each of those works are slightly different. there exists no systematic representation of M pronunciation using Pashto script. Like some consonants in Arabic loanwords. by Septfonds (1994).2. whereas Lorimer does not. Septfonds distinguishes between /əy/ and /ay/. For these. Lorimer makes some additional distinctions compared to the others.1. In Table 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . to our knowledge. to indicate /ã/.1.1.4. and another that represents the metaphony target corresponding with GP /o/. Lorimer uses è as a variant of his é before /r/.2.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ɑi. ê. ī. ö e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə ə e.6: Comparison among M vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. ʌi . u ʌ o ‫ پلار‬plor ‘father’ o o o o a a a ʌ ɑ a ā ɑ a ā ã əy ay aw ‫ سر‬sar ‘head’ ‫ میاشت‬myāšt ‘month’ ‫ وتپم‬wətapã ‘I ã ‫لمسۍ‬ əj əy ai ‫ سړی‬saṛay aj ay ai aw aw au close’ lmasəy ‘granddaughter’ ‘man’ ‫ پلو‬palaw ‘side’ aṇ   Table 3. è. ü i e e é.165.14  Phonology and Orthography This grammar i e Example ‫ لور‬lir ‘daughter’ ‫ ډېر‬ḍer ‘many’. ‫ مور‬mer ‘mother’ IPA Septfonds Lorimer Hallberg i i i.

1. or easy to pronounce. as will be described below. which includes modifications made for Persian. /žə́ba/ ‘tongue’. but numerals are written left to right.Orthography  3.10. The letter wāw.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . the Pashto script is in theory an abjad (Daniels & Bright. Spanish may be considered fairly shallow. However.5. Some words differ only by the placement of stress. is also used in Pashto to represent the vowel /ā/.1 The script Pashto is written primarily in the Perso-Arabic script.¹ 3. and letters may have ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ 1 More on issues that arise from a deep orthography. and even (with modification to the letter). as well as additions specific to Pashto. the Pashto alphabet deviates from the strict definition of an abjad in that some letters can also be used to indicate vowel sounds.5).3 15 Stress Word stress in Pashto is assigned lexically.126.165. or continuous versus aorist forms among second and third conjugation verbs (Section 8. Section A. we indicate stressed syllables by putting an acute accent mark over the vowel portion: /saṛáy/ ‘man’. and unlike. in which the letters represent only the consonants of the language. 2000: 6). /i/. Like those scripts. which writes both /w/ and /ū/ in Arabic.2.4 and Section 8. Pashto would fall somewhere near English on such a scale. which is used to write both long /ā/ and an initial glottal stop in Arabic. /háɣə/ ‘that’. or when relevant to the discussion . /u/. can be used in Pashto for /y/.2 ‫سړی‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Orthography The languages of the world vary along a scale of the ease with which one may deduce pronunciation from orthography. and ye. the Devanagari script in which Hindi is written.2. as with the pronouns /haɣə́/ ‘he/she/it’ vs. in particular variations in spelling.2. can be used to represent /w/. The script is cursive.5.4. which writes both /y/ and /ī/ in Arabic. In this grammar we generally only indicate stress in paradigms and on particular lexical items in example sentences where its placement sheds light on meaning. As with other Arabic-based writing systems. like the Arabic and Persian scripts. can be found at Appendix A. or the spelling from the pronunciation. In our transcription of Pashto. for example. the letter alif. /e/ and several other sounds. or /o/ in Pashto. ‫ژبه‬ 3. though the difficulties of deducing pronunciation from spelling (and vice versa) are somewhat different. This is known as orthographic depth (Sproat. For example. and Chinese would be considered especially deep. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 1996). the Pashto script is written from right to left. On a spectrum of depth. which can be seen in Table 3.

7. the initial form. are discussed in Chapter 4. or may be used in place of the other forms.1. connected only on the right. and the final form. ‫پنډک‬ Letter ‫غړوندی‬ Sound ‫ډ‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ټ‬ ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ   Table 3.7: Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak ‫ر‬ ‫س‬ Pashto has innovated two letters employing a dot above and below and .1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . These letters represent retroflex sounds in the Kandahar (Southwest) dialect. as expressed in Table 3.) 3. particularly in the Northwest dialects. but other sounds elsewhere.2.2. (See the tables of letters in Section 3.9 are based on and represent the affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/ in some dialects.126.1 Letters unique to Pashto Due to its particular consonant and vowel inventory. as shown in Table 3. Pashto employs a set of five letters based on . but in others they have been simplified to the fricatives /s/ and /z/. ‫ح‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. in these cases the initial and independent forms are the same. as are the medial and final forms. Pashto has innovated several letters not present in either Arabic or Persian. Unicode rendering automatically displays the proper positional form. To represent the retroflexes /ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ/.16  Phonology and Orthography up to four allographs: the independent form.10. which is unconnected to other letters. Finally.165. connected on both sides. the medial form. without affecting the expected pronunciation.) Some letters do not connect to the letter to their left. Note that in much text encountered on the internet and elsewhere. (In most word processors. The two letters in Table 3. as displayed in Table 3.8. Pashto employs a diacritic known as a /panḍak/ or /ɣaṛwanday/ ‘ring’ on the letters used for the dentals.2. connected only on the left. as discussed in Chapter 4. which have a range of phonetic and morphological values. Further pronunciations of these letters.

š Quetta (Southeast).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 17 . Southeast). x Eastern   Table 3. ž Quetta (Southeast). such as hatā ‘even’. g Peshawar (Northeast) ṣ Kandahar (Southwest). Northeast) ʣ (Southwest.126. ‫حتی‬ ‫ي‬ i.165.Orthography  Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Sound ẓ Kandahar (Southwest). s (Northwest. This is known as alif maqsura. z (Northwest. Northeast)   Table 3. y ‫ې‬ e ‫ۍ‬ əy word-finally in feminine nouns and adjectives əy word-finally in verbal forms not pronounced or ʔ word-medially in some Perso-Arabic borrowings such as masala ‘problem’ ‫ئ‬   Table 3.10: Pashto letters based on ‫مسئله‬ ‫ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.8: Pashto letters with dot below and dot above Letter ‫څ‬ ‫ځ‬ Sound ʦ (Southwest.9: Pashto affricate letters based on ‫ح‬ Letter Sound Function/comments ‫ی‬ ay word-finally ā word-finally in some words derived from Arabic. Southeast).

it would be called simply ye. while ze is found in the native component as well. alif and he). ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫ه‬ ً‫ا‬ Following are some remarks on particular letters. such as Shafeev (1964). Finally. is used in native Pashto words. as in a section of a dictionary. was known in Arabic. The letter wāw-hamza appears word-medially in Perso-Arabic borrowings such as /swāl. he. we list them separately here for ease of reference. while letter names that end in a consonant are grammatically masculine. meaning ‘verbal’. which is composed of a Persian prefix /pur/ ‘full’ and an Arabic root /harārat/ ‘heat’.1. The name majhula ye for the letter means ‘unknown ye’.2. /i/. Note that some of the symbols listed here (e. The other /h/ sound.165. and in borrowings from Persian in which one of the morphemes is Arabic: /purharārat/ ‘ardent. When appearing word-finally. The letter ye is also commonly used when referring to the letter ye in general. while sin is found in the native component as well. The name mārufa ye for the letter means ‘known ye’.g. The letter wāw is also transcribed as /v/ in some sources. or give more than one. representing /z/. and saqila meaning ‘heavy’. alif mad and hehamza) are not considered separate letters from their counterparts without diacritics (e. reflecting the fact that its sound. for example.2. suwāl/ ‘question’. appears in Arabic loanwords which are spelled with this letter in Arabic. The halwa he.126. Representing /t/. we have indicated the most common pronunciations of the letters.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ‫ص‬ ‫ؤ‬ . These differences are due in part to regional variation in how the letters are pronounced and in part to variation in how the Pashto has been Romanized.g. The pronunciations listed in parentheses are the formal pronunciations described in Section 3. Some of the letters are used chiefly in Arabic loanwords.1.2 Tables of letters and numerals The full list of Pashto letters is given in Table 3. /e/. mārufa ye In this usage. and zā are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. was unknown in Arabic. the letter he may represent a vowel such as /a/ or /ə/. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫سؤال‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ه‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پرحرارت‬ ‫حرارت‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫س‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ظ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. The names for the letter include kəṛwāla and feli. Sources differ on some of the names for Pashto letters. the letter tā is found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. Representing /s/. reflecting the fact that its sound.11.g. where there is further variation we refer to the relevant sections. while te is also found in the native component. Letter names that end in a vowel or diphthong are grammatically feminine.18  Phonology and Orthography 3. tazkir meaning ‘masculine’. muanasa) and ‘heavy’ (saqila).1. we have listed a variety of possible Romanized names. e. as well as in Arabic and Persian loanwords which are spelled with this letter. or in loanwords based on Arabic. Where practical. alef tanwin appears word-finally ً‫تقریبا‬ ‫و‬ in adverbs derived from Arabic. The names for the letter include the words for ‘feminine’ (ṣəʣina tānis. zād. emotional’. To aid in letter identification. It thus can be used to encompass . /taqriban/ ‘approximately’. the letters se and sād are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. the letters zāl.

2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 19 .3 alif mad ɑ aa ā ā alif tanwin an an an an be b b b b pe p p p p te t̪ t t t ṭe ʈ tt ṭ ṭ se s s s s jim ʤ ʣh j j če/čim ʧ ʦh ch č ʣe/ʣim/ze ʣ/z ʣ ʣ ʣ/z ʦ/s ʦ ʦ ʦ/s he/halwa he Ø/h/(ħ) Ø/h/(h) Ø/h/(ɦ) Ø/h/(ħ) xe x kh kh x dāl d̪ d d d ḍāl ɖ dd ḍ ḍ zāl z z z z re r r r r ṛe ɻ rr ṛ ṛ ze z z z z že ʒ/ʤ/z zh zh/j/z ž/j/z ẓe/ge ʐ/ʒ/ʝ/g zz g ẓ/ž/ʝ/g sin s s s s šin ʃ sh sh š ʦe/ʦim/se Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.11: Pashto alphabet Unicode U+0627 U+0622 U+0627 | U+064B U+0628 U+067E U+062A U+067C U+062B U+062C U+0686 U+0681 U+0685 U+062D U+062E U+062F U+0689 U+0630 U+0631 U+0693 U+0632 U+0698 U+0696 U+0633 U+0634 Pashto script ‫ا‬ ‫ٓا‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar alif see Section 3.1.Orthography  Table 3.165.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM h .20  Phonology and Orthography Table 3.11: (continued) Unicode U+069A U+0635 U+0636 Pashto script ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar ṣin/xin ʂ/x ss x ṣ/x sād/swād/ sxwāt/swā s s̤ s s zād/zwād/ z z̤ z z tā/twe/ txwe/ toy/twā t̪ t̤ t t zā/zwe/ zɣwe/ zoy/zwā z z̅ z z ʔayn/ayn (ʔ)/(ʕ) ’ ʔ see Section 3.165.2 ɣayn ɣ gh gh ɣ fe f f f f qāf/qaf k/(q) q q k/(q) kāf/kaf k k k k gāf g g g g lām l l l l mim m m m m nun n n n n ṇun ɳ nn ṇ ṇ wāw w/o/u w w/u/o w/u/o wāwhamza Ø/w he/hā h zxwāt/zwā U+0637 ‫ط‬ U+0638 ‫ظ‬ U+0639 ‫ع‬ U+063A U+0641 U+0642 U+06A9 U+06AB U+0644 U+0645 U+0646 U+06BC U+0648 U+0624 U+0647 ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ه‬ Ø/w h h Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.126.2.1.3 and Section 3.1.

Orthography  Table 3.3) pasta ye (/yā) /majhula ye (/yā) e ee e e ṣəʣina ye (/yā) /saqila/ de tānis saqila ye (/yā) /muanasa saqila ye (/yā) əj ei əy əy kəṛwāla ye (/yā) /ye (/yā)hamza/ feli ye (/yā) /de tazkir saqila ye (/yā/) əj ey əy əy Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.165.3) ye/yā/ mulayana ye (/yā)/prata ye (/yā) aj ay ay ay (see Table 3.126.1.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 21 .11: (continued) Unicode Pashto script U+06C0 ‫ۀ‬ U+06CC ‫ی‬ U+064A ‫ي‬ U+06D0 ‫ې‬ U+06CD ‫ۍ‬ U+0626 ‫ئ‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar he(/hā)hamza/ zwarakai ə e ə ə (see Section 3.10) saxtə ye (/yā) /klaka ye (/yā) /mārufa ye(/yā) i/y i/y i/y i/y (see Section 3.

In addition to the positional variants of individual letters.126. used for the sequence of lām + alif. .139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . the script includes an obligatory digraph.13. the initial-position form is on the right.38.12. which are used in Pashto. In keeping with the directionality of the script. The Eastern Arabic numerals. Numeral forms of compound numbers are given along with the word-form number names in Table 6.12: Positional variants of letters Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ـپ‬ ‫ـپـ‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ـت‬ ‫ـتـ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ـټ‬ ‫ـټـ‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ـث‬ ‫ـثـ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ـج‬ ‫ـجـ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ړ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫لا‬ Table 3. are given in Table 3.165.22  Phonology and Orthography Positional variants for each letter are shown in Table 3.

Orthography  Table 3.12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ـط‬ ‫ـطـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ـظ‬ ‫ـظـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ ـه‬or ‫ـہـ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ـی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 23 .165.

12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ې‬² ‫ۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ـئ‬ Arabic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numeral ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ۵ or ٥ ۶ or ٦ ۷ ۸ ۹ Unicode U+06f0. U+0662 U+06f3. U+0667 U+06f8. U+0660 U+06f1. U+0663 U+06f4 or U+0664 U+06f5 or U+0665 U+06f6 or U+0666 U+06f7.165. but may take initial form after a nonjoining letter. U+0669   Table 3. U+0668 U+06f9.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. U+0661 U+06f2.126.13: Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals 2 This letter does not occur word initially.24  Phonology and Orthography Table 3.

1. upon which the Pashto alphabet is based. the combination is pronounced /i/ or sometimes /ay/.15.1. may occasionally be encountered in native dictionaries or in learning materials. and its sound is /ā/. Word-initially.Orthography  25 3. When an initial alif is followed by mārufa ye. as indicated in Table 3. When an initial alif is followed by wāw.126.2. ‫زور‬ ‫ فتحة‬fatha ِ◌ i ‫ِمس‬ ‫ زېر‬zer ‫ کسرة‬kasra ُ◌ u. Such vowels can potentially be indicated with diacritics placed above or below the consonant letters. The following statements are general guidelines.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .14 with examples from Shafeev (1964). Most varieties of Pashto. When ‫ ا‬alif or ‫ ع‬ayn begin a word. distinguish only one long vowel. they may take on various vowel sounds. however. and /i/ and /e/. the combination is usually pronounced either /o/ or /u/. ٓ‫ ا‬alif mad mostly occurs word-initially. the short vowels are not written.2. the combination is pronounced /e/. as shown in Table 3.14: Short vowel diacritics 3.1 Word-initial vowels Words that begin with a vowel sound must begin with either alif. but these are not used in ordinary writing. The short vowel diacritics.165. but sometimes it ‫ې‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3. pex ‫ پیش‬peš ‫ ضمة‬zamma mis ‘copper’ zwar   Table 3. Words with etymologically long vowels are written with their original long vowels. For this reason.3 Representation of vowels The Arabic script. In many cases. /ā/. mārufa ye is pronounced /y/. or ‫ا‬ ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ayn. o ‫ ُپل‬pul ‘bridge’ ‫ پېښ‬peṣ.) When an initial alif is followed by majhula ye. alif mad. (Word initially. the vowel pairs /u/ and /o/. it is often possible to find exceptions.1. ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ Symbol Sound Example Pashto name Arabic name َ◌ a ‫ َبد‬bad ‘bad’ ‫ زبر‬zabar. writes long vowels but does not typically indicate short vowels. The same symbols are used in Arabic in such contexts as well as in the Koran and some religious texts. digraphs may be employed to indicate vowels.2. but (except for /ā/) usually pronounced with vowels that are not distinctively long. are now often represented in Pashto writing with wāw and forms of ye respectively. as discussed in Section 3.

word-internal majhula ye is pronounced /e/.2.126.) Table 3.15: Word-initial vowels ‫و‬ is pronounced /aw/. majhula ye. Word-internal alif is generally pronounced /ā/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . o i e   Table 3. and word-internal ayn generally lengthens a preceding /a/ to /ā/. ubə ‘water’ ‫ ایران‬irān ‘Iran’ ‫ اېغ‬eɣ ‘sticking out’ u. (Word initially wāw is pronounced /w/. a vowel. or ayn.17.165. ‫ې‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ع‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. mārufa ye.16: Pashto initial digraphs 3. as is characteristic of abjads.1. or a diphthong. as shown in Table 3.2 Word-internal vowels Vowels within words may be spelled with alif.26  Phonology and Orthography Sound a e i o ‫ ا‬alif example ‫ ع‬ayn example ‫ ابر‬abr ‘cloud’ ‫ استونیا‬estoniyā ‘Estonia’ ‫ عدس‬adas ‘lentil’ ‫ علاوه‬elāwa ‘addition’ (uncommon) (uncommon) ‫ اداره‬idāra ‘management’ ‫ اتوریته‬otorite ‘authority’ ‫ علاج‬ilāj ‘cure’ ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ ‫ عضوي‬uzwi ‘organic’ (uncommon) u   Table 3. or they may (with the exception of /ā/) be un- ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ې‬ written. Word-internal wāw and mārufa ye can each represent either a consonant.3.16 summarizes the most common pronunciation of these initial digraphs. Initial digraph ‫او‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اې‬ Sound Example ‫ اوبه‬obə. wāw.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 27 .Orthography  Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ خال‬xāl ‘birthmark’ ‫ و‬wāw o u w aw ‫ ي‬mārufa ye ( ‫ ـیـ‬in its internal SW i ‫ هیڅ‬hiʦ ‘nothing’ y ‫ پیاز‬piyāz ‘onion’ ay ‫ پیسې‬payse ‘money’ e ‫ تېل‬tel ‘oil’ form) ‫ ې‬majhula ye ( ‫ ـېـ‬in its internal ‫ ډوډۍ‬ḍoḍəy ‘bread’ ‫ موږ‬muẓ ‘we’ ‫ موافق‬muwāfiq ‘favorable’ ‫ پوځ‬pawʣ ‘army’ form) ‫ ع‬ayn lengthens preceding a to ā ‫ معلوم‬mālum.165.126. ‫ معروف‬māruf ‘known’   Table 3.17: Word-internal vowels Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

no simple transliteration can preserve Pashto orthography solely through the letters of the Roman alphabet. except in the case of ayn.11 for the pronunciation of forms of ye. its goal is to accurately represent the spelling of the language. Pashto examples are transcribed in this version of traditional Pashto transcription. Transliteration is one-for-one mapping of a language’s characters (or character combinations) into corresponding Roman characters (or combinations).126. Because the Pashto script possesses several distinct letters for each of several segments.3.2 ‫ کوه‬/kuh/ ‘moun- Rationale for transcription system Pashto text may be rendered into Roman letters through transcription or transliteration.18: Word-final vowels ‫ه‬ Note that a final he may also indicate a final /h/.1. wāw. and Table 3. all non-M dialects of Pashto are Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Several extra diacritics or other non-alphabetic characters would be necessary.3 Word-final vowels If a Pashto word ends in a vowel sound.18 for other final vowels. he. its goal is to accurately represent how the language is pronounced. rather than a transliteration. See Table 3.10 and Table 3. ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ع‬ Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ هوا‬hawā ‘air’ ‫ ه‬he a ‫ ژبه‬žəba ‘tongue’ ə ‫ ته‬tə ‘you’ u ‫ غټو‬ɣaṭu ‘fat [oblique plural]’ o ‫ زانګو‬zāngo ‘cradle’ ‫ و‬wāw   Table 3. leaving the pronunciation unclear. 3. In this grammar.28  Phonology and Orthography 3. or ye. although this is rare. as in the word tain’.165. Transcription maps phones.2. If a written Pashto word ends in any other letter. the spoken word will end in the consonant with which it is written.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . in which case the final sound is that of the previous letter.2. A strict transliteration would also leave out the vowels that are unwritten in Pashto. Accordingly. we have chosen to use a broad phonemic transcription. slightly modified to adhere more closely to the IPA. it will be written with a final alif.

3 Orthographic variation ‫ګ‬ ‫گ‬ The Pashto letter /g/ gāf is sometimes represented as (U+06AF).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . 3. Although in this grammar we do make the /ə/-/a/ distinction in our transcription. there are two letters whose forms appear differently word-finally from standard Persian and Afghan Pashto.Orthography  29 written in both the Pashto script and our transcription. The Pashto letter ye in word-final position may appear as (U+06D2) for /ay/ or /e/. for example to distinguish the masculine direct singular demonstrative /haɣa/ ‘that’ from the masculine oblique singular /haɣə/. In Urdu. and may be encountered in Pashto emanating from Pakistan. we use he for both in the Pashto text. referred to in the Unicode documents as “Heh with yeh above”) instead of the more usual Heh (U+0647) in final position to indicate /ə/ as opposed to /a/.165. since these dialects do not have independent orthographic representation. and the letter he in word-final position may appear as (U+06C1). as it is in Persian and Urdu. Note that these variants may occur in handwriting from various regions. Some authors use he-hamza (U+06C0.2. Examples in Waziri and other M dialects may not include Pashto script. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ــہ‬ ‫ے‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغۀ‬ ‫ه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .126.165.

In this way. We also compare our proposal with other approaches that have come up with smaller numbers of dialects.classification by tribe alone fails to take into enough account the essential geographical facts. rather than the Middle or M dialect. Northeast (NE) and Middle (M). whose details we are not yet in a position to describe. in the following sections.1 Introduction In this chapter. Here we seek to provide a convenient partition of the data that recognizes salient and reliable distinctions that correlate with geography. So. According to Elfenbein (1997: 739).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ..1. there may well be many subdialects. “geographical classification alone does not— cannot—take enough account of tribal distinctions. we may refer to Middle or M dialects.Corey Miller 4 Pashto Dialects 4. for any given dialect. we describe a set of five dialects of Pashto in order to establish certain generalizations as a matter of convenience. noting that we have not exhausted the description of dialect differences for this language. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. since there may be several speech varieties sharing the general characteristics of Middle Pashto. The general locations of these dialect areas are illustrated in Figure 4. others are discussed below. Northwest (NW).. Waziri (WAZ) and Dzadrani (DZA) are two subdivisions of Middle Pashto for which we have the most information. as well as the marking of dialect forms in this text.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects The approach we take in this work assumes five dialects: Southwest (SW).165. Note that Pashto dialects are connected to both geographical facts and tribal identity. Southeast (SE). We explain the details of these dialects.” 4.

in the second person plural suffixes for verbs: /‑āst/ in certain present tense forms and all past tense forms in Southwest and /‑əy/ elsewhere (see Table 8. For specific pronunciations of individual words in many cities. according to Elfenbein (1997: 747). Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. which are often accompanied by the distinct spellings shown in Table 4.32  Pashto Dialects Figure 4.2. ‫کړل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ـاست‬ ‫ـئ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. from which many of these forms were gathered. as in variable use of two different stems /kṛəl/ and /kawəl/ for the verb do (Septfonds. As an example of variation in the realization of vowels.126. We have observed the following examples of this phenomenon in closed-class items. for example.1: Pashto dialects Table 4. Note that this process tends not to occur where it would eradicate distinctions.165. there is a tendency for final unstressed /e/ to be realized as /i/ in Southwest. the second person singular verbal suffix /e/ contrasts in Southwest with the third person singular /i/. for example.1 summarizes the major differences among the five dialects.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . We also see dialectal variation in suffixes. Note that these represent characteristic pronunciations rather than the only possible pronunciations for these words in these regions. see Hallberg (1992). 1989).4).

me’ ‫ دي‬di ‘you’ ‫ دې‬de ‘you’ ‫ تاسي‬tāsi ‘you’ ‫ تاسې‬tāse ‘you’   Table 4. NE ‫ پوري‬pori ‘to’ ‫ پورې‬pore ‘to’ ‫ باندي‬bāndi ‘on’ ‫ باندې‬bānde ‘on’ ‫ کي‬ki ‘in’ ‫ کې‬ke ‘in’ ‫ لاندي‬lāndi ‘under’ ‫ لاندې‬lānde ‘under’ ‫ مي‬mi ‘I. tsok ‫‘ پنځه‬five’ pɪnʣə pɪnʣə pinzə pinzə pinzə ‫‘ لاس‬hand’ lās lās lās lās los ‫‘ لور‬daughter’ lur lur lur lur lir   Table 4.126.165.2: Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1: Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects SW NW. me’ ‫ مې‬me ‘I.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 33 .Characterizing Pashto dialects  Pashto word SW SE NW NE M ‫‘ پښتو‬Pashto’ paṣto pašto paçto paxto pašto ‫‘ شپږ‬six’ špaẓ špəž špəg špag špež ‫‘ څوک‬who’ ʦok ʦok sok sok tsek.

34  Pashto Dialects Another area where variation in vowels has been noted is in the realization of /i/ and /u/. 4. In some cases. in contrast to M.1. /i/ and /ī/ are separate phonemes. readers will encounter the notation E or W.2. the dialects associated with that form are specified.5. we have observed numerous differences across Pashto dialects. With regard to lexis. or we do not have sufficient information to attribute it to one or the other. interlinear examples include Pashto script (except for some M-dialect examples). and English translations. In such tables. This does not necessarily mean that the example is only acceptable or natural for that dialect. our tables of morphological forms are restricted to the four non-M dialects SW. SE. MacKenzie (1987: 551) observes that this distinction has been lost in most dialects. and when possible. In those sections covering the Middle dialects. that means either that the form is acceptable in both WAZ and DZA.165.1 Dialect marking in tables In those sections covering General Pashto. Eastern generally refers to both Northwest and Northeast. In such cases. SE.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples In this book. that means that to the best of our knowledge the form is acceptable in all four dialects. In the sections covering General Pashto.1. NW. These are generally attested examples. Some discussions of Middle dialects use the more specific notation. Note that in some cases.2. and Pashtoon (2009) indicates when particular words are Eastern or Western (see Section 4. when no dialect is mentioned. we indicate the dialect of the speaker who provided the example. /ɣomāšə/ ‘mosquito’ SW exists alongside /miāšə/ ‘mosquito’ NW .2.1 ‫میاشه‬ Dialect marking in this work Where possible.1 on the use of these terms). and in this grammar we represent only /i/ and /u/. and NE. When we know that a form is only acceptable or natural for a subset of those dialects. 4. NE. NW and NE as General Pashto (GP). if a form is known to be acceptable in only DZA or WAZ. morpheme glosses. For example. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. we have not been able to ascertain a more specific dialect attribution.1. Hallberg (1992) provides examples of many basic words that differ by region.126. we aim to associate Pashto forms with one of the five dialects—SW. as are /u/ and /ū/. ‫غماشه‬ 4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Elfenbein (1997: 750–751) notes that in the Northeast.4 for additional dialect abbreviations within M). it is so labeled. we refer to the four dialects SW. SE. phonetic transcription. When no dialect is mentioned. M—as described in Table 4. while Western refers to Southwest and Southeast. such as WAZ (for Waziri) and DZA (for Dzadrani) when differences within Middle dialects can be or need to be specified (see Section 4. or with example forms mentioned in the text. standing for Eastern and Western. NW.

and Northeast Yusufzai. based on MacKenzie and its reprise by Skjærvø (1989). resulting in the pronunciations /š/ and /ž/. such as may be found on the internet. Northwest.3: Four dialects of General Pashto four-dialect approach. Peshawar. Table 4. using the name for the tribe centered in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly Northwest Frontier) province. Quetta.3. Hanifi 2001). 4.126. and Northeast di- Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3 The four dialects of General Pashto MacKenzie (1959) provided an influential four-dialect analysis using the cardinal points: Southwest. Southeast. lays out the principal phonological characteristics of the four dialects comprising this approach. we have generally chosen to transcribe them as they might be spoken in the Northeastern dialect.The four dialects of General Pashto  35 when interlinear examples are derived from written textual material.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . while Southeast and Northeast appear to be in Pakistan. He calls Southwest Kandahar. respectively. Thus they are pronounced identically to the way the letters and are pronounced in the Southeast dialect. referring to the Kandahar. Henderson (1983) similarly presents a ‫ښ‬ ‫ش‬ Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Southwest (SW) Southeast (SE) Northwest (NW) Northeast (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ š ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ ž ʝ g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s s ‫ځ‬ ʣ ʣ z z ‫ژ‬ ž ž ž j   Table 4. Pakistan. after the name of a tribe mainly found in the vicinity of Ghazni and Zabol provinces (Frye 2010. “Central” Ghilzai may refer to the members of the tribe in those provinces. as well as Elfenbein (1997). and Northeast. The Southeast dialect is characterized by a loss of retroflexion in and with respect to the Southwest dialect. MacKenzie calls the Northwest dialect Central Ghilzai. The remaining dialect in MacKenzie’s model is Southeast. Note that Kieffer (1974) associates this characteristic with Ghazni in Afghanistan. rather than to those living in the northern provinces of Faryab and Badakhshan. which he associates with Quetta. It is useful to note that Southwest and Northwest appear to be in Afghanistan.

Jalalabad (?) central Ghilzai.1 International differences In her grammar. Kakari. Skjærvø (1989: 386) notes that in Northeast. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Dialect  Geography  Tribe SW Kandahar. With respect to vowels and diphthongs. As noted in Table 4. with /ʝ/ restricted to Wardak province. Table 4.3. In the area of word choice. It is also compatible with the Eastern dialect described in Penzl (1955) and with the Central dialect described in Tegey & Robson (1996). Henderson’s Northeast has /g/ for . Note that we have seen some variation in the description of the sounds corresponding to the letter . some Afridi NE Peshawar.4: Tribal and geographical associations by dialect 4. in Afghanistan the Pashto word for son is spelled .165. Bannu. northeast Ghilzay. Bangash. Heston (1992) sometimes distinguishes between Afghan and Pakistani Pashto from the perspective of orthography. Henderson’s Northeast is akin to MacKenzie’s Northwest. we may expect to see both /ʝ/ and /g/ for in dialects labeled Northwest in our dialect schema. a feature mentioned in Penzl. the diphthong /ay/ is monophthongized to /ɛː/. while in Pakistan it can be spelled . Farah. Yusufzai. Hazara.4 presents the tribal and geographical associations for each of these four dialects according to Elfenbein (1997).36  Pashto Dialects alects. while Elfenbein (1997: 744) describes some /z/ along with /j/ in the Northeast dialect. Tegey & Robson (1996) have associated /z/ with the Northwest dialect. some Afridi   Table 4. part of Nangarhar province (Afghanistan). Achakzai. Baluchistan (includes Quetta) Sherani. Orakzay. in addition to the more distinctive Pashto convention for expressing thanks. Waziri. /mənə́nə/ ‘gratitude’ ‫زوی‬ ‫زوے‬ ‫مننه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Therefore. Herat South Ghilzai SE southern NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). while the diphthong /əy/ is pronounced /ay/.126. northern parts of NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Shinwari. Elfenbein (1997: 744) provides a substantial amount of information on the quality of vowels and diphthongs across several dialects. Wanetsi NW east and northeast Afghanistan. Tarin.3. For example. even though the two variants are pronounced similarly. Mohmand.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

given that metaphony.” along the lines of processes described by Labov (1994) and others. based on available descriptions. Given the absence of neighboring vowels in the monosyllabic examples in Table 4. We distinguish two main variants of M. whereas Pakistani Pashto speakers are more inclined to use /šukríya/. and the Bannu District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly NorthWest Frontier Province. there is another dialect group which Kieffer (1974) refers to as intermediary or central. In general. the Dari/Tajiki word for thanks. while the dialects of Pakistan exhibit more loanwords from Urdu. also using the Pashto term /manʣanəy/ ‘middle’. spoken in the southwestern part of Khost Province (Paktiya at the time of Septfonds’ writing) in Afghanistan. In this case.5. This phenomenon involves certain deviations from the vowel qualities attested in the other dialects as described in Table 4.1 Middle dialect vowels The Middle dialects are characterized by a phenomenon known as Waziri metaphony. a more apt term might be “vowel shift. succeeding chapters will describe its morphological and syntactic features. we use the term metaphony here in order to maintain a link with previous studies.The Middle dialects  37 ‫تشکر‬ (literally compliance.4 The Middle dialects Apart from the four dialects discussed in Section 4. which describes Waziri (WAZ). These dialects are primarily noted for differences in the pronunciation of vowels with respect to the GP dialects. which describes Dzadrani (which we abbreviate DZA). submission). or umlaut.165. However. ‫شکریه‬ 4. The term metaphony for this phenomenon has been used at least since Kieffer (1974). In this section.3. One of these descriptions is Lorimer (1902). we describe the main vocalic and consonantal characteristics of M.4. it seems to be a bit of a misnomer. a dialect spoken in North and South Waziristan in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). We refer to this collection of “middle” dialects as M. There are two phonetic processes that are involved in Waziri metaphony: raising and fronting.126. In the case of GP /ā/. Bannu (BAN) and Karak (KAR). is generally taken to be the modification of one vowel due to the influence of a neighboring vowel (perhaps with intervening consonants). He provides fieldwork data for Wana (WAN) in South Waziristan. it raises to /o/.5. ‫منځنۍ‬ 4. Miran Shah (MIR) in North Waziristan. the Dari/Tajiki and Urdu words share the same Arabic root.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . and three sites in adjoining areas of the NWFP: Lakki Marwat (LAK). while in the cases of GP /o/ and Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Afghan Pashto speakers tend to use /tašakúr/. Hallberg (1992) discusses a “Central Group” of dialects that correspond to M. or NWFP). the dialects of Afghanistan exhibit more loanwords and cognates from neighboring Persian/Dari and Turkic. the Urdu word. The other is Septfonds (1994).

NW. Septfonds (1994) uses /a/ and Hallberg (1992) uses /ɑ/.4. He employs the symbol /ā/ in some words. /e/ is the metaphony target of GP /o/.2). /i/ is the metaphony target of GP /u/. mør/ ‘mother’ and /špyn/ ‘shepherd’. As mentioned in Table 4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. Lorimer (1902) provides good examples of all of these observations. indicating that metaphony may be optional in particular words. respectively. For some words. such as /mioni. such as /myāšt/ ‘month’. SW) Waziri metaphony (M) ā∼o ‫ پلار‬plār ‘father’ plor o∼e ‫ مور‬mor ‘mother’ mer u∼i ‫ لور‬lur ‘daughter’ lir   Table 4. it may be optional (subject to sociolinguistic variation). while /y/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /u/ and /i/. Kieffer (1974) also describes several intermediate points between the metaphony targets that have been observed in different locations in the Middle dialect area.1. SE.5. respectively. and some speakers or locales may use intermediate vowel realizations between segments identified as GP and the metaphony targets described in Table 4. Examples include /mer. for this word. Indeed. they front to /e/ and /i/. while /ø/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /o/ and /e/. miāni/ ‘long purse’.38  Pashto Dialects Correspondence GP (NE.165.126. Lorimer (1902) provides two pronunciations. in words that in General Pashto would contain /u/ and /o/. Along the same lines. which we believe correspond to IPA /y/ and /ø/ (see Figure 4. As noted in Section 3. Lorimer occasionally employs the symbols ü and ö. Three important observations with regard to metaphony should be made: there may be words where it does not occur. so none of these sources indicates that metaphony has occurred in this word.5: Waziri metaphony /u/. ‫میاشت‬ ‫مور‬ ‫شپون‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.

in Dzadrani. Where relevant. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. For example. In contrast. Table 4. we have provided these indications in the table.165. Lorimer does not provide Pashto script. while is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/.4. So this pattern aligns with the Southeast dialect.126.6. illustrates some other consonantal features of the Middle dialects. a pattern that aligns with the Northwest dialect. indicating that these phenomena may not be exclusive to the Middle dialect area. thus aligning those dialects with the Northeast dialect.2 Middle dialect consonants While the two Middle subdialects Waziri and Dzadrani share certain characteristics with each other that are not seen in the other Pashto dialects. In some cases. based on data from Septfonds (1994) and Lorimer (1902). while words spelled with are pronounced with /ž/.The Middle dialects  39 Figure 4. including /x/ for and /g/ for . but we can infer from his vocabulary that words spelled with are pronounced with /š/ in the Waziri dialect.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . is pronounced as a palatal /ç̣/.2: Waziri metaphony 4. Pashtoon (2009) has identified the “standard” or GP terms as Eastern and the “M” terms as Western. they pattern differently with respect to the consonantal distinctions that distinguish the other dialects. Kieffer (1974: 25) mentions that other possibilities exist for Middle dialects.

wegā n∼l ‫ نمر‬nmar ‘sun’ (Eastern) lmar (Western) epenthetic n after m ‫ مده‬moda. lyār   Table 4.7. SE C. mudda ‘time’ minda palatalization ‫ لار‬lār ‘road’ lyar.6: Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP 4. and pst (Central). pbu (Northern). 2009) recognizes the following codes: pbt (Southern). north and south. D pbt (Southern)   Table 4.5. These codes are compared to our approach in Table 4.7: Alternative dialect codes 4.5 Other approaches One will encounter other less granular models of Pashto dialectology and it is useful to be familiar with their terminology and how they are associated with the approach described here. C and D. and Kieffer (1974) uses the letters A. For example.40  Pashto Dialects Phenomenon GP M b∼w ‫ بېګا‬begā ‘last night’ wega. Darmesteter (1888) describes two dialects.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . NW A pbu (Northern) M B pst (Central) SW. B.126. This book Kieffer ISO 639–3 NE.165. based on the pronunciation of the letters and ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. For example the ISO 639–3 standard (Lewis.1 Two dialects Earlier approaches recognized only two dialects.

He notes the same contrasts as Darmesteter. He associates the northern dialect with the tribes of Kabul. Peshawar. Among more contemporary scholars. like the Durranis. including C and A. and a rather detailed description of their boundary: ‫ښ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ .165. Most adherents of the two-dialect approach focus primarily on differences in the pronunciation of the letters and . and Swat. In and around the city of Ghazni the people speak Persian. where southern has /ž/. but the Afghan dialect of the neighborhood is the Northeastern Pakhto...139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Waziri is distinct enough from Northeastern and Southwestern that he provides a standard word list for three varieties of Pashto: Northeastern (Peshawar). and the variety of the southwestern dialect spoken by the Waziris. Table 4. Grierson (1921: 7) refers to a northeastern and a southwestern dialect. as explained above. we may take the southern limit of the great Ghilzai tribe as the line in Afghanistan proper. although the two dialects probably overlap to a certain extent. 12 miles south of Kalat-i Ghilzai to just north of Maruf. and Southwestern (Pishin and Kandahar). northern has /j/. respectively. This is the same terminology employed by Raverty (1859: viii). and thence north of the Lowana country to the Kundil-Kundar confluence.Other approaches  41 ‫ږ‬. and a western dialect centered in Kandahar. Darmesteter does not note the distinction between the southeastern palatal and southwestern retroflex pronunciations of and .3). and the Ghilzai tribe has /z/. they are pronounced /š/ and /ž/. while in the south it is /paṣto/ ‘Pashto’. again distinguishing on the basis of the pronunciation of the letters and .8 summarizes some of the different names used for these two dialects. these are pronounced /x/ and /g/. and the southern with the tribes of the west and south. so as to give the Waziris and Khataks to Pashto. and which is the most conservative? Penzl (1955: 9–10) cites a few sources implying that Kanda- ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. while in the south. Note that the name of the language itself reflects one of these distinctive alternations: in the north it is /paxto/ ‘Pashto’... He notes that the most important nonstandard forms are the varieties of the northeastern dialect spoken by the Ghilzais and the Afridis. Waziri (Waziristan). and then along the Kundar to the boundary line running in a northeasterly direction up to near Peshawar. Caroe (1958: xvi) says the Ghilzai speak a soft dialect. In the north. It is said to run from a stone bridge (Pul-e-Sang) at Asia Hazara. while the southwestern one is spoken by all Afghans south of this line and westwards towards Herat. Shafeev (1964) refers to an eastern dialect centered in Peshawar. For example. while Anderson (1975: 576) says they speak a hard dialect. Grierson provides a colored map with the two dialects—northeastern and southwestern—distinguished. fol- lowing his account. In fact. Ghilzais speak the northeastern dialect. Geiger (1895) also identifies two dialects that he calls northern and southern. The presence of distinct phonemes corresponding to distinct letters in the Southwestern dialect leads to two questions: which is the most prestigious dialect. as subsequent researchers do (see Table 4. For the southern dialect.126. Interestingly. implicit proponents of a two-dialect approach as “hard” and “soft” differ on their characterization of Ghilzai. but also adds that for the letter .

The other maintains the distinction between eastern and western and introduces a third category. The difference between such an approach and the two-dialect approach discussed in Section 4. ‫ ږ‬g Southern Northern Western Eastern Southwestern Northeastern Pashto Pakhto soft hard C A   Table 4. in contrast to Northeastern where the pronunciations of those letters. and that the Northeastern tribes were probably the creators of Pashto literature. and then goes on to call it “the cradle of the Pashto alphabet” due to the correspondence between letters and phonemes. which are distinctive in ways beyond the treatment of individual consonants. with a central dialect serving as intermediate between eastern and western. /x/ and /g/. Penzl (1955: 8) distinguishes the following “main types which approach regional standards:” Peshawar. 1932) that at the time of the creation of the current alphabet in the 16th century. ‫ ږ‬ẓ ‫ ښ‬x.2 Three dialects ‫ګ‬ There are two principal ways in which the Pashto-speaking regions have been divided into three main dialects. are shared with the letters and .165.8: Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto hari (Southwestern) is the most prestigious.5.5.1 is that the Eastern dialects of the two-dialect approach have been further subdivided along the Pakistan/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. particularly and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ (which are in fact only represented by those letters). Eastern.126. ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ 4. However. Northeastern dialects pronounced and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ as well.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . MacKenzie (1959: 233) cites Morgenstierne’s hypothesis (Morgenstierne. respectively. One of these treats the three dialects as a continuum.42  Pashto Dialects ‫ ښ‬ṣ. and Kandahar. the Middle dialects.

rather than /š/: /šəm. corresponding to our NE and NW. These are shown in Table 4. in Wardak. is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/. səm/ ‘I am.Other approaches  43 Afghanistan border into Peshawar and Eastern (Afghanistan). Logar. Tegey & Robson (1996) also posit a three-dialect system. For example. and Parwan. Ghazni. Tegey and Robson subdivide it along an east-west line within Afghanistan. They refer to a Kabul or Central dialect and a Nangarhar or Eastern dialect. Based on the features associated with these.9. Table 4. Tegey and Robson ascribe their Central dialect to the provinces of Kabul. is /s/ as in Peshawar. the preservation of /ʦ/ in the Eastern dialect is akin to Kandahar Pashto. the Eastern dialect can be seen Letter Kandahar (SW) Eastern (NW) Peshawar (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ g g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s ‫ځ‬ ʣ z z   Table 4. while Penzl’s Eastern dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Central dialect. For example.1). Like Penzl.8. Penzl notes a few additional variants within the Eastern dialect.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . they divide the other two slightly differently from Penzl. In some ways. So where Penzl subdivides the two-dialect approach’s Eastern dialect along the Afghanistan/Pakistan border (a roughly north/south line). However. the voiced counterpart to /ç/. we can see that Penzl’s Peshawar dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Eastern dialect. and Peshawar to our NE.165. and the Eastern pronunciation of as a palatal can be seen as an intermediate step between the retroflex /ṣ/ of Kandahar and the velar /x/ of Peshawar. In Logar. using our dialect labels: ‫ښ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫شم‬ ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. I can’ (see also Section 8.2. Kandahar corresponds to our SW dialect. as it is in Kandahar.11. respectively.126. They note that their Eastern dialect includes both the northeastern sections of Afghanistan and the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan (now called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). which we elaborate in Table 4.10 summarizes the three-dialect nomenclature of Penzl and Tegey and Robson.9: Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared as an intermediate step in a continuum from Kandahar to Peshawar. Tegey & Robson (1996) also note a three-way dialect distinction for . and in the verb to be is /s/. they refer to a Kandahar or Western dialect.

44  Pashto Dialects This book Penzl Tegey and Robson SW Kandahar Kandahar.10: Three-dialect approach SW NE NW ž j z   Table 4. Nangarhar NW Eastern Central   Table 4.11: Pronunciation of ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165. Western NE Peshawar Eastern.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

5.1 Inflection Pashto nouns are inflected to show gender (masculine and feminine). Scholars usually try to categorize Pashto nouns into inflectional classes.165. oblique. see Section 5. which agree in gender. the direct singular word-form. however. however. its phonological shape (especially the stem-final sound). many exceptions to this pattern—some predictable by other criteria. and case (direct. grammatical descriptions are in disagreement over the extent to which the organization of a class system should be based on the noun’s plural formation. ablative. the gender of a noun may often be distinguished by the ending of the noun in its citation form. ‫لور‬ ‫مور‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. (Regarding case forms.2). number. regardless of the noun’s ending.3 and also Chapter 8. and case. others unpredictable. even though they end in consonants.1. For animate nouns.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Following a review of the basic inflectional categories in the first three sections of this chapter.Alina Twist and Anne Boyle David 5 Nouns 5. So nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are grammatically feminine. or its case-marking patterns. number (singular and plural).126. we present a system of inflectional classes for nouns that largely coincides with that presented for adjectives in Chapter 6.1. grammatical gender is usually determined by biological sex. Agreement is found on determiners and modifying adjectives. Broadly speaking. Our system differs from previous treatments in that we base it solely on the suffixes each noun takes and treat stem allomorphy separately (see Section 5.1 Gender Pashto nouns are categorized grammatically as either masculine or feminine.) For example: Typical masculine noun endings (direct singular)  any consonant ‫ ی‬ay (stressed or unstressed) Typical feminine noun endings (direct singular) ‫ ه‬a or ə ‫ ۍ‬əy ‫ې‬e There are. and vocative). while pronouns and verbal agreement markers reflect gender and number.

as may be seen in the tables in Section 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫ږدن‬ . show the ‫ ـې‬/‑e/ suffix that is typical of many feminine plurals. such words may be inflected with a distinct opposite gender form. and the word for ‘fish’ is always masculine: /kəb/ (pl. Similarly. however. ‫دښمني‬ 5. /šāgə́rdə/ ‘student (female)’ /ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ vs. ‫کب‬ ‫پیشو‬ ‫غڼه‬ ‫بیزو‬ Nouns like /pišó/ ‘cat (female)’ and /bizó/ ‘monkey’ are grammatically feminine by default. ‫پیشی‬ ‫غټ بیزو‬ ‫بیزو‬ ‫قاضي‬ whereas /i/-final nouns denoting abstract concepts and inanimate objects are typically feminine (e. or the agreement patterns elsewhere in the utterance may reflect masculine as opposed to feminine gender. ‫سړی‬ ‫شاګرد‬ ‫غواي‬ ‫ښځه‬ ‫شاګرده‬ ‫غوا‬ ‫غڼې‬ ‫ کبان‬/kəbā́n/). although nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ look masculine because they end with consonants.1. the word for ‘spider’ in Pashto is often feminine: /ɣəṇá/ (pl. /qāzí/ ‘judge’). number is often reflected in agreement on modifying adjectives. as in /pišay/ ‘cat (male)’. /duxmaní/ ‘enmity’). /ṣə́ʣa/ ‘woman’ /šāgə́rd/ ‘student (male)’ vs. but the shape of the adjective indicates that the noun has masculine reference. /ɣwā/ ‘cow’ Many small animals and insects. So.46  Nouns Predicting grammatical gender based on sex primarily works for nouns that denote humans or animals whose sex is culturally important and readily apparent. and there is no strong cultural motivation to distinguish between male and female counterparts. for example.3 and onwards.126. cited in Khan 2006). /ɣəṇé/). rather than the ‫ ـان‬/‑ā́n/ or ‫ ـونه‬/‑úna/ suffixes that are characteristic of ers’ and consonant-final masculine nouns.g. for example. are associated with an invariable grammatical gender assigned more or less arbitrarily (see Rishtin 1994. where /bizó/ does not change. Plural formation is one of the ways to distinguish feminine from masculine nouns. For example. For example. masculine nouns ending in /i/ denote professions (e. their plurals. al- ‫اوبه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.g. on the other hand. as a general rule. in coreferential pronouns. In rare circumstances.2. although nouns ending in /i/ can be either masculine or feminine. and in agreement markers on verbs. Additional semantic clues may be helpful for a noun whose grammatical gender cannot be predicted by the sex of its denotational class or by its final sound.165. /máynde/ ‘moth- ‫مور‬ ‫لور‬ ‫مېندې‬ ‫ لوڼې‬/lúṇe/ ‘daughters’. Certain mass nouns or collective nouns like /obə́/ ‘water’ and /gdən/ ‘millet’ govern plural agreement in verbs. as in /ɣaṭ bizó/ ‘big monkey (male)’.2 Number Pashto has several ways to form regular plurals. consonant-final masculine nouns that denote types of fruit or trees generally do not take any special plural suffixes. As with gender. /səṛáy/ ‘man’ vs.

3PL.’ (5.F.1) .‫ما ږدن وخوړل‬ mā gdən-Ø wə́-xoṛ-əl 1SG.3PL.’ (NW) (5. In most instances.PST-PST. whether or not the noun has a plural suffix.M.’ (NW) (5.’ (NW) 5.F ‘I drank a lot of water.3PL.WK AOR-eat.M.STR.M ‘I ate millet.M.F.‫ما ډېرې اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ḍer-e ob-ə wə́-čək-əl-e 1SG. These are described individually in the following subsections.DIR AOR-eat.3PL.STR.2) . oblique.1.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.F ‘I drank water.DIR 1SG.165.OBL much-PL. Note that the verb is plural in both sentences. as illustrated in 5. Pashto nouns take one of four morphosyntactic cases: direct.1 and 5.F.PST-PST. (5.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.M ‘I ate many mulberries. by stem vowel ablaut.DIR mulberry-PL.DIR water-PL.’ (5. or vocative.Inflection  47 ‫ـان‬ though the plural suffix /‑ān/ may be added in some cases.M.3) .OBL water-PL.M ‘I ate many mulberries.‫ډېر توتان مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-ān me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.M.5) .4) . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.OBL millet-PL. in some instances.STR.PST-PST.‫ما اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR mulberry-PL.WK AOR-eat. ablative.3 Case Case is marked in Pashto by suffixes and.3PL.DIR 1SG.2.

with subjects preceding objects. and finally. In the present tense... but the case assigned by adpositions may differ in the Middle dialects. subject noun phrases appear in the oblique case form. including the postpositions /tə/ ‘to’ and /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’. 5.165.1. grammatical function is indicated by word order. See also Chapter 7. and verbal agreement markers justifies the identification of the four classes named above.1. or absolutive functions. ‫ته‬ ‫سره‬ ‫د‬ ‫په‬ ‫ نه‬..2..3. or any circumposition or complex adposition that contains one of these prepositions. as outlined in Section 9. na/ ‘from’ (see Chapter 9).. and Chapter 8. however.126.1. respectively. the ablative form is almost always identical to the vocative form. we present separate class information for Waziri corresponding to each class paradigm for General Pashto. accusative. in accordance with split ergativity. the combination of inflectional patterns with certain nouns. na/ ‘from’. Marking of case is not always visible or consistent in all domains in Pashto. 5. except for the circumposition /lə .5. For masculine nouns. and only to the direct and oblique cases. Note that because of this overlapping of forms and because ablative forms are relatively ‫تر‬ ‫په‬ ‫له‬ ‫ نه‬. on exceptions involving first and second person pronouns. plus any circumposition consisting of a postposition and one of these two prepositions. see Section 5. though the inflectional suffixes for each class differ between General Pashto varieties and Waziri.1 Direct case The direct case form is used for noun phrases that fulfill nominative.. the prepositions /də/ ‘of’ and /pə/ ‘at’. originating from’... the circumposition /lə .3.3. The oblique case is used for objects of most adpositions. Available data extends only for Waziri. plural forms of nouns.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . For feminine nouns. it is usually identical to both the oblique and vocative forms.2 Oblique case In past-tense sentences. pronouns. Nouns that exist in both General Pashto and Waziri usually belong to analogous inflectional classes.48  Nouns case assignment criteria are identical across dialects.3 Ablative case The ablative case (sometimes also called Oblique II or Prepositional) is used when the noun is an object of the prepositions /pə/ ‘with’ in the instrumental usage.3. ‫له‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. which assigns oblique case to its object. adjectives. so we do not include examples for ablative and vocative for the Waziri dialect. in present-tense and past-tense sentences. Accordingly.1. ‫له‬ 5. /lə/ ‘from’ or /tər/ ‘from.

or by some other quantifier: /somra míla/ ‘how many miles?’ NE . however. /salur uxān/ ‘four camels’ NW .DIR ‘Palwasha's book’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL book-M.9) ‫د پلوشې کتاب‬ də palwaš-e kitāb-Ø of Palwasha-F.7) ‫د زلمي کتاب‬ də zalm-i kitāb-Ø of Zalmay-M.6) ‫ي‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ا‬ !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫سړیه‬ saṛ-aya wə́-dar-eg-a man-M. giving.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP. the ablative case can also be used for consonant-final masculine nouns when they are modified by a cardinal number greater than one. or /ā/ in the direct case form: in those nouns. not * /salur uxa/. stop!’ (NW) (5.Inflection  49 infrequent. for example. stop!’ (NW) (5. /i/.126.OBL book-M. except for those ending in /u/. According to Lorenz (1982) and Heston (1992). the vocative singular form of feminine nouns is identical to the oblique and ablative singular forms. /dwa halə́ka/ ‘two boys’. the vocative singular suffix in all noun classes is /a/ or /ə/. an informant of ours did not have this. some grammatical descriptions—Tegey and Robson’s.DIR ‘Zalmay's book’ (NW) (5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . ‫و‬ (5. ‫څومره ميله‬ ‫لس کاله‬ ‫دوه هلکه‬ ‫څلور اوښه‬ ‫څلور اوښان‬ 5.3. for example—do not recognize the ablative as a separate case in Pashto.4 Vocative case For masculine nouns. With some exceptions (mainly kinship terms). /las kā́la/ ‘ten years’.8) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫پلوشې‬ palwaš-e wə́-dar-eg-a Palwasha-F.SG ‘Man.SG ‘Palwasha.1. The vocative plural form is always identical to the other non-direct plural forms.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP. the vocative singular form is identical to the direct singular form.165.

PST-PST.50  (5.126.165.M.’ (NW) 5.M.M.10) Nouns !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫خورې‬ xor-e wə́-dar-eg-a sister-F. and most other things are not.5 Split ergativity Pashto exhibits nominative-accusative alignment in the non-past tenses and ergativeabsolutive in the past tenses.11) ‫د خور کتاب‬ də xor-Ø kitāb-Ø of sister-F. consonant-final masculine nouns (Class I) that denote living beings typically take the plural suffix ‫ـګان‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. (5.3PL. Sentences 5.4 Animacy Another category involved in noun inflection is animacy.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.DIR ‘sister's book’ (NW) 5. while 5.‫زه ډېر خوندور توتان خورم‬ za ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG.12) .DIR many-PL.1.3. for example.M.12 and 5.’ (NW) (5.M.DIR mulberry-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR tasty-PL.OBL book-M.13 illustrate this split.STR.DIR tasty-PL. 5.STR. This distinction mostly affects which plural suffixes a noun takes.M.12 shows direct case-marking of and verbal agreement with the nominative argument.13) .PRS-1SG ‘I am eating a lot of tasty mulberries.OBL many-PL.DIR wə́-xoṛ-əl AOR-eat. stop!’ (NW) (5.‫ما ډېر خونده ور توتان وخوړل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG.SG ‘Sister.M ‘I ate a lot of tasty mulberries. Most humans and some animals are represented by animate nouns.13 shows oblique case-marking of the subject and verbal agreement with the direct object.DIR Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.1.DIR mulberry-PL.

whose plural forms show greater uniformity (see Chapter 6). However. In many instances. ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ان‬ 5. as mentioned in Section 5. the sequence /ān/ (with or without additional sounds such as initial /g/ as above) appears to be strongly associated with living (especially human) denotata: several nouns denoting living beings in other inflectional classes have variant plural forms containing the sequence /ān/ in their suffix. Some resources focus on the endings of nouns. This section describes the forms of affixes by class. A striking feature of Pashto morphology is the fluidity of noun class membership. category. rather than semantic.2. The classification of Pashto inflectional classes presented in this grammar focuses on the last two items in that it aims to build a unified inflectional class system for nouns and adjectives and to provide a clearer understanding of the association between formally related masculine and feminine classes. This approach is in contrast to most other descriptions of Pashto. were confirmed through elicitation.1 Introduction The properties listed in the previous section are marked in the inflected forms of nouns by a single suffix. This grammar. /plār/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’ are both inflected as inanimates. still others on apparent connections between male and female counterparts and parallels between noun and adjective inflection. for example. the Dzadrani forms have been extracted from Septfonds and have not been confirmed. others on the plural forms. whereas those that denote inanimate objects are more likely to take /‑úna/.Inflectional affixation  51 ‫ـونه‬ /‑gān/. treats animacy as a grammatical.4. and.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The basis for these class groups is more apparent for adjectives. depending on the speaker and the dialect. actual animacy of the denotational class is not a sure predictor of grammatical animacy in Pashto.1. may not reflect the actual biological status of the noun’s denotatum.165. the same word can be inflected with different suffixes and hence grouped by grammatical descriptions under different noun classes. Due to considerable gaps and overlap among inflectional patterns. Whether a noun takes animate or inanimate markers can also vary with the dialect. Although the above-mentioned plural suffix /‑gān/ occurs only in Class I.2 Inflectional affixation 5. which come from Lorimer. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Our information on the Middle dialects is of variable reliability: the Waziri forms. therefore. there is no obvious solution nor clear consensus for classifying Pashto nouns and adjectives. however. which may be zero.

We depart from most other descriptions in that we do not consider stem allomorphy when classifying Pashto nouns. which give a broad overview of the inflectional suffixes that distinguish this class.2. their occurrence can be erratic in other cases.1 and Table 5. as can be seen in Table 5.2 Nouns Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations Many Pashto nouns undergo morphophonemic alternations when they inflect.3. or from other information about the form or meaning of the noun. Most of them end in a consonant. Nouns of this class can be masculine or feminine.165. as well as patterns involving both the stem and suffix.126. however. These differences are specified in Table 5. which suffix a Class I noun takes is determined by whether the stem ends in a vowel or a consonant. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. They are predictable in some cases from the last sound of the stem.2.1 Overview Class I includes the majority of nouns in both General Pashto and Waziri.3 Class I 5. These alternations include stem allomorphy. In some instances.52  5. but instead describe stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic patterns for each class in the following sections.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .3. animate or inanimate.5. 5.

Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct -Ø Inanimate ‫ــګان‬ ‫ـونه‬ ‫ـګانو‬ ‫ـونو‬ -gā́n Oblique -úna -gā́no -úno E ‫ـو‬ -ó W Ablative -Ø (vowel-stems) ‫ـه‬ -a (consonant-stems) Vocative   Table 5. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1: GP Class I Masc.126. noun suffixes Singular Plural Animate Direct Oblique Inanimate -Ø ‑ún WAZ -ā́ WAZ ‑yún WAZ ‑ina -ə́ DZA -ón DZA -í DZA -yón DZA -í DZA ‑úne WAZ ‑ine WAZ ‑yúne WAZ -a WAZ -óne DZA -ə DZA -yóne DZA   Table 5.165.2: Middle dialect Class I Masc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 53 .

54  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Plural Inanimate Animate ‫ـګانې‬ -Ø -gā́ne Inanimate ‫ـوې‬ -we W (after /ā́/ or /ó/) ‫ـې‬ -e (elsewhere) Oblique -Ø -Ø (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـې‬ ‫ـګانو‬ -gā́no -wo W (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـو‬ -e (elsewhere) -o (elsewhere) Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . noun suffixes Direct ‫ـوو‬ Singular Plural -a WAZ -e -e WAZ -we DZA -Ǿ WAZ -o DZA Oblique   Table 5.165.4: Middle dialect Class I Fem. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.3: GP Class I Fem.

13 for the plural of this item that /plandár/ ‘stepfather’ can also be inflected as a Class IIb noun (Section 5. However.3. or /ú/ .2.14 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun.4). but for others only one or the other occurs. • GP plural suffix ‫ ـګان‬/‑gā́n/ ‫ـګان‬ The plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑gā́n/.14.19 through Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Table 5. shown in Table 5. although there are also many ending in /ə́/ or /á/.22. either possible form is allowed (e. if any. ‫ډاکوان‬ ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ډاکوګان‬ • Sample paradigms Table 5. and to some of those ending ‫ګـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ in /á/.3.12.3. those ending in /u/—are extremely fluid in the application of this /g/-deletion: for many.3. in the top left cell of each table. Certain nouns—for example.6 through Table 5. However.g. described in Section 5.165. The subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/. whereas /‑úna/ and /‑úno/ are used for inanimate masculine nouns. /ú/. In some cases the stem undergoes changes as well. /xārejí/ ‘foreigner’ ‫ډولچي‬ .2.Inflectional affixation  55 5. /yí/.6 through Table 5. and a few in /é/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫پلندر‬ .2. as shown in Table 5. The plural of Class I masculine animate nouns is formed with the suffix /‑gā́n(o)/. /ḍolčí/ ‘drummer’ . These morphophonemic alternations apply to all nouns whose citation form ends in /i/ or in a consonant.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings. for example: ‫ـې‬ ‫ غواي‬/ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ < ‫ غوا‬/ɣwā/ ‘cow’ ‫ پیشې‬/pišé/ ‘cat [male]’. ‫خارجي‬ Note from the variant forms shown in Table 5. is mostly composed of words that denote professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the denoted class (e. suffix-initial /g/ frequently undergoes lenition. /ā́/. or /í/. the derivation of masculine nouns from feminine ones is much rarer than the reverse process.5 outlines these rules for Class I masculine animate nouns. or /yé/. /ḍākú/ ‘bandit’+ /-gān/> /ḍākugā́n/or /ḍākwā́n/ ‘bandits’).g. /ā́/. ‫ـونه‬ (‫ـګان)و‬ ‫ونو‬- 5. /ə́/. ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـې‬ the latter derived from feminine nouns in /ā́/ or • • ‫ـي‬ ‫ و‬/ó/.2 Class I masculine nouns Most masculine nouns in this class end in a consonant.126.2. as can be seen in Table 5.2. either becoming a glide or deleting. ‫ بنګي‬/bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ). indicating stem allomorphy. a rare variant form < ‫ پیشو‬/pišó/ ‘cat [female]’. the latter when the second part of a consonant cluster.

animate—morphophonemic alternations ‫ ه‬ə or a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫وېښته‬ ‫وېښتان‬ wextə́ wext-ā́n ‫وېښتانو‬ Oblique wext-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.56  Nouns Final stem sound(s) Suffix/Stem change Forms affected C Cg→ CØ all plurals Example ‫پیل ـګان ← پیلان‬ pil-gā́n → pilā́n elephants ‫ ه‬ə or a 1. some plurals ‫ه‬ ə or a → Ø/ [-stress] ‫وېښته ـګان ← وېښتان‬ wextə-gā́n → wextā́n hairs 2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .5: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ وېښته‬/wextə́/ ‘hair’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.6: GP Class I Masc.165. Cg→ CØ ‫و‬u ug → w some plurals ‫ډاکو ـګان ← ډاکوان‬ ḍāku-gā́n → ḍākwā́n bandits ‫ا‬ā g → y/ā_ā some plurals ‫میرزاګان ← میرزایان‬ mirzā́-gān → mirzāyā́n clerks ‫ي‬i ig → y ‫درزي ـګان ← درزیان‬ all plurals darzí-gān → darzyā́n tailors   Table 5.

8: GP Class I Masc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 57 .Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بنده‬ ‫بندهګان‬ bandá banda-gā́n ‫بندهګانو‬ Oblique banda-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.7: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ ډاکو‬/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. animate: ‫ بنده‬/bandá/ ‘slave’ ‫ و‬u∼w Singular Plural Direct ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ډاکوان‬ ḍākú ḍākw-ā́n ‫ډاکوګان‬ ḍāku-gā́n ‫ډاکوانو‬ Oblique ḍākw-ā́no ‫ډاکوګانو‬ ḍāku-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .10: GP Class I Masc.9: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ بازو‬/bāzú/ ‘arm’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫میرزا‬ ‫میرزایان‬ mirzā́ mirzā-yā́n ‫میرزایانو‬ Oblique mirzā-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.58  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بازو‬ ‫بازوګان‬ bāzú bāzu-gā́n ‫بازوګانو‬ Oblique bāzu-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. animate: ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 59 . animate: ‫ درزي‬/darzí/ ‘tailor’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. animate: ‫ ماما‬/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’ ‫ ي‬i∼y Singular Plural Direct ‫درزي‬ ‫درزیان‬ darzí darzy-ā́n ‫درزیانو‬ Oblique darzy-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.126.165.Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫ماما‬ ‫ماماګان‬ māmā́ māmā-gā́n ‫ماماګانو‬ Oblique māmā-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.11: GP Class I Masc.12: GP Class I Masc.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . animate: ‫ پلندر‬/plandár/ ‘stepfather’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پیل‬ ‫پیلان‬ pil pil-ā́n ‫پیلانو‬ Oblique pil-ā́no Ablative ‫پیله‬ píl-a Vocative   Table 5.165. animate: ‫ پیل‬/pil/ ‘elephant’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.60  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫پلندر‬ ‫پلندران‬ plandár plandər-ā́n ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r Oblique ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r ‫پلندرانو‬ plandar-ā́no ‫پلندرو‬ plandə́r-o Ablative ‫پلندره‬ plandár-a Vocative   Table 5.126.13: GP Class I Masc.14: GP Class I Masc.

respectively. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct mirzā́ mirzā-yún mirzā-yúne Oblique   Table 5. is mostly composed of words that express professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the referent (e. • Sample paradigms Table 5.16: Waziri Class I Masc. • Waziri plural suffix /‑ún/.165.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings.16 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun in Waziri. The corresponding oblique plural suffixes are /-úne/ and /‑yúne/. These nouns exhibit a stem allomorphy between the final /í/ of the uninflected form and /y/ in the inflected form.15: Waziri Class I Masc. /kazí/ ‘judge’ .15 through Table 5.126.2. the subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/. /bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ).2. no stem change Singular Plural Direct šāgə́rd šāgərd-ún šāgərd-úne Oblique   Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ As in General Pashto.17. /-yún/ The direct plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑ún/ for nouns that end in a consonant or /‑yún/ for those that end in a vowel.3.g. /xorejí/ ‘foreigner’ .139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .Inflectional affixation  61 5. shown in Table 5.

2. For instance. the word /meṛə́/ ‘husband’ can be inflected by some speakers with a stem change. with the plural suffix /-ū́n/.18. i.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2.19 are monosyllabic (as in /war/ ‘door’). inanimate masculine nouns can also undergo stem allomorphy before suffixes are added. with the plural suffix /-ā́n/.. giving plurals /meṛúna/. ‫نیکه‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫نیکهګان‬ ‫وراره‬ ‫تره‬ ‫نیکهګانو‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫میړونه‬ ‫میړونو‬ • Stem allomorphy Like animate masculine nouns of Class I. in General Pashto. this subset of Class I comprises a greater number of nouns with inanimate denotation. Class membership for Pashto nouns varies widely across dialects.e. where the stem vowel /a/ is dropped. as shown in Table 5.126. /meṛə́/ ‘husband’. multisyllabic nouns are included as well (as in /ṭaɣár/ ‘rug’). giving the plural form /nikún/. yielding a plural form of /nikína/. indicating stem allomorphy.e. and /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’and (distinctive to Waziri) /plúr/ ‘father’. included within this group are kinship terms /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’. the word /nik/ ‘fingernail’ can be inflected like either a Class I animate noun with a plural form of /nikún/ or as a Class I inanimate noun.165. giving plural forms /nikəgā́n/. In Waziri.19 through Table 5. • Sample paradigms for GP Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri As stated above.22 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’. ‫ور‬ The majority of nouns represented by Table 5. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’ 5. In Waziri. similarly to the pattern in Table 5. in the top left cell of each table. if any. For example.19. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’ can alternatively be inflected like a Class I animate noun with no stem allomorphy. /nikəgā́no/.. and the last one illustrates vowel-final nouns. this form can similarly be inflected as a Class I animate noun. however.3. The first three tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns. although it does also include a few nouns that denote living beings. /meṛúno/.62  Nouns i∼y Singular Plural Direct kazi kazy-ún kazy-úne Oblique   Table 5. ‫ټغر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. i.17: Waziri Class I Masc. In General Pashto.

126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 63 .19: GP Class I Masc. inanimate: ‫ غر‬/ɣar/ ‘mountain’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. inanimate—stem allomorphy a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غر‬ ‫غرونه‬ ɣar ɣr-úna ‫غرونو‬ Oblique ɣr-úno Ablative ‫غره‬ ɣár-a ɣr-ə Vocative   Table 5.18: Class I Masc.Inflectional affixation  Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Comment VC a→Ø all plurals mostly monosyllabic words a→ə ‫ ه‬ə́ or a ‫غرـونه ← غرونه‬ ɣar-úna → ɣrúna mountains ‫← دفترونه‬ ‫دفترـونه‬ oblique singular. all plurals V→Ø Example daftar-úna → daftərúna office ‫پسه ← پسونه‬ ‫ـونه‬ all plurals psə–úna → psúna sheep   Table 5.165.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. the oblique form of /ɣar/ ‘mountain’ (Table 5. ‫غره‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫غر‬ a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ daftár daftər-úna ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r Oblique ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r ‫دفترونو‬ daftər-úno ‫دفترو‬ daftə́r-o Ablative ‫دفتره‬ daftár-a Vocative   Table 5. /daftár/ ‘office’ (Table 5.2. in the top left cell of each table.20) has variant forms that would put it in Class IIb.20: GP Class I Masc.64  Nouns Some of the nouns in this set can also be inflected as Class II nouns (Section 5. indicating stem allomorphy. inanimate: ‫ دفتر‬/daftár/ ‘office’ • Sample paradigms for Waziri Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5.2. if any.3.165. Patterns of stem allomorphy are described in Section 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .4). Likewise. and the last two illustrate vowel-final nouns.26 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun.19) can also be heard as /ɣr-ə/.3.2.23 through Table 5. The first two tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns. For example.

Inflectional affixation 

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫غوږ‬

‫غوږونه‬

ɣwəg

ɣwəg-úna

‫غوږونو‬

Oblique

ɣwəg-úno

Ablative

‫غوږه‬

ɣwə́g-a

Vocative

 
Table 5.21: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

‫ غوږ‬/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫پسه‬

‫پسونه‬

psə

ps-úna

‫پسونو‬

Oblique

ps-úno

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.22: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

Direct

‫ پسه‬/psə/ ‘sheep’
Singular

Plural

taɣə́r

taɣər-ína
taɣə́r-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.23: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’

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65

66

Nouns

a∼ə

Singular

Plural

Direct

daftár

daftər-ína,
daftər-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.24: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

pəsə́

pəs-ína
pəs-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.25: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’

a∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

ɣar

ɣr-ína
ɣr-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.26: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’

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Inflectional affixation 

67

5.2.3.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri
Most Class l feminine nouns end in (unstressed) /a/ or /ə/, although some also end
in /á/, /e/, /ó/, /ā́/, or a consonant. Some of those ending in /a/ or /ə/ are formed by
adding this sound to the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart, in which
case it reflects biological sex; for example:
/soy/ ‘hare [male]’ >
/sóya/ ‘hare [female]’
/mal/ ‘friend [male]’ >
/mla/ ‘friend [female]’
/špun/ ‘shepherd’ >
/španá/ ‘shepherdess’
As can be seen in the second and third examples, sometimes there is a stem change
as well.

‫ه‬

‫سوي‬
‫مل‬
‫شپون‬

‫سویه‬
‫مله‬
‫شپنه‬

5.2.3.3.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns
Animate feminine nouns of Class I have the same form for all case forms in the singular,
as can be seen in the list of suffixes in Table 5.3, as well as in the paradigms in Table
5.28 through Table 5.30.
• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.27 describes the changes that take place for plural animate feminine nouns
of Class I.

Final stem
sound(s)

Suffix/Stem change

e

Forms affected

all plurals
1. g → Ø
2. e → y/_ā

Example

‫خواښې ← خواښیانې‬
‫ـګانې‬
xwāxe-gā́ne →
xwāxyā́ne
‘mothers-in-law’

 
Table 5.27: GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.28 through Table 5.30 show examples of animate Class I feminine nouns.
Class I feminine nouns that end in /ó/ or /á/ show some variability in plural suffixes,
as can be seen in Table 5.29 and Table 5.30. Penzl (1955) reports that the /w/ forms
are more common in Kandahari Pashto, although not exclusive to that dialect. Note

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68

Nouns

e∼y

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫خواښې‬

‫خواښیانې‬

xwāxe

xwāxy-ā́ne

‫خواښیانو‬

Oblique

xwāxy-ā́no

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.28: GP Class I Fem. animate:

‫ـوې‬

‫ خواښې‬/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’

‫ـوو‬

that in taking the
/‑we/ or
/‑wo/ suffixes, the nouns are switching categories,
from animate to inanimate, and would decline exactly like the feminine inanimate
noun
/raṇā́/ ‘light’ in Table 5.34.

‫رڼا‬

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫بیزو‬

‫بیزوګانې‬

bizó

bizo-gā́ne

‫بیزووې‬

bizo-we

‫بیزوګانو‬

Oblique

bizo-gā́no

‫بیزوو‬

bizo-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.29: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ بیزو‬/bizó/ ‘monkey’

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Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫برېښنا‬

‫برېښناګانې‬

brexnā́

69

brexnā-gā́ne

‫برېښناوې‬

brexnā́-we

‫برېښناګانو‬

Oblique

brexnā-gā́no

‫برېښناوو‬

brexnā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.30: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ برېښنا‬/brexnā/ ‘lightning’

5.2.3.3.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns
Inanimate feminine nouns in Class I behave similarly to animate ones in the singular
when they end in /ā́/ or /ó/; that is, all singular forms are identical (see Table
5.3). Those that end in any other sounds have one form for the singular direct form
and another for the singular oblique, ablative, and vocative forms, as in Table 5.32 and
Table 5.33.

‫ا‬

‫و‬

• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.31 describes stem allomorphy for inanimate feminine nouns of Class I.

Final stem sound(s)

Stem change

Forms affected

‫ ه‬ə́ or a

V→Ø

oblique singular, all
plurals

Example

‫اسپه ـې ← اسپې‬
áspa-e → áspe
‘mares’

 
Table 5.31: GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy

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70 

Nouns

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.32 through Table 5.34 show examples of inanimate Class I feminine nouns.

ə́ or a ∼ Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫اسپه‬

‫اسپې‬

áspa

Oblique

‫اسپې‬
ásp-e

ásp-e

‫اسپو‬

ásp-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.32: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ اسپه‬/áspa/ ‘mare’

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫میاشت‬

‫میاشتې‬

miāšt

Oblique

‫میاشتې‬
miā́št-e

miā́št-e

‫میاشتو‬

miā́št-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.33: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ میاشت‬/miāšt/ ‘mouth’

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Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫رڼا‬

‫رڼاوې‬

raṇā́

71

raṇā́-we

‫رڼاوو‬

Oblique

raṇā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.34: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ رڼا‬/raṇā́/ ‘light’

5.2.3.3.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns
Most Waziri Class I feminine nouns end in /a/, although some also end in /á/, /e/,
or a consonant. Some of those ending in /á/ or /ə/ are derived by adding this sound to
the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart; for example:
/šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ > /šāgərdá/ ‘student [female)]’
Regular inanimate and animate feminine nouns of Class I behave similarly. However, many animate feminine nouns, particularly those that are kinship terms, are irregular, as they are in General Pashto. These are addressed in Section 5.2.6.1. Stem allomorphy applies in Waziri as it does in General Pashto (see Table 5.31), that is, nouns
ending in an unstressed vowel lose the vowel when the inflected suffix is added. If the
final vowel carries stress in the uninflected form, the stress will remain with the suffix
in the inflected form, as shown in Table 5.37.

‫ه‬

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.35 through Table 5.37 show examples of Class I feminine nouns.

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72 

Nouns

stem = wradz-

Singular

Plural

Direct

wradz

wradz-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.35: Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’

stem = jə́rga

Singular

Plural

Direct

jə́rga

jə́rg-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.36: Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’

stem = žanḍā́

Singular

Plural

Direct

žanḍā́

žanḍ-é

Oblique

 
Table 5.37: Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’

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Inflectional affixation 

5.2.4

73

Class II

5.2.4.1 Overview
General Pashto’s Class II has no feminine nouns. It consists of two declension patterns,
subdivided according to these two patterns into Classes IIa and IIb. There is no animacy distinction in Class IIb, or, viewed another way, all Class IIb nouns are animate.
A comparison of the animate suffixes of IIa with IIb suffixes shows that they differ in
only two respects: first, in their oblique singular/direct plural suffixes (/-ə/ versus -Ø),
and second, in the presence or absence of stress in the vocative singular suffixes.
Nouns in Class IIa can end in either a consonant or a stressed /a/. Most of those
that end in /á/ appear to be nouns derived from the suffix
/‑bá/ ‘master, keeper’, as
in
/uxbá/ ‘camel driver’, from
/ux/ ‘camel’. These /-bá/ derived nouns, as
well as the noun
/melmá/ ‘guest’ (Table 5.45), have alternate /-ānə́/ and /-anó/
suffixes in the plural. Suffixes for this class are given in Table 5.38.
Class IIb nouns all end in consonants. Most, perhaps all, of the nouns in this class
can also be declined according to other noun classes. Suffixes for this class are given
in Table 5.39.
We have not identified a distinct set of Class II nouns in Waziri. Most of the masculine nouns whose General Pashto forms are Class IIa nouns behave like Class I nouns,
like /pālíz/ ‘kitchen garden’, plural /pāliz-ína/, and /tanúr/ ‘oven’, plural /tanurína/. At least one masculine noun that belongs to Class IIb in General Pashto may be
inflected in Waziri like a Class IIb noun, namely /žənawár/ ‘animal’, plural /žənawə́r/.
Another noun expected to belong to the same class, /mənžəwár/ ‘shrinekeeper’ is inflected in Waziri as a Class I animate noun, plural /mənžəwar-ún/. Feminine nouns
that belong to Class II in General Pashto typically behave like Class III nouns in Waziri,
e.g. /koranə́y/ ‘family’, plural /koran-ej/. The data are too sparse to determine whether
Class II nouns simply do not exist in Waziri, or if an inflection pattern similar to that
of GP Class II may be an option for some nouns.

‫وښبه‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫وښ‬

‫ـبه‬

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74  Nouns

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate

‫ـه‬

‫ـونه‬

‑ə́

‑úna

‫ـانه‬

‑ānə́

(variant for
á-stem only)
Oblique

‫ـه‬

‑ə́

‫ـو‬

‫ـونو‬

‑ó

‑úno

‫انو‬

‑ānó

(variant for
á-stem only)
Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑á

Vocative

 
Table 5.38: GP Class IIa noun suffixes

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate
―—

‫ـو‬

Oblique

‑o

Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑a

Vocative

 
Table 5.39: GP Class IIb noun suffixes

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Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.42) can also be declined as Class I nouns.165.4.40: GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5. and vocative plurals V → ə or no change all plurals V→Ø all plurals a→Ø pəxtún-ə́ → pəxtānə́ ‘Pashtuns’ pəxtún-ó → pəxtanó ‘Pashtuns’ inanimates ‫تنور ـونه ← تنرونه‬ tanur-úna → tanərúna ‘ovens’ all monosyllables everywhere but direct singular mostly -bá derived nouns ‫غل ـونه ← غلونه‬ ɣal-úna → ɣlúna ‘thieves’ ‫مېلمه ـه ← مېلمه‬ melmá-ə → melmə́ ‘guests’   Table 5.40.Inflectional affixation  75 5.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .45.41 through Table 5. Some IIa nouns with the o/u ∼ ā alternation (Table 5. ablative.2 General Pashto Class IIa • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Noun type Example ‫ و‬o/u + C V→ā oblique singular and direct plural animates ‫پښتون ـه ← پښتانه‬ V→a ə/a + C á ‫پښتون ـو ← پښتنو‬ oblique.

76  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پالېز‬ ‫پالېزونه‬ ‫پالېزه‬ ‫پالېزونو‬ pāléz Oblique pālez-ə́ Ablative pālez-úna pālez-úno ‫پالېزه‬ pālez-á Vocative   Table 5.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .41: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پالېز‬/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’ o/u ∼ ā/a Singular Plural Direct ‫پښتون‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتنو‬ pəxtún Oblique pəxtān-ə́ Ablative pəxtān-ə́ pəxtan-o ‫پښتونه‬ pəxtún-a Vocative   Table 5.126.42: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پښتون‬/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.44 have monosyllabic stems.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 77 .Inflectional affixation  o/u ∼ ə Singular Plural Direct ‫تنور‬ ‫تنرونه‬ tanúr tanər-úna ‫تنورونه‬ tanur-úna Oblique ‫تنوره‬ ‫تنرونو‬ tanur-ə́ tanər-úno ‫تنورونو‬ tanur-úno Ablative ‫تنوره‬ tanúr-a Vocative   Table 5.43: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ تنور‬/tanúr/ ‘oven’ All nouns of the type illustrated in Table 5.165.

44: GP Class IIa animate/inanimate: ‫ غل‬/ɣal/ ‘thief’ a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫مېلمه‬ ‫مېلمه‬ melmá melm-ə́ ‫مېلمانه‬ melm-ānə́ Oblique ‫مېلمه‬ melm-ə́ ‫مېلمو‬ melm-ó ‫مېلمانو‬ melm-anó Ablative ‫مېلمه‬ melm-á Vocative   Table 5.45: GP Class IIa animate: ‫ مېلمه‬/melmá/ ‘guest’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.78  Nouns ə/a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غل‬ ‫غله‬ ɣal ɣl-ə ‫غلونه‬ ɣl-úna Oblique ‫غله‬ ‫غلو‬ ɣl-ə ɣl-o ‫غلونو‬ ɣl-úno Ablative ‫غله‬ ɣál-a Vocative   Table 5.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.

3 General Pashto Class IIb This class is different from the others: it contains only a few nouns.46. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  79 5. /‑an/. Adjectives whose final syllables are /‑gar/.2. Some authors treat these nouns as irregular. the consonant is most often /n/ or /r/. The words in this class all end in /aC/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . /‑war/. if not all. ‫ـګر‬ ‫خټګر‬ ‫بذګر‬ ‫سخر‬ ‫نښتر‬ ‫موټر‬ ‫دردمن‬ ‫واکمن‬ ‫مین‬ ‫توپک‬ ‫ښځونک‬ ‫ملخ‬ ‫ور‬- ‫ن‬- ‫ـزن‬ ‫موټر‬ • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIb nouns are given in Table 5.47. It is particularly indeterminate.126. but in our view there are enough to form a declension class: /xaṭgár/ ‘plasterer’ (also Class I masculine animate) /bazgár/ ‘peasant’ (also Class I masculine animate) /sxar/ ‘stone’ /naxtár/ ‘pine tree’ /moṭár/ ‘car’ (also Class I masculine or feminine inanimate) /dardmán/ ‘sensitive one’ (also Class I masculine animate) /wākmán/ ‘ruler’ (also Class I masculine animate) /mayán/ ‘lover’ /topák/ ‘gun’ (also Class I masculine inanimate) /xaʣunák/ ‘hermaphrodite’ /mlax/ ‘locust’ (also Class I masculine animate) The loanword /moṭár/ ‘car’ was probably put into this class by some speakers on the analogy of the other Class IIb nouns that end in /ár/.165.46: GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms The paradigm of a Class IIb noun is given in Table 5. in that as a Class I noun.4. and most. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected a+C a→ə oblique singular. or /‑zan/ decline according to this class when used with nominal function. of its members belong to Class I for some speakers. Class IIb has no animate/inanimate distinction and includes the nouns in the list below. it can also be either masculine or feminine. all plurals Example ‫دښمن ـ ← دښمن‬ duxmán-Ø → duxmə́n ‘enemies’   Table 5.

and for feminines.3 detail the facts for Class III in General Pashto.54).5.52 and Table 5.5.2. while Section 5.1 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto The inflectional patterns of Class III nouns differ noticeably.4 summarizes the situation for Waziri.1 Overview In both General Pashto and Waziri. for masculines.5.1.2. /i/. Table 5.2. depending on whether the primary stress falls on the ultimate or the penultimate syllable.2. Section 5.5.1 through Section 5. or /yé/.165. They are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: In General Pashto. and for feminines. Another distinguishing feature of GP Class III nouns is that their direct singular forms take a suffix. the stem can look rather odd.1. IIIa and IIIb.2.5. /o/. unlike other Pashto nouns. it is either /əy/ or /e/.5 ‫ دښمن‬/duxmán/ ‘enemy’ Class III 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . it is either /áy/. In Waziri. this sound is /ay/.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫ی‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ې‬ 5. for masculines. this sound is /ay/.51. The suffixes for GP Class III nouns are shown in Table 5.126. Class III nouns exhibit no stem allomorphy. and in fact.50.48. Table 5. described in the following sections.80  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمنو‬ duxmán Oblique duxmə́n duxmə́n duxmə́n-o ‫دښمنه‬ Ablative duxmán-a Vocative   Table 5.47: GP Class IIb: 5.49. which means that the stem is not identical to the direct singular form. Hence the class is divided into two subgroups. and Table 5. as with the words for both male dog and female dog (see Table 5.

126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 81 . noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct ‫ـی‬ ‑áy Inanimate ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‑í ‫ـیان‬ ‑iā́n Oblique ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‑ó ‑ío ‑ó ‑ío ‫ـیانو‬ ‑iā́no Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑áya Vocative   Table 5.48: GP Class IIIa Masc.

82  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑ə́y ‑í Plural Animate Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑ə́y ‑ə́y ‫ـۍګانې‬ ‑əygā́ne ‫ـۍ‬ Oblique ‑ə́y ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no ‫ـۍګانو‬ ‑əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no .165. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.49: GP Class IIIa Fem.

165. noun suffixes Direct Singular  Plural ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‑e Oblique ‑e ‫ـو‬ ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5.50: GP Class IIIb Masc.51: GP Class IIIb Fem. noun suffixes 1 Penzl (1955) has the ending /-e/ for the Class IIIb masculine vocative singular in Kandahari (see Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. This is the only source to suggest an alternative to the /-ya/ ending above.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑ay Oblique ‑i ‑i ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑ya Vocative ¹   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 83 .126.57).

as seen in Table 5.53. Animate denotations in this class include ethnic or tribal denominations such as /apridáy/ ‘Afridi’.5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . As with other noun classes described earlier.2.5. primarily with nouns denoting animate objects.165.126.2.52 and Table 5. it occurs among inanimate nouns as well as animate.52: GP Class IIIa Masc.49. Among Class IIIa feminine nouns.2 Class IIIa Nouns of Class IIIa are inflected for case-marking as noted in Table 5. the sequence /ā́n/ is optionally used in plural formation. ‫ـان‬ ‫اپریدی‬ 5. animate: ‫ سپی‬/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.84  Nouns 5.2.56. stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپی‬ ‫سپي‬ sp-áy sp-í ‫سپیان‬ sp-iā́n Oblique ‫سپي‬ sp-í ‫سپو‬ sp-ó ‫سپیو‬ sp-ío ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative ‫سپیه‬ sp-áya Vocative   Table 5.48 and Table 5.1 Masculine Class IIIa nouns • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical masculine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5.

126.165. • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical feminine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  stem = stor- Singular Plural Direct ‫ګډی‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګيو‬ gaḍ-áy Oblique gaḍ-í gaḍ-í Ablative 85 gaḍ-ó ‫ګډیه‬ gaḍ-áya Vocative   Table 5. inanimate: ‫ ګډی‬/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’ 5.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2 Feminine Class IIIa nouns Note the wide variance in possible plural forms for Class IIIa feminine nouns.5.2.53: GP Class IIIa Masc.52 and Table 5. yet there is no clear rule for which form is preferred. The various plural alternatives mentioned here are not always freely interchangeable.53.

86  Nouns stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپۍ‬ ‫سپۍ‬ sp-ə́y sp-ə́y ‫سپیانې‬ sp-iā́ne ‫سپیو‬ Oblique sp-ə́yo ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. animate: ‫ سپۍ‬/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’ stem = koran- Singular Plural Direct ‫کورنۍ‬ ‫کورنۍ‬ koran-ə́y koran-ə́y ‫کورنیانې‬ koran-yā́ne ‫کورنۍګانې‬ koran-əygā́ne ‫کورنیو‬ Oblique koran-ə́yo ‫کورنیانو‬ koran-yā́no ‫کورنۍګانو‬ koran-əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. animate: ‫ کورنۍ‬/koranə́y/ ‘family’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.55: GP Class IIIa Fem.54: GP Class IIIa Fem.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

there is little variation among plural Class IIIb nouns.165.126. inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’ 5.51. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.3 Class IIIb Compared to Class IIIa nouns.2.1 Masculine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5. 5.56: GP Class IIIa Fem.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .57 gives a sample paradigm for a masculine Class IIIb noun.2. as reflected in Table 5.50 and Table 5.5. There is also no animacy distinction among Class IIIb nouns.Inflectional affixation  stem = čālāk- Singular Plural Direct ‫څالاکي‬ ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-í 87 čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیانې‬ čālāk-yā́ne Oblique ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیو‬ čālāk-ə́yo ‫څالاکیانو‬ čālāk-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.3.

88  Nouns stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګری‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګرو‬ malgə́r-ay Oblique malgə́r-i malgə́r-i malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative ‫ملګریه‬ malgə́r-ya Vocative   Table 5.: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’ 5.5.3.165.58 gives a sample paradigm for a feminine Class IIIb noun.126.57: GP Class IIIb Masc. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2 Feminine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2.

/i/. The suffixes for Class III nouns as described by Lorimer (1902) are shown in Table 5. it is either /áy/. Lorimer (1902) divides masculine nouns in this class into two subgroups. so we are unable to support Lorimer’s subdivision. and for feminines. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Waziri Class III nouns are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: for masculines. Direct singular forms ending in /í/ take the /-áy/ suffix in direct plural and oblique singular and plural.4 Class III in Waziri As in General Pashto. but the subdivisions do not seem to be related to stress patterns as they are in General Pashto.5.2.126. following the pattern of /-áy/-final nouns. • Sample paradigms Abbreviated paradigms of some typical Class III nouns are given in Table 5. depending on the form of the plural suffixes. regardless of number.64 through Table 5.59 through Table 5.Inflectional affixation  stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګرې‬ ‫ملګرې‬ malgə́r-e 89 malgə́r-e ‫ملګرو‬ Oblique malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5. this sound is /ay/. Feminine Class III nouns distinguish themselves by being mostly invariable. Nouns of this class ending in /o/ or /yé/ take the same ending throughout the direct and plural cases. /o/. as these are the only forms we have been able to verify with native speakers. We include only the direct case for the masculine nouns.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’ 5.68.63.165. or /ye/. We have found only one form of the direct plural suffix and do not have any examples of Class III nouns in the oblique plural.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .58: GP Class IIIb Fem. We call Lorimer’s subgroups Class IIIa and Class IIIb.

noun suffixes Direct Oblique Singular  Plural ‑áy WAZ ‑ay WAZ -í -əy DZA -ay WAZ -əy DZA   Table 5. noun suffixes Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑íon WAZ -i DZA Oblique ‑í ‑ioné WAZ -ye DZA   Table 5.60: Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . noun suffixes: /-áy/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.90  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑í -ína DZA Oblique ‑í ‑áy WAZ ‑yé WAZ -ə́y DZA   Table 5.59: Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc.126.61: Middle dialect Class III Fem.

inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’ stem = šaṛ- Singular Direct šaṛ-ay Plural Oblique   Table 5.165. noun suffixes: /-o/ Singular Direct Plural ‑yé Oblique   Table 5.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.65: Waziri Class III Masc. noun suffixes: /-yé/ stem = xus- Singular Plural Direct xus-áy xus-í   Table 5.63: Middle dialect Class III Fem.Inflectional affixation  Singular  Direct Plural ‑o Oblique   Table 5. animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’ stem = pat- Singular Plural Direct pat-áy pat-í   Table 5.66: Waziri Class III Fem.62: Middle dialect Class III Fem.64: Waziri Class IIIa Masc.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 91 .

especially loanwords.68: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. from which it was borrowed). depending on the speaker: Class I masculine inanimate. with plural form /moṭərúna/ ‘automobiles’ (by virtue of the consonant-final form). as mentioned in Section 5. vary in gender assignment. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’ stem = gut- Singular Direct gut-yé Plural Oblique   Table 5.2. In addition to such variation in the use of plural and oblique forms. many nouns that follow the patterns of one particular declension class can also have alternative plural forms. For example.4. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’ 5.67: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. The class membership of certain nouns is also not fixed. with plural form /moṭə́re/ ‘automobiles’ (presumably by association with the gender of the same noun in Urdu. Other nouns in Pashto follow entirely irregular patterns.92  Nouns stem = xamt- Singular Direct xamt-o Plural Oblique   Table 5. A large number of these come from kinship terms and Arabic borrowing. As mentioned in Section 5.2.126. some nouns.6 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto Pashto has many irregular morphological patterns among its nouns.2. with plural form /moṭə́r/. ‫موټر‬ ‫موټرونه‬ ‫موټرې‬ ‫موټر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. or Class IIb. and the acceptability of one alternative over another is not always predictable. presented in the following subsections.3. the noun /moṭə́r/ ‘automobile’ can follow three different inflectional patterns.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Class I feminine inanimate.1. with some nouns optionally following the full inflectional paradigm of more than one class.

Inflectional affixation  93 5. This section describes the more irregular Pashto kinship terms.126. Table 5. kinship noun: ‫وراره‬ ‫ مور‬/mor/ ‘mother’ ‫زوی‬ ‫لور‬ The nouns /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’. While several kinship terms do fit within the regular noun class paradigms—for example.6. many kinship terms in Pashto have irregular forms.70. tend to retain morphological or phonological patterns that have been lost elsewhere in the language. and Table 5. The following feminine kinship terms have different stems in the singular and plural and follow the pattern illustrated in Table 5. as shown in Table 5.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.69: Irregular Fem.69: /mor/ ‘mother’. Class I nouns /plā́r/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’— even these exhibit some oddity in that they represent a fairly exceptional set of nouns that denote humans but that take inanimate suffixes.165. plural stem /tráynd-/ /ngor/ ‘daughter-in-law’.72.1 Kinship terms Perhaps due to their frequent use and cultural importance. plural stem /ngáynd-/ ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫مور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫ترور‬ ‫نګور‬ Direct Singular Plural ‫مور‬ ‫مېندې‬ mor máynd-e ‫مېندو‬ Oblique máynd-o Ablative ‫مورې‬ mór-e Vocative   Table 5.71. especially culturally significant ones. plural stem /máynd-/ /xor/ ‘sister’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . /zoy/ ‘son’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are also all irregular. plural stem /xwáynd-/ /tror/ ‘paternal aunt’. One explanation for this phenomenon is that words used most often.

71: Irregular Masc. kinship noun: Direct ‫ وراره‬/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’ Singular Plural ‫زوی‬ ‫زامن‬ zoy zāmə́n ‫زامنو‬ Oblique zāmə́n-o Ablative ‫زویه‬ zoy-a Vocative   Table 5. kinship noun: ‫ زوی‬/zoy/ ‘son’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.70: Irregular Masc.94  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫وراره‬ ‫ورېرونه‬ wrārə́ wrer-úna ‫ورېرو‬ Oblique wrer-ó ‫ورېرونو‬ wrer-úno Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

126. ‫ـین‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ ‫دفاتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /daftə́r/).2.2. can also occur with the Arabic broken plural form /dafā́tar/ ‘offices’.73 and Table 5. as illustrated in Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫دفتر‬ .5. For example.165. and the Arabic broken plural.72: Irregular Fem.2. kinship noun: ‫ لور‬/lur/ ‘daughter’ 5. the inflectional patterns may either employ the Arabic plural forms or may be adapted to one of the regular Pashto noun classes described in Section 5.6.20 (with plural form /daftər-úna/.2 Arabic borrowings Another common source of irregular inflectional forms comes from Arabic borrowings (or nouns perceived by speakers as Arabic).74. the word /daftár/ ‘office’. Three major plural patterns are associated with such Arabic loanwords: /‑ín/. /‑ā́t/. the class of abstract nouns to which it applies is treated as masculine in Pashto. In many cases. Although the suffix /-ā́t/ is a feminine inflectional form in Arabic.3 through Section 5. whose paradigm as Class I noun appears earlier in Table 5. in which the Arabic plural form is borrowed as well.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫لور‬ ‫لوڼې‬ lur 95 lúṇ-e ‫لوڼو‬ Oblique lúṇ-o ‫لورې‬ Ablative lúr-e Vocative   Table 5.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .74: Masc. Arabic loanword: ‫ موضوع‬/mawzó'/ ‘topic’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.73: Masc. Arabic loanword: Direct ‫ مجاهد‬/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’ Singular Plural ‫موضوع‬ ‫موضوعات‬ mawzó' mawzo'-w-ā́t ‫موضوعاتو‬ Oblique mawzo'-w-ā́t-o Ablative Vocative   Table 5.96  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫مجاهد‬ ‫مجاهدین‬ mujāhíd mujāhid-ín ‫مجاهدینو‬ Oblique mujāhid-ín-o ‫مجاهدو‬ mujāhíd-o Ablative ‫مجاهده‬ mujāhíd-a Vocative   Table 5.126.165.

then if the nouns are of the same gender. (5.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3PL.DIR crazy-PL.STR.DIR and black-F.PRS. In example 5.15 and 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .‫ما تور کتاب او توره کتابچه واخیسته‬ mā tor-Ø kitāb-Ø aw tor-a 1SG.M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing.DIR book-M.CONT.126. the verb agrees in gender. but is plural: (5.3SG.‫سنا او مدینه لېونیانې دي‬ sanā-Ø aw madin-a lewan-iāne Sana-F. then the adjective must be repeated and inflected to agree with the gender of each noun individually.‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F.DIR and Mahmoud-M.3PL.DIR and Madina-F.15) . then the corresponding verb is usually masculine and plural when in non-past tense.DIR AOR-buy.’ However. then an adjective which modifies (or is predicated of) the conjoined nouns will be in the same gender.DIR dance-PST-PST. but may be declined to agree in gender and number with the last item in the list when in past tense.F ‘Sana and Madina are crazy.F ‘I bought a black book and a black notebook.’ However.‫احمد او محمود ګډېدل‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø gəd-̣ed-ə́l Ahmad-M. if the conjoined nouns are of different genders.Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  5.PST-PST.OBL CONT-laugh-PST.ANIM.3 97 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns When nouns are conjoined.17) . if the conjoined nouns are of different genders.16) .F. (5.165. but in the plural.’ Similarly.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud danced. (5.14) .17.OBL and Abaseen-M.OBL black-M.3PL. the verb is conjugated to agree in gender with the last of the objects mentioned. if they are both of the same gender. when a verb agrees with two conjoined nouns.DIR di be.DIR kitābča-Ø w-ā́xist-a notebook-F.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1 Nouns derived with suffixes The examples in this section do not necessarily contain nouns of note. Pashto has both more productive and less productive derivational affixes.4.98  Nouns 5. 5. Table 5. adjectives.1 Derivational morphology of nouns This section discusses some derivational affixes in Pashto and a few of the nouns derived from them. temple’ ‫ ماشومتوب‬māšumtob ‘childhood’ ‫ هوندیتوب‬xwanditob ‘safety’ ‫پوخنتون‬ poxantun ‘university’ ‫وړکتون‬ woṛəktun ‘kindergarten’ ‫ وړکي‬woṛəki ‘boy’ ‫ـتیا‬ ‑tiyā abstract noun native Pashto adjectives ‫ پراخ‬prāx ‘vast’ ‫پراختیا‬ prāxtyā ‘development’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.1.4. church. or other nouns.4 Derivational morphology and loanwords 5. including verbal nouns and adjectives xowun(a) ‘teaching’ ‑ʣāy (‫ښوون)ه‬ ‫عبادت‬ ibādat ‘worship’ ‫ـتوب‬ state of being ‑tob nouns and adjectives ‫ ماشوم‬māšum ‘child’ ‫خوندي‬ xwandi ‘safe’ ‫ـتون‬ place of ‑tun nouns and adjectives ‫پوه‬ poh ‘expert’ ‫ وړکی‬woṛəkay ‘small’ Derived form ‫ ښوونځای‬xowunʣāy ‘school’ ‫عبادتځای‬ ibādatʣā́y ‘place of worship.75: Derived noun suffixes Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫ـڅای‬ place of nouns.126. mosque. They instead highlight the relationship between derivational affixes and their stems. which may be verbs.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 99 . including verbal adjectives ‫ کم‬kam ‘less’ ‫ جوړه‬joṛa ‘built’ ‫ اورېدل‬oredəl ‘to fall’ ‫ـمند‬ ‑mand experiencer /possessor Dari nouns ‫شرم‬ šrəm ‘shame’ ‫ هنر‬honar ‘art’ ‫ـکار‬ agent nouns ‑kār ‫تجربه‬ -ness.126. abstract noun Dari adjectives agent nouns ‫ـوال‬ ‑wāl owner or occupant nouns ‫جوړښت‬ joṛəxt ‘construction’ ‫اورښت‬ orəxt ‘precipitation’ ‫شرمنده‬ šrəmandə ‘ashamed person’ ‫ هنرمند‬honarmand ‘artist’ ‫ تجربهکار‬tajrabakār ‫ادا‬ ‫ اداکار‬adākār ‘actor’ ‫اسوده‬ awsoda ‘peaceful’ ‫ګنده‬ ‑gar ‫ کمښت‬kaməxt ‘lack’ ‘expert’ ganda ‘rotten’ ‫ـګر‬ ‫نيمګړینیا‬ nimgəṛitiyā ‘insufficiency’ tajraba ‘experience’ adā ‘performance’ ‫‑ ـګي‬gi Derived form ‫ ژرنده‬žranda ‫ اسوده ګي‬awsoda gi ‘peace’ ‫ ګندهګي‬gandagi ‘trash’ ‫ ژرندګر‬žrandagar ‘mill’ ‘miller’ ‫ خټه‬xaṭa ‘mud’ ‫ خټکر‬xaṭgar ‘mason’ ‫ هټي‬haṭi ‘shop’ ‫هیواد‬ haywād ‘country’ ‫هټیوال‬ haṭiwāl ‘shopkeeper’ ‫ هیوادوال‬haywādwāl ‘citizen’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫نیمګړی‬ nimgəṛay ‘insufficient’ ‫ـښت‬ state of being ‑əxt adjectives.Derivational morphology and loanwords  Table 5.

126. ‫ کموالی‬kamwālay small’ ‫‑ یه‬ya abstract noun Arabic nouns ‫نظر‬ nazar ‘perspective’ ‫عمل‬ amal ‘action’ ‫یت‬ ‑iyat abstract or plural noun nouns and adjectives ‫مامور‬ māmur ‘official’ ‫ مصون‬masun ‘safe’ ‫‑ ي‬i abstract noun nouns ‫مشر‬ mašər ‘leader’ ‫دښمن‬ duxman ‘enemy’ ‫خپلواک‬ state of being verbs verbs ‫ مصونیت‬masuniyat ‘security’ ‫مشري‬ mašri ‘leadership’ ‫ دښمني‬duxmani ‘animosity’ ‫ خپلواکي‬xpəlwāki ‫ ګراني‬grāni ‘inflation’ ‫لارښوول‬ lārxowəl ‘to direct’ agent ‫ ماموریت‬māmuriyat ‘duty’ ‫ګران‬ look’ ‑unkay ‫عملیه‬ amalya ‘implementation’ ‘independence’ ‫ کتل‬katəl ‘to ‫ـونکی‬ ‫نظریه‬ nazarya ‘opinion’ xpəlwāk ‘independent’ grān ‘expensive’ ‫‑ ـنه‬na ‘reduction’ ‫ښوول‬ xowəl ‘to teach’ ‫چلول‬ čəlawəl ‘to manage’ ‫لارښوونه‬ lārxowəna ‘direction’ ‫ کتنه‬katəna ‘sight’ ‫ ښوونکی‬xowunkay ‘teacher’ ‫چاوونکی‬ čəlawunkay ‘manager.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . driver’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to ‫ـوالی‬ scope. volume nouns and adjectives ‑wālay Stem ‫ ډیر‬ḍer ‘big’ Derived form ‫ډیروالی‬ ḍerwālay ‘increase’ ‫ کم‬kam ‘short.165.100  Nouns Table 5.

M ‘He was beaten to death.126. mostly from Persian.M. 5.’ (NW) (5.OBL write-INF-PL.PST-PST.M ‘I was so busy writing that I lost track of time.OBL dead-M.3.AOR.M.19) .OBL beat-INF-PL.‫په لیکلو لیکلو وخت را نه تېرشو‬ pə lik-əl-o lik-əl-o waxt-Ø rā na INSTR write-INF-PL.19) or a circumstantial (5.M.Derivational morphology and loanwords  101 Table 5.4.DIR šu-Ø become.M.DIR 1 from tér-Ø šu-Ø passed-M.AOR.’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫په وهلو وهلو مړ شو‬ pə wəh-əl-o wəh-əl-o məṛ-Ø INSTR beat-INF-PL.18) .20) relationship to that denoted by the finite verb.3SG.OBL time-M.8.18.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1. 5.) 5. (5.4.2 Reduplication of nouns Pashto nouns denoting events can undergo reduplication to express duration or intensity of the event.165.2 Compounds Many of Pashto’s noun compounds originate from loanwords.PST-PST.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem Derived form ‫کمېدل‬ ‫کمېدونکی‬ kamedəl ‘to lessen’ kamedunkay ‘decline’ (n. Some examples of compound nouns built from Pashto words are: • • • ‫ ورلړونی‬/orlaṛunay/ ‘poker’ ( ‫ ور‬/or/ ‘fire’ + ‫ لړل‬/laṛəl/ ‘to stir’) ‫ سپینږیری‬/spinžiray/ ‘old man’ ( ‫ سپن‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫ ږره‬/žira/ ‘beard’) ‫ لمرخاته‬/lmarxātə/ ‘east’ ( ‫ لمر‬/lmar/ ‘sun’ + ‫ خاته‬/xātə/ ‘rising’) More examples of compounds can be found in Section 6.DIR become. These reduplicated nominals denote an event in either a causative (5.3SG.

‫زموږ په مکتب کي رنګ رنګ خلک دي‬ zmuẓ pə maktab-Ø ki rang-Ø rang-Ø 1PL. and others from Russian or English. Persian.PL.’ (SW) 5.126. pl. pl. ‫ اینجنیران‬/injinirān/ ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā/ ‘clerk’ (Persian).PST-PST-3PL.M COMP cinema-F.3 Loanwords In addition to the irregular inflectional forms described in Section 5. 'Don't go to the movies. or Urdu.6.CONT.POSS in.‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځه‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M.DIR color-M.2.M ‘In our school there are all kinds of people [our school is very diverse].139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ..in color-M.4. ‫ سماوارونه‬/samāvāruna/ ‫ اینجنیر‬/injinir/ ‘engineer’ (English).PRS.M. pl.OBL . school-M.'’ Nouns not derived from or related to verbs can also be repeated to indicate plurality or variety: (5.PRS-IMP.OBL laugh-F.SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me..DIR xalək-Ø di people-PL. which are borrowed directly into Pashto and treated as if they were native Pashto words in terms of inflection.20) ..2. For example: • • • ‫ سماوار‬/samāvār/ ‘samovar’ (Russian). ‫ میرزایان‬/mirzāyān/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR INSTR laugh-F.165.OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell.21) .DIR be..STR.CONT. Pashto has many words originating in Arabic.102  Nouns (5.OBL to NEG ʣ-a go.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives Classes I and II include all adjectives that end in consonants in their citation form (masculine direct singular). adjectives. Classes III and IV comprise ‫ـه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri As with nouns (Section 5.2. We group the adjectives into four classes.Melissa Fox and Alina Twist 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. determiners.5).2. Class II also includes those that end in /‑ə́/. and the adverbial use of adjectives—including a discussion of the typologically unusual feature of adverbial concord with nouns. although some adjectives and other noun modifiers are never inflected. 6. A few Class I adjectives take animate suffixes when modifying animate nouns (see Section 6. it is usually identical with the vocative form. depending on the dialect: proximal/distal or proximal/medial/distal. Previous descriptions of inflectional classes (for both nouns and adjectives) have usually included stem allomorphy among their diagnostic features. Demonstrative determiners can represent two or three degrees of proximity.1. Our analysis has four inflectional classes of adjectives and largely corresponds with that presented for nouns in Chapter 5. see Chapter 11.2). case.165. and number. based on the ending of the masculine direct singular form and the alternation between the masculine direct singular and the masculine oblique singular (which usually resembles the masculine direct plural form). All such adjectives are stressed on the final syllable in this citation form. the inflectional patterns of Pashto adjectives have received widely varying descriptive treatment. depending on the features considered to be diagnostic. number terms. and interrogative adjectives—covering both casemarking and derivation. Other authors group the adjectives in four to seven categories. the use of adjectives as nouns.1 Introduction This chapter describes the morphology of Pashto lexical noun modifiers—that is. (For phrasal modifiers of nouns such as relative clauses.) It ends with a section on usage—attribution and predication. 6. Pashto adjective paradigms generally have fewer forms than noun paradigms. The ablative case (sometimes called oblique II or prepositional) seldom has a unique form: when it differs from the oblique form.1. Pashto adjectives precede the nouns they modify and are generally inflected to agree with those nouns in gender. we consider it separately and classify nouns and adjectives based solely on their inflectional suffixes. comparison.

1 Case-marking suffixes Class I adjectives are consonant-final in their citation form.2.1. direct’.165. 6. ‫تش‬ ‫نېغ‬ Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular ‫ـه‬ -Ø -a Plural ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـي‬ -i W ‫ـو‬ Oblique -o ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـو‬ -o ‫ـي‬ -i W Ablative ‫ـه‬ -a Vocative   Table 6.1.126. Adjectives in Classes II-IV are frequently regularized toward Class I by many speakers. 6.1.104  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers adjectives ending in stressed and unstressed vowels other than /ə́/. This regularization is a major source of dialectal variation. as in /təš/ ‘empty’ or /neɣ/ ‘straight. Class I adjectives with certain stem shapes will undergo one of two processes of vowel mutation: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.2 Stem allomorphy In the Western dialects.1.1 General Pashto Class I 6.1.2. and keep the stress on the final syllable of the stem.1. They are declined using the suffixes in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . which includes diphthongs.1: GP Class I adjective suffixes This is the most populous adjective class.

(To compare this stem allomorphy to that of Class IIb nouns.126.2.2.3 and Table 6. ‫سپک‬ ‫زړهور‬ ‫غمجن‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Penzl (1955: 69. as well as ordinal numbers ending in /‑ám/.2.1.3 and Table 6. /‑ján/. /‑gár/.165.4.3. undergo regressive harmony in the feminine direct plural and in both oblique plural forms—when the suffix vowel is /o/—as shown in Table 6. see Section 5. so those speakers’ dialect lacks the alternation. illustrating the centralization rule for the Western dialect. or /‑mán/. Vowel Harmony ə → o/_Co ‫پلن‬ Class I adjectives with the stressed stem vowel /ə́/ (W). irrespective of gender. such as /plən/ ‘broad’ or /dəng/ ‘tall’.4) reports that some Kandahari speakers have the /ə/ vowel in all case forms. undergo a different vowel alternation: the vowel /á/ of the final syllable centralizes to /ə́/ in feminine non-direct singulars and in all plural forms. 6. as shown in Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  105 1.4.) ‫ـور‬ ‫ـګر‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـجن‬ ‫ـمن‬ In other dialects these vowels do not mutate. ‫دنګ‬ 2. Centralization á → ə́/_C# Class I adjectives for which the last syllable in the masculine direct singular form is /‑wár/.4 show paradigms for the adjectives /zṛawár/ ‘brave’ and /ɣamján/ ‘sad’.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy The paradigm for the adjective /spək/ ‘light’ in Table 6.2 shows the Western dialect’s Vowel Harmony rule. Table 6.1.

2: GP Class I.165.106  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ə∼o Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 6.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫زړهورو‬ zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W . stem alternation: a∼ə spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W Masculine ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Singular Direct ‫سپکې‬ Feminine Plural ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár E zṛawə́r W Singular ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Plural ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W ‫زړهورو‬ Oblique zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W Ablative ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Vocative   Table 6.3: GP Class I. ‫ ـور‬/wár/ alternation: ‫ زړهور‬/zṛawár/ ‘brave’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

2.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy The paradigm for Class I adjectives lacking stem allomorphy is shown in Table 6. ‫ ـجن‬/ján/ alternation: ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ 6.4: GP Class I.5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.1.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  a∼ə Masculine Singular Direct ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján 107 Feminine Plural ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján E ɣamjə́n W Singular ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Plural ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ɣamjə́n-i W ‫غمجنو‬ Oblique ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ‫غمجنو‬ ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ɣamjə́n-i W Ablative ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Vocative   Table 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.165.

subject to the changes described in Section 5.).1.DIR ‘older brothers’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5: GP Class I. or /‑āno/ (obl.5 Animacy in Class I adjectives When modifying animate nouns. /‑āne/ (fem.1 for stems ending in a consonant (which all adjectives have).1) ‫مشران وروڼه‬ məšr-ān oruṇa elder-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . ‫ـانې‬ ‫ـان‬ ‫ـانو‬ (6.2.dir.2.).M.108  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Feminine Plural Singular ‫پلونډ‬ Direct Plural ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډو‬ Oblique palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډو‬ palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډه‬ Ablative palwánḍ-a Vocative   Table 6.3. as in examples 6.dir.1. some Class I adjectives may take the animate plural suffixes of Class I nouns.2.DIR brothers.165.). no alternation: ‫ پلونډ‬/palwánḍ/ ‘fat’ 6.126.1 and 6.2. consonant-final adjective. that is: g → Ø/C_ Therefore the animate plural suffix on adjectives is realized as /‑ān/ (masc.M.

the suffixes of Class II are inherently stressed.1.165. 6. Whether a consonant-final adjective belongs to Class I (stem-stressed) or Class II (suffix-stressed) is a property of the lexeme and is not predictable.1 Case-marking suffixes The Class II suffixes are shown in Table 6.M. Adjectives as Nouns.2) 109 !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملکرو‬ paxtan-o məšr-āno kəšr-āno malgər-o Pashtoon-PL.6: GP Class II adjective suffixes 1 Standardized version of 6.M.2. for further discussion of animate suffixes on adjectives.2 General Pashto Class II Class II adjectives can end in either a consonant or a stressed schwa ( /‑ə́/).M.VOC friend-PL. ‫ـه‬ 6. both young and old!’¹ See Section 6.6.2.VOC elder-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .M.VOC ‘Pashtoon friends. Except for the masculine singular ablative and vocative suffixes. although there are a few differences in suffix shape as well.2: !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملګرو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. Masculine Singular Direct -Ø Plural ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Ablative Singular ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Oblique Feminine -á ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ -ó -é Plural ‫ـې‬ -é ‫ـو‬ -ó ‫ـه‬ - Vocative   Table 6.VOC younger-PL.9. These stressed suffixes are the chief difference between Class I and Class II.126.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  (6.2.1.

10 and Table 6.8 and Table 6. 2.165. Lowering affects only back vowels. In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in the stem. the unstressed vowel deletes. This rule affects those adjectives that undergo Back Vowel Lowering. Lengthening a → ā /_(C)Cə́ Short /a/ lengthens to long /ā/ when the syllable following it contains /ə́/. those sequences simplify to /o/ when stressed. → V[-high] / #C_ ‫ـو‬ In most Class II consonant-final adjectives with non-initial back vowels. Note that rules (2)—(4) must be ordered as stated above in order to account for the resulting allomorphy. This rule applies to vowel-final adjectives. This rule is illustrated in Table 6.110  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.11. An example of each can be seen in Table 6. as well as those that undergo Monophthongization. /u/ lowers to /a/ when unstressed. any remaining /a/ is lengthened when the following syllable contains /ə́/. Back Vowel Lowering or Syncope II. • wa[+stress] → V-high] [+back. If both are stressed.1. the first vowel deletes.9. as in Table 6. applies to a given consonant-final adjective.126. Syncope I • V2 → Ø/ V́1 _ • V́1 → Ø/ _V́2 If suffixation results in two adjacent vowels and only one is stressed. Following application of this rule. but not all of them.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . all of them stress-conditioned. The rules are: 1. The first. Monophthongization • a[+stress] w → V-high] [+back.9.2. /o/. according to rule 4. Back Vowel Lowering V-stress] [+back.2.11.7.2 Stem allomorphy Some GP Class II adjectives undergo stem allomorphy processes upon inflection. Syncope I. the rest affect the stem vowels of consonant-final Class II adjectives (which either lower or delete when unstressed). 4.8 and Table 6. affects the final vowels of /ə́/-final Class II adjectives. 3.10 and Table 6. It is not possible to predict which rule. as in Table 6. as seen in Table 6.

2.7 for /terə́/ ‘sharp’. /o/. These can be reliably identified from this citation form as belonging to Class II. as shown in Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  111 5. it will undergo vowel lowering in unstressed position.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .7: GP Class II.2. 6.2.2. no other class has adjectives ending in /-ə́/.13. Epenthesis Ø → a/C_CC If syncope results in a triple consonant cluster. an /a/ is inserted after the first consonant. Syncope II V[-stress] → Ø In a few consonant-final adjectives the stem vowel is deleted when not stressed. -ə́-final adjective: ‫ تېره‬/terə́/ ‘sharp’ ‫ـو‬ In most consonant-final adjectives where the stem vowel is a back vowel.2.126.1. 6. /u/. Note that ordering matters with these rules.165. as in Table 6. followed by lengthening Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. dusty’. while Rule 3 bleeds it. Rule 2 feeds Rule 4.1.3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy Vowel-final adjectives that end in stressed /‑ə́/ in their citation form include /sperə́/ ‘light grey. see also Table 6. The final stem-vowel of these adjectives undergoes one or other of the morphophonemic rules of Syncope I in Section 6. ‫ـه‬ ‫سپېره‬ ‫تېره‬ Masculine Singular Direct ‫تېره‬ terə́ Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫تېره‬ ‫تېره‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ter-ə́ ter-á ter-ó ter-é ter-é ter-ó Ablative Vocative   Table 6.12.

back vowel lowering: u∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Singular Plural ‫ړوند‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړنده‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړندو‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړندو‬ ṛānd-ə́ ṛānd-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural ṛund Oblique ‫ پوخ‬/pox/ ‘cooked. ripe’ ṛand-ó ṛand-á ṛand-é ‫ړونده‬ ṛúnd-a Vocative   Table 6.165.8: GP Class II.112  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫پوخ‬ ‫پاخه‬ pox Oblique pāx-ə́ ‫پاخه‬ ‫پخو‬ pāx-ə́ Ablative Feminine pax-ó Singular ‫پخه‬ Plural ‫پخې‬ pax-á pax-é ‫پخې‬ ‫پخو‬ pax-ó pax-é ‫پوخه‬ póx-a Vocative   Table 6. back vowel lowering: ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.9: GP Class II.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ṛand-é ṛand-ó .

the vowel-glide combination simplifies to /o/ in stressed position. In both /koẓ/ and /xoẓ/. In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in their stem.126. as in Table 6. as expressed in Rule 4 and exemplified in Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  113 when the next syllable contains /ə́/ (as shown in Table 6.8 for /pox/ ‘cooked. On the other hand.13.10: GP Class II. respectively). declines in both dialects according to the example shown in Table 6. rather than lowering. The patterns of stem allomorphy discussed above are lexical properties of particular adjectives. bent’.11.9 for the adjectives /pox/ ‘cooked. Table 6.165. but in the Western dialects these words (spelled and pronounced /spor/ and /xpor/) decline according to the pattern shown in Table 6. also.10 and Table 6. more Eastern. some consonant-final adjectives unpredictably undergo rule 5.11. stem = /tawd/ Finally.9 for ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’. like ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’. ‫کوږ‬ ‫خوږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. back vowel breaking: ‫ تود‬/tod/ ‘hot’. ‫پوخ‬ ‫ړوند‬ o∼āw∼aw Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫تود‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫توده‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫تودو‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تودو‬ tod Oblique Feminine tāwd-ə́ tāwd-ə́ tawd-á tawd-ó tawd-é tawd-é tawd-ó ‫توده‬ Ablative tód-a Vocative   Table 6.8 and Table 6. underlying stems vary from dialect to dialect. ripe’ and /ṛund/ ‘blind’. traditionally represented in both dialects by the letter (see also Table 3. Syncope II in unstressed position.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . indicating that their underlying stems contain /aw/ or /wa/ rather than /o/.than Western-dialect adjectives undergo the monophthongization in Table 6.8 and Chapter 4). The Eastern /sor/ ‘astride’ and /xor/ ‘scattered’ both follow this pattern. epenthesis of /a/ applies. ‫ کوږ‬/koẓ/ ‘crooked. ripe’ ‫سور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫سپور‬ ‫خپور‬ ‫پوخ‬ and Table 6.11 also reflects the East—West dialectal correspondence g∼ẓ.12.11. Where this results in a three-consonant cluster. as in Table 6. For example. the Eastern realization of the consonant as [g] is so entrenched that the words may be spelled with instead of the standard .

12: GP Class II.11: GP Class II.165. back vowel breaking: u∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرو‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سرو‬ sr-ə Ablative Feminine ‫سور‬ sur Oblique ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’. Syncope II: ‫ سور‬/sur/ ‘red’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM sr-e sr-o .126. stem = /xwag/ or /xwaẓ/ sr-ə sr-o sr-a sr-e ‫سوره‬ súr-a Vocative   Table 6.114  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼wā∼wa Masculine Singular Direct Plural Plural ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږه‬ ‫خوږې‬ xoẓ W xwāẓ-ə́ W xwaẓ-á W xwaẓ-é W ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږو‬ ‫خوږې‬ ‫خوږو‬ xwāẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwaẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwāg-ə́ E xwāg-ə́ E Ablative Singular ‫خوږ‬ xog E Oblique Feminine xwag-ó E xwag-á E xwag-é E xwag-é E xwag-ó E ‫خوږه‬ xóg-a E xóẓ-a W Vocative   Table 6.

Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  i∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct ‫تریخ‬ trix Oblique ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ Ablative 115 Feminine Plural ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó Singular ‫ترخه‬ tarx-á ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é Plural ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó ‫تریخه‬ tríx-a Vocative   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2.165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Syncope II and epenthesis: ‫ تریخ‬/trix/ ‘bitter’ 6.14.1.126.13: GP Class II.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy Class II forms that do not have stem allomorphy are declined according to the pattern illustrated in Table 6.2.

9). ‫ـی‬ 6. /kamkáy/ ‘small. This suffix may be stressed or unstressed.16 for /zalmáy/ ‘young’. the masculine direct singular (see Section 8.1 Class IIIa Class IIIa contains adjectives in which the suffix ‫کمکی‬ ‫ـی‬ /‑ay/ is stressed. /‑ay/.2.1.14: GP Class II. according to stress position.15.3. little’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1. consonant-final adjective. in their citation form. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and the stress does not shift in inflected forms.3 General Pashto Class III Class III adjectives in General Pashto end in what is etymologically a participial suffix. such as ‫ګړندی‬ ‫زړغی‬ /zəṛɣáy/ ‘vacillating’.2.116  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct ‫اوم‬ um Oblique ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural Singular ‫اومه‬ ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ um-á ‫اومو‬ ‫اومې‬ um-ó um-é Plural ‫اومې‬ um-é ‫اومو‬ um-ó ‫اومه‬ úm-a Vocative   Table 6. and /gaṛandáy/ ‘quick’. thus these adjectives can be divided into two subclasses. no stem allomorphy: ‫ اوم‬/um/ ‘raw.² ‫زلمی‬ 2 The word ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ also occurs in Pashto as a masculine first name.2.126.165. and the declension is exemplified in Table 6. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6. green’ 6.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 117 .W zalm-ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫زلمیه‬ zalm-áya   Table 6.15: GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes Masculine Singular Direct ‫زلمی‬ zalm-áy Oblique ‫زلمي‬ zalm-í Feminine Plural ‫زلمي‬ Singular ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-í zalm-ə́y Plural ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-ə́y ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ zalm-ío W zalm-ío W zalm-ó E.165.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ -áy Oblique Singular Plural ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ -ə́y -í ‫ـي‬ Feminine -ə́y ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ -ío W -ío W -ó E.W zalm-ə́yo E zalm-ó E.W -ə́yo E -ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -áya   Table 6.126.16: GP Class IIIa: ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ ‘young’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.W -í -ó E.

1. The latter form may be more ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیه‬ frequent. even in the east. /stə́ṛay/ ‘tired’. While all Class III adjectives have this historically participial suffix. well-bred. presented in Table 6. it is easy to see that /sə́way/ ‘burnt’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .17: GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes The masculine vocative singular form in GP Class IIIb varies by region: Heston (1992: 1568).18. ‫سوی‬ ‫سول‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. writing about Eastern dialects. but both occur and both are understood. writing about Kandahari (Western). for example. gives it as /‑ya/.2 Class IIIb Class IIIb contains adjectives in which the suffix /‑ay/ is not stressed. such as /piyāwə́ṛay/ ‘courteous. strong’.3). is related to /swəl/ ‘burn’. or /šúnay/ ‘possible’. most Class IIIb adjectives are more transparently related to verbs than those in Class IIIa.17.118  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. ‫ـی‬ ‫ستړی‬ ‫شونی‬ Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫ـی‬ -ay ‫پیاوړی‬ Singular Plural ‫ـي‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ -e -i -əy SW -e NE Oblique ‫ـي‬ -yo E -i -ye E -o W -e W -yo E -o W Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -ya E -o -e -o ‫ـې‬ -e W   Table 6.126. able. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6.3. while Penzl (1955: 72. gives it as /‑e/.2.

Many adjectives borrowed from Arabic and Persian. and may be stressed on the final vowel or earlier in the word (unless the final vowel is /ə/.165. sparkling’. such as /balbalí/ ‘glamorous.18: GP Class IIIb: ‫ سوی‬/sə́way/ ‘burnt’ 6.2. are members of this class.126. These adjectives generally do not decline. ‫بلبلي‬ ‫بوالا‬ ‫ مصنوعي‬/masnu'í/ ‘artificial’.19. Examples are shown in Table 6. /buālā́/ ‘obvious’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Table 6. spiritual’. This is likely a result of regularization of the oblique /‑o/ suffix by these speakers.20. and ‫ معنوي‬/ma'nawí/ ‘moral. ‫ـو‬ ‫ـوو‬ ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.21. /‑wo/ on these adjectives as they do in the other classes.4 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives) Class IV adjectives end in simple vowels.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫سوی‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سوې‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سویو‬ ‫سویې‬ sə́w-ay sə́w-i 119 sə́w-i Plural sə́w-e sə́w-yo E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o W ‫سویو‬ sə́w-ye E sə́w-yo E ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ sə́w-e W sə́w-o W ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ Ablative ‫سویه‬ Vocative sə́w-ya E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o sə́w-e sə́w-o ‫سوې‬ sə́w-e W   Table 6. but some speakers use the oblique plural suffixes /‑o/. in which event it is never stressed. and Table 6. as adjectives ending in stressed /ə́/ are Class II).

W ‫ښایستو‬ ‫ښایستو‬ xāyistó W xāyistó W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W .19: GP Class IV: ‫ ښایسنه‬/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.W xāyistáwo E.20: GP Class IV: Plural ‫ یوازي‬/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.120  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایستوو‬ ‫ښایستوو‬ xāyistáwo E.126.

Most of the information below comes from Lorimer (1902).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique 121 Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساو‬ ‫هوساو‬ hosā́wo E. The inflection patterns for Class I are shown inTable 6. an /e/ . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.21: GP Class IV: 6.2. but these classes do not align well with their GP counterparts.126.2. 6.W hosā́o W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.165.1 Waziri Class I Class I includes the majority of Waziri adjectives.2 ‫ هوسا‬/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’ Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives Waziri adjectives can be divided into classes based on the ending of their citation form. or an /a/ in their citation form. but we make no claim that the classes should be viewed as analogous. This section presents Waziri adjectives in four classes based on their similarity to the GP adjective classes.W hosā́o W hosā́wo E.22. These adjectives end in a consonant.

as shown in Table 6.23: Waziri Class II adjective suffixes 6.25. They retain this ending in all cases except the plural oblique.2. Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular Plural -i Oblique -e -i -e   Table 6.122  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Plural Feminine Singular Direct -Ø -Ø -a -a Oblique -Ø -a -e -e Plural -e   Table 6.2. Table 6.2 Waziri Class II Class II adjectives end in /í/ in the masculine direct singular.26.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. Class III feminine adjectives may also follow one of two alternative patterns.3 Waziri Class III Class III adjectives end in /ay/ in the masculine direct singular.2.22: Waziri Class I adjective suffixes 6.126. or they may exhibit an invariable form that adds the /-yé/ suffix directly to the /-ay/ suffix.24 shows the typical suffixes for adjectives of this type. in which they take the suffix /-e/ for both genders. as shown in Table 6. They may retain the /-ay/ suffix invariably.2.

24: Waziri Class III adjective suffixes Masculine stem = lewan- Singular Feminine Plural Direct lewan-ay lewan-i Oblique lewan-i lewan-ye Singular Plural lewan-ay   Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Plural Direct -ay -i Oblique -i -ye Feminine Singular Plural -ye   Table 6.126.165. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’ Masculine stem = meran- Singular Feminine Plural Direct meran-ay meran-i Oblique meran-i meran-ye Singular Plural meran-ay-ye   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 123 .26: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.25: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem.

1. For the Middle dialects. Demonstrative determiners are used to convey definiteness as well as relative proximity.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . It appears that they are used either anaphorically or exophorically.27: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دا‬/dā/ ‫دا‬ The following examples of /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner with masculine. as they do in General Pashto. number.5) remarks on a set of compound demonstratives which are found in both Eastern and Western dialects (the latter only in writing) in which the emphatic morpheme /ham/ is prefixed or procliticized to the demonstrative determiners. his examples include /hamdáɣa/ ‘this [very]’ and /hamáɣa/ ‘that [very]’. the use of the number term /yaw/ ‘one’. to different degrees. Some Pashto dialects differentiate three levels of proximity: proximal. demonstrative pronouns are discussed in Section 7. Two forms are used to express the proximal demonstrative. ‫یو‬ 6. singular. ‫دغه‬ ‫دا‬ ‫دا‬ Direct ‫ دا‬dā Oblique/Ablative ‫ دې‬de   Table 6.5. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number but does inflect for case.3. as in Table 6. and case. one based on /dā/.3. and the other based on /dáɣa/. the possessive determiner phrase is discussed in Section 9. The two inventories consist of segmentally identical items that differ in stress placement: disyllabic Pashto demonstrative determiners usually have initial stress.124 6. alone or in combination. feminine.165.27. so we do not describe them separately here. medial. may convey indefinite specificity or nonspecificity. Penzl (1955: 80. it remains unclear whether demonstrative determiners decline differently than demonstrative pronouns. and plural nouns illustrate the direct case form: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 Demonstrative determiners This section covers demonstratives acting as determiners. Demonstratives are inflected for gender.3  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Determiners and definiteness In this section we treat only the lexical determiners.126. Determination of Pashto nouns is optional. whereas final stress can indicate either contrastive or anaphoric function. and distal.

OBL garden-PL.M.M.OBL ..F.. /de/: (6.DIR ‘this girl’ (SW) (6.DIR ‘these people’ (SW) (6.DIR girl-F..in ‘in this notebook’ (SW) (6.DIR ‘these girls’ (SW) The following examples of oblique case form. this.165.OBL .6) ‫دا نجوني‬ dā njun-i these.7) ‫دې‬ ‫په دې کتاب کي‬ ‫دا‬ /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner illustrate the pə de kitāb-Ø ki in...in ‘in these gardens’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.8) ‫په دې کتابچې کي‬ pə de kitābč-e ki in.4) ‫دا نجلۍ‬ dā njəl-əy this..OBL book-M.DIR ‘this boy’ (SW) (6..Determiners and definiteness  (6...OBL ..OBL notebook-F.DIR girl-PL. these..3) 125 ‫دا هلک‬ dā halək-Ø this.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . this.126.DIR people-PL.5) ‫دا خلک‬ dā xalk-Ø these..9) ‫په دې باغونو کي‬ pə de bāɣ-uno ki in.in ‘in this book’ (SW) (6.DIR boy-M.

They contrast with similar forms having final stress that serve as alternative strong pronouns.10) ‫په دې کوټو کي‬ pə de kot-̣o ki in.. as shown in Table 6. ‫دغه‬ ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ dáɣa dáɣə də́ɣə ‫دغې‬ Oblique ‫دغو‬ dáɣe E dáɣo də́ɣe E də́ɣo ‫دغي‬ dóɣo də́ɣi W ‫توغو‬ dúɣu W   Table 6. but not in the plural. does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case form.11) ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ in its direct case ‫دغه قلم‬ dáɣə kalam-Ø this.OBL room-PL.. these. Note that the proximal demonstrative /dáɣa/ and the medial demonstrative /háɣa/ in Table 6.DIR ‘this pen’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. there is a difference between masculine and feminine in the singular.126.126  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers (6.165. In the oblique case form. as described in Section 7.DIR pen-M. /dáɣa/..28: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ These phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner forms: (6.28.OBL .in ‘in these rooms’ The other proximal demonstrative..29 have initial stress.2.F.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

12) 127 ‫دغه پیاله‬ dáɣə piyāla-Ø this.DIR cup-PL.DIR ‘these cups’ (SW) The following phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner oblique case forms: (6.DIR cup-F.OBL ‘of this woman’ (6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .OBL ‘of these boys’ (6.OBL woman-F.13) ‫دغه قلمونه‬ dáɣə kalam-una these.DIR pen-PL.14) ‫دغه پیالې‬ dáɣə piyāl-e these.OBL boy-PL.15) ‫دغه‬ /dáɣa/ in its ‫د دغه سړي‬ də dáɣa saṛ-i of this.F.DIR ‘these pens’ (SW) (6.M.M.16) ‫د دغې ښځي‬ də dáɣe ṣəʣ-e of this.Determiners and definiteness  (6.OBL girl-PL.F.DIR ‘this cup’ (SW) (6.OBL ‘of this man’ (6.OBL ‘of these girls’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.17) ‫د دغو هلکانو‬ də dáɣo halək-āno of this.ANIM.126.165.18) ‫د دغو نجونو‬ də dáɣo njun-o of this.OBL man-M.

1. The variation between /o/ and /u/. /húɣə/ and /hā́ɣə/. number. The presence or absence of /h/ in some forms may reflect the variation noted by Elfenbein 1997.29: Medial demonstratives ‫هوغه‬ ‫هاغه‬ The distal demonstrative has two variants. Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ háɣə háɣa áɣa áɣə hə́ɣə Oblique ‫هغه‬ ‫هغو‬ áɣe E áɣo ‫هغي‬ hə́ɣo háɣə háɣo ‫هوغو‬ hə́ɣi W húɣu W háɣi W   Table 6. as has the /i/ ending characteristic of Western dialects.165.128  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دغه‬ The medial and distal demonstratives exhibit the same patterning as /dáɣa/ with respect to gender.30. and case (Table 6. as shown in Table 6.126.29).1. see Section 3.2. ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The multiple forms represent the considerable variation found in descriptions of these demonstratives in the literature. and between /a/ and /ə/. Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /dáɣa/ and /háɣa/. has been noted throughout this grammar.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 129 .30: Distal demonstratives Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.126.Determiners and definiteness  Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هوغه‬ húɣə úɣa hóɣə ‫هاغه‬ hā́ɣə hā́ɣa Oblique ‫هوغې‬ ‫هوغو‬ húɣe húɣo úɣe úɣo ‫هاغې‬ hā́ɣe ‫هاغو‬ hā́ɣo ‫هوغي‬ húɣi W   Table 6.

M. When functioning as a noun.2 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers The indefinite determiner The number term sentences: (6.M.5.F] pə bank-Ø ke hisāb-Ø prā́niz-i in.126.AOR.M.PRS-PRS.4 Non-numerical noun quantifiers Noun quantifiers equivalent to English all.3[SG..DIR member-PL.. every. It appears that under those conditions.DIR Ø-waž-ə́l-i CONT-kill-PST-PTCP.3[SG. as in the following .. 6. it triggers verb agreement and can function as the complete object of an adposition.‫یوه کورنۍ کولای شي په بانک کې حساب پرانیزي‬ yaw-a koran-əy kaw-ə́l-ay one-F.DIR all-PL. Babrakzai (1999: 27–28) asserts that /yaw/ ‘one’ may compose with an indefinite quantifier to render a quantified indefinite noun phrase. Khost-M .‫نا معلومو وسلوالو په خوست کې د یو کورنۍ ټول غړي وژلي‬ nāmālum-o waslawāl-o pə khost-Ø ke də yaw unknown-PL.3. its holonym may precede it. and as is the case for other languages.’ ‫یو‬ Note that the determiner may or may not be inflected.165. The morphology of /yaw/ ‘one’ is discussed in Section 6.DIR ‘Unknown armed individuals killed all members of a family in Khost.21.in account-M.’ (6.M.PL.DIR AOR\open.20) .1 The quantifier ‫ ټولـ‬/ṭol-/ ‘all’ ‫ټولـ‬ The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’ appears to be multifunctional as both a noun and a determiner.M..4. as we see in example 6.PRS-PRS...139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR family-F.OBL in.19) ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ serves as an indefinite determiner.OBL armed-PL. bank-M ..130  6. ‫یو‬ 6. Its use in our data is predominantly as a Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.CONT-PST-OPT š-i become.in of one koran-əy ṭol-Ø ɣəṛ-i family-F.DIR do.F] ‘A family can open up an account at the bank. and none exist in Pashto. these quantifiers may also exist in construction with items other than nouns..

M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.DIR of all-PL.PST-PTCP. of agreement morphology.4.23.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS.PL.2 The quantifier As shown in 6.AOR. rather than the trigger.DIR WOULD in. every-PL.AOR.M.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. preceding the noun ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ .M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR reader-PL.21) .F.M.3SG.AOR-OPT become.3[SG.3 usage-F.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F.OBL of development-F.F.22) .‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become. This can be seen in 6..3[SG.OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL. where it precedes its noun and is the target.DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.CONT.OBL path-F.DIR council-F.OBL 15 day-PL. it modifies: (6.OBL path-PL.23) ‫ هر‬/har/. (6.PRS.F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature.DIR do.in meeting-F.CONT-PRS.’ (WAZ) 6.M.OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də .3[PL.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F.PRS-PRS.M.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.126.Non-numerical noun quantifiers  131 determiner.DIR be..F] and of child-M. /ar/ ‘every’ ‫ هر‬/har/..M..DIR up.‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this.DIR nation-PL. /ar/ ‘every’ patterns as an adjective.165.to.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations.DIR of sake-M.22.to some all-PL.’ (6.

6.24 and further exemplified in Section 7.3 The quantifier ‫ هیڅ‬/heʦ/ ‘none’ ‫هیڅ‬ Similarly. as shown in 6.56 and following.‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who. 6.38 are based on original fieldwork.165.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG.STR. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.132  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers It can combine with the indefinite pronouns to express the effect of everyone or everything.DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon.25: (6.7: (6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . as shown in 6.PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone.DIR gone-M.DIR NEG become.’ (NW) It can also quantify other nominals. 3 These forms were elicited by Michael Marlo in 2010 with native speaker informants resident in the US.5 Number names As is typical of many languages in northern South Asia.’ Notice the concordant negative in the main clauses of both examples. as well as two systems of formation. the quantifier /heʦ/ (also pronounced /hits/) can combine with the indefinite pronouns.24) .PST-PST. The terms in Table 6. one based on 10 and one based on 20.AOR.25) .M ‘No one was gone. Pashto number names show great complexity and variation in formation of the number names over ten. as shown in examples 7.³ to our knowledge these data comprise the most complete picture of Pashto number names collected thus far. They include both additive and subtractive forms.126.DIR WOULD 3SG.STR.4.3SG.

5.) The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ takes singular suffixes and all other number names take plural ones. while Table 6.31.27.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .35 . while common.31: GP ―— ―— ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ Inflectional suffixes. not adjectival. as can be seen in sentences 6.126. Table 6.165. ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫یو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.1 Morphology Number names all end in either stressed /ə́/ or a consonant and are difficult to sort into the regular nominal and adjectival classes. ‫یو‬ Direct ‫دوه‬ Masculine Feminine ‫یو‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یوه‬ ‫یوه‬ yaw yaw yawə́ yawá ‫یو‬ Oblique yaw ‫یوه‬ yawá ‫یوې‬ yawé Ablative Vocative   Table 6. The tables and statements in this section are a summary of what our data reveal. some sources report that only /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’ encode gender and case. and Table 6.33.32 and Table 6.34 contrast the Waziri suffixation forms with those of General Pashto. where four takes a feminine plural direct suffix in the first example but is uninflected in the second.1 133 Cardinal numbers in Pashto 6. are optional on number names. Table 6. (Note these are nominal. while our data show this to be erroneous. For example.28. Table 6.Number names  6. Previous descriptions of number name inflection are not comprehensive and contradict each other in places.26 and 6. Inflection tends to be more frequent with /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’: compare the forms for four and one in sentence 6. they hold for both adjectival and nominal uses of number names. uses. where both tokens of four are uninflected while one is inflected.36 show the optional inflectional suffixes for numbers one through four in General Pashto.

165.33: GP ―— ―— Masculine Feminine Direct dwa dwé Oblique dwé dwé ‫ دوه‬/dwa/ ‘two’   Table 6.134  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Feminine Direct yo yawá Oblique yawá yawé Masculine Feminine ‫دوه‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫دوې‬   Table 6.32: Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’ Direct dwa du dwa dwe ‫دو‬ du Oblique ‫دوه‬ dwa ‫دو‬ du ‫دوو‬ dwo Ablative Vocative   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.34: Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 135 .Number names  Masculine Feminine ‫درې‬ Direct dre ‫درې‬ Oblique dre ‫درو‬ dro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.126.36: GP ―— ―— ‫ څلور‬/ʦalor/ ‘four’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.35: GP ―— ―— ‫ درې‬/dre/ ‘three’ Direct Masculine Feminine ‫څلور‬ ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ʦalor ‫څلورې‬ ʦalore Oblique ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ‫څلورو‬ ʦaloro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.165.

F COMP four 3.. Farah-F province-M .‫کمپیوټر کولای شي چې لاندې څلورې بنسټیزې دندې سرته ورسوي‬ kompyuṭar-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay š-i če computer-M.PRS.M] ‘The brain performs four tasks.28) ‫په روان كال كي په ټوله حوزه كي نهه د پولیو پیښي ثبت سوي دي چي څلور‬ .M] COMP lānde ʦalor-e bansaṭiz-e dand-e sar ta below four-PL.CONT.in in.F. current-M. while /dwa/ ‘two’ is inflected only for gender. Other declinable cardinal number names are /šǝl/ ‘twenty’. nine cases of polio have been recorded in the region..DIR basic-PL. and one was in Farah. and /zǝr/ ‘thousand’..3[SG.F.DIR four task-PL.3PL.’ (6.26) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers .165.DIR head to wə́-rasaw-i AOR-deliver-PRS.CONT-PST-OPT become.3[SG.DIR head to CONT-deliver-PRS.WK in.CONT.’⁴ As in General Pashto. /sǝl/ ‘hundred’.3[SG.3SG...DIR .CONT.F. The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ is inflected for both gender and case....37..PRS-PRS. which are declined as masculine nouns as shown in Table 6.PL..OBL year .136  (6.DIR registration become.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . kandahār-Ø aw yaw-a pə farāh-Ø walāyat-Ø ki Kandahar-M and one-F.AOR.27) ..F.‫ څلور په كندهار او یوه په فراه ولایت كي ده‬، ‫یي په هلمند‬ pə rawān-Ø kāl ki pə ṭul-a hawza-Ø ki nəha də in.’ (6.DIR area-F. of which four were in Helmand. all-F.DIR di če ʦalor ye pə helmand-Ø ʦalor pə be. Waziri number names are difficult to categorize into regular nominal or adjectival classes..F ‘So far this year.126.in nine of poliyo pex-e sabt šúw-e Polio event-PL.PST-PTCP...DIR task-PL. ‫په روان کالو کي په ټوله حوزه کي نهه د پولیو پېښې ثبت شوي دي‬ .M] ‘A computer can perform the four basic tasks below.‫ذهن څلور دندې سرته رسوي‬ zahən-Ø ʦalor dand-e sar ta Ø-rasaw-í brain-M.DIR do.PRS. four were in Kandahar.F.in da be. Helmand-M four in.‫ څلور په کندهار او یوه په فراه کي ده‬،‫چې څلور یې په هلمند‬ 4 Standardized version of 6.F.DIR in..28: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216..

a form of the relevant single number plus. Between 31 and 69. and so on.37: Waziri plural forms of declinable number names 6. instead of (or as an alternative to) /ʦalwext/ ‘forty’. /wišt/ ‘twenty’. 30. between 71 and 99.). some speakers also have half-score forms for multiples of 10. the “ones” part of the compound often undergoes some change. a form of the relevant single number name plus a form of /las/ ‘ten’.165.1. /špag/ ‘six’ undergoes a vowel change in compounds. Variants on this basic system exist. etc. a form of the relevant single number combined phrasally with /derš/ ‘thirty’.126. above one hundred. multiples of 20 may have this alternate ‫شپږ‬ -score form. must simply be learned.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 40. /dwa/ ‘two’ but /du derš/ ‘thirty-two’ or /dwa derš/ ‘thirtytwo’. but other “ones” do not change. /panʣós/ ‘fifty’. The word /səl/ ‘hundred’ has an irregular plural /séwa/ ‘hundreds’. Compound number names are usually constructed as follows: • for numbers 11—19. Many speakers of Pashto. either ‫ این څلور نیمي شلي‬/en ʦalor nimi šəli/ ‘four and a half score’ or ‫لس‬ ‫ کم سل‬/ləs kəm səl/ ‘ten less [than a] hundred’. /ʦalwéxt/ ‘forty’.2 Inventory The words for two through ten. may use /dwa šəle/ ‘two score’ NE ( ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫دو دېرش‬ ‫دري دیرش‬ ‫شپږ‬ ‫شپږ اویا‬ ‫سوه‬ ‫دوه دېرش‬ ‫سل‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ or ‫ دوې شلي‬/dwe šəli/ ‘two score’ ‫دوه شلې‬ SE ). alternate forms of two and three may be used (so. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for example. such as /špəg nemi šəli/ ‘six and a half score’ (130). rather than ‘twenty’. Above 20. and one or another special form ‫نېمي شلي‬ for ninety. a different form. • for numbers 21—29. /dre/ ‘three’ but /dri derš/ ‘thirty-three’).Number names  Direct šǝl ‘twenty’ sǝl ‘hundred’ zǝr ‘thousand’ šǝl-ina saw-a zǝr-gina saw-e zǝr-gine 137 sǝl-gina Oblique šǝl-ine sǝl-gine   Table 6. ‫ویشت‬ ‫لس‬ ‫ شل‬/šəl/ • for numbers 31 and above.5. and all the tens afterward (20. /špəg awyā́/ ‘seventy-six’. number names are combined without further irregularity. ‫دېرش‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫پنځوس‬ Between 11 and 19 and between 21 and 29.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ۱۷ . Finally. so ‘71’ and ‘17’.1.38: GP numerals and number names Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫څلور‬ 5 ۵ or ٥ ‫پنځه‬ 6 ۶ or ٦ ‫شپږ‬ ۷ ۸ ۹ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نهه‬ ‫لس‬ ‫یوولس‬ 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 ۱۰ ۱۱ Subtractive and 20-based forms yaw ‘one’ dwa ‘two’ dre ‘three’ ʦəlór ‘four’ W səlór E pinzə́ ‘five’ pinʣə́ SW špəẓ ‘six’ W špəg E uwə́ ‘seven’ atə́ ‘eight’ nə́ ‘nine’ W nə́hə E las ‘ten’ yəwə́las ‘eleven’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for example. 98).38 shows the number names through 20 and some of the variation in larger number names for General Pashto. previously shown in Table 3.13. some large number names can be given in terms of which large round number they exceed. going from /špəg ‫شپږ دېرش‬ ‫درې کم څلوښت‬ derš/ ‘thirty-six’ to /dre kam ʦalwəxt/ ‘three less [than] forty’. ۷۱ Table 6.138  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers In further variations of the basic counting system. notice that although Pashto words are written right to left. Further research will be required to identify which groups of Pashto speakers use which counting systems and under what circumstances.2.126. larger numbers ending in -nine are often given as.5. Some speakers have this subtractive form as far back as numbers that end in -seven. numbers with more than one digit are written from left to right.165. Some forms of Waziri that contrast with those of General Pashto are given in Section 6. Table 6. /yo kəm panʣos/ ‘one less [than] fifty’ ‫نه څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم پنځوس‬ rather than as /nə ʦalwext/ ‘forty-nine’. It also includes the numerals in Pashto script. as in /naha də pāsa səl/ ‘nine above a hundred’ for 109 (or even /atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi səli/ ‘eight above four and ‫نهه د پاسه سل‬ ‫انه د پاسه ځلور نیمی شلي‬ a half score’— that is.

165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 139 .Number names  Table 6.NW ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرش‬ ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرس‬ yo kəm derš ‘one less [than] thirty’ yo kəm ders ‘one less [than] thirty’ SE derš ‘thirty’ ders SE yaw-derš ‘one [and] thirty’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 12 ۱۲ ‫دولس‬ 13 ۱۳ ‫دیارلس‬ 14 ۱۴ ‫څورلس‬ 15 ۱۵ ‫پنځلس‬ ۱۶ ۱۷ ‫شپاړس‬ ‫اوولس‬ 18 ۱۸ ‫اتلس‬ 19 ۱۹ ‫نونس‬ ۲۰ ۲۱ ‫نولس‬ ‫شل‬ ‫یوویشت‬ ۲۹ ‫نههویشت‬ 16 17 20 21 29 Additive and 10-based forms ‫نه ویشت‬ ‫نویشت‬ 30 31 ۳۰ ۳۱ ‫دېرش‬ ‫دېرس‬ ‫یودېرش‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms dwə́las ‘twelve’ W dólas E duolas SW dəwolas SE dyā́rlas ‘thirteen’ ʦwárlas ‘fourteen’ pinzə́las ‘fifteen’ pinʣə́las SW špā́ṛas ‘sixteen’ owə́las ‘seventeen’ atə́las ‘eighteen’ núnas ‘nineteen’ W núlas E šəl ‘twenty’ ‘[one] score’ yə́-wišt ‘one [and] twenty’ W yə́wiš E nəhə-wišt ‘nine [and] twenty’ nə́-wišt SE.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.165.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 37 ۳۷ ‫اوهدېرش‬ 38 ۳۸ ‫اتهدېرش‬ 39 ۳۹ ‫نههدېرش‬ 40 ۴۰ ‫څلوېښت‬ 49 ۴۹ ‫نههڅلوېښت‬ ۵۰ ۶۰ ‫پنځوس‬ ‫شپېته‬ ۷۰ ۸۰ ‫اویا‬ ‫اتیا‬ 88 ۸۸ ‫اته اتیا‬ 89 ۸۹ ‫نهه اتیا‬ 50 60 70 80 Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms wə-derš ‘seven [and] thirty’ ‫درې کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ atə-derš ‘eight [and] thirty’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ nəhə-derš ‘nine [and] thirty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ʦalwext ‘forty’ ‫دوه شلي‬ nəhə-ʦalwext ‘nine [and] forty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫پنځوش‬ ۹۰ ‫نوي‬ dwa kəm ʦalwext ‘two less [than] forty’ yo kəm ʦalwext ‘one less [than] forty’ dwa šəli ‘two score’ yo kəm panʣos ‘one less [than] fifty’ panʣos ‘fifty’ špetə ‘sixty’ ‫درې شلي‬ dre šəli ‘three score’ awyā ‘seventy’ atyā ‘eighty’ atə-atyā ‘eight [and] eighty’ nəhə-atyā ‘nine [and] eighty’ ‫څلور شلي‬ nəwi ‘ninety’ ʦalor šəli ‘four score’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلې‬ dwa kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘two less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yo kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘one less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یوولس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 90 dre kəm ʦalwext ‘three less [than] forty’ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yəwoləs kəm səl ‘eleven less [than a] hundred’ ʦalor nimi šəli ‘four and a half score’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.140  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.

38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫لس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 98 ۹۸ ‫اته نوي‬ atə-nəwi ‘eight [and] ninety’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫سل‬ ‫اته د پاسه‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ 99 ۹۹ ‫نهه نوي‬ 100 ۱۰۰ ‫سل‬ 101 ۱۰۱ ‫یو سلو یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 110 ۱۱۰ ‫یو سلو لس‬ ‫لس د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 120 ۱۲۰ ‫یو سلو شل‬ 121 ۱۲۱ ‫یو سلو‬ ‫یوویشت‬ 129 ۱۲۹ ‫یو سلو نهه‬ ‫ویشت‬ nəhə-nəwi ‘nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم سل‬ las kəm səl ‘ten less [than a] hundred’ dwa kəm səl ‘two less [than a] hundred’ atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi šəli ‘eight above four and a half score’ yo kəm səl ‘one less [than a] hundred’ səl ‘[a] hundred’ yo səlu yo ‘one hundred one’ yo də pāsa səl ‘one above a hundred’ yo səlu las ‘one hundred ten’ las də pāsa səl ‘ten above a hundred’ yo səlu šəl ‘one hundred twenty’ yo səlu yaw-wišt ‘one hundred one [and] twenty’ yo səlu nəhə-wišt ‘one hundred nine [and] twenty’ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫سلو دېرش‬ špəg šəli ‘six score’ yo də pāsa špəg šəli ‘one above six score’ yo kəm yo səlu derš ‘one less [than] thirty and a hundred’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.126.Number names  141 Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫یو کم شپږ‬ ‫نیمي شلي‬ 130 ۱۳۰ ‫یو سل‬ ‫دېرش‬ 139 ۱۳۹ ‫یو سل‬ ‫نههدېرش‬ yo səl derš ‘one hundred thirty’ yo səl nəhə-derš ‘one hundred nine [and] thirty’ ‫شپږ نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫شلو‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم اووه‬ ‫شلي‬ 199 ۱۹۹ ‫یو سل نهه‬ ‫نوي‬ 200 ۲۰۰ ‫دوه سوه‬ 1000 ۱۰۰۰ ‫)یو( زر‬ 1001 ۱۰۰۱ ‫یو زر یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫زر‬ 2000 ۲۰۰۰ ‫دوه زره‬ 10.165.142  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.126.000 ۱۰۰۰۰ ‫لس زره‬ ۱۰۰۰۰۰ ‫سل زره‬ 100.000 yo səl nəhə-nəwi ‘one hundred nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم دوه‬ ‫سوه‬ yo kəm špəg nimi šəli ‘one less [than] six and a half score’ špəg nimi šəli ‘six and a half score’ yo kəm yo səlu ʦalwext ‘one hundred [and] one less [than] forty’ yo kəm uwə šəli ‘one less [than] seven score’ yo kəm dwa səwa ‘one less [than] two hundred’ dwa səwa ‘two hundred’ (yo) zər ‘(one) thousand’ yo zər yo ‘one thousand one’ yo də pāsa zər ‘one above a thousand’ dwa zəra ‘two thousand’ las zəra ‘ten thousand’ səl zəra ‘[a] hundred thousand’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Forms that differ are listed in Table 6.1. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫لس لکه‬ 10.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . rather.000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫یو کرور‬ ‫سل لکه‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms yo lak ‘one hundredthousand’ las laka ‘ten hundredthousand’ yo kror ‘one ten-million’ səl laka ‘[a] hundred hundredthousand’ The inventory of Waziri cardinal number names is very close to that of GP dialects described in Section 6. as in /dre kam owa šǝla/ ‘three less than seven score [137]’ or /špəz bondi owa šǝlạ/ ‘six over seven score [146]’. The word /šǝl/. the number /šǝl/ ‘twenty’ can be used to count by scores.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ‫یو لک‬ 1.39. is not used to express an exact number. In Middle dialects as in General Pashto.5.2.000.000.126.Number names  143 Table 6. it denotes some unspecified large number. meaning ‘hundred thousand’ in General Pashto.

ordinals inflect for number and gender. instead. however. an epenthetic glide or sometimes an /h/ is added: /dwa/ ‘two’: /dwayám. as well as case.144  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Number  General Pashto ‫یو‬ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتلس‬ ‫نونس‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫اویا‬ 1 7 8 18 19 40 70 Waziri yaw ‘one’ yo uwə́ ‘seven’ owa atə́ ‘eight’ wota. otan atə́las ‘eighteen’ wotalas núnas ‘nineteen’ W ninas ʦalwext ‘forty’ ʦalwešt awyā ‘seventy’ avia   Table 6. dwahám/ ‘second’ /dre/ ‘three’: /dreyám. They decline according to the special vowel-stem alternation paradigm in Class I.5.2creports in addition the allomorphs /yəm/ and /həm/ f.2 and shown in Table 6. or the Arabic /awál/. as discussed in Section 6. /nəhám/ ‘ninth’ ‫لسم‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتم‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دویم‬ ‫درې‬ ‫درېیم‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نههم‬ ‫ اویا‬/awyā/ ‘seventy’: ‫ اویایم‬/awyāyám/ ‘seventieth’ ‫ نوي‬/nə́wi/ ‘ninety’: ‫ نویم‬/nəwiyám/ ‘ninetieth’ ‫نهه‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ The ordinal first is entirely irregular.1. drehám/ ‘third’ /nə/ ‘nine’: /nəm/ ‘ninth’. Ordinal number names.165. /nə́həm/ ‘ninth’ (but /nə́hə/ ‘nine’) /nəm/.2. ‫اول‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫اول‬ .40 for /lasám/ ‘tenth’. If the cardinal number name ends in a vowel.39: Waziri number names that differ from GP forms 6. /lumṛáy/. (Penzl 1955: 76.126. Each of these declines as a regular member of Class IIIa (in the case of /wṛumbáy/ and /lumṛáy/) or Class I (in the case of /awál/). are formed by adding the suffix /-ám/ ( /-ə́m/ in the Western dialect) to the cardinal number name. there is no conventional way to express ordinal numbers using numerals.2 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 83). it may appear as /wṛumbáy/.1.) Unlike most cardinals. this vowel is dropped before the suffix is added— /atə́/ ‘eight’: /atám/ ‘eighth’—but the vowels on a few number names are not dropped. as ‫څلور‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫څلورم‬ in /ʦalór/ ‘four’: /ʦalorám/ ‘fourth’.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 145 .Number names  Masculine Singular Direct ‫لسم‬ lasám Feminine Plural ‫لسم‬ lasám E Singular ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Plural ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ lasə́m W lasə́mi W ‫لسمو‬ Oblique lasámo E lasə́mo W ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ ‫لسمو‬ lasámo E lasə́mo W lasə́mi W Ablative ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Vocative   Table 6.40: GP Class I: ‫ لسم‬/lasám/ ‘tenth’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . with a few exceptions.3 Reduplication of number names The full reduplication of number names denotes iteration of individuals or groups (see Babrakzai 1999: 48).’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.29) .M.DIR three three come.STR. As in Pashto.165.‫شاګردان درې درې راغل‬ šāgərd-ān dre dre rā́ɣ-əl student-PL. these are shown in Table 6.41: Waziri irregular ordinal number names 6.DIR every time five five pen-PL.146  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Ordinal numbers in Waziri are formed as in General Pashto. the Waziri ordinals for first.M ‘The students came in threes. and third show irregular forms.ANIM. (6.41.‫زه هر وخت پنځه پنځه کلمان ګرزوم‬ za har waxt pinʣə pinʣə kalam-ān 1SG. Masculine Feminine awwal awwala dwayam dwayama dweyam dweyama dwawam dwawama third dreyam dreyama ninth nem nemma first second   Table 6.DIR Ø-gərzaw-ə́m CONT-carry-1SG ‘I always carry five pens.30) . second.PST-PST.5.ANIM.AOR.3PL.’ (NW) (6. as does ninth.126.M.

sowəm (masculine) ʦowəmə. /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ question would include an ordinal num- ‫څووم‬ ber (e.Interrogative adjectives  6.165. Only the first two forms show gender concord.. the brown one). They do not inflect for case or number.42.g. ʦomra ‘which?’ ‘which [number]?’ ‘what?’ ‘how many?’ ‘how much?’ ʦona   Table 6. kim or kima (feminine) ‘which?’ ʦowəm. so ‘how many?’ ʦura.126. ‫ کوم‬kum or ‫ کومه‬kumə (feminine) ‫ څووم‬ʦowəm (masculine) ‫ څوومه‬ʦowəmə (feminine) ‫ څه‬ʦə ‫ څو‬tso ‫ څومره‬ʦumra. while the answer to a /ʦowəm/.g. the fifth one).43. and /kum/ ‘which?’ does so optionally. sowəmə (feminine) ‘which [number]?’ tso.. question would focus on some attribute (e. sura ‘how much?’   Table 6.42: GP interrogative adjectives Waziri Translation kim (masculine). ‫کوم‬ GP Translation ‫ کوم‬kum (masculine).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The interrogative ‫کوم‬ /kum/ ‘which?’ is optionally invariant Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.43: Waziri interrogative adjectives ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ and /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’. The answer to a ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ Pashto has two words corresponding to English which?: ‫څووم‬ /ʦowəm/.6 147 Interrogative adjectives The interrogative adjectives that occur in Pashto are shown in Table 6. Interrogative adjectives of Waziri are described in Table 6.

The latter is /tsumra/.3SG.M.DIR dog-M. Some examples of their use are shown in sentences 6.DIR 2.31) ‫څوومه‬ ‫کوم سپی دې ولید؟‬ kum-Ø sp-ay de wə́-lid-Ø which-M.CONT.32) ‫څووم کس دې پکار دی؟‬ sowəm-Ø kas-Ø de pəkār day which-M. /so/ ‘how many?’.33) ‫په څه بلا اخته شوی؟‬ pə ʦə balā-Ø axtə šə́w-i INSTR what catastrophe-F. /sowəmə/ ‘which [number]?’ (feminine).126.OBL affected become.WK AOR-eat. ‫څو‬ (6.34) ‫څومره‬ ‫څو سپي دې ولیدل؟‬ so sp-i de wə́-lid-əl how. The former is /tso/.M ‘Which dog did you see?’ (NW) (6.DIR [number] person-M.AOR.F.M ‘How many dogs did you see?’ (NW) (6.M ‘Which [number] person do you need?’ (NW) (6.165.many dog-PL.F ‘How much rice did you eat?’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.PST-PST.DIR 2. /sumra/ ‘how much?’. ‫څووم‬ (6.PST-PST.35) ‫څومره وریجې دې وخوړې؟‬ sumra wrij-e de wə́-xwaṛ-e how.3PL.3PL.much rice-PL.31 through 6.148  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫کومه‬ with respect to gender or may take the feminine form /kumə/ ‘which?’ (feminine).DIR 2.35.WK need be.WK AOR-see.WK AOR-see.3SG.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .PRS.PST-PST. /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ has the feminine form /ʦowəmə/.DIR 2.PST-2SG ‘What catastrophe happened to you?’ (SW) Pashto interrogative adjectives distinguish between count nouns and mass nouns. while /ʦowəm/.

3[PL.37.OBL walāyat-Ø čārwāk-i bə yawdzāy province-M.OBL āsāntiyā-we barābár-Ø kṛ-i facility-PL.7 149 Inflection of conjoined adjectives In the present aorist form of denominal verbs based on an adjectival root.M.36) ‫چارواګي وایی چې دکنړ ولایت چارواګي به یوځای شویو مرورو وروڼو ته‬ .DIR CONT-tell.DIR and of work-M.DIR do.OBL offended-PL.AOR.PRS-PRS.3[PL.OBL brothers.M.F.PL. as in example 6.AOR-PRS.M] COMP of Kunar-M.DIR prepared-PL.OBL WOULD together šúw-io marawər-o oruṇo tə become.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . the adjectival portion may be inflected in various ways when it governs conjoined objects of different genders.PST-PTCP.Inflection of conjoined adjectives  6.OBL to xwandi žwand-Ø aw də kār-Ø kaw-ə́l-o safe life-M.M] ‘Officials say that Kunar officials will provide the reunited offended brothers with a safe life and facilities for working.126.‫خوندی ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوی برابر کړي‬ čārwāk-i Ø-wāy-í če də kunaṛ-Ø official-PL.OBL official-PL.M. as seen in example 6.36.M.‫وروڼو ته خوندي ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوې برابر کړي‬ 5 Standardized version of 6. (6.M.M.165. The adjective may be declined to reflect the default value of masculine plural.M. or it may be declined to agree with only the last item of the set.DIR do-INF-PL.36: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.’⁵ ‫چارواکی وایی چې د کنړ ولایت چارواکی به یوځای شویو مرورو‬ .

M če .PRS.1 Some Class I derivational suffixes • /‑man/ ‫ـمن‬ ‫ ستونځه‬/stundza/ ‘problem’ → ‫ ستونځمن‬/stundzman/ ‘troublesome.‫د څـښلو لپاره صحي اوبه او د صحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫هستوګنې ځاې‬ 6 Standardized version of 6.F.STR. problematic.1.3SG.OBL facility-PL.DIR barābár-e kṛ-i prepared-PL. Adjectives can also form compounds. 6.OBL to necessary be. ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته په کار دی چې‬ . ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته پکاردي چې‬ . and health facilities. 3PL..150  (6.DIR and of health-M.37) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دهستوګنې‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.DIR of residence-F. usually with nouns. They can affix to either native or borrowed words.OBL to NEC education-M.M. haɣwi tə de talim-Ø də astogən-e COMP ...3[PL.ABL healthy oba-Ø aw də sahət-Ø āsāntiyā-we water-F. as seen in the examples below.165.DIR of drink-INF-PL...‫دڅـښلولپاره صحي اوبه اودصحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫ځاې‬ ɣarb-o hewād-uno tə pəkār day west-PL.AOR-PRS.OBL ʣāy-Ø də ʦək-əl-o lə pār-a sahi place-M.F.M.37: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216..8.. 6. a place of residence.126.OBL from sake-M.M] ‘Western nations need to provide them with education. Descriptions and examples of all of these derived forms follow.CONT.DIR do..8 Derivation of adjectives Pashto has several derivational suffixes and two prefixes that can be used to derive adjectives from nouns or verbs.8.OBL country-PL. to derive a new adjective. The examples below are arranged by class.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .’⁶ 6. difficult’ ‫ واک‬/wāk/ ‘power’ → ‫ واکمن‬/wākmán/ ‘powerful’ ‫د‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.M. clean drinking water.1 Derivational suffixes Adjectives formed by the addition of suffixes vary as to which declension class they belong to.

honor. • • • • ‫ پنځه‬/pinzə́/ ‘five’ → ‫ پنځم‬/pinzə́m/ ‘fifth’ ‫ ـجن‬/‑ján/ ‫ زهر‬/zahr/ ‘poison’ → ‫ زهرجن‬/zahrján/ ‘poisonous’ ‫ غم‬/ɣam/ ‘sorrow’ → ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ ‫ ـدار‬/‑dā́r/ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘water’ → ‫ آبدار‬/ābdā́r/ ‘watery’ ‫ سرمایه‬/sarmāyá/ ‘capital’ → ‫ سرمایه دار‬/sarmāyadā́r/ ‘wealthy’ ‫ ـور‬/‑(a)war/ ‫ زور‬/zor/ ‘strength.126.Derivation of adjectives  • • 151 ‫ قدر‬/qádar/ ‘quantity. mercy’ → ‫ همتناک‬/himmatnā́k/ ‘magnanimous. sharp-tongued’ ‫ ـناک‬/‑nāk/ ‫ خطر‬/xatár/ ‘[Arabic] danger. • ‫ پشم‬/pašm/ ‘wool’ → ‫ پشمين‬/pašmín/ ‘woolen’ ‫ زر‬/zar/ ‘precious metal. See Section 6. force’ → ‫ زورور‬/zorawár/ ‘strong’ ‫ خوند‬/xwand/ ‘taste’ → ‫ خوندور‬/xwandawár/ ‘tasty’ ‫ خوله‬/xwulá/ ‘mouth. gilded’ ‫ ـم‬/‑ám/ ‫ ـم‬/‑ə́m/ E W This suffix forms ordinal number names from cardinals.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . education’ → ‫ پوهنیز‬/pohə́niz/ ‘academic’ ‫ ـین‬/‑in/ This suffix applies most often to nouns denoting a material. gold’ → ‫ زرين‬/zarín/ ‘golden.165.5. noble’ • ‫ ـوال‬/‑wāl/ ‫ وسله‬/waslá/ ‘weapon’ → ‫ وسله وال‬/waslawā́l/ ‘armed’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. merit’ → ‫ قدرمن‬/qadarmán/ ‘esteemed’ ‫ ـیز‬/‑iz/ ‫ سوله‬/sóla/ ‘peace’ → ‫ سوله ييز‬/sólayiz/ ‘peaceful’ ‫ پوهنه‬/pohə́na/ ‘knowledge. lips’ → ‫ خوله ور‬/xwulawár/ ‘eloquent. risk’ → ‫ خطرناک‬/xatarnā́k/ ‘dangerous’ ‫ همت‬/himmat/ ‘[Arabic] magnanimity.2 for more detail.

8.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .8. as in the first example below—or names of countries. /be‑/ is generally. emergency [ADJ]’ ‫ کال‬/kāl/ ‘year’→ ‫ کالنی‬/kālanáy/ ‘annual’ ‫ ـی‬/‑áy/ This suffix is usually affixed to place names to describe a denizen of that place.4. dishonored’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. these derived adjectives can further form Class IIIa nouns (see Section 5. ‫ جاپان‬/jāpān/ ‘Japan’ → ‫ جاپانی‬/jāpānáy/ ‘Japanese’ 6. • ‫ بېـ‬/be‑/ ‘without. With the addition of the /‑i/ suffix.165.8.126.152  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. written as a separate word.1).2 Negators The first of these negators are prefixes. the resultant form is an adjective often translatable into a phrase governed by without or into an English adjective with the suffix -less.1. Adjectives formed in this way can fall in either Class I or Class IV.3 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes • /‑í/ ‫ـي‬ This suffix is added to nouns—often loanwords. • ‫ دایم‬/dāím/ ‘permanence [Arabic]’ → ‫ دایمي‬/dāimí/ ‘permanent’ ‫ نېشه‬/nešá/ ‘intoxication’ → ‫ نېسه یي‬/nešayí/ ‘addictive’ ‫ امریکا‬/amrikā/ ‘America’→ ‫ امريکاي‬/amrikāí/ ‘American’ ‫ ـوالا‬/‑wālā/ ‫ پانګه‬/pānga/ ‘wealth’ → ‫ پانګوالا‬/pāngwālā/ ‘wealthy’ 6.2 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes • /‑(a)náy/ ‫ـنی‬ This suffix is usually affixed to words having to do with time or location. -less’ This prefix. urgency’ → ‫ بیړبی‬/biṛnáy/ ‘urgent. ‫بېـ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘honor’ → ‫ بې آب‬/beā́b/ ‘shameless. however.3. reflecting its origins as an adposition (see Section 9. the two morphemes function as a single word. but not always. from Persian. • ‫ بیړه‬/bíṛa/ ‘haste.3 for a description and some examples of this usage). is affixed to nouns.1.

165. and they may be written separately.’ 6.PRS.8. ‫ روا‬/rawā/ ‘permitted.DIR di be. The order of the elements in the compound can be either noun—adjective or adjective—noun. adjectives thus derived remain in the same declension class.3. orphaned’ (Cf. the resulting form usually inflects as a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6.F. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. un-’ This prefix attaches to adjectives and negates them. /plār/ ‘father’ + /məṛ/ ‘dead’ → /plārmə́ṛay/ ‘fatherless.) ‫پلار‬ ‫مړ‬ ‫بې پلاره‬ ‫ سپين‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫مخ‬ ‫پلارمړی‬ /məx/ ‘face’ → honest.126.F ‘These events are both contrary to Islam.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR both-PL.Derivation of adjectives  153 ‫ اولاد‬/awlā́d/ ‘[Arabic] child’ → ‫ بې اولاده‬/beawlā́da/ ‘childless’ ‫ کور‬/kor/ ‘house’ → ‫ بې کوره‬/bekóra/ ‘homeless’ ‫ شک‬/šak/ ‘doubt’ → ‫ بې شکه‬/bešaka/ ‘irrefutable’ • ‫ ناـ‬/nā‑/ ‘not. 6.2.DIR Islamic against phenomenon-PL.4. improper’ ‫ دوستانه‬/dostāná/ ‘friendly’ → ‫ نادوستانه‬/nādostāná/ ‘unfriendly’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against. /beplā́ra/ ‘fatherless’.4 Reduplication of adjectives Full reduplication of adjectives in Pashto may quantify over events rather than (or in addition to.2). see Babrakzai 1999: 48) intensifying the quality denoted. which uses the negative prefix /be‑/.4) can govern an adpositional phrase that can be used attributively or predicatively to modify nouns: (6. anti-’ (see Section 9.3PL.38) .3 Compound adjectives Adjective and noun pairs can combine into a single compound adjective.8.‫دا دواړه اسلامي ضدی پديدي دي‬ dā dwār-a islāmi zidi padid-e this. innocent’ ‫سپين مخی‬ ‫بېـ‬ /spinmə́xay/ ‘white-faced. acceptable’ → ‫ ناروا‬/nārawā́/ ‘not allowed.1.CONT.

but they do agree in gender and number with the subject of the intransitive construction in which they appear.41) .’ (NW) 6.WK come.DIR sweet-PL.PST-PST.DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST. Pashto also uses (6.DIR 1SG.’ (W) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M.3PL.M.M.‫ما ډېر خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.STR.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .ANIM.M. usually with a form of the verb to be.PRS.ANIM.9 Usage 6.DIR near be.126.’ (6. (6.3SG.42) .OBL sweet-PL.M ‘The university is nearby.154  (6.M. so they always appear in the direct case form.M ‘My older brothers arrived.DIR brothers.‫ما خواږه خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā xwāg-ə xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.1 Attributive and predicative adjectives Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively.OBL much-PL.DIR sweet-PL.STR.‫پوهنتون نژدې دئ‬ pohantun-Ø nəžde dəy university-M.‫مشران وروڼه مې راغلل‬ məšr-ān wruṇa me rā́ɣl-əl older-PL.M.3PL.39) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers .40) ‫ ډېر‬/ḍer/ ‘much’.M.M ‘I had very good friends. .DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST.CONT.DIR friend-PL.DIR friend-PL.3PL.’ (NW) To intensify an adjective.AOR.M.9. Predicative adjectives are always used in intransitive constructions.M ‘I had many good friends.

).PRS.F ‘This big [one] pulled the cart.9.‫هغه غټې کراچي کشه کړه‬ háɣa ɣaṭ-e karāč-i kašá kṛ-a this.3SG.CONT.’ (6.44) .47) .dir.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.126.PST-PST-PST.‫کوم غواوي دې واخیستلې؟ غټه مې واخیستله‬ ‫ـانې‬ kum ɣwā-we de w-ā́xist-əl-e ɣaṭ-a which cow-PL.’ (6.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart. or.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL big-F.3SG.3SG.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .‫غویی غټ دی‬ ɣway-ay ɣaṭ-Ø day bull-M.PRS.WK AOR-buy.DIR big-F.DIR me w-ā́xist-əl-a 1SG.F ‘Which cows did you buy? I bought a big [one].’ 6.OBL cart-F.F. When this occurs the adjective may be declined normally.‫غوا غټه ده‬ ɣwā-Ø ɣaṭ-a da cow-F.43) 155 .PST-PST-PST.M ‘The bull is big.46) .). For example. when they denote animates: (6.DIR 2.DIR pulled do.165. reflecting a gradual nominalization of such an adjective by speakers.CONT./voc.3SG.AOR-PST.OBL bull-M. as if there were a noun present. Class I adjectives used nominally may take the animate plural suffixes /‑ān/ (masc.3PL. ‫ـان‬ ‫ ـانو‬/‑āno/ (obl.45) .Usage  (6.F big-F.DIR be.2 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives Pashto adjectives may be used as if they were nouns.WK AOR-buy.’ (6.OBL cart-F. /‑āne/ (fem.DIR pulled do.DIR big-M.DIR be.F ‘The cow is big. it may be declined as if it were a noun.3SG.AOR-PST. in which event it will take the suffixes of the noun class most closely resembling the adjective class to which it originally belonged.dir./abl.).

.3. These are /behtar/ ‘better’ and /batar/ ‘worse’.PST-PST.from more-M. that..2.126.3 !‫ړوند سړیه‬ Comparatives and superlatives Adjectives in Pashto do not have derived comparative or superlative forms.M ‘The guest more tired than him arrived... /də .AOR.’ 6.. ‫له‬ ‫ټول‬ .DIR guest-M. na/.4 Adjectives as adverbs Sometimes adjectives are used verbal or sentential modifiers. When used adverbially.M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ..9. and the nouns take the vocative form: /ṛund saṛáya/ ‘blind man!’ !‫ړونده‬ 6.’ (6.3SG. vocative adjectives are uninflected. See Section 10.1 for more discussion of comparative and superlative adpositional phrases.48) ‫تر‬ ‫ نه‬.. ‫بهتر‬ ‫بتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.. /də . ‫ نه‬.9.DIR tired-M.49) .DIR rā́ɣl-o come.5 and Section 9. than’.5.‫له هغه نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə haɣə́ na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from.156  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Adjectives in the vocative case form can be used on their own. as noted above: /ṛúnda/ ‘blind [one]!’ When used in a noun phrase. The superlative uses the phrase from/of all.PST-PST....DIR guest-M.. all-PL.from more-M.3SG. 7 There are two special comparative adjectives in Pashto.M ‘The most tired guest of all arrived.. they still show concord with the absolutive argument.165. ‫ده‬ ‫ټولو‬ (6. ʦexa/. however. both of which are Persian borrowings...OBL .7 for more discussion and some examples. ‫ده‬ ‫ څخه‬..DIR rā́ɣl-o come. formed by using one of the comparative phrases and adding /ṭolo/ ‘all’ or /ṭol/ ‘whole’. from..AOR..DIR tired-M. Both are used with the ordinary predicative form of the adjective. without nouns.‫له ټولو نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə ṭol-o na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from.2. na/. or /tər/ ‘up to.⁷ Comparison is accomplished with the use of adpositional phrases such as /lə ... See Section 9.OBL .

(See Section 7. pronominal direct objects take the oblique.3 for more details. /haɣá/ does not inflect in either gender in the singular direct.). the plural second person forms are also used for formal second-person address. while weak pronouns may only occur in functions where they do not agree with the verb. and Heston (1992). gender.5.2 Strong personal pronouns 7. can be used with distal third person reference. the forms below can be assumed to be common to both Waziri and Dzadrani. the strong personal pronouns appear in the oblique case in the direct object of present tense sentences. which we term strong and weak. The cases are used slightly differently in pronouns than in nouns and adjectives: unlike nouns. Pashto pronouns generally inflect for person. and these singular forms are also the same in the masculine singular oblique.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. following Tegey & Robson (1996: 65ff.1 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects Called simply personal pronouns by Penzl (1955). not the direct case form.1 Overview In all varieties. An additional pronoun.Anne Boyle David 7 Pronouns 7. Tables of Middle dialect forms.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . but unlike them it has final stress. and case.165. but differ somewhat in form. In the singular first and second persons. with the function of third person personal pronouns being filled by a subset of the demonstratives. only the direct and oblique cases are distinguished. It is related to the medial demonstratives described in Section 7. Shafeev (1964). where they are known.) 7. unlike nouns. The pronouns of the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of General Pashto. and plural oblique each have their own forms. number. Strong pronouns are not restricted in their occurrence. strong personal pronouns¹ distinguish between direct and oblique case in the singular. Unless otherwise indicated in the table title or next to the form itself. Only the third person singular forms distinguish gender. but not in the plural. As in many languages. plural direct. follow the corresponding GP tables. which appear in the direct case in this position. Feminine singular oblique.126. Pashto has two sets of personal pronouns. ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ 1 Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) analyze personal pronouns as only occurring in the first and second persons. /haɣá/.

3: GP strong pronouns.158  Pronouns 1st 2nd Singular Plural ‫مونږ‬ ‫زه‬ Direct tā́se E ‫تاسي‬ tā́si W mug E muẓ W ‫تاسو‬ ‫تا‬ ‫مونږه‬ mā ‫تاسې‬ tə ‫موږ‬ ‫ما‬ Plural ‫ته‬ mung E munẓ W zə Oblique Singular tā́su tā́so tā mungə E munẓə W   Table 7. 1st and 2nd person 1st Singular Direct zə Oblique mo 2nd Plural Singular miž miž(a) DZA tə tós(e) E to   Table 7. 3rd person Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 1st and 2nd person Singular Masculine Direct ‫دا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫دې‬ day Oblique də Plural Feminine ‫دی‬ dā Plural ‫دوی‬ duy ‫دیو‬ dío de   Table 7.2: Middle dialect strong pronouns.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .165.126.1: GP strong pronouns.

165.Strong personal pronouns  Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Direct day do Oblique də di de dəy derde WAZ doy DZA   Table 7.4: Middle dialect strong pronouns.5: Distal 3rd person pronoun ‫ هغه‬/haɣá/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 159 .126. 3rd person Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣə́ haɣá həɣə́ aɣá aɣə́ Plural ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغې‬ haɣé aɣé ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغو‬ haɣó aɣó   Table 7.

or wishes to conceal it. that-M.DIR 1SG.165.. emphatic. In contrast. Forms with /daɣá/ may also serve as discourse-anaphoric elements.M ‘I was saying. consider 7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . for example. It appears to connote something about information status.‫دغه مي ویل‬ daɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l this. inflects just like /haɣá/.OBL place-M.41.OBL ‘after that’ (7.160  Pronouns ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Another pronoun. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR 1SG.40 and 7. the speaker is communicating specifically about what he was going to say: (7. Forms with final stress can be said to be anaphoric.WK CONT-tell.1. /daɣá/.’ As mentioned..2: ‫دغه‬ (7. Examples 7.M ‘That is what I was going to say. In contrast.2) .1 and 7.’ In 7. For forms that are segmentally identical we have said that the strong pronouns are stressed on the last syllable.WK CONT-tell.3) ‫پس له هغه‬ pas lə haɣ-ə́ after from that-M.126.2. or exophoric.to ‘to that place’ In contrast.OBL . forms with initial stress can be said to be anticipatory. while the demonstratives are stressed on the first syllable.3 and 7. demonstratives and strong pronouns have many overlapping forms.‫هغه مي ویل‬ haɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l that.. the speaker is not really focusing on what he was going to say.PST-PST.4 illustrate final-stressed anaphoric pronouns: (7... which show initial-stress indexical usage: they introduce something new. as in 7.1) .PL...4) ‫و هغه ځای ته‬ wə haɣ-ə́ ʣāy-Ø tə to. perhaps the speaker cannot remember the name of the person or thing intended.PST-PST. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) provide an additional perspective on this stress alternation.PL.. in 7.

1SG ‘I'm American.2.6) .DIR hungry-M. and may therefore be omitted when they agree with the verb. or for emphasis.M and dā təẓ-əy də 3SG.CONT.STR.1.5) .DIR be. the Pashto verb agrees with the subject in the present tense. either 7.Strong personal pronouns  161 7.‫زه له څوکی جګېدم‬ zə lə ʦawk-əy jəg-éd-əm 1SG.6. strong pronouns can carry redundant information.3.1SG but day wəẓ-ay dəy aw 3SG. is correct. context will usually determine whether or not to omit the pronoun.STR. and with the direct object or intransitive subject in past tense sentences. and for direct objects in past tense sentences: (7.STR.F.5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .DIR from chair-F.7) .‫زه امريکاي یم‬ zə amrikāyi yəm 1SG American be.’ (SW) In accordance with split ergativity.CONT.F ‘I'm not hungry.PRS.’ (7. without one.5 and Chapter 8.CONT.PRS.‫امريکاي یم‬ amrikāyi yəm American be.’ (7. see Section 5.DIR hungry-M.PRS.CONT.126.165. For example. or 7.PRS.7: (7.DIR be. as in 7.PST-1SG ‘I was getting up from the chair. Strong pronouns distinguish direct and oblique case forms.CONT. with an explicit pronoun.STR. As with nouns. Since Pashto verbs show person agreement.M.DIR thirsty-F.1SG ‘I'm American.DIR NEG be.OBL tall-become.2 Usage Pashto is known as a pro-drop language. but he is hungry and she is thirsty. direct case forms are used for subjects in present tense sentences.CONT.3SG. as shown in 7.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3SG. Including the pronoun might be done when starting a conversation or otherwise introducing new information.8) .‫زه وږی نه یم خو دی وږی دئ او دا تږی ده‬ zə wəẓ-ay ná yəm xu 1SG.5.PRS.

’ But the subject argument cannot.OBL 1SG.11) .‫* زه ولیدم‬ zə wə́-lid-əm 1SG.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.STR.‫تا ولیدم‬ tā wə́-lid-əm 2SG. the subject takes the oblique case form and the direct object takes the direct case form: (7.162  Pronouns In past tense transitive sentences.11: (7.STR.OBL CONT-distress-2SG ‘You disturb me.STR.OBL CONT-see.’ (SW) The third person strong personal pronouns take the direct case form when serving as accusative arguments in present tense sentences.STR. which is the trigger of agreement.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.’ (SW) (7.10) . where direct objects take direct case suffixes: (7.126.9) . This reflects the normal behavior of the direct case in Pashto: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.10: (7.’ The oblique case form of the first and second persons in the singular is also used for the direct object in present tense sentences.12) .‫تا وینم‬ tā Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.DIR AOR-see.OBL AOR-see. can be omitted from sentence 7.STR.‫ما ځوروې‬ mā Ø-ʣəwraw-é 1SG.STR.DIR AOR-see. as shown by the ungrammatical example 7.13) . Note that this use of the oblique case for a direct object is particular to these strong personal pronouns and does not occur in nouns or adjectives.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .’ Note that the direct object pronoun.‫تا زه ولیدم‬ tā zə wə́-lid-əm 2SG.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.165.

17) . (7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .1.DIR be.POSS house-M.POSS book-M.3SG. In most dialects. Since there is no third person form.Strong personal pronouns  (7.2. although either a weak or a strong pronoun is possible. See Section 9.DIR where be.STR.CONT.CONT.M.165.’ (SW) (7.3SG.3 Strong possessive pronouns There is a paradigm of strong personal pronouns that serve genitive functions.PRS.PRS. including as the object of what otherwise would be a circumposition containing /də/ (see 8.3SG.14) 163 .‫ته دی وینې‬ tə day Ø-win-é 2SG. These forms exist only for the first and second person and appear to derive historically from the preposition /də/ followed by the oblique forms of the pronouns (Babrakzai.28.POSS car-M.CONT.22 for an example). strong possessive pronouns do not distinguish gender. 1999: 30). these forms may appear unreduced with a /di/ or /də/. the strong form can be used for emphasis while the weak form cannot. ‫د‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M ‘Where is your home?’ (SW) Compare 7.M ‘This is my book.DIR be.M ‘My car is standing outside. the /də/ is lenited to a fricative and assimilated in the first and second persons.STR.STR.DIR outside standing-M.126.16) ‫ستا کور چېرته دئ؟‬ stā kor-Ø čerta dəy 2SG.DIR 1SG. as in 7. in some dialects) is to use the construction /də/ + Strong Pronoun. according to Tegey & Robson 1996: 70.3.‫زما موټر بیرون ولاړ دئ‬ zmā moṭər-Ø birun wəlāṛ-Ø dəy 1SG. In the Eastern dialects (or. These forms may appear in any position that would admit the corresponding phrase with /də/.’ (SW) An alternative way of expressing possession with strong pronouns (and the only way.1 for more discussion. so that /s/ appears before /t/ and /z/ appears before /m/.STR.STR.PRS.15) ‫د‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ .17 with the weak pronoun in 7.’ 7.DIR CONT-see. all dialects but their Central or Kabul group).18.DIR 3SG.PRS-2SG ‘You see him. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ (7.‫دا زما کتاب دئ‬ dā zmā kitāb-Ø dəy this.

164

Pronouns

1st

Singular

Plural

‫زما‬

‫زمونږ‬

zmā

zmung E
zmunẓ W

‫زموږ‬

zmug E
zmuẓ W

‫زمونږ‬

zmungə E

‫ستا‬

2nd

stā

‫ستاسې‬
stāse E

‫ستاسي‬

stāsi W

‫ستاسو‬

stāsu E
stāso W

 
Table 7.6: Possessive pronouns

(7.18)

‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬
də de
num-Ø
ʦə
dəy
of 3SG.F.STR.OBL name-M.OBL what be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘What is her name?’ (SW)

7.3 Weak personal pronouns
7.3.1 Forms
The weak personal pronouns are also called uninflected pronominal particles (Penzl,
1955: 87) and enclitic pronominal particles (Heston, 1992: 1574). They are unstressed
pronouns that do not inflect for case and cannot govern agreement with the verb, a
constraint that restricts where they may occur (see Section 7.3.2 for more discussion
and examples). Note that the third person uses the same form for singular and plural,
and the first and second person plural each use a single form.

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Weak personal pronouns 

1st

Singular

Plural

‫مې‬

‫مو‬

‫مي‬

‫مو‬

me E

mo E
mu W

mi W

‫ام‬

am W

2nd

‫دې‬

de E

‫دي‬

di W

3rd

‫یې‬

ye

 
Table 7.7: GP weak pronouns

Singular

Plural

1st

me DZA
be DZA
mi WAZ

(ə)m DZA

2nd

de DZA
di WAZ

3rd

(y)e

 
Table 7.8: Middle dialect weak pronouns

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165

166

 Pronouns

7.3.2 Usage
Weak pronouns may not appear in positions in which they would agree with the verb.
From this fact it follows that (1) they never occur with intransitive verbs, and (2) with
transitive verbs, they only occur in an accusative role in the present tense and an ergative role in the past. Thus they do not occur in either the nominative or absolutive slot.
Table 7.9 summarizes the positions in which weak personal pronouns may occur or
not; this pattern parallels the case-marking pattern exhibited by strong pronouns, as
outlined by Table 11.6. Sentences in Section 7.3.2.1 (some of which come from Tegey &
Robson 1996) illustrate these restrictions.²

Non-past tenses

Transitive Subject

DOES NOT OCCUR

Intransitive Subject
Direct Object

Past tenses

MAY OCCUR

DOES NOT OCCUR
MAY OCCUR

 
Table 7.9: Distribution pattern for weak pronouns

With the above occurrence restrictions, weak pronouns are used for subjects, direct objects, and (without further marking) possessive determiners, but not as objects
of adpositions, and they do not inflect for case. In contrast with nouns, which will be
in the direct case when the object of a present tense sentence and in the oblique case
when the subject of a past tense transitive sentence, the weak pronouns will have the
same form in these two positions.
Weak pronouns are second-position clitics - see Section 11.2.3.2 and Section 11.3.5.1
for discussion. Section 11.3.5.1 also gives examples of various positions of weak pronouns in a clause.

7.3.2.1 Occurrence restrictions
The example in 7.19 shows that a weak personal pronoun may express an accusative
argument in the present tense, but the unacceptable sentences in 7.20 and 7.21 shows
that it may not be in the nominative slot.

2 Roberts (2001a: 127–153) offers a different analysis.

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Weak personal pronouns 

(7.19)

167

‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬
wali me
mač-aw-í
why 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW)

(7.20)

.‫* مچولم یې‬
ye
mač-aw-í
mi
3.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M] 1SG.WK
‘He is kissing me.’

(7.21)

.‫* نن یې ګډیږي‬
nən
ye
Ø-gəḍ-íg-i
today 3.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Today he is dancing.’ (NW)

The sentence in 7.22 shows the acceptability of a weak pronoun as a subject in the
past tense:
(7.22)

.‫مچولم یې‬
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘He was kissing me.’

On the other hand, the unacceptable sentences in 7.23 and 7.24 show that a weak
personal pronoun may not express an intransitive subject or a direct object:
(7.23)

.‫* پرون مي مچولم یې‬
parun
mi
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
yesterday 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘Yesterday he was kissing me.’ (SW)

(7.24)

.‫* پرون یې ګډېده‬
parun
ye
Ø-gəḍ-éd-ə
yesterday 3.WK CONT-dance-PST-PST.3SG.M
‘Yesterday he was dancing.’ (SW)

Published sources (Tegey & Robson, 1996: 156) and our research indicate that
weak pronouns cannot be the objects of adpositions. Example 7.25 shows a phrase
where the weak pronoun is simply omitted. Example 7.26, which is unacceptable, and

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168

 Pronouns

7.27, which is acceptable, show that the weak pronoun cannot appear as the object of
an adposition.
(7.25)

.‫تر پوري ولاړم‬
tər
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (SW)

(7.26)

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬
pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

(7.27)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬
pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR.OBL CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

7.3.2.2 Possessive constructions
Weak pronouns are also used in possessive constructions (except in conditions of coreference; see Section 7.9), so long as the weak pronouns do not occur in sentence-initial
position:
(7.28)

.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬

mi
kitāb-Ø
dəy
this.DIR 1SG.WK book-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘That is my book.’ (SW)

(7.29)

.‫زوی مي ګډېږي‬
zuy-Ø
mi
Ø-gəḍ-éẓ-i
son-M.DIR 1SG.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘My son is dancing.’ (SW)

In possessive constructions with weak pronouns, the pronouns are sometimes
written attached to the word they follow, and the /y/ in
/ye/ may be elided in pro-

‫یې‬

nunciation (Tegey & Robson, 1996):

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Deictoids:

(7.30)

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

169

‫کتابې‬
kitāb-Ø
e
book-M.DIR 3.WK

‘his book’³
This pronunciation is in fact standard in the spoken dialects of the Northeast, and
before recent reforms in orthography, the pronoun was regularly spelled with a hamza
instead of a ye; in fact, it still is by some speakers. Furthermore, many speakers when
asked for the pronoun in isolation will offer a spelling pronunciation based on the
hamza, pronouncing it with a glottal stop: [ʔe].
Possessive constructions are also formed with strong personal pronouns, as discussed in Section 7.2.3.

7.4 Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Pashto has three sets of deictic morphemes that closely resemble each other formally
and semantically, to the extent that most authors classify these forms under one rubric.
They are variously called pronominal prefixes (Penzl, 1955: 87–88), directive pronouns
(Shafeev 1964: 33 and Babrakzai 1999: 33), directional particles (Lorenz 1982: 66 —
Richtungspartikels—and Skjærvø 1989: 393), independent pronominal particles (Heston,
1992: 1574) and verbal clitics (Roberts, 2000: 105ff). In addition to being homophones
or near-homophones, these sets of forms share two other qualities: first, they encode
either personal or directional deixis; and second, they are bound to some extent, either as clitics or as prefixes. Some authors specifically refer to at least some of them as
“proclitics” (Roberts 2000: 106; Pate 2012: 17, 19); however, more research is required
before definitive statements of their morphological status can be made.
In recognition of the fact that these morphemes are so frequently and so easily
conflated (and also of their probable diachronic relationship), we refer to them with
the umbrella term deictoids, which we use to signify that these forms can be either
person-deictic or spatial-deictic. Then adapting two different, binary distinctions from
Tegey (1977) and Pate (2012) respectively, we divide them into three types, which we
describe in the following sections.
Both Tegey (1977: 105ff.) and Penzl (1955: 87) report two forms for the second and
third person:
/dər, dar/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər, war/ ‘him/her/it/them’. Tegey
specifies that the forms in ə are what he calls deictic preverbs (corresponding to, we
believe, both our oblique pronominal clitics and our directional verbal clitics). Those
in a are what he (and we) call the deictic prefixes. Because the ə/a distinction only
holds for stressed vowels (and two of the three types of deictoids never bear stress),

‫در‬

3 Standardized version of 7.30:

‫ور‬

‫کتاب ې‬

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170

 Pronouns

and because most descriptions do not mention these different forms for the deictoids,
we cannot be sure how real or how general this vowel variation is.

7.4.1 Oblique pronominal clitics

‫را‬

‫در‬

‫ور‬

As oblique pronominal clitics, the forms /rā/ ‘me/us’,
/dər/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər/ ‘him/her/it/them’ occur as objects of postpositions in place of strong pronouns
or noun phrases. They distinguish person, but not number or gender (and thus are
glossed only by a person numeral—1, 2, or 3). In this role, Tegey (1977) considers them
to be a type of weak personal pronoun and sometimes refers to them as weak oblique
pronouns or (see also Pate 2012) oblique clitic pronouns. They cannot take stress, and
they occur only with postpositions—not with prepositions or circumpositions:
(7.31)

.‫اسد پېښور ته را سره ځي‬
asad-Ø
peṣawar-Ø
tə rā səra
ʣ-í
Asad-M.DIR Peshawar-M.OBL to 1 COMIT go.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Asad is going to Peshawar with me.’ (SW)

(7.32)

.‫کتاب مي در نه واخیست‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
dər na
w-ā́xist-Ø
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 2
from AOR-take.PST-PST.3SG.M
‘I took the book from you.’ (SW)

(7.33)

.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
wər bāndi iṣ-áy
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 3
on
CONT\put.PST-PTCP.M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘I put the book on it.’ (SW)

These sorts of adpositional phrases almost always directly cliticize to the verb. If
the postposition is monosyllabic, the adpositional phrase bears no stress, but if it is
disyllabic and the phrase is in construction with unstressed forms of the copula, the
second syllable of the postposition will be stressed:
(7.34)

.‫را سره ده‬
rā sará da
1 with be.CONT.PRS.3SG.F
‘It's with me [lit. I have it].’

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Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Person

Form

1st

‫را‬

171

2nd

‫در‬

dər

3rd

‫ور‬

wər
wur E

 
Table 7.10: Oblique pronominal clitics

7.4.2 Directional verbal clitics
Directional verbal clitics can occur with a variety of verbs, although usually ones that
indicate movement (see Section 8.2.4.3) or transport/transfer of an object, often with
a locative goal of here (near me), there (near you), or there (yonder; near him, her, or
them). They never receive stress: if the verb they are in construction with expresses the
aorist aspect, the aorist is encoded with the /wə́‑/ prefix. This is the chief difference
between directional verbal clitics and deictic prefixes.

‫وـ‬

(7.35)

.‫زه یې راغواړم‬

ye

Ø-ɣwāṛ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3.WK 1DVC CONT-want.PRS-1SG
‘I send for him.’

(7.36)

.‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬
kə rā́š-e
za

album-Ø
dər-ṣkārá
if come.AOR.PRS-2SG 1SG.STR.DIR WOULD album-M.DIR 2DVC-clear
kṛ-əm
do.AOR-1SG
‘If you come I will show you the album.’ (SW)

The following sentence, from Tegey (1977: 46), illustrates the functional difference
between oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics. In it,
/wər/ is in

‫ور‬

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172

 Pronouns

‫را‬
‫را‬
.‫خوشل یو توپک ور ته راولېګه‬

‫ور‬

the role of the former, and /rā/ the latter. Note that /wər/ unambiguously denotes
a person, and /rā/ denotes a location that is indexed deictically to a person.
(7.37)

xušal-Ø
yaw topak
wər ta rā-wə́-leg-ə
Khoshal-M.DIR one gun-M.DIR 3
to 1DVC-AOR-send.PST-PST.3SG
‘Khoshal sent him a gun where I am [lit. here/to me].’

7.4.3 Deictic prefixes
Deictic prefixes also occur with verbs, but only the four verbs or verb stems in the list
below. Furthermore, they behave like bound morphemes with respect to their verbs,
rather than like clitics: they take the stress that encodes aorist forms, and only clitics
and negative particles may intervene between them and the verb stem.

‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’
‫ تلل‬/tləl/ ‘to go’;
for example, ‫ درـتلل‬/dar-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make; to do’;
for example, ‫ ورکول‬/war-kawə́l/ ‘to give to him’
‫ ـوست‬/-wast/;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wastə́l/ ‘to transport here/to me’
These forms usually express a deictic goal. See Section 8.2.4.3 for more about them.

7.5 Demonstratives
As described in Section 6.3.1, there is significant formal overlap between demonstrative
pronouns and demonstrative determiners in Pashto, with the only difference being
in stress placement: demonstrative pronouns have final stress. They are covered in
this section; Section 6.3.1 contains examples of demonstrative determiners. To express
the proximal demonstrative, there are two forms, one based on /dā/, and the other
based on
/daɣá/. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number, but does differ by
case, as illustrated in Table 7.11, reproduced from Table 6.27 in Section 6.3.1.
The following examples show the use of these forms as a demonstrative pronoun
in the direct and oblique cases, respectively:

‫دغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

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Demonstratives 

173

‫دا‬

Direct

‫دې‬

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.11: GP proximal demonstrative

‫ دا‬/dā/

Direct

(d)ā

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.12: Middle dialect proximal demonstrative

(7.38)

‫ دا‬/dā/

.‫دا ښه دئ‬

ṣə
dəy
this.DIR nice be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘This is nice.’

(7.39)

‫پس له دې‬
pas lə
de
after from this.OBL

‘after this’
The other proximal demonstrative,
/daɣá/, does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case. In the oblique case, there is a difference
between the masculine and feminine forms in the singular, but not in the plural, as
shown in Table 7.13.
Note that the proximal demonstrative pronouns
/daɣá/ and the medial demonstrative
/haɣá/ in Table 7.16 have final stress. They contrast with similar forms with
initial stress that serve as demonstrative determiners as described in Section 6.3.1.
The medial and distal demonstratives illustrate the same patterning with respect
to gender, number, and case as
/daɣá/; this is shown in Table 7.16.

‫دغه‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫دغه‬

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139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .15: Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.14: Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ-a Oblique daɣ-e deɣ(-e) daɣ-ə Plural Feminine daɣ-e deɣ-e daɣ-e deɣ-e   Table 7.13: GP proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/daɣá/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ(-a) Oblique daɣ(-a) Plural Feminine daɣ-e daɣ-e   Table 7.174  Pronouns Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ daɣ-á daɣ-ə́ dəɣ-ə́ ‫دغې‬ daɣ-é E dəɣ-é E ‫دغي‬ ‫دغو‬ daɣ-ó dəɣ-ó doɣ-ó dəɣ-í W   Table 7.

17: Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Singular Masculine Direct aɣ-a aɣ-ə Oblique aɣ-ə Plural Feminine yeɣ-e yeɣ-e   Table 7.165.18: Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 175 .16: GP medial demonstrative ‫ هغه‬/haɣ-ə́/ Singular Masculine Direct (h)aɣ-a Oblique (y)aɣ-a haɣ Plural Feminine (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e   Table 7.Demonstratives  Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣ-ə́ haɣ-á aɣ-á aɣ-ə́ həɣ-ə́ ‫هغې‬ haɣ-é E aɣ-é E ‫هغي‬ ‫هغو‬ haɣ-ó aɣ-ó həɣ-ó həɣ-í W haɣ-í W   Table 7.

19: GP distal demonstrative ‫هغه‬ ‫هوغو‬ huɣ-ó uɣ-ó ‫هاغو‬ hāɣ-ó ‫ هوغه‬/huɣ-ə́/ 7.176  Pronouns The following (from Tegey & Robson 1996) are illustrations of the General Pashto demonstrative pronoun in its various word forms.OBL AOR-step-IMP. etc. an insect.165. etc. like a rock. Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /daɣá/ and /haɣá/. /huɣə́/ and /hāɣə́/.SG ‘Look at that! [referring to feminine thing.]’ (7. non-human attribute of the potential referent. ‫دغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct ‫هوغه‬ Oblique ‫هاغه‬ Plural huɣ-ə́ uɣ-á hoɣ-ə́ hāɣ-ə́ E hāɣ-á E ‫هوغې‬ huɣ-é uɣ-é hāɣ-é   ‫هاغه‬ Feminine ‫هاغې‬ Table 7.]’ ‫هوغه‬ The General Pashto distal demonstrative has two variants.SG ‘Step on that! [referring to masculine item.126.6 Interrogative pronouns The set of Pashto interrogative pronouns reflects the usual human vs. bridge. like a rug. Note that the gender of the understood yet absent noun affects the gender of the pronoun: (7.OBL AOR-step-IMP.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.41) !‫پر هغې وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-é wə́-xej-a on that-F.40) !‫پر هغه وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-ə́ wə́-xej-a on that-M.

Case Form Direct ‫څوک‬ ʦok Oblique ‫چا‬ čā   Table 7. but not for number or gender.165. (7.21: Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/ The direct case form is used for nominatives and accusatives of present tense sentences.DIR come. Questions in Pashto do not use a different word order than statements. This pronoun inflects for case.126.Interrogative pronouns  177 Table 7. for General Pashto and for the Middle dialects respectively.20: GP human interrogative pronoun ‫ څوک‬/ʦok/ Case Form Direct ʦok WAZ ʦik DZA ʦek MIR Oblique čā   Table 7.PST-PTCP.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .M.20 and Table 7.21 show the forms for the human interrogative and indefinite pronoun.DIR ‘Who came?’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.42) ‫څوک راغی؟‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who. and for direct objects in past tense sentences.AOR.

45) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M. the personal pronoun that agrees with the verb is generally dropped.PST-1SG ‘Who saw me?’ (SW) The possessive interrogative whose? is expressed by using the oblique form /čā/ ‘who’ with the preposition /də/ ‘of’ (example from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7. whether it be the subject (as in the present tense example at 7.CONT. appearing ‫څه‬ ‫څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.PRS-PRS.DIR of who.OBL AOR-see.3SG. As noted in Section 7.47) ‫چا ولیدم؟‬ čā wə́-lid-əm who.PRS.46) ‫چا ته وایې؟‬ čā tə Ø-wāy-é who.OBL book-M.3SG. or number.46) or the object (as in the past tense example at 7.3.M] ‘Who is coming?’ (NW) (7.DIR CONT-see.DIR come.DIR AOR-hit-PST.165.47): (7.44) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who. /ʦə/ can act pronominally.178  Pronouns (7.DIR be.M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ The oblique case form is used for objects of adpositions and subjects of transitive verbs.OBL to CONT-talk.PRS-2SG ‘Whom are you talking to?’ (SW) (7.M ‘Whose book is that?’ For nonhuman referents.OBL who. /ʦə/ ‘what’ is used.48) ‫د‬ ‫هغه د چا کتاب دی؟‬ ‫چا‬ aɣá də čā kitāb-Ø day that.43) ‫څوک راځی؟‬ ʦok rāz-í who.3[SG.CONT.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . It is invariant: it has the same form regardless of case. gender.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) (7.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .3SG.DIR ‘Someone came. indefinite pronouns are identical in form to interrogative pronouns (examples 7.M ‘What is her name?’ (SW) (7. (7.STR.50) ‫څه مې وکړه؟‬ ʦə mi wə́-kṛ-ə what 1SG.7 Indefinite pronouns In Pashto.PST-PTCP.‫کتاب چا ته ورکه‬ kitāb-Ø čā tə wárk-a book-M.6.M ‘What [things] have you heard?’ (SW) 7.49.52 and following from Tegey & Robson 1996).126.CONT.AOR-IMP.‫څوک راغی‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یو څوک‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who.DIR be.165.52) ‫یو څه‬ .PL. so a verb agreeing with it will often be in the plural: ‫څه‬ (7.OBL what CONT-hear-PST-PTCP.DIR who.PRS.M ‘What did I do?’ (SW) While /ʦə/ does not inflect for number.SG ‘Give the book to someone.OBL to give.Indefinite pronouns  179 alone as in 7.49) ‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬ də de num-Ø ʦə dəy of 3SG. (7.DIR what be.STR.M. In order to distinguish sentences with indefinites from questions.DIR come. In 7.WK AOR-do.OBL name-M. appearing with a noun as in 6.M.53) .AOR. or adjectivally. it tends to be interpreted as plural.50 the word order reflects the requirement that weak pronouns appear in second position.51) ‫تا څه اروېدلي دی؟‬ tā ʦə Ø-arw-ed-ə́l-i di 2SG.3SG.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.33 of Section 6. to yield /yaw ʦok/ ‘someone’ and /yaw ʦə/ ‘something’.CONT. /yaw/ ‘one’ may be added.F.AOR-PST.3PL.PRS.’ (7.

3PL.AOR-PTCP.OBL to of food-F.‫هر څه مې کړي دي‬ har-Ø ʦə me kə́ṛ-i every-PL.56) .OBL on time-M come.PST-PST.M ‘I have done everything. /ar/ ‘every’ precedes the indefinite pronouns.M.PST-PTCP.DIR di be.57 (after Tegey & Robson 1996).DIR xoṛ-ə́l-o pər waxt-Ø wə́rɣ-ay eat-INF-PL.M.PRS.M.58) .DIR of friend-M. as in 7.OBL every-M.DIR who. everything.DIR ‘Someone showed up at my friend's house during mealtime.WK NEG be.165.STR. the combination can mean everyone.56 and 7.OBL house-M.PRS.DIR ‘I haven't done anything.M.M do.M.180  Pronouns (7.3PL.DIR AOR-see.126.CONT.’ (SW) (7.M ‘Everyone came.’ (NW) The phrase /har ʦə/ can also express an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘whatever.DIR one-M.’ ‫هر‬ When /har/.PST-PST.‫یو څوک د ملګري کورته د ډوډۍ خوړلو پر وخت ورغی‬ yaw tsok də malgər-i kor-Ø ta də ḍoḍ-əy one who.54) .DIR what 1SG.‫څه مې نه دي کړي‬ ʦə me ná di kə́ṛ-i what 1SG. A similar meaning can also be conveyed by /har yaw/ ‘each one’.57) .55) .3SG.PL.DIR come.AOR. ‫هر یو‬ (7.AOR.WK do.M ‘I saw each one.’ (SW) (7.AOR-PTCP.CONT.M.3PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . anything and everything’: ‫هر څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.’ (7.‫ما هر یو ولیده‬ mā har-Ø yaw-Ø wə́-lid-ə 1SG.PL.‫هر څوک راغلل‬ har-Ø ʦok rā́ɣl-əl every-PL.

CONT-1SG NEG sam-ég-i correct-become.8 Relative pronouns ‫څوک‬ ‫څه‬ The interrogative/indefinite pronouns /ʦok/ and /ʦə/ can be employed with the complementizer /čə/ to form relative clauses (as in 11.M ‘No one was gone. The verb is also negated.4.PST-PST.DIR what AOR NEG see.3SG.PST-PST. ‫هیڅ‬ (7.3[PL.OBL none-M. 1979) /xpəl/ ‘own’ (masculine).M ‘I didn't see anything.59) 181 !‫هر څه یې سمومه نه سمېږي‬ har-Ø ʦə ye sam-aw-ǝ́ma ná every-M.9 Expressions of coreference Pashto uses two kinds of items for expressing coreference: the emphatic adjective (Tegey.60) .DIR NEG become.‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who.PRS-PRS.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .WK correct-do. ‫چه‬ 7.’ (NW) (7.‫ما هیڅ څه و نه لیده‬ mā heʦ-Ø sə wə́ ná lid-ə 1SG. nothing/anything) are formed using /heʦ/ ‘any’ with the indefinite pronoun.M ‘I didn't see anyone.78).M] ‘However much I [try and] straighten them out.61) .’ (NW) 7.3SG.62) .DIR what 3.3SG. and the reflexive pronoun /ʣān/ ‘self’ (oblique form /ʣāna/). /xpələ/ ‘own’ (feminine).‫هیڅوک مې و نه لیده‬ hets tsok-Ø me wə́ ná lid-ə none who.DIR 1SG. ‫خپل‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپله‬ ‫ځانه‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپل‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.’ (NW) (7. while /ʣān/ inflects for case only.1).Expressions of coreference  (7. they just don't straighten!’ The negative indefinites (analogous to no one/anyone.126.CONT. This is discussed at greater length in Section 11.1.WK AOR NEG see.1.AOR.165.2.STR. /xpəl/ inflects as a Class I adjective (Section 6.PST-PST.DIR gone-M.

M ‘Yesterday each person in the mosque brought his own prayer rug.‫احمد خپله کتابچه راووړه‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-ə kitābča-Ø rā́wṛ-a Ahmad-M.64) .‫پرون په جومات کي هر چا خپل خپل جای نمازونه راوړي وه‬ When reduplicated.M ‘Ahmad brought his [another's] book [here].67) parun pə jumāt-Ø ki har-Ø čā yesterday in. mosque-M. be expressed Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.66) .OBL own-M.DIR AOR\bring.PST-PST.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . these examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7.WK book-M.‫مریم خپل کتاب راووړ‬ maryam-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Maryam-F. As shown in the examples that follow.DIR AOR\bring. but need not.‫احمد خپل کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M.PST-PST.65) .M.OBL own-F.PL. and may appear in direct object and adpositional object positions.M ‘Ahmad brought his [own] book [here].in every-M..OBL who.DIR book-M.3SG.‫احمد یې کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø ye kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M.DIR AOR\bring. the gender of the emphatic possessive agrees with the object possessed. person information may.M.70) signals coreference with another nuclear term.3SG.3SG.126.PST-PST.M.PST.OBL .DIR own-PL.’ In keeping with the item’s grammatical category of adjective. the adjective (7.OBL own-M.63) .’ (7.DIR notebook-F.DIR AOR\bring...CONT.DIR prayer-PL.M.3.DIR rāwəṛ-i wə bring. in complementary distribution with the weak pronouns (see Section 7.’ (7.OBL xpəl-Ø xpəl-Ø jāy-Ø namāz-una own-PL.OBL 3.DIR place-M.DIR be..PST-PST.’ ‫ خپل‬/xpəl/ expresses distributed possession.M ‘Maryam brought her [own] book.182  Pronouns The emphatic adjectives function as possessives in conditions of coreference.165.CONT. .3SG.’ (SW) ‫ځان‬ The item /ʣān/ (/ʣon/ in Waziri: see 7.PST-PTCP. not with the possessor: (7.3PL.F ‘Ahmad brought his [own] notebook.DIR book-M.

Tegey (1979) suggests that the weak pronoun precedes the emphatic.3SG.PST-PST.’ The emphatic and reflexive may appear in combination: (7.AOR.‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M.SG.70) dzon-Ø ye badál-Ø k-ə self-M.SG self-M.STR.DIR do.OBL INSTR haste-F.68) .DIR self-M.165.M.M ‘He disguised himself.‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this.to Shiranai-M.OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .42).M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.DIR from sake-M. (7.WK changed-M.’ (7.DIR up.OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.DIR rupee-F.Expressions of coreference  183 in the form of a weak pronoun (see also examples 8.PST-PST.CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together.DIR self-M.WK NEG become.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself.’ (7.DIR also AOR-take.3SG.AOR.71) .ABL ‘for oneself’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.12 and 8.69) .PRS-IMP.‫هغه په بیړه ځان تر شیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.PRS-IMP.DIR 3.126. but all of the examples we have found show the order emphatic > weak pronoun.DIR AOR-take.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.72) ‫د خپل ځان دپاره‬ də xpəl-Ø ʣān-Ø də pār-a of own-M.DIR 1SG.’ (WAZ-L) (7.

the reciprocal can also be expressed by /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’.3.184  Pronouns 7.126. Depending on context.74) .1.11 Other pro-forms See Section 9.1.DIR one from other-M. Another way of expressing reciprocal relationships can be found in Section 10.10 Reciprocal pronouns ‫یو او بل‬ In Pashto.73) ‫یو له بله‬ ‫یو له بله‬ .DIR and Mahmoud-M.165. as the word /bələ/ ‘other’ in /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’ is in the ablative case.PRS-PRS.6 for a description of some other pro-forms in Pashto. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3[PL.ABL angry di be. These reciprocal expressions do not inflect for person or gender. the reciprocal relationship can be expressed by /yaw aw bəl/ ‘one and other’. Case inflection does occur.‫احمد او محمود یو بل ته سره ګوري‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw bəl-Ø tə səra Ahmad-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . 7.’ (SW) Pashto has at least one other strategy for conveying reciprocal reference—see Section 10.CONT.M] ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud see each other.DIR one other-M.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud are angry at each other.PRS. ‫یو بل‬ ‫بله‬ (7. or by the shorter /yaw bəl/ ‘one other’.2.OBL to COMIT Ø-gur-í CONT-look.DIR and Mahmoud-M.‫احمد او محمود یو له بله خفه دي‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw lə bəl-ə xafa Ahmad-M.3.3PL.2.’ (SW) (7.

In doing so.Anne Boyle David and Sarah Goodman 8 Verbs 8.8.1. but a modal one. ‫به‬ • aspect (continuous. Pashto verbal morphology is uncharacteristically complex compared to the verbs of other Iranian languages.2.2. descriptions of Pashto verbs vary widely both in the way they analyze and explain verbal forms and also in the data they present.2. however.1 for an explanation of our change in terminology. and participles for only some of them. third) • number (singular. For example.2.3.1 Properties of verbs As Grjunberg (1987: 111) observes. Some suffixes show variant forms. taking from each approach the aspects that we believe have the strongest empirical foundation.8. Section 8. and Section 8. plural) • gender (masculine.228. supplementing it with advice from Pashto language experts and data obtained from native speakers we have interviewed. second.2. We agree with Penzl (1955: 93) that the clitic /bə/ is not strictly a future clitic. to some degree. • mood (indicative.1 Overview 8. we have also reorganized. past) Pashto has no morphological future tense. the way Pashto verbs have been presented previously. Probably for this reason.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . as do the verb to be and the verbalizers.2. optative) • person (first. The differences are covered in Section 8.2.1. feminine): but only in: (1) third person past tense forms of all verbs and (2) third person singular (past and present) forms of the verb to be These features are encoded in verb forms by means of affixes or stress placement.1 for more discussion of what it conveys.8. See Section 10. among others. Verb constructions in Pashto encode the following categories morphologically: • tense (present. The morphology of verbs in the Middle dialects does not differ significantly from that of General Pashto verbs. imperative. not all verb constructions are marked for all properties. In this chapter we try to reconcile the data and information in those descriptions. Section 8. infinitives are not marked for any of the above features.5.2. aorist) What we call continuous and aorist are usually called imperfective and perfective in other descriptions of Pashto. See Section 8.1. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

2. a passive-like construction. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.e. see Section 8. number. There are also several functions or modalities encoded periphrastically.1. Which noun governs this agreement is determined in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity. see Section 8. which vary in shape according to two parameters: tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). morphological structure.6) 3. As will be described below.177. These include negation. and gender (which we abbreviate to PNG in this grammar) are features that mark agreement with noun phrases in the clause. what they call derivative verbs are a subset of what we call complex verbs.228.2 Classifying verbs Based on its morphological and syntactic behavior.7. because in our description.4 and Section 11.. according to 1. conjugation class.4.2. expression of future events.2.1.2.3. As is common in the South Asian linguistic area. stem class-class—weak or strong.5 and Section 11.e.2.5) 2.3.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .. and expressions of ability. 8. this group also includes verbs with separable prefixes.186  Verbs Person.2. called bases in this grammar. which is discussed in more detail in Section 5. Tegey & Robson (1996). (see Section 8. a Pashto verb can be classified in three ways. new verbs enter the language via light verb constructions of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb.4)¹ 1 The standard descriptions of Pashto verbs set out by Shafeev (1964). • present continuous (= present imperfective or present I/1 in some grammars) • present aorist (= present perfective or present II/2 in some grammars) • past continuous (= past imperfective or past I/1 in some grammars) • past aorist (= past perfective or past II/2 in some grammars) These four base types are described and exemplified below in Section 8.1). We use the broader term complex verb. see Section 8. Pashto verbs are a closed class. Pashto verbs are all built on one of four possible building blocks.6.. some of these light verb constructions have become partly lexicalized.e. with the use of particles or auxiliary verbs. how it forms the aorist (i.1. whether the stem is simplex or complex (i. and Pashtoon (2009) refer to derivative verbs. whether it has stem allomorphy (i.

the three ways of categorizing Pashto verbs. Parentheses around column heads indicate that morphemes in that column may or may not appear on a given verb construction.Verb components  187 Previous descriptions of Pashto do not clearly distinguish among the above verb groupings. chiefly in that he gives primacy to morphological structure of the stem rather than to conjugation class. no verb form can consist of only a stem. what type of complex verb it is—determines its syntactic behavior. 3 With complications introduced by morphologically complex verbs such as denominal verbs.2.1 and Table 8. 2. 2 Although they are not explicit about it.1 Structure of the verb Pashto verbs are largely agglutinative.2 Verb components This section describes the structure of Pashto verbs and all the building blocks for forming Pashto verb constructions. The difference between weak and strong verbs lies in whether they exhibit stem allomorphy (Section 8. the only component that is part of every construction is the stem. Tegey & Robson (1996) classify verbs into three groups.² Conjugation class and stem class membership both reflect morphological behavior. according to a combination of our (1) and (3)—aorist formation ( /wə́‑/ prefixation versus stress shift) plus one element of morphological structure (prefixed versus denominal verbs). but a thorough analysis of Pashto verbs requires that we take all three into account. The analysis of Grjunberg (1987: 111–193) is the most detailed: his carefully thought-out system incorporates all three of the above criteria.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . every verb also has to have at least one suffix from among suffixes 1. 8. paradigms of inflected verbs. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) arrive at their five-way classification of verbs using our (2) and (3)—allomorphy and morphological structure. and some aspects of verbal usage. or 3.2. which illustrate Pashto verb structure for weak and strong verbs respectively. These tables cover both inflectional and derivational morphology. 8. but also make reference to stem allomorphy and morphological structure where relevant. We follow Tegey & Robson (1996) (as well as grammatical tradition) in focusing primarily on conjugation class as a way of classifying verbs. The following sections of the grammar describe the parts of the various Pashto verbal constructions and how these constructions are formed. as well as one we do not take into account (the /‑ég-/ and /‑ed/ tense markers of intransitive first conjugation verbs) but differs from ours in a number of ways. and whether a verb is simplex or complex—and if complex.2.177.6). However.228. ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.³ as can be seen in Table 8.

SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.3 for possible stem shapes.1: Structure of weak (one stem) verbs ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal base ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l INFINITIVE: ‫‑ ـېدل‬ed-ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.+ Class IIIb adjectival suffixes (see Table 6.228.6. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers) ‑āy SW.6.) (Suffix 3) 188  Verbs .4.17) ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM   CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ ―— (See Table 8.2.) ‫ـوـ‬ (Suffix 1) Stem Table 8.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـېدـ‬ed(-ə́l-) ‫ـېږـ‬ PRESENT: ‑ég- Intransitive (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫ـونکـ‬ PRESENT PARTICIPLE: -unk.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- PRESENT: -Ø Transitive (often optional—see Section 8.2.

2.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal Base ‫ـوـ‬ CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ (Suffix 1) ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.177.228.2: Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs   ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers): ‑āy SW.6.4) (Suffix 3) Verb components  189 .3 for possible stem shapes) Table 8.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes adjectival suffixes (see Table 6.17) ‫‑ ـونک‬unk + Class IIIb PRESENT PARTICIPLE: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM Stem ―— (See Table 8. SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.

Note that Pashto verb stems cannot be vowel-final.3. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. The infinitive (Section 8.1 and Table 8.2 that the suffixes for past and infinitive are identical. Stem shape Examples Stem Infinitive C ‫ک‬k ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ CC ‫ تل‬tl ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ CVC ‫ تړ‬taṛ ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ VC ‫ اود‬ud ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . VCCVC ‫ الوت‬alwut ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ climb over’   Table 8.3) is the citation form of the verb.177.228. knit’ VCC ‫ ایست‬ist ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull (out)’ VCVC ‫ ایښود‬ixod ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to put’ CVCC ‫ غوښت‬ɣuṣt ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l to ‘want’ CCVC ‫ درومېد‬drum ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ CCVCC ‫ نغښت‬nɣəṣt ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ CVCVC ‫ رانیو‬rāniw ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy (up)’ CVCVCC ‫ پېژند‬pežand ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ VCVCC ‫ اوښت‬awuxt ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn.2.3: Stem shapes Note in Table 8.190  Verbs Verb stem shapes and examples are given in Table 8.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. 3.8 and Table 8. David 2011). Certain instances of this phenomenon are the reason for the claim that Pashto is one of the few languages that has endoclisis (Kaisse 1981. but can carry stress in the past tense. The third person present suffix /-o/.1 and Table 8. 2. the root /k-/ of the verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make. some Pashto verbs are separable into two parts: certain particles may occur between the prefixed components (of Column 1 in Table 8. They occur in both poetic and non-poetic contexts.2. Lorimer (1902: 18ff. where the suffix /‑əma/ occurs more often in poetry. The Waziri and Dzadrani first person singular suffixes /‑əm/ and /‑əma/ are in free variation.1 and Table 8. Notes on Table 8. “the melody of discourse” can play a role in which form is used. but it does not occur in any of our field data.6: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـمه‬ 1. PNG suffixes differ between the tenses only in the third person. This discrepancy could be due to the vowel /a/ having changed to /ə/ over the past hundred years or to Lorimer’s transcription methods. As in GP.’ It is frequent because /kawə́l/ forms part of so many third conjugation verbs. the stem and any suffixes (see Section 11.2 can be seen in Table 8.2). which predate phonological theory. only occurs on one verb. while heard frequently in both Waziri and Dzadrani.Verb components  191 Under some conditions. Kopris 2009. PNG suffixes can be attached to the bases described in Section 8. that is.) reports the Waziri second person plural suffix as /-ay/ (/-ai/ in his Romanization).228.4 through Table 8. number. but it is not uncommon in spoken General Pashto.2 Personal suffixes The suffixes in Table 8. Note also that despite the orthographic similarity of the past singular suffixes for masculine and feminine forms ( ). but Septfonds (1994: 81) speculates that even in non-poetic speech. 8. as described below. to do.4 through Table 8.3.6 give the personal suffixes for verbs in General Pashto. in contrast with GP dialects. Table 8. PNG suffixes are not inherently stressed.177. while present tense ones do not. as can be seen in Table 8. and gender (PNG suffixes). The derivational prefixes mentioned in column 1 of Table 8.2) and the rest of the verb. with some exceptions to be described below.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . the realizations differ. meter determines which form is used in the poetic contexts. With the exception of the irregular verb to be. Kopris & Davis 2005. the masculine being /ə/ and the feminine being /a/.6 to form finite verbs. as the past tense third person suffixes encode gender and person.2.6.4 are those that reflect the categories of person. and Dzadrani.5 and Table 8.9. Waziri.2. where meter determines which whether the monosyllabic or bisyllabic allomorph is used. The first person singular suffix /‑əma/ is heard most often in poetry.

4: GP verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .192  Verbs 1st Singular Plural  ‫ـم‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑əm ‑u ‫ـمه‬ ‑əm(a) SW ‫ـې‬ 2nd present ‑e ‫ـئ‬ ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst (verb bases ending in y SW ) ‫ی‬ ‫ـئ‬ 2nd past ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst SW 3rd present M ‫ـي‬ ‑i F 3rd past M ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ØE ‑ə ‑ə ‑əy SW ‫ـو‬ -o NE ØE F ‫ـه‬ ‑a ‫ـې‬ ‑e   Table 8.228.

228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.Verb components  193 1st Singular Plural ‑ã ‑i ‑əm(a) 2nd ‑e ‑əy (-ay) 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑ə ‑əl -Ø F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e Singular Plural 1st ‑əm(a) ‑i 2nd ‑e ‑əy   Table 8.6: Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5: Waziri verbs: personal suffixes ‑oy 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑Ø ‑ə(l) ‑ə ‑ay F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e   Table 8.

and because this is the form used as headword in dictionaries.194  Verbs 4. the present base is not always obvious.3 The infinitive The infinitive in Pashto is the citation form of the verb and formally equivalent to the verb’s past continuous base (see Section 8. the third person suffixes encode tense. we use the infinitive. both because it is traditional Pashto grammatical practice.2.177. However. Formation: past continuous stem + /‑ə́l-/ The stress is always on the final syllable.7. 5. use the present continuous base as the citation form. 8. As in General Pashto. arguing that because of stem allomorphy. with /‑ə́l-/. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 4 Some grammars. Examples of infinitives from all three conjugation classes are in Table 8.6).2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . The third person past masculine suffix /-ay/ of Dzadrani only occurs on a few verbs: for example. such as Tegey & Robson (1996). certain second conjugation verbs containing the roots /tləl/ ‘to go’ and /çwəl/ ‘to place’.228.⁴ It can be used as a noun and takes masculine plural agreement on the verb.

throw’ ‫ خوړل‬xwaṛə́l ‘to eat’ ‫ درېدل‬daredə́l ‘to stop’ ‫ ګرځېدل‬gərʣedə́l ‘to walk’ ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .7: Infinitives Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  195 Conjugation First Second Third Contracted Uncontracted Past continuous stem Infinitive ‫ خوړـ‬xwaṛ‑ ‘eat’ ‫ درېدـ‬dar-éd‑ ‘stop’ ‫ ګرځېدـ‬gərʣ-éd‑ ‘walk’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‘pour. to ‫ ننوت‬nəna-wat‑ ‘enter’ ‫ راتل‬rā-tl‑ ‘come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ازادېد‬azād-éd‑ ‘go free’ ‫ ازادو‬azād-aw‑ ‘set free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go free’ ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ښایسته کېد‬ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ xāyista k-ed‑ ‘become pretty’ throw’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’   Table 8.177.

3.5): prefixed verbs comprise the second conjugation.4. complex verbs are separable. and denominal verbs the third..2). it does not include 5 Note that simplex is used to mean the opposite of complex.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . The only difference is that a-initial verbs form only a small part of the first conjugation.4) ‫ ازادول‬/azād-awə́l/ ‘to set free’ = ‫ ازاد‬/azād/ ‘free’ + ‫ کول‬/(k)awə́l/ ‘to make. Simplex verbs are all those verbs whose base consists of a single morpheme.2.1 Overview Pashto verbs may be either simplex or complex. 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4 Simplex and complex verbs 8. that is. but probably < Proto-Iranian *ā-staH.2) ‫ استوـ‬/astawə́l/ ‘to send’ (not synchronically bi-morphemic.3) ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’ = ‫ راـ‬/rā‑/ ‘here. to me’ + ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ • denominal verbs (Section 8. Cheung 2007) • prefixed verbs (Section 8. such as: /wahə́l/ ‘to hit’.2.2. There are three kinds: ‫وهل‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ل‬- • a-initial verbs (Section 8.228. with base /wah‑/+ infinitive suffix /‑ə́l/.196  Verbs 8. under some conditions.2.2.4. but in another way based on their morphosyntactic behavior.2.177. This crucial difference illustrates why it is important to recognize this second way of classifying verbs: Pashto verbs may cluster in one way based on their inflectional behavior. they resolve into two parts.4.2. this distinction is not to be confused with the distinction between simple and compound verb constructions (Section 8. There are only about a dozen or so members of this class. while complex verbs have a base with two morphemes (or what were once two morphemes). to do’ These three groups correspond closely—but not entirely—to the three conjugation classes (Section 8.2. with certain restricted classes of words intervening between them (see Section 11. All three types of complex verb will be discussed in the following sections.⁵ The chief difference between simplex and complex verbs is a morphosyntactic one: unlike simplex verbs.2 a-initial verbs Most verbs that begin with /a/ fall into the class of complex verbs known as a-initial verbs.3 and Section 8. the greater part of it consists of simplex verbs.4.4).4.

The following sentences illustrate the separability of a-initial verbs. and there are a few other verbs that.’ versus non-initial stress.2.‫ا خیستله مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy. Most verbs cannot have initial stress in continuous forms.2.1) .M 1SG. since it is not meaningful by itself. With initial stress.228. as can be seen in what we believe to be a comprehensive list of a-initial verbs. 7 Examples taken from Kopris (2009). in that—unlike most other Pashto verbs—their stress is variable in the continuous aspect: it can be either initial or non-initial.WK ‘I was buying them.PST-PST. This inflectional feature places them in the morphological class of first conjugation (Section 8.M ‘I was buying them.’ 6 Most likely the initial /a/ was once a prefix historically. presented in Table 8. /aṇawə́l/ ‘to gather’.2) .‫ا مې خیستله‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG. not separated: (8. where initial stress is obligatory. We consider these a-initial verbs complex because their syntactic behavior resembles that of prefixed verbs: the initial /a/ can separate from the rest of the verb as though it were a prefix.14 as part of our discussion of the first conjugation.3) .WK buy.177. although they have initial /a/. for example.Verb components  197 denominal verbs (Section 8.2). 2011). separated:⁷ ‫اڼول‬ ‫وـ‬ (8. In each instance this separation occurs only in the presence of certain clitics or the negative morphemes (Section 11. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. While morphosyntactically similar to prefixed verbs.M ‘I bought them. nevertheless do not fall into this special class. a-initial verbs differ in that they take the prefix /wə́‑/ for aorist forms. even though /a/ is not a morpheme in the usual sense of the word.3.4) whose complement happens to have an initial /a/.PST-PST-3PL.PST-PST-3PL.3PL.2. which otherwise comprises only simplex verbs.‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG.2).⁶ These verbs are also unusual.’ In the aorist: (8. and for this reason it still behaves like one (David.4. they can separate either when the initial /a/ is optionally stressed in the continuous or in the aorist aspect.WK buy.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .5.

However. either the first or the second of these does not appear in any other context in the language. when it is unstressed) and appears in its full form. here/there. /déra-ɣləm(a)/ ‘I joined you’.3) and frequently incorporate meanings of to me/to him. The prefixes /rā‑/.228.198  Verbs As mentioned earlier.5. dar- dar- der- 'there. we have chosen. The derivational prefixes are shown in Table 8. called doubly irregular verbs by Tegey & Robson (1996: 114). into the verb of which they are a part. this separating behavior of a-initial verbs has led some linguists to assert that Pashto is among a handful of languages in the world that undergo endoclisis. ‫راـ‬ ‫درـ‬ ‫ورـ‬ Person GP prefix Waziri prefix Dzadrani prefix Gloss 1 ‫ راـ‬rā‑ rā- r(o)- 'here. They take the form of a derivational prefix plus a verb base. in the aorist (when it is stressed).4). Kopris 2009.4. and David 2011 for attempts to account for it.9.8 and Table 8. etc. both synchronically and diachronically. as with the a-initial verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . However. /ro/. because these pseudo-prefixed verbs behave like other prefixed verbs. for example.. the first person deictic prefix is reduced to /r/ in the continuous aspect (i. hence we class them all as what we call deictoids. war- war- wer- 'there (yonder).4.2. /dər‑/. coincide with our second conjugation (Section 8.e. Past aorist forms of /der-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’ and /wer-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to him/her/it/them’ have an epenthetic a between the prefix and the stem in Dzadrani. although in a few instances.4..) 8.8 correspond historically and semantically to the oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics described in Section 7.3 Prefixed verbs Prefixed verbs. They occur with only four verb stems (see Section 7. with Tegey & Robson (1996) and Grjunberg (1987). to group them all under the same category. to him/her/it/them'   Table 8. and /wər‑/ of Table 8. their role is not pronominal. to you' 3 ‫ ورـ‬wər‑.2. to me' 2 ‫ درـ‬dər‑.8: Deictic verb prefixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Kopris & Davis 2005. and we therefore refer to them in this context as deictic prefixes. as elements of complex verbs. In the Dzadrani forms. (See Kaisse 1981.177.

away' ‫ تېرـ‬ter‑ 'past'   Table 8.4 and 8. In sentence 8.4) .4 the prefix is separated from the verb stem by a second position clitic. The glosses given should therefore be thought of as the glosses of their etymons.9 exist in the same position class as the deictic prefixes. they do not necessarily have meanings that are synchronically separable from the verbal lexeme of which they are a part.W ‫ کښيـ‬kxi‫ کېـ‬ke‫ کيـ‬ki- W E W ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ 'into' ‫ پوریـ‬pori‑ 'across.10 in their infinitival forms (see Section 8.2. as well as to separation from the rest of the verb by negative morphemes and second position clitics. over.SG ‘Give it to her/him/them.AOR-IMP.Verb components  199 Although the prefixes in Table 8.WK .‫ور یې کړه‬ wə́r ye kṛ-á give.9: Non-productive verb prefixes Some examples of prefixed verbs can be seen in Table 8. Prefix Gloss of etymon ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ E 'in. on' kši.. (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . 3..228. and are subject to the same rules of stress movement to encode aorist aspect.3)..5. and in the sentences 8.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. on' ‫ پراـ‬prā‑ ‫ پرېـ‬pre‑ 'off.give. not as synchronic glosses.177..

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and so on. deriving its semantics from the complement. complex. We refer to the adjective or noun as the complement and to the verb as the verbalizer. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you.177.2.4 Denominal verb constructions Denominal verbs are light verb constructions⁸ of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb. the difference between them has to do with the degree to which the verb fuses phonologically with its noun or adjective complement in the continuous aspect. 9 Most other Pashto grammars use the term auxiliary.5) . We can therefore speak of contracted and uncontracted denominal verb constructions.10: Examples of prefixed verbs (8.) There are two versions of this construction. As a light verb. with the verb occurring in its full form as a separate word from the substantive that gives the overall construction its meaning.⁹ (See Section 11. to slip or slide’   Table 8.STR. to do’ (to form transitives). but see Butt (2003) for a clear differentiation between light verbs and auxiliary verbs. compound. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ 8 These forms are variously referred to in other grammars of Pashto as derivative. tense. denominal verb encodes a single event.228. where the verb is either /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ (to form intransitives) or /kawə́l/ ‘to make. In the uncontracted one. depart’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave.‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG.200  Verbs Prefix Verb Prefixed verb ‫ راـ‬rā‑ ‘here’ ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ ‘into’ ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ ‘in.1 for more on light verb constructions in Pashto.DIR after from 2SG. depart’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ کښېوتل‬kxewatə́l ‘to fall or drop into.4. on’ ‫̄ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave.2. or denominative verbs.3. the verbal construction is always a two-word phrase.STR. while the verbalizer carries categories such as PNG.’ 8.

If the first element is a vowel-final adjective or if it is a noun of any sort.7. the k is deleted in continuous forms. there are a few contracted verb forms with nouns as the first element. but remains two separate words throughout the paradigm.Verb components  201 In a contracted denominal verb. color’) ‫ حسابول‬/hisābawə́l/ ‘to account. The forms with a consonantfinal adjective complement (column 2) are the most lexicalized.11. contracted verbal constructions are represented as single words. when negated they must be preceded by the negative marker. • Adjective complements are uninflected in the continuous aspect (whereas adjective complements in the aorist aspect.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . but this is a tendency only. count’) Note that both these nouns are consonant-final. from word-like. • Also unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. to phrase-like.177. since it applies to C-final adjectives and some C-final nouns. they allow a separate direct object. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. and all noun complements—in both aorist and continuous—may inflect for case). In written Pashto. as well as all aorist forms (column 5).228. Among denominal verbs with adjective complements. The small number of contracted verb forms that have noun complements fall in between the contracted adjectival and the uncontracted nominal third conjugation verbs in their morphological and syntactic behavior: • Unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. while the majority of Pashto nouns are vowel-final. as summed up in Table 8. It therefore appears that /k/-deletion reflects a tendency against the sequence /Ck/. both the contracted and the uncontracted constructions behave like single words: • Continuous forms do not allow other words—such as negatives or weak pronouns— between the adjective and verbalizer. or lexicalized. So we see a spectrum of behavior among third conjugation verbs. or /‑awə́l/ (transitive). because the adjectival and verbal components of the construction together behave as one word. leaving the verb in a shortened form: /‑edə́l/ (intransitive). this contraction only occurs when the complement is a consonant-final adjective. while those with a vowel-final noun complement (column 4). for example: ‫ـېدل‬ • • ‫ـول‬ ‫ رنګول‬/rangawə́l/ ‘to paint’ (from the noun ‫ رنګ‬/rang/ ‘paint. the verbal construction usually does not contract. This is described and exemplified in Section 6. are the least so. calculate’ (from the noun ‫ حساب‬/hisāb/ ‘calculation. Generally speaking. it cannot occur between the complement and verb. However.

177. in both present and past tenses. namely. unless they end in /ay/. The situation is complex and suggests that what we are seeing is a change in progress. ‫ستړی‬ ‫ستړی کول‬ CONTINUOUS AORIST C-final adjective complement V-final adjective complement Noun complement Verb in full form? N Y Y Y Intervening lexical material permitted? N N Y Y Inflected complement permitted? N N Y Y   Table 8. for example. all third conjugation verbs are fully separate from their noun or adjective complement. exhaust’. it is optional. In denominal verbs formed from adjectives. Adjective complements that inflect for case usually do so as Class I adjectives. however. The contracted denominal verbs contradict the claim by Butt & Lahiri (2002) and Butt (2003) about light verbs and grammaticalization. the adjective complement /stәṛay/ ‘tired’ in /stәṛay kawә́l/ ‘to tire.11 summarizes the morphosyntactic behavior of the different types of denominal verbs.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . but rather remain “form-identical to a main verb. David & Goodman (2012) discusses these points at length. like uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. which behaves like a Class III adjective.” at all. if there is one. and with the subject if there is none. the adjective agrees with the undergoer of the action.Table 8.11: Behavior of denominal verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. they can take morphological material on the end of the complement. that light verbs do not “enter the grammaticalization cline.” These Pashto forms instead provide additional evidence for the argument in Bowern (2008) that complex predicates “aren’t necessarily stable” but can in fact lenite phonologically and are subject to reanalysis. this contracted/uncontracted distinction only holds in the continuous aspect: among aorist forms.202  Verbs • However. With all types of denominal verbs.

an explanation is called for as to why we use the term aorist rather than the more common perfective. For General Pashto as well as the Middle dialects. and third conjugation verbs— denominal constructions all—through stress shift to the complement. however. The one in the first row is uncontracted. rather than a noun or adjective.12 gives some examples of denominal verbs. with a /wə́‑/ prefix (Section 8. first conjugation verbs form the aorist through the addition of the prefix /wə́‑/. causatives form aorists according to first conjugation rules. but a few—the a-initial verbs—are complex.2. to beautify’ ‫ ازاد‬azād ‘free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ ژوبل‬žobəl ‘wound’ ‫ ژوبلېدل‬žobledə́l ‘to be ‫ ژوبلول‬žoblawə́l ‘to injure’ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ free’ injured’ Verb (transitive) ‫ښایسته کول‬   Table 8.2.5. there is a phonologically conditioned rule that changes /wə́‑/ to /ó‑/ when followed by a bilabial consonant. and. there are two differences: causatives have a verb stem.5.12: Examples of denominal verbs 8.2. as their first element.1).2. plus use of the irregular aorist form of the verbalizer. as in: /ó-be-gərʣi/ ‘we will walk’ Most first conjugation verbs are simplex.7). while all second and third conjugation verbs are complex (Section 8.1 Overview of conjugation classes Pashto verbs can be classified into three conjugation classes according to how they inflect for the aorist aspect.5.2. intransitive contracted denominal verbs (those in /‑edə́l/ ‘to become’—column 2) conjugate identically with intransitive first conjugation verbs (Section 8. In Dzadrani. ‫ـول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېدل‬ Substantive base Verb (intransitive) ‫ ښایسته‬xāyista ‘pretty’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’ xāyista kawə́l ‘to make pretty.Verb components  203 Table 8. Likewise.2). Most descriptions of ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4).177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . transitive contracted denominals do conjugate identically with causatives. But in the continuous aspect. Before describing these classes in detail.228. second conjugation verbs through stress shift to the first syllable.5 Conjugation classes 8. Contracted transitive denominals (those in /‑awə́l/—column 3) formally resemble historical causatives (Section 8. those in the second and third rows are contracted.2. unlike transitive denominals.

is continuing. but we reject their terminology as liable to confusion and not descriptive enough. plus the ainitial verbs (see Section 8. In a-initial verbs. which connotes completion. the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ coalesces with the /a/ to form a prefix /wā́‑/. is a more accurate term for the Pashto verbal category under discussion than perfective. and Septfonds (1994) uses the numerals 1 and 2. that is. In addition to following Khan (2002)’s terminology. 8.5. As independent verbs. from a Greek word meaning without boundaries or indeterminate. but our use of the term aorist follows the twentieth-century Pashto grammarian Khan (2002)’s usage as cited by Penzl (1951). comes. as in Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫مطلق‬ ‫مجرد‬ 3. as it often does in other linguistic descriptions. first conjugation verbs with initial /a/ are of this type. Use of the terms imperfective and perfective could lead.4. We believe aorist. use for another verbal category. 2. The reason for using continuous is probably clear enough: both imperfective and continuous suggest the verb’s action is unfinished or ongoing. from the Indo-European grammatical tradition and refers to a simple event. they belong to the first conjugation. including our own. as can be seen in their General Pashto ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫واـ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Most. which most descriptions of Pashto.13. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) both substitute the Roman numerals I and II respectively. subsequent syllables are unstressed General Pashto first conjugation verbs consist of all simplex verbs. aorist is also a better gloss of traditional Pashto grammarians’ Pashto terms for this category. to do’ have two sets of aorist forms. without reference to internal structure. Note that denominal verbs beginning with /a/ do not belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8.204  Verbs Pashto recognize an aspectual dichotomy reflected in both the morphology and the semantics of Pashto verbs. We have instead decided on the terms continuous and aorist. which carries an inherent stress. to confusion with the different term perfect. however.2. one possible substitute for perfective might have been non-continuous. but not all. /mutláq/ or /mujarad/ as they are reported in Penzl (1951). etc. appropriately. We have decided the following facts justify a change in terminology: 1. with its sense of indeterminate. They can be recognized by their aorist forms.2). we are not the first to have misgivings over the aptness of those words.177.2.2.4.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto Aorist formation: add stressed prefix /wə́‑/. as shown in Table 8. Aorist. because they form the aorist with the prefix /wə́‑/. As for our term for the aspect contrasting with continuous.228. which begin with the prefix /wə́‑/. The verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. The usual terms in those descriptions for the two categories are imperfective and perfective.4).14. without specifying whether it was completed.

8. to do’ ‫ لېږـ‬leg‑ ‫ پېچـ‬peč‑ ‫ ګډـ‬gaḍ‑ ‫ بولـ‬bol‑ ‫ ښیـ‬xəy‑ ‫ ګورـ‬gor‑ ‫ شـ‬š‑ ‫ ک)ړ(ـ‬k(ṛ)‑ ‫ ولېږـ‬wə́leg‑ ‫ وپېچـ‬wə́peč‑ ‫ وګډېږـ‬wə́gaḍég‑ ‫ وبولـ‬wə́bol‑ ‫ وښیـ‬wə́xəy‑ ‫ وګورـ‬wə́gor‑ ‫ وشـ‬wə́š‑ ‫ وک)ړ(ـ‬wə́k(ṛ)‑ 205   Table 8. they form the aorist irregularly. to twist’ ‫ ګډېدل‬gaḍedə́l ‘to dance’ ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to consider’ ‫ ښودل‬xodə́l ‘to show’ ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.13: GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases ‫زه باید دا‬ forms in the last two rows of Table 8.2.8. in the sentence /zə bā́yad dā wə́k(ṛ)əm/ ‘I must do this’. as discussed in Section 8.2.177. for example.2.8). when acting as verbalizers in denominal verbs (see Section 8.13 and.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . However.3.2 and Section 8.228.Verb components  Verb (Present) stem Aorist base ‫ لېږل‬legə́l ‘to send’ ‫ پېچل‬pečə́l ‘to wind. ‫وکړم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

turn over’ ‫ ازمیل‬azmeyə́l ‘to test’ ‫ استول‬astawə́l ‘to send’ ‫ اخښل‬axxə́l ‘to knead’ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to put on (clothing)’ ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuzawə́l ‘to make fly.14: GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to throw’ ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to buy.206  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour.177. take.228. seize’ ‫ ارتل‬aratə́l ‘to break wind’ ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ اړول‬aṛawə́l ‘to move. blow up’ ‫ الوویل‬alwoyə́l ‘to burn’ ‫ انول‬anawə́l ‘to compel (someone).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to pacify’ ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn. climb over’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‫ اخلـ‬axl‑ ‫ ارتـ‬arat‑ ‫ اور)ېږ(ـ‬awr(eg)‑ ‫ اړاوـ‬aṛāw‑ ‫ ازميـ‬azmey‑ ‫ استاوـ‬astāw‑ ‫ اخږـ‬axg‫ اغوندـ‬aɣwand‑ ‫ الوزـ‬alwaz‑ ‫ الوزوـ‬alwuz-āw‑ ‫ الوویـ‬alwoy‑ ‫ اناوـ‬anāw‑ ‫ اوړـ‬awṛ‑ ‫ واچوـ‬wā́čaw‑ ‑‫ واخیست‬wā́xist‑ ‫ وارتـ‬wā́rat‑ ‫ واروېدـ‬wā́rwed‑ ‫ واړاوـ‬wā́ṛāw‑ ‫ وازميـ‬wā́zmey‑ ‫ واستاوـ‬wā́stāw‑ ‫ واخښـ‬wāxx‫ واغوستـ‬wā́ɣust‑ ‫ والوتـ‬wā́lwut‑ ‫ والوزوـ‬wā́lwuzaw‑ ‫ والوویـ‬wā́lwoy‑ ‫ واناوـ‬wā́nāw‑ ‫ واوښتـ‬wā́wuxt‑   Table 8.

appears to be due to his misinterpreting some aorist forms as continuous. While it is clear that both dialects do have verbs that correspond to the a-initial verbs of the General Pashto dialects. We find four initial syllables among these verbs: /a/.177. The latter comes from Lorimer and with two exceptions ( /woxestə́l/ ‘to take. Other than those.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . The two verbs whose citation forms begin with /wo/ are perhaps examples of metaphony (/ā/ ∼ /o/) plus typical Waziri insertion of a /w/ glide before an initial /o/. as reported by Hallberg. /o/. the Waziri forms are from Lorimer (1902) and/or our native speaker. A dash in the cell indicates that we do not have an attested form.16.Verb components  207 8.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects The morphology of the first conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects is similar to that of first conjugation verbs in the General Pashto dialects. thus leading to the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ being taken as part of the verb stem. nor can we supply a full list of corresponding forms. so we cannot offer a full description. The forms for which we have data are in Table 8.2. The Waziri and Dzadrani counterparts of the so-called a-initial verbs differ from those of General Pashto. What we are able to say is that the initial syllables in the forms we do have differ from General Pashto forms. and /wo/.228. These are noted below.15 and Table 8. /ā/. with a few exceptions. In one instance —Waziri ‘to hear’—we provide forms from the Miran Shah dialect (MIR) of northern Waziri and the Wana dialect (WAA) of southern Waziri. our data are sparse. and the Dzadrani forms are from Septfonds (1994). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5. to buy’ and /woɣestə́l/ ‘to put on (clothing)’).

15: Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base čawə́l ‘to throw’ ―— o-čowwə-čowwə-čaw- (o)xostə́l ‘to take.208  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base āčawə́l ‘to throw’ ačaw‑ wočaw‑ woxestə́l ‘to take.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .16: Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177. overturn (trans)’ aṛaw- wu-āṛaw- (o)ɣwəstə́l ‘to dress’ (o)ɣwənd‑ (ó)ɣwest‑ (o)wəxtə́l ‘to cross. catch’ (o)x(wə)l‑ óxwəst‑ (o)r(w)edə́l ‘to hear’ (o)r(w)‑ órwed‑ (a)ṛawə́l ‘to reverse. to buy’ wəx(ə)l‑ wóxest‑ arwedə́l ‘to hear’ arwed‑ wórwed‑ owred‑ MIR warwed‑ WAA āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (intrans)’ wovṛ- wuṛew- owaṛ‑ woṛawwiweššt- āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (trans)’ woɣestəl ‘to put on (clothing)’ āṛaw- wu-āṛaw- woṛāw- woṛaw- woɣund- wóɣest‑   Table 8.228. go to’ (o)wəṛ‑ ówəxt- woṛaw-   Table 8.

2). If the prefix has more than one syllable. second conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of the GP dialects.¹⁰ Although the forms may differ.3.17.2.228.2.5.2).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. /dər/ ‘there. to do’ with the prefixed verbs under one conjugation class. they do not fit into any conjugation class because they form the aorist irregularly. Verb ‫پورې وهل‬ ‫پرېمینځل‬ ‫درکول‬ Stem pore-wahə́l ‘to push’ pre-mindzə́l ‘to wash’ dər-kawə́l ‘to give to you’ Present aorist base ‫پورې وه‬ ‫پرېمینځ‬ ‫درکړ‬ pore-wah pre-mindz ‫پورې وهـ‬ ‫پرېمینځـ‬ ‫درکړ‬ dər-kṛ póre-wah‑ prémindz‑ də́r-kṛ‑   Table 8.4).177. and they can be separated from the stem by a second-position clitic or the negative morpheme (Section 11. and /wər/ ‘there. Pashto second conjugation verbs form the aorist by shifting the stress to their prefix. the stress goes on the first syllable.5.4 Second conjugation Aorist formation: shift stress to prefix Second conjugation verbs in Pashto are complex verbs (Section 8.2. Our reason is that they do not fit our criteria: when they occur as independent verbs (see Section 8. We call them all prefixes because they all behave the same way morphosyntactically: they undergo stress shift to form the aorist. they are all of the form prefix + stem. to me’. to him/her/them’.2.17: Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense) There are two kinds of prefixed verbs: those formed with one of the three deictic prefixes (see Section 7. their aorist formation puts them with first conjugation verbs.Verb components  209 8.2.8).4) /rā/ ‘here. and those with other types of prefixes. to you’. They are sometimes written as one word and sometimes as two. when they occur as verbalizers (see Section 8. as in Table 8. although not all of those so-called prefixes have a recognizable meaning.2. ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ ‫کېدل‬ 10 We differ from both Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) in not grouping /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make.

according to the lexical stress of that complement • using the irregular aorist forms of the verbalizer (rather than the forms with ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/) Although many third conjugation verbs are contracted in the continuous aspect. Third conjugation verbs form the aorist by: ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ • shifting stress from the second element (the verbalizer) to the first element (the noun or adjective complement). the complement is always separate from the verbalizer.5.8.8. in aorist constructions.18 illustrate some separated aorist forms of contracted denominal verbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.4. there are some that are less lexicalized and form the aorist with /wə́‑/. however.2 and Section 8.2.2. They consist of the majority of denominal verbs (Section 8.5. Among the denominal verbs whose complement is a noun.5 Third conjugation 8.2.) The forms in Table 8.3 for these aorist forms.4)—all of those with adjective complements and most of those with noun complements.2. they therefore belong to the first conjugation.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .210  Verbs 8.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs Aorist formation: shift stress from verb to complement and use irregular aorist forms of /kawə́l/ or /kedə́l/ (All forms are uncontracted in the aorist aspect. (See Section 8.5.2.) Third conjugation verbs are the most common and the most complicated of Pashto verb types.177.

) Present aorist (trans.) ‫ جوړ‬joṛ ‘whole’ ‫جوړېدل‬ ‫جوړول‬ ‫ جوړ شـ‬jóṛ š‑ ‫ جوړ کړـ‬jóṛ ‫ پلونډ‬palwánḍ ‫پالونډېدل‬ joṛ-edə́l ‘to be made/built’ joṛ-awə́l ‘to build’ k(ṛ)‑ ‘fat’ palwand-̣edə́l ‘to become fat’ ‫پلونډول‬ palwanḍ-awə́l ‘to fatten’ ‫پلونډ شـ‬ ‫پلونډ کړـ‬ ‫تود‬ ‫تودېدل‬ ‫تودول‬ ‫ تود شـ‬táwd š‑ ‫ تود کړـ‬táwd ‫احساس‬ ‫احساسېدل‬ ‫احساسول‬ ‫احساس شـ‬ ‫احساس کړـ‬ ‫غوړپ‬ ‫غوړپېدل‬ ‫غوړپول‬ ‫غوړپ شـ‬ ‫غوړپ کړـ‬ ‫پیل‬ ‫پيلیدل‬ ‫پيلول‬ ‫ پیل شـ‬páyl š‑ ‫ پیل کړـ‬páyl tawd ‘warm’ ihsās ‘feeling. gulped down’ payl-edə́l ‘to be begun’ tawd-awə́l ‘to make warm’ ihsās-awə́l ‘to feel.18: Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to sense’ ɣuṛap-awə́l ‘to swallow. to drink in gulps’ payl-awə́l ‘to begin’ palwánḍ š‑ ihsā́s š‑ ɣuṛáp š‑ palwánḍ k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑ ihsā́s k(ṛ)‑ ɣuṛáp k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 211 . drink’ payl ‘beginning’ tawd-edə́l ‘to become warm’ ihsās-edәl ‘to be felt. sensation’ ɣuṛap ‘mouthful.177.228. be experienced’ ɣuṛap-edə́l ‘to be swallowed.Verb components  Noun or adjective Intransitive verb Transitive verb Present aorist (intrans.

¹¹ we see no reason to place infinitive + /kedə́l/ constructions in a special category. Some descriptions have referred to all Pashto verbs with stem allomorphy as irregular.177. See Section 8. we feel this term is inaccurate.2 for discussion and examples. Drawing on Indo-European grammatical tradition. ‫ازادېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. we call verbs with no stem allomorphy weak verbs. ‫پزېدل‬ ‫غلېدل‬ 11 For example: the simplex verbs /pәzedə́l/ ‘to be wounded’.5. For these reasons.1. see Section 11. This construction is often referred to by other grammars of Pashto as the Pashto passive. strong Pashto verbs can have as many as four stems.228.5.2. because these constructions parallel the structure of other third conjugation verbs and because there are many other Pashto intransitive verbs—both simplex and complex—that can be translated by the English passive. as irregular also implies. their number is too large to consider them out of the ordinary. however. For example sentences using this construction.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/ Sometimes the complement of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ is an infinitive or a past participle.5. and the complex (denominal) verbs /azādedə́l/ ‘to be freed’ and /joṛedə́l/ ‘to be made/built’. and /ɣuledə́l/ ‘to be deceived’. As can be seen in Table 8. and those with stem allomorphy of any degree. we classify them as denominal verbs.5. as many of them share somewhat regular patterns in their formation.2.3.6 Stem classes and the four bases Pashto verbs fall into two stem classes depending on how many stem allomorphs they have. strong verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫جوړېدل‬ .5. ‫کېدل‬ 8. and furthermore.19. because it is best translated with an English passive construction: ‫کېدل‬ • • • ‫ وهل‬/wahə́l/ ‘to beat.212  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8. strike’ ‫ وهل کېدل‬/wahə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ وهلی کېدل‬/wahə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ لیکل‬/likə́l/ ‘to write’ ‫ لیکل کیدل‬/likə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیکلی کیدل‬/likə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیدل‬/lidə́l/ ‘to see’ ‫ لیدل کیدل‬/lidə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ ‫ لیدلی کیدل‬/lidə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ However.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.228.Verb components  213 Stem class  Verb Present aorist stem Present continuous stem  Past continuous stem Past aorist stem Strong ‫بېول‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بیای‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بوت‬ bóz- biwə́l ‘to lead away’ ‫وړل‬ wṛəl ‘to carry’ ‫ختل‬ xatə́l ‘to rise’ Weak biw- bót- byā́y- ‫یوس‬ ‫وړ‬ yós- ‫یووړ‬ wr-̣ yówṛ- ‫خېژ‬ ‫خت‬ xež- xat- ‫تړل‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫رسېدل‬ ‫رس‬ taṛə́l ‘to tie’ taṛ- ras- rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫اچول‬ ‫اچو‬ ačaw- ačawəl ‘to throw’   Table 8.19: Verbs and their stems: strong and weak Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

First. The aorist aspect is indicated by the stressed prefix /wə́‑/ or (in the case of complex verbs) by stress on the prefix or complement.) Most Pashto grammars extend the term stem to include these building blocks. the stem of a verb includes only derivational material. We confine our use of stem to forms that include only (1) a plain verbal form or one with derivational affixes. Two comments are pertinent here.4.1. present/past and continuous/aorist. there is no loss to the accurate description of Pashto in doing so. we therefore acknowledge we are co-opting it for this new sense. strictly speaking.2.1.4). past aorist To these bases can be added either: • a PNG suffix 12 Although see Section 8. is the following four-way contrast of bases: ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ 1. Second.1 The four verb bases Pashto verb bases are formed according to the two parameters of tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). or by the suffix /‑ég-/ (intransitives).1 and Section 8. however. one could probably speak theoretically of Pashto verb roots in addition to stems and bases—and certainly so in a historicalcomparative discussion—but the concept is not necessary to a synchronic description. The result of these two binary choices. while the building blocks also contain inflectional material—for tense and aspect—we prefer to avoid this looser terminology and instead refer to the latter as bases. as for example prefixed verbs (Section 8.3 for a more complete discussion of how past tense is encoded in the morphology. and the continuous aspect by the absence of /wə́‑/ or stress on the verb itself rather than the prefix or complement.6.228. and the present tense either by the absence of this suffix (transitives).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . present continuous 2. In Pashto. the past tense of weak verbs is indicated by either the suffix /‑ə́l-/ (for transitive verbs)¹² or /‑ed(-ə́l-)/ (for intransitives).4. while the past tense of strong verbs is indicated by stem allomorphy. 8.214  Verbs These stems are the basis for the four morphological building blocks upon which all Pashto verbs are formed. past continuous 4.2. We do so in order to distinguish in our descriptions the more elemental stems from the partially inflected building blocks.6.3). (See Section 8.2.2.177. or (2) a nominal complement-verb construction. present aorist 3. the term base is frequently used as a synonym for root. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. but since. in the case of contracted denominal verbs (Section 8.3.

/‑ə́l-/ is usually present. See Table 8. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 8. or • an adjectival suffix (to form a participle) The result is a fully inflected Pashto verb. past. the /‑ə́l-/ suffix is optional in first and second person forms and is prohibited in third masculine singular forms.22.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . in third plural masculine forms. intransitives and transitives have different. Because they share an identical suffix.2. Examples are given in Table 8.2). optional • present continuous base: stem + • • elsewhere) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2. one for present and one for past tense. For all other verbs. Conversely.9).177.228. first conjugation: Transitive (see Table 8. and infinitive forms are formed on past bases.21): ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ present aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـېد‬/‑ed/ (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.1 and Table 8. The /‑ə́l-/ suffix of the past base is sometimes optional or even disallowed: it is required only in weak transitive verbs (see Section 8. the stems and bases may coincide. whose past continuous base would otherwise be identical to the present continuous base.2. Both present and imperative forms are formed on present bases. optative. shape: the bases of intransitive verbs have an extra affix after the stem. Among weak verbs.20 through Table 8. Three of the four bases are also used as the base of participles (see Section 8.6. whose past and present stems differ . though predictable.2 for a schematization of verb formation.6.20): • present continuous base = stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑əl-/(suffix obligatory) • present aorist base: • • Intransitive (see Table 8. The way the four bases are formed from the stems of the verb is described in the following sections. Formation of bases for weak verbs.Verb components  215 • an imperative or optative suffix.2 Weak verbs (one stem) Weak verbs have a single stem from which all four bases are predictable. the past continuous base of any Pashto verb is formally identical to its infinitive. and the PNG suffix is encoded therein. In a few cases of strong verbs with four stem allomorphs.

228.20: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasédəl ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫رس‬ ‫رسېږ‬ ‫ورسېږ‬ (‫رسېد)ل‬ (‫ورسېد)ل‬ arrive’ ras Past ras-eg‑ ras-ed(-ə́l)‑ wə́-ras-eg‑ wə́-ras-ed(-əl)‑   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .21: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.216  Verbs ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫تړ‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫وتړ‬ ‫تړل‬ ‫وتړل‬ taṛ Past taṛ‑ taṛ-ə́l‑ wə́-taṛ‑ wə́-taṛ-əl‑   Table 8.

rather than the addition of the /wə́‑/ prefix.Verb components  ‫وـ‬ • past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + stem + optional elsewhere) ‫ـېد‬ /‑ed/( + ‫ـلـ‬ 217 /‑əl-/— prohibited in 3SGM.22: Weak verb bases: second conjugation 8. has /wə́xat-/ for a base in NE Pashto. for example. See Table 8.2.177.3 Strong verbs (more than one stem) It is not feasible at this time to provide an exhaustive list of the Pashto strong verbs. furthermore. Forms vary tremendously across dialects. aorists are formed by a shift of stress to the existing prefix.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫وـ‬ ‫وړل‬ ‫ راوړل‬rāwṛə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړل‬ ‫راوړ‬ bring (to me)’ rā́-wṛ Past rā́-wṛ rā́-wṛ rā-wṛ-ə́l rā́-wṛ-əl   Table 8. ‫ختل‬ ‫وخوت‬ ‫وخت‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.27. Note that /wṛ-ə́l/ ‘to carry’ is weak when it is the stem of a prefixed verb and strong when it occurs alone.22): • present continuous base = stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + stem ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: stressed prefix + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) • past continuous base: prefix + stem + • In the second conjugation. second conjugation (see Table 8.6. what is strong in one area may be weak in another. which has a strong aorist masculine singular base in most dialects ( /wə́xot-/).228. Formation of bases for weak verbs. the verb /xatə́l/ ‘to rise’.

24). although many can be grouped loosely together according to shared initial sound or sounds (see Table 8.25): • present continuous base = present stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + present stem • past continuous base: prefix + past stem (+ tional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM. The two stems have no predictable similarity to each other.218  Verbs 8.and -ed-) and Class III and to Heston’s second conjugation/irregular verbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. others are simply suppletive (see Table 8.25.23): • present continuous base = present stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present stem past continuous base: past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.1 Strong verbs with two stems¹³ These verbs have two different stems. optional else- • present aorist base: • where) • past aorist base: elsewhere) ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.6. Formation of bases for strong verbs.37). Examples are given in Table 8.3. and past bases from the other.228. optional ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to rise’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫خېژ‬ ‫خېژـ‬ ‫وخېژـ‬ ‫خوت‬ ‫خوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫وخوت)ل(ـ‬ xéž Past xot xéž‑ wə́-xež‑ xot(-ə́l)‑ wə́-xot(-əl)‑   Table 8.23: Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems) Formation of bases for strong verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .23 through Table 8. op- 13 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class II (excluding the intransitives with -eg.2.177. second conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8. first conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8. present bases are predictable from one stem.

Verb components  ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫وین‬ ‫وینـ‬ ‫ووینـ‬ ‫لید‬ ‫لید)ل(ـ‬ ‫ولید)ل(ـ‬ win Past lid win‑ 219 wə́-win‑ lid(-ə́l)‑ wə́-lid(-əl)‑   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.25: Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems) 8. ‫ پرېوتل‬pre-wat-ə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوت‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ fall’ pre-wə́z‑ Past wat pre-wə́z‑ pre-wat(-ə́l)‑ pré-wəz‑ pré-wat-(-əl)‑   Table 8.177. the four bases are not predictable from each other.24: Strong suppletive verb. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. There are six simplex multi-stem verbs. first conjugation (two stems) • past aorist base: stressed prefix + past stem (+ optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.2. note that three of them form the base for deictic prefixed verbs.2 Strong verbs with three or four stems¹⁴ In verbs with three or four stems.3. The prefixed verbs based on /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ use its irregular forms (listed elsewhere ‫تلل‬ ‫کول‬ 14 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class IV and Heston’s fourth conjugation/double verbs.6. The last table therefore gives the a paradigm of the combining forms for /tlə́l/ ‘to go’ when it forms the base of a prefixed verb with the deictic prefixes.

‫کول‬ ‫کېول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ Continuous Stem Present ‫کو‬ kaw Past Aorist Base   Base ‫کوـ‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړل‬ kaw. Notice that in both Waziri and Dzadrani. and those based on the otherwise multi-stem verb /wṛəl/ ‘to carry’.26: Strong verb bases: Stem k(ṛ) kṛ wə́-k(ṛ)‑ wə́-kṛ-əl‑ ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to do’ The verb bases of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the Middle dialects are in Table 8.33 through Table 8.́ kaw-ə́l Table 8. and when they are.26 through Table 8.32): • Present continuous base = (present) continuous stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present aorist stem Past continuous base: (past continuous) stem + ( ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM. use its weak stem (as illustrated by Table 8. /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.8. the stem of the past tense reduces when taking /-ə/ as a suffix: /kṛ-/ → /k-/ and /šw-/ → /š-/.228. The bases and stems for the six simplex members and one complex member of this class of multi-stem strong verbs are listed in Table 8. The first four verbs in these tables are transitive. The paradigms for these verbs in their verbalizer role are in Section 8.2.4.2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.220  Verbs ‫وړل‬ in Section 8.22). Note that two of these seven verbs. • Present aorist base: • optional elsewhere) ‫وـ‬ • Past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + past aorist stem + ( optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.3).2.8.26 through Table 8. but are irregular. are also used as verbalizers (Section 8.32.36.4). the remaining three are intransitive. The parenthetical /ṛ/ in the present aorist base of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ indicates that it is frequently elided in speech. Formation of bases for strong verbs (three or four stems) (see Table 8. their aorist forms are not formed with the first conjugation prefix /wə́‑/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

228.28: Strong verb bases: byā́y‑ biw-ə́l‑ bóz bót(l) bóz‑ bót(l)-əl‑ ‫ بېول‬/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’ ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to Continuous put’ Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫)اي(ږد‬ ‫)اي(ږدـ‬ ‫کښېږد‬ ‫کښېږدـ‬ / ‫ایښود‬ ‫کښېښود‬ / ‫ایښودل‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ ‫کښېښود‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ (i)gd Past Stem ‫بیای‬ biw Present yówṛ-əl‑ Aorist Base byā́y Past yówṛ yós‑ ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead Present Base ‫وړـ‬ wṛ.177.29: Strong verb bases: (i)gd.́ Past Stem ixod/kxéxod   Table 8.Verb components  ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to carry’ Continuous Stem Present Aorist Base ‫وړ‬ wṛ ‫یوس‬ ‫یوسـ‬ ‫وړلـ‬ ‫یووړ‬ ‫یووړلـ‬ yós wṛ-ə́l‑   Table 8.27: Strong verb bases: Continuous away’ Stem Base ‫بیایـ‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بوزـ‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بېول‬ (‫بوت)ل‬ ‫بوت)ل(لـ‬   Table 8.́ kxégd kxéxod kxégd‑ kxexod-ə́l‑ ixodə́l/kxéxod-əl ‫ ایښودل‬/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 221 .

228.32: Strong verb bases: rāʣ.222  Verbs ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to Continuous become’ Stem Present Base ‫ش‬ ‫وشـ‬ ‫کېد‬ ‫کېدلـ‬ ‫شو‬ ‫)و(شولـ‬   Table 8.31: Strong verb bases: (w)lā́ṛ tl-(ə́l‑) (w)lā́ṛ š‑ (w)lā́ṛ (w)lā́ṛ-əl‑ ‫ تلل‬/tlə́l/ ‘to go’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ Continuous Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫راځ‬ ‫راځـ‬ ‫راش‬ ‫راشـ‬ ‫راتل‬ (‫راتل)ل‬ ‫راغ‬ (‫راغ)ل‬ rāʣ Past wə́-š‑ Continuous Stem Present š ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ Past Base ‫کېږـ‬ ked Present Stem ‫کېږ‬ kég Past Aorist rātl   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM rā́š‑ rā́ɣ-(əl-) .́ rātl-(ə́l-) rāš rā́ɣ ‫ راتلل‬/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.30: Strong verb bases: kég‑ ked-ə́l‑ šw wə́-šw-əl‑ Aorist Base Stem Base ‫ځ‬ ‫ځـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړشـ‬ (‫ت)ل‬ ‫ت)ل(لـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړلـ‬ ʣ ʣ‑ tl   Table 8.

228.35: Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.33: Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present k- k- k- wə́-k‑ Past kr-̣ kṛ(-əl)- kṛ wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 223 .Verb components  Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kaw- kaw- k- k- kaw- kaw-ə́l- kṛ- kṛ(-əl)- Root Base k- wə́-k‑ kṛ- wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.34: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kež- kež- š- š- ked- ked(-ə́l)- šw- šw(-əl)- Root Base š- wə́-š‑ šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8.

177.37 shows some strong Pashto verbs.228.¹⁵ Table 8.2.3.6. ‫ کنل‬kinə́l ‘to dig’ ‫ کني‬kíni ‫ وکنده‬wə́kində ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull [out]’ ‫ باسي‬bā́si ‫ وایست‬wə́ist. masc. 3rd sg.224  Verbs Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present š- š- š- wə́-š‑ Past šw- šw(-əl)- šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8. wúyust ‫ پرېیستل‬preistə́l ‘to throw. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3 List of strong verbs Table 8. pack’ ‫ پرېباسي‬prebā́si ‫ پرې ایست‬préist ‫ ننه ایستل‬nənaistə́l ‘to introduce’ ‫ ننه باسي‬nənabā́si ‫ ننه یوست‬nə́naist. past aorist ‫ الوتل‬alwotə́l ‘to fly [away]’ ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پوري وتل‬poriwatə́l ‘to cross’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to go out’ ‫ الوزي‬álwozi ‫ پرېوزي‬prewúzi ‫ پوري وزي‬poriwúzi ‫ ننوزي‬nənawúzi ‫ وزي‬wúzi ‫ والوت‬wā́lwot ‫ پرېووت‬préwot ‫ پوري ووت‬póriwot ‫ ننوت‬nə́nawot ‫ ووت‬wə́wot ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ ‫ پېژني‬péžani ‫ وپېژاند‬wə́pežānd ‫ کیندل‬kində́l. nə́nayust 15 Adapted from Shafeev (1964). pres.36: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ 8.37: Strong verbs Infinitive 3rd sg. grouped according to similarity of morphological patterns.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

masc. seize’ ‫ نیسي‬nísi ‫ ونیو‬wə́niw ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to take. past aorist ‫ اوښتل‬awuṣtə́l ‘to turn over’ ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l ‘to want’ ‫ غښتل‬ɣəṣtə́l ‘to twist’ ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ ‫ اوړي‬awoṛi ‫ غواړي‬ɣwā́ṛi ‫ غړي‬ɣaṛí ‫ نغاړي‬nɣā́ṛi ‫ واوښت‬wáwuṣt ‫ وغوښت‬wə́ɣuṣt ‫ وغښت‬wə́ɣəṣt ‫ ونغښت‬wə́nɣəṣt ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ ایشېدل‬išedə́l ‘to boil’ ‫ اروي‬árwi ‫ ایشي‬íši ‫ وروېده‬wā́rwedə ‫ وایشېده‬wə́išedə ‫ برېښېدل‬breṣedə́l ‘to shine. knit’ ‫ اغوندي‬aɣundí ‫ اویې‬úwi.177.Verb components  225 Table 8.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg. pres. 3rd sg.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . count’ ‫ بولي‬bóli ‫ وباله‬wə́bālə appear’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ برېښي‬bréṣi ‫ وبرېښېده‬wə́breṣedə ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ ‫ درومي‬drúmi ‫ ودرومېده‬wə́drumedə ‫ زېږېدل‬zeẓ̌edə́l ‘to be born’ ‫ زېږي‬zíẓ̌i ‫ وزېږېده‬wə́zeẓ̌edə ‫ اخښل‬axṣə́l ‘to mix up’ ‫ مښل‬muṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ اخږي‬axẓ̌í ‫ مږي‬muẓ̌í ‫ واخښه‬wə́axṣə ‫ ومښه‬wə́muṣə ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy [up]’ ‫ رانیسي‬rā́nisi ‫ رانیو‬rā́niw ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to take. get’ ‫ اخلي‬áxli ‫ واخیست‬wā́xist ‫ راوستل‬rāwustə́l ‘to bring’ ‫ راولي‬rā́wəli ‫ راوست‬rā́wust ‫ لوستل‬lwastə́l ‘to read’ ‫ لولي‬lwáli ‫ ولوست‬wə́lwast ‫ ځغستل‬ʣɣastə́l ‘to run’ ‫ ځغلي‬ʣɣalí ‫ وځغاست‬wə́ʣɣāst ‫ راکښل‬rākṣə́l ‘to extract’ ‫ کښل‬kṣəl ‘to pull’ ‫ راکاږي‬rākā́ẓ̌i ‫ کاږي‬kā́ẓ̌i ‫ راوکیښ‬rāwúkiṣ ‫ وکیښ‬wə́kiṣ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to dress’ ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave.228. úyi ‫ واغوست‬wā́gust ‫ واوده‬wə́udə ‫ ایښودل‬iṣodə́l ‘to lay down’ ‫ ایږدي‬íẓ̌di ‫ کښې ښود‬kṣéṣod ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to call.

pres. masc.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg. ‫ سوځل‬swaʣə́l ‘to burn ‫ سوځي‬swaʣí ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ ښوول‬ṣowə́l ‘to show’ ‫ ښیي‬ṣáyi ‫ وښووئ‬wə́ṣow ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to look’ ‫ کښېکښل‬kṣekṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ کښېنستل‬kṣenastə́l ‘to sit [down]’ ‫ کوري‬góri ‫ کښېکاږي‬kṣekā́ẓ̌i ‫ کښېني‬kṣéni ‫ وکوت‬wə́kot ‫ کښېکښود‬kṣekṣod ‫ کښېنوست‬kṣénost ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ لرل‬larə́l ‘to have’ ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کوي‬kawí ‫ کېږي‬kéẓ̌i ‫ لري‬larí ‫ ویني‬wíni ‫ وکړ‬wə́kəṛ ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ درلود‬darlod ‫ ولید‬wə́lid ‫ میندل‬mində́l ‘to find’ ‫ مومي‬múmi ‫ ومینده‬wə́mində ‫ نښتل‬nṣtə́l ‘to stick to’ ‫ نښلي‬nṣə́li ‫ ونښت‬wə́nṣət [down]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.226  Verbs Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. 3rd sg. allow’ ‫ پیرودل‬perodə́l ‘to buy’ ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ ‫ پرېږدي‬préẓ̌di ‫ پیري‬píri ‫ ځي‬ʣi ‫ پرې ښود‬préṣod ‫ وپېرود‬wə́perod ‫ ولاړ‬wlāṛ ‫ چاودل‬čāudə́l ‘to split’ ‫ چول‬čawə́l ‘to blow up’ ‫ څکل‬ʦkəl ‘to smoke’ ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ څکي‬ʦki ‫ وچاود‬wə́čāud ‫ وچاوه‬wə́čāwə ‫ وڅکاوه‬wə́ʦkāwə ‫ څکل‬ʦakə́l ‘to drink. past aorist ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead. taste’ ‫ څکي‬ʦakí ‫ وڅکه‬wə́ʦakə ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to ascend’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ خېژي‬xéži ‫ راځي‬rā́ʣi ‫ وخوت‬wə́xot ‫ راغئ‬rā́ɣəy ‫ رودل‬rudə́l ‘to suck [out]’ ‫ سکښتل‬skəštə́l ‘to cut [off]’ ‫ روي‬rə́wi ‫ سکڼي‬skəṇí ‫ وروده‬wə́rudə ‫ وسکښت‬wə́skəṣt ‫ سول‬swəl. steal’ ‫ بیایي‬biā́í ‫ بوت‬bot ‫ پرانیتل‬prānitə́l ‘to open’ ‫ پرانیځي‬prā́niʣi ‫ پرانیت‬prā́nit ‫ پرېښودل‬preṣodə́l ‘to leave.177.

The causative suffix is no longer productive. (See Section 11. and in some cases. Our data do not suggest a rule for which stem is used. both forms exist.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.2). to compel’ plus either an infinitive or present aorist form of the verb that represents the event being caused.5. a caused event can be expressed periphrastically rather than derivationally.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.Verb components  227 Table 8.1 and Table 8. we do not gloss it in our interlinear examples. as can be seen in the fourth example in Table 8. where do X is the original verb. causative verbs consist of verb stem plus an affix /‑aw‑/. Causative verbs belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8. The result is a verb with the meaning to make (someone/something) do X. past aorist ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to take [away]’ ‫ وژل‬wažə́l ‘to kill.5.2. masc. some causative forms use the present and some the past stem. execute’ ‫ وړي‬wṛi ‫ وژني‬wā́žni ‫ یووړ‬yuwúṛ ‫ وواژه‬wə́wāžə ‫ ویشتل‬wištə́l ‘to shoot’ ‫ ولي‬wə́li ‫ وویشت‬wə́wišt ‫ ویل‬wayə́l ‘to speak’ ‫ وایي‬wā́i ‫ ووایه‬wə́wāyə 8. ‫ـوـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. 3rd sg.2.38. depending on the verb. with a phrase that consists of a verb meaning ‘to force. In modern Pashto.) Since the outcomes of causative affixation are lexicalized. In the case of verbs with more than one stem. pres.2.228.7 The causative morpheme As shown in Table 8.

swing’ ‫ زنګـ‬zang‑ ‘rock. (See the second footnote of Section 8.4. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.2.8 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ The three Pashto verbs to be. only to be is an auxiliary. Most Pashto grammars refer to all three as auxiliary verbs. in a cradle]’   Table 8.) The uses of these three verbs will be described later..4. but properly speaking. that is.38: Causative verbs 8.2. to cause to read] fly. The verbalizers have double sets of aorist forms: one with the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ and one without. swing’ ‫ زنګول‬zang-aw-ə́l ‘to rock laugh’ [e. for now we are only providing tables of their inflected forms.4). as they are irregular and are among the building blocks necessary to form verb constructions. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make.228  Verbs Present stem Past stem Causative ‫ لولـ‬lwal‑ ‘read’ ‑‫ لوست‬lwast‑ ‘read’ ‫ لولول‬lwal-aw-ə́l ‘to teach’ ‑‫ الوز‬alwuz‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوتـ‬alwut‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuz-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ خېژـ‬xež‑ ‘climb’ ‫ ختـ‬xat‑ ‘climb’ ‫ خېژول‬xež-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‑‫ اغوند‬aɣund‑ ‘dress’ ‑‫ اغوست‬aɣust‑ ‘dress’ ‫ اغوندول‬aɣund-aw-ə́l ‘to [lit. while /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used to form denominal verbs (Section 8. they have regular aorist forms that take /wə́‑/. those without /wə́‑/. The tables in this section list the irregular forms.g.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . When /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used as main verbs.2.4. to explode’ climb’ make dress’ ‫ اغوستول‬aɣust-aw-ə́l ‘to make dress’ ‫ خاندـ‬xānd‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندـ‬xand‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندول‬xand-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ زانګـ‬zāng‑ ‘rock.177.4). because they are the forms used as verbalizers. This grammar therefore adopts the term verbalizer for /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ when used as light verbs in denominal constructions. the stems remain identical. The verb to be is used in compound verb constructions (Section 8. to do’ are all used with other verbs to form morphologically complicated verb constructions.228. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

but /d‑/ for third person present continuous.177. It also has suppletive stems. to do’ in the same way as the General Pashto dialects do. In addition. The singular uses a special form. to be. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . speakers will use either present continuous forms of to be or present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ where one might expect present aorist forms.48. they are’.1.1 Forms of to be As is typical of Indo-European languages. with the exception in General Pashto of the third person present form /wi/ ‘he/she/it is. or sometimes by its first person singular present continuous form. Dzadrani does have distinct forms of to be for the present continuous and present aorist. Imperative forms of the verb to be are built from the present aorist base /š-/.8. the verb to be in Pashto is irregular.e. There is no aspectual distinction in the past tense of to be of any of the dialects. /ša/ ‘be!’. Some authors describe the existential particle /šta/ as an alternative form of to be.228. i. in General Pashto and Waziri.3). In the first and second person.43 below. to be does not have separate aorist forms. ‫شته‬ 8. there are no past aorist forms for to be.1. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. In Pashto to be may act as the copula and also as an auxiliary verb in a compound tense construction (see Section 8. for example.39 through Table 8. so in English it is commonly referred to by the infinitive of its English gloss. the verb to be does not even have a standard infinitive or citation form.Verb components  229 The Middle dialects use the three Pashto verbs to be. alone among Pashto verbs.. while the plural uses the second person plural form. /y‑/ for first and second person present continuous forms. Indeed. Tables of their respective paradigms are in the following sections.2. /yəm/. We treat it as a sentence-level operator: see Section 10.5. /šəy/ ‘be!’: ‫یم‬ ‫ی‬ ‫د‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫شئ‬ ‫شـ‬ ‫شه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. The forms of to be are shown in Table 8. but some of the forms differ. as in 8.

39: GP present continuous of to be to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi yã 2nd 3rd ye yā́stəy M day di F do   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . də(W)   Table 8.177.230  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st ‫یم‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یې‬ ‫یاستئ‬ yəm 2nd ye yu yā́stəy ‫یئ‬ yəy (E) ‫یاست‬ yāst (S) 3rd ‫دی‬ M day (E) ‫دي‬ di ‫ده‬ da (E) ‫دئ‬ dəy (W) ‫ده‬ F da.40: Waziri present continuous of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st ‫کېدل‬ 2nd 3rd Plural M ‫وي‬ wi F   Table 8.Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi 2nd ye yəy M day di F do 3rd   Table 8.41: Dzadrani present continuous of to be to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 231 . or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st 2nd 3rd Plural M wi F   Table 8.42: GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be.177.43: Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

44: Dzadrani present aorist of to be wəm 2nd we wu wastəy ‫وئ‬ wəy E ‫واست‬ wāst SW 3rd M ‫ؤ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وې‬ wə ‫ول‬ wəl wə F wa we wə SW   Table 8.) to be Singular Plural 1st ‫وم‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وې‬ ‫وستئ‬ 3rd M F   Table 8.232  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy wi ? (Septfonds is unclear on this form.228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .45: GP past of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

47: Dzadrani past of to be to be Singular Plural 2nd ‫شه‬ ‫شئ‬ ša šəy   Table 8.228.Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi wã 2nd we wāstəy M wə wi F wa we to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy M wə wi F wa we 3rd   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 233 .48: Imperative of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.46: Waziri past of to be 3rd   Table 8.

Table 8. They are often pronounced with an initial /s/ in ordinary speech in the Southwest dialect.53.2 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ The present continuous forms of the intransitive verbalizer are shown in Table 8.8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.52.49. ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېږم‬ ‫کېږو‬ ‫کېږې‬ ‫کېږئ‬ kégəm 2nd kége 3rd kégu kégəy ‫کېږی‬ M kégi F   Table 8.2.177. although speakers may have /š/ in reading and careful Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.54.234  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8.50: Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کېدل‬ The present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. and Table 8. and Table 8.49: GP present continuous of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kéžəm(a) kéži kežã 2nd 3rd kéže M kéžəy kéži F   Table 8.51. Table 8.50.

177.228.51: Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شم‬ ‫شو‬ ‫شې‬ ‫شئ‬ šəm 2nd še 3rd M šu šəy ‫شي‬ ši F   Table 8.Verb components  kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kégəm(a) kégi 2nd kége kégəy 3rd M kégi F   Table 8.53: Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 235 .52: GP present aorist of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši šã 2nd 3rd še M šəy ši F   Table 8.

in his discussion of Dzadrani verbs in general. we have no data to confirm this supposition. The past continuous forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. 1994: 141). In General Pashto and Waziri. /-əl-/ is used in both General Pashto and Waziri forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.236  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši 2nd še šəy 3rd M ši F   Table 8.55 and Table 8.56).228. See Table 8. which implies that it may also appear in forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. the first and second person forms are identical to those of the present aorist forms of to be (Table 8. Our reading of Lorimer is that Waziri does not distinguish aspect for /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the past tense.59.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .56 for past forms of Waziri /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. as can be seen elsewhere in this grammar.177. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. However. Moreover. The past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. so we are not listing forms with /-əl-/ for Dzadrani. which may not distinguish aspect. he does say that it “serves only to relieve ambiguities” (Septfonds.57.42). Although Septfonds does not list any past forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ with the past tense affix /-əl-/.54: Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ speech.58 and Table 8. so we have only past forms for that dialect (Table 8.

177.56: Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  237 ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېد)ل(م‬ ‫کېد)ل(و‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ‫کېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫کېده‬ (‫کېدل)ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ked(ə́l)ə́m 2nd ked(ə́l)é 3rd M kedə́ F ked(ə́l)á   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.55: GP past continuous of ked(ə́l)ú ked(ə́l)ə́y kedə́l(ə́) ked(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šw(ə́l)əm(a) šw(ə́l)i sw(ə́l)ã 2nd 3rd šw(ə́l)e šw(ə́l)əy M šə šwəl F šw(ə́l)a šw(ə́l)e   Table 8.

228.58: GP past aorist of šw(ə́l)u šw(ə́l)əy šwə́l(ə́) šw(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.238  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kedə́m(a) kedi 2nd kede kedə́y M kedə́ kedə́(l) F keda kedé 3rd   Table 8.57: Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شو)ل(م‬ ‫شو)ل(و‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ ‫شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫شه‬ (‫شول)ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ šw(ə́l)əm 2nd šw(ə́l)e 3rd M šə F šw(ə́l)á   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

to do’ Table 8. ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.Verb components  239 kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šwəm(a) šwi 2nd šwe šwəy M šə šwə(l) F šwa šwe 3rd   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .61. to do’. Table 8.2. and Table 8.8. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.60: GP present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 8.177.59: Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کول‬ 8.62 illustrate the formation of the present continuous of the transitive verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make.60 .

61: Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí kawã 2nd 3rd kawé M kawə́y kawí F   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .240  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí 2nd kawé kawə́y 3rd M kawí F   Table 8. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.62: Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.177.

64: Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.228.63. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.63: GP present aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.64. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ kṛəm kṛu ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ kṛe kṛəy kəm 2nd ke 3rd M ku kəy ‫کړي‬ ki kṛi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. and are therefore best analyzed as fully inflected forms. Table 8. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki kã 2nd 3rd ke M kəy ki ko F   Table 8. and Table 8.65 illustrate them. Table 8.177.Verb components  241 The aorist forms of the transitive verbalizer (used with denominal verbs) are irregular.

and is always pronounced in careful speech.66.65: Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.66: GP past continuous of kawə́le kawé ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ ‫ړ‬ The /ṛ/ in present aorist forms is usually written. Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .67.242  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make. but is unpronounced in ordinary speech in many dialects.68 illustrate the formation of the past continuous of the transitive verbalizer. and Table 8. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کولم‬ ‫کولو‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کولئ‬ kawə́ləm 2nd 3rd M kawə́lu kawə́le kawə́ləy ‫کوه‬ (‫کول)ه‬ kawə́ kawə́l(ə) ‫کاوه‬ kāwə́ F ‫کوله‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کوه‬ ‫کوې‬ kawə́la kawá   Table 8. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.177. Table 8.228. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki 2nd ke kəy 3rd M ko F   Table 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. even the /ṛ/ can be dropped. -a/ versus present /- ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـي‬ i/. to do’ Table 8.177.70. Although the past aorist forms of the General Pashto transitive verbalizer without the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix are orthographically identical to the present aorist forms.67: Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. In Waziri and Dzadrani. thus encoding tense without need of either ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l‑/ or ‫ ړ‬/ṛ/.69. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. and Table 8. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 243 kawə́lã 2nd 3rd M kawə́le kawə́ləy kawə́ kawə́l kowə́ F kawə́la kawə́le kawá kawé   Table 8. since the personal suffixes differ from those in the present: past /-ə. Table 8.71 illustrate the formation of the past aorist of the transitive verbalizer.68: Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. the fact that in the present aorist the /ṛ/ is often not pronounced means that in speech the bases are often not identical—so the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix is not always required to differentiate the tense. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 2nd kawə́le kawə́ləy M kowə́ kawə́(l) F kawə́la kawə́le 3rd   Table 8. In past third person forms.Verb components  kawə́l ‘to make.

69: GP past aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ ‫کړلم‬ ‫کړلو‬ ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ ‫کړلې‬ ‫کړلئ‬ kṛəm kṛə́ləm 2nd kṛe 3rd M kṛə́lu kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy ‫کړ‬ ‫کړل‬ ‫که‬ ‫کړله‬ ‫کړه‬ ‫کړلې‬ kṛ kə F kṛu kṛa ‫که‬ ka ‫کړله‬ kṛəl kṛə́lə kṛə́le ‫کړې‬ kṛe kṛə́la   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.244  Verbs ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.

177. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm(a) kṛi kṛə́ləm(a) kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛə(l) F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8.228.Verb components  245 the longer forms that show /-əl-/ in Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . kawə́l ‘to make.71: Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.70: Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.71 are rarer than the short forms.70 and Table 8. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm kṛi kṛə́ləm kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛəl F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8.

‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـونک‬ Verb class Verb Present participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهونکی‬wah-unk-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوونکی‬bow-unk-ay Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ ‫خلاصېدل‬ xalās-edə́l ‘to become free’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to liberate’ ‫خلاصېدونکی‬ xalās-ed-unk-ay ‫خلاصوونکی‬ xalās-aw-unk-ay   Table 8.2). They are described in more detail in the sub-sections below.9.2.1.3.1.3.2.1 Present participle Formation: past continuous base (without /‑əl‑/) + /‑unk/ + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes The present participle is declined like a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6.2).9 Participles There are two kinds of participles in Pashto.228. Some examples are given in Table 8. 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2.2. These participles are both formed on past bases and declined as Class IIIb adjectives (Section 6. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. present and past.73.72.72: Present participles An example of a declined present participle is given in Table 8.246  Verbs 8.

and an example of a declined past participle is given in Table 8. Past participles are then declined using the Class IIIb adjective suffixes (Section 6.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .) past continuous base + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes • (Third conj.Verb components  ‫ ډارول‬ḍārawəl ‘to Masculine 247 Feminine threaten’ Singular Direct ‫ډارونکی‬ ḍārawúnkay Oblique ‫ډارونکي‬ ḍārawúnki Plural Singular Plural ‫ډارونکي‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ḍārawúnki ḍārawúnke ḍārawúnke ‫ډارونکو‬ ‫ډارونکو‬ ḍārawúnko ḍārawúnko Ablative Vocative ‫ډارونکیه‬ ḍārawúnkaya   Table 8.2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.1). the suffix /‑ə́l-/ may be dropped.228.73: Present participle: declension 8. Some examples are given in Table 8.75.2).9. + past aorist base of Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫کېدل‬ /kedə́l/ or ‫کول‬ /kawə́l/ + ‫ـلـ‬ In these forms.4.2 Past participle Formation: • (First and Second conj.) Noun/Adj.1.74.3.2. They are used to form the perfect constructions for first and second conjugation verbs (see Section 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM tlə́lo tlo .228.248  Verbs Verb class Verb Past participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهلی‬wah-əl-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوولی‬bow-əl-ay ‫خلاصېدل‬ ‫ خلاص شوی‬xalās Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ xalās-edə́l ‘to be liberated’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to set free’ šə́way ‫ خلاص کړی‬xalās kə́ṛay   Table 8.74: Past participles Masculine ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ Singular Direct Plural Singular ‫تللی‬ ‫تللې‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلی‬ tlə́le tlə́le ‫تلې‬ ‫تلې‬ tle tle tlə́li ‫تللې‬ tlay tli ‫تللی‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلو‬ ‫تلو‬ tlə́li tli tlə́lo tlo Ablative Vocative Plural ‫تللی‬ tlə́lay Oblique Feminine ‫تللیه‬ tlə́lya ‫تلیه‬ tlya   Table 8.75: Past participle: declension Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.

to do’ ‫ کړی‬kə́ṛay ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ راغلی‬rā́ɣəlay ‫ درتلل‬dərtlə́l ‘to go (to you)’ ‫ درغلی‬də́raɣəlay ‫ ورتلل‬wərtlə́l ‘to go (to him)’ ‫ ورغلی‬wə́raɣəlay   Table 8.3.2.177.3 Irregularities among past participles The verbs /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ (Section 8.2. The prefixed verbs built from /tlə́l/ ‘to go’— /rātlə́l/ ‘to come’.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .76. 8.76: Past participles built on aorist bases 8. rather than the past continuous.2. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ورتلل‬ ‫تلل‬ ‫راتلل‬ ‫درتلل‬ Infinitive Aorist participle ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ شوی‬šə́way ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. /dərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to you)’.3 Simple verb constructions Formation rules for each type of verb construction are given in terms of the verb components described above in Section 8.Simple verb constructions  249 8. All of these atypical forms are shown in Table 8.1 Present continuous Formation: present continuous base + present PNG Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. and these participles are used to form the perfect constructions for third conjugation (denominal) verbs.8) form their past participles from the past aorist base. and /wərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to him)’—also form their past participles from their past aorist base.9.

228.250  Verbs ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېږم‬ ‫رسېږو‬ ‫رسېږې‬ ‫رسېږئ‬ raségəm 2nd rasége 3rd M raségu raségəy ‫رسېږي‬ raségi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177. first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیسم‬ ‫نیسو‬ ‫نیسې‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisə́m 2nd nisé 3rd M nisú nisə́y ‫نیسي‬ nisí F   Table 8.77: Present continuous.78: Present continuous.

second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawə́m 2nd roxānawé 3rd M roxānawú roxānawə́y ‫روښانوي‬ roxānawí F   Table 8. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.80: Present continuous.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 251 .Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ prewə́zəm 2nd prewə́ze 3rd M prewə́zu prewə́zəy ‫پرېوزي‬ prewə́zi F   Table 8.79: Present continuous.228.

2 Present aorist Formation: present aorist base + present PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېږم‬ ‫ورسېږو‬ ‫ورسېږې‬ ‫ورسېږئ‬ wə́rasegəm 2nd wə́rasege 3rd M wə́rasegu wə́rasegəy ‫ورسېږي‬ wə́rasegi F   Table 8.177.252  Verbs 8.3. first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.82: Present aorist.81: Present aorist.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ 1st Singular Plural ‫ونیسم‬ ‫ونیسو‬ ‫ونیسې‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisəm 2nd wə́nise 3rd M wə́nisu wə́nisəy ‫ونیسي‬ wə́nisi F   Table 8.

228.84: Present aorist. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ préwəzəm 2nd préwəze 3rd M préwəzu préwəzəy ‫پرېوزي‬ préwəzi F   Table 8. second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان ک)ړ(م‬ ‫روښان ک)ړ(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ئ‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)ǝm 2nd roxā́n k(ṛ)e 3rd M roxā́n k(ṛ)u roxā́n k(ṛ)əy ‫روښان ک)ړ(ي‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)i F   Table 8.177.83: Present aorist.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 253 .

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . as the PNG suffix is the same for both: /-ə/. because both types redundantly encode tense with the affixes /-eg-/ and /-ed-/. and likewise any strong verbs. number.228.177.85: Past continuous. These constraints prevent homophony between the singular and plural forms of masculine verbs. the past tense affix /-əl-/ does not occur uniformly throughout the paradigm: it is optional in any verbs with other morphological markers of tense. as well as those of third conjugation verbs.254  Verbs 8. and gender. These groups would include first and second person forms of first conjugation intransitive verbs. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېد)ل(م‬ ‫رسېد)ل(و‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫رسېده‬ (‫رسېدل)ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ rased(ə́l)ə́m 2nd rased(ə́l)é 3rd M rasedə́ F rased(ə́l)á rased(ə́l)ú rased(ə́l)ə́y rasedə́l(ə) rased(ə́l)é   Table 8.3. and obligatory in third plural masculine forms. as they encode tense through allomorphic stems. first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. resulting in the tense affix becoming a portmanteau morpheme that encodes tense as well as person. The PNG suffix /-ə/ can thus be omitted in plural masculine forms.3 Past continuous Formation: Past continuous base + past PNG As mentioned earlier. The past tense affix is prohibited in the third person masculine singular for all of the above classes.

Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیو)ل(م‬ ‫نیو)ل(و‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ ‫نیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫نیوه‬ (‫نیول)ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ niw(ə́l)ə́m 2nd niw(ə́l)é 3rd M niwə́ F niw(ə́l)ú niw(ə́l)ə́y niwə́l(ə́) niw(ə́l)á niw(ə́l)é   Table 8.228.87: Past continuous.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 255 . second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.86: Past continuous. first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ prewat(ə́l)ə́m 2nd prewat(ə́l)é 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ prewót prewatə́ NE prewat(ə́l)ú prewat(ə́l)ə́y prewatə́l (‫پرېوت)و‬ prewát(ó) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ prewatə́la ‫پرېوتلې‬ prewatə́le   Table 8.

177. third conjugation 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.89: Past aorist.256  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روبلوی‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوې‬ roxānawə́ləm 2nd roxānawə́le 3rd M roxānawə́ F roxānaw(ə́l)á roxānawəlu roxānawə́ləy roxānawə́l roxānaw(ə́l)é   Table 8.228.88: Past continuous.4 Past aorist Formation: Past aorist base + past PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېد)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(و‬ wə́rased(əl)u wə́rased(əl)əm 2nd ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېده‬ (‫ورسېدل)ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ wə́rased(əl)e 3rd M wə́rasedə F wə́rased(əl)a wə́rased(əl)əy wə́rasedəl(ə) wə́rased(əl)e   Table 8.3.

second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ préwat(əl)əm 2nd préwat(əl)e 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ préwot préwatə NE préwat(əl)u préwat(əl)əy préwatəl (‫پرېوت)و‬ préwat(o) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ préwatəla ‫پرېوتلې‬ préwatəle   Table 8.Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ونیو)ل(م‬ ‫ونیو)ل(و‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ونیوه‬ (‫ونیول)ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ wə́niw(əl)əm 2nd wə́niw(əl)e 3rd M wə́niwə F wə́niw(əl)a wə́niw(əl)u wə́niw(əl)əy wə́niwəl(ə) wə́niw(əl)e   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 257 .91: Past aorist.90: Past aorist.228.177.

96. ‫مه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. which takes the primary stress for the verbal construction.96).) Imperative verbs do not encode the categories of person or tense. as illustrated in Table 8. stress is located according to the lexical stress of the verb. and Table 8. placing the negative particle before the entire verb (Heston 1992: 1589).92: Past aorist. Imperatives are negated with the particle /má/. third conjugation 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.5. In continuous imperatives.3. Only the continuous imperative is used in negation. whereas other dialects place it between the prefix and the stem (Table 8.177. The difference is illustrated below in Section 8.2. Note that NE Pashto treats negative forms differently for prefixed verbs.)/-əy (pl.258  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان کړ)ل(م‬ ‫روښان کړ)ل(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ئ‬ ‫روښان کړ‬ ‫روښان کړل‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ه‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ې‬ roxā́n kṛ(əl)ǝm 2nd roxā́n kṛ(əl)e 3rd M roxā́n kəṛ F roxā́n kṛ(əl)u roxā́n kṛ(əl)əy roxā́n kṛəl roxā́n kṛ(əl)a roxā́n kṛ(əl)e   Table 8.94.98. however.5. they do have both continuous and aorist forms. Table 8.5 Continuous imperative Formation: Present continuous base + -a (sg.

94: Continuous imperative. first conjugation ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه نیسه‬ ‫مه نیسئ‬ má nisa má nisəy   Table 8.95: Continuous imperative. second conjugation (negative) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 259 .Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫نیسه‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisá nisə́y   Table 8.96: Continuous imperative. first conjugation (negative) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ prekawá prekawə́y   Table 8. second conjugation ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ ‫مه پرېکوه‬ ‫مه پرېکوئ‬ pre má kawa má prekawa NE pre má kawəy má prekawəy NE   Table 8.228.177.93: Continuous imperative.

260  Verbs ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښانوه‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawá roxānawə́y   Table 8.)/-əy (pl.3.177. the continuous form is used. To negate an imperative. third conjugation ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه روښانوه‬ ‫مه روښانوئ‬ má roxānawa má roxānawəy   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .99: Aorist imperative.6 Aorist imperative Formation: Present aorist base + -a (sg. first conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228. negative 8.97: Continuous imperative.98: Continuous imperative. ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫ونیسه‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisa wə́nisəy   Table 8.) Aorist imperative forms are used only in the affirmative. third conjugation.

7 Continuous optative ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ Formation: past continuous base + /‑āy/ (SW. Continuous ‫که‬ ‫کاشکې‬ ‫کېدل‬ optative forms can also be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning can X.3.101: Aorist imperative.2.4 for an example. Optative verb forms do not show agreement.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . see Section 10.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to Singular Plural 2nd ‫پرېکړه‬ ‫پرېکړئ‬ 261 cut’ prékṛa prékṛəy   Table 8. third conjugation 8.228.177.5. or /‑e/ (NE) Some examples of continuous optative verbs are shown in Table 8.1. ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.100: Aorist imperative.2 for the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ and Section 8.102. able to X (see Section 8. Optative forms occur after the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’ and the counterfactual particle /kāške/ ‘if only’. second conjugation ‫روښانول‬ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښان کړه‬ ‫روښان کړئ‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ roxā́n kṛa roxā́n kṛəy   Table 8.2.4 for examples).8. /‑ay/ (NW).SE).

262  Verbs Conjugation Verb Continuous optative First (intransitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ رسېد)ل(ای‬rased(ə́l)āy ‫ رسېد)ل(ی‬rased(ə́l)ay ‫ رسېد)ل(ے‬rased(ə́l)e SW.228.177.SE NW NE Third (intransitive) ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM NW NE .102: Continuous optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SE NW NE First (transitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ بیسو)ل(ای‬niw(ə́l)āy ‫ بیسو)ل(ی‬niw(ə́l)ay ‫ بیسو)ل(ے‬niw(ə́l)e SW. to mature’ ‫ پخېد)ل(ای‬paxed(ə́l)āy ‫ پخېد)ل(ی‬paxed(ə́l)ay ‫ پخېد)ل(ے‬paxed(ə́l)e SW.SE NW NE Third (transitive) ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫روښانو)ل(ای‬ roxānaw(ə́l)āy SW.SE NW NE Second (transitive) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکو)ل(ای‬prekaw(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېکو)ل(ی‬prekaw(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېکو)ل(ے‬prekaw(ə́l)e SW.SE NW NE Second (intransitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬prewat(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬prewat(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬prewat(ə́l)e SW.SE ‫ روښانو)ل(ی‬roxānaw(ə́l)ay ‫ روښانو)ل(ے‬roxānaw(ə́l)e   Table 8.

177.5.2 and Section 8.4).228. the light verb /šw-/ is omitted. /-ay/ (NW). Aorist optative forms can be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning could X. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3.2. however.Simple verb constructions  263 8. in the case of third conjugation intransitive verbs. we would see ‫ پوخ شي‬/pox ši/ ‘could ripen. was able to X (see Section 8.8. or /-e/ (NE) Some examples of aorist optative verbs are shown in Table 8. Therefore instead of the incorrect * ‫کېدل‬ ‫شي‬ ‫پوخ شوی‬ ‫ شي‬/pox šway ši/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . could mature’.103.8 Aorist optative Formation: past aorist base + /-āy/ (SW.SE).

SE NW NE Third conjugation.SE NW NE Third conjugation. transitive ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکوای‬prékawāy ‫ پرېکوی‬prékaway ‫ پرېکوے‬prékawe SW.228. transitive ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ وبیوای‬wə́niwāy ‫ وبیوی‬wə́niway ‫ وبیوے‬wə́niwe SW.103: Aorist optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. intransitive ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen. intransitive Verb Aorist optative ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ورسېد)ل(ای‬ wə́rased(əl)āy SW.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to mature’ (‫ پوخ )شوای‬pox (šwāy) (‫ پوخ )شوی‬pox (šway) (‫ پوخ )شوے‬pox (šwe) SW.SE NW NE   Table 8.264  Verbs Verb type First conjugation.177.SE NW NE Second conjugation. transitive ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫ پوخ کړای‬roxā́n kə́ṛāy ‫ پوخ کړی‬roxā́n kə́ṛay ‫ پوخ کړے‬roxā́n kə́ṛe SW.SE NW NE First conjugation.SE ‫ ورسېد)ل(ی‬wə́rased(əl)ay ‫ ورسېد)ل(ے‬wə́rased(əl)e Second conjugation. intransitive ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬préwat(əl)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬préwat(əl)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬préwat(əl)e NW NE SW.

Dialectal variants can be inferred from the various dialectal forms of to be. 8. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی یم‬ ‫رسېدلي یو‬ rasedə́lay yəm F 2nd M F 3rd M ‫رسېدلې یم‬ ‫رسېدلې یو‬ rasedə́le yəm rasedə́le yu ‫رسېدلی یې‬ ‫رسېدلي یئ‬ rasedə́lay ye rasedə́li yəy ‫رسېدلې یې‬ ‫رسېدلې یئ‬ rasedə́le ye rasedə́le yəy ‫رسېدلی دی‬ ‫رسېدلي دي‬ rasedə́lay day F rasedə́li yu rasedə́li di ‫رسېدلې ده‬ ‫رسېدلې دي‬ rasedə́le da rasedə́le di   Table 8. as in: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.105 illustrate the forms of the present perfect.104 and Table 8.1 Present perfect Formation: past participle + present continuous of to be Table 8.1.104: Present perfect.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Alignment is usually ergative in both present and past perfect constructions. so they are not provided here.39). the construction expresses future perfect.4. first and second conjugations ‫به‬ With the addition of the modal clitic /bə/ and present aorist.4. seen in (Table 8.228.1 Perfect constructions 8. it therefore appears to be governed by the matrix verb. which is built on a past stem. forms of to be.4 Compound verb constructions There are two kinds of compound verb construction: those that convey the perfect and those that convey a sense of potential or ability. rather than present continuous.Compound verb constructions  265 8.

266  Verbs ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen. to mature’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫پوخ شوی یم‬ ‫پاخه شوي یو‬ ‫پخه شوې یم‬ ‫پخې شوې یو‬ pox šə́way yəm F paxa šə́we yəm 2nd ‫پوخ شوی یې‬ M F 3rd M paxe šə́we yu ‫پاخه شوي یئ‬ pox šə́way ye pāxə šə́wi yəy ‫پخه شوې یې‬ ‫پخې شوې یئ‬ paxa šə́we ye paxe šə́we yəy ‫پوخ شوی دی‬ ‫پاخه شوي دي‬ ‫پخه شوې ده‬ ‫پخې شوې دي‬ pox šə́way day F pāxə šə́wi yu paxa šə́we da pāxə šə́wi di paxe šə́we di   Table 8.177.228. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.105: Present perfect.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

was able to X.228.2 Past perfect Formation: past participle + past continuous of to be Table 8.2 Potential constructions These constructions express ability: the present potential. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.] will have arrived’ ‫ به رسېدلې وي‬/bə rasedə́le wi/ ‘she/they will have arrived’ 8.’ and the past potential.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .106 illustrates the forms of the past perfect.Compound verb constructions  • • 267 ‫ به رسېدلی یم‬/bə rasedə́lay yəm/ ‘I [m. translatable as ‘could X. translatable as ‘can X.106: Past perfect 8. be able to X.1.4.177.4. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی وم‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wəm F 2nd M ‫رسېدلې وم‬ ‫رسېدلې وو‬ rasedə́le wəm rasedə́le wu ‫رسېدلی وې‬ ‫رسېدلي وئ‬ rasedə́lay we F 3rd M rasedə́li wəy ‫رسېدلې وې‬ ‫رسېدلې وئ‬ rasedə́le we rasedə́le wəy ‫رسېدلی وه‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wə F rasedə́li wu rasedə́li wə ‫رسېدلې وه‬ ‫رسېدلې وې‬ rasedə́le wa rasedə́le we   Table 8.’ Future potential is expressed by means of the modal clitic /bə/ in construction with the present potential.

2 Past potential Formation: aorist optative + past aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Singular Plural ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(و‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ه‬ (‫ورسېد)ل(ی شول)ه‬ wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əm 2nd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)e 3rd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)ə wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)u wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əy wə́rased(əl)ay šwəl(ə)   Table 8.268  Verbs 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.1 Present potential Formation: continuous optative + present aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st Singular Plural ‫رسېد)ل(ی شم‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شو‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شئ‬ rased(ə́l)áy šəm 2nd 3rd ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ rased(ə́l)áy šu rased(ə́l)áy še rased(ə́l)áy šəy ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ rased(ə́l)ay ši rased(ə́l)ay ši   Table 8.107: Present potential 8.2.2.4.4.108: Past potential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

‫زما لویه ګنا دا ده چې پښتون یم‬ zmā loy-a ganā-Ø dā da 1SG.M ‘Asad is a pilot.1..3SG. the Internet.1SG ‘A great sin of mine is that I am Pashtoon.DIR outside be.DIR yesterday in.CONT.177.9) ‫تاسي دباندي واست؟‬ tāsi dabāndi wāst 2PL.DIR this.DIR sin-F.5 Verb usage Example sentences in this section come from our native speaker informants.in be.PRS. house-M .STR..’ (SW) (8.DIR be.CONT.‫نسیمه پرون په کور کي وه‬ nasima-Ø parun pə kor-Ø ki wa Nasima-F..CONT. and also from data in Lorimer (1902).CONT.’ It is likewise used in copular constructions in the past tense to express past states: (8.F če paxtún-Ø yəm COMP Pashtoon-M.Verb usage  269 8.3SG.1 to be as a copula The verb to be is used in copular constructions in the present tense to represent a present and continuing state: (8.8) .DIR be.5.7) ..5.F ‘Nasima was home yesterday.PRS.PST.DIR pilot-M.‫اسد پیلوټ دئ‬ asad-Ø piloṭ-Ø dəy Asad-M. 8.’ (SW) (8.CONT.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .POSS large-F.PRS.DIR be.228.6) .2PL ‘Were you outside?’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.3SG. Lorenz (1982).1 Uses of the verb to be 8. and Septfonds (1994).PST.

DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.3PL.DIR ná wi NEG be.in of P R T team-M.DIR CONT-take.1 Present continuous The present continuous form expresses the present tense.2 to be as an auxiliary verb The verb to be is used as an auxiliary verb with participles to form compound verb constructions we characterize as perfect (Section 8.2. It covers states and conditions as well as ongoing actions.13) .AOR.DIR goods-PL.5.PST.M. this.’ (WAZ) (8.M ‘We've thrown the trash away/left the goods behind.F.DIR in.270  Verbs 8..CONT.WK accept-IMP.’ (WAZ) (8.1): (8.PST-PTCP.DIR be.2 Simple verb constructions 8. both in progress and habitual.M.STR. that I won't have thrown myself into sleep]. (8...OBL to mo a pə xeb-Ø dzon-Ø Ø-čaw-ə́l-ay 1SG..4.M..‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د )پي آر ټي ( ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də pi ar ṭi ṭim-Ø Australia-F.5.12) pə wə́-ye man-a če bəl-a wredz-Ø ta on AOR-3.DIR wi be.SG COMP other-F.PRS.3SG.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.F] ‘Australia is establishing a P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam] team in Afghanistan..OBL day-F.DIR .DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F.228.DIR fee-F. Afghanistan-M .10) miž šāy-ina Ø-ačaw-ə́l-i 1PL.3SG..11) dzəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL.CONT-PRS.5..OBL on.3[SG.’ (DZA) 8.on much-F.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP.PRS.F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that.OBL also on sleep-M self-M.STR.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M ‘You can bet that tomorrow I won't pretend to sleep [lit.AOR.1.PL.

DIR machine-M.PRS-PRS.CONT.’ (8.F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .14) 271 . TV.3[PL.STR.OBL work-PL.PRS-PRS.DIR drama-PL.3[PL.DIR goods-PL.STR..M] ‘Are these goods sold here or are they sent outside?’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL paṛa-Ø pə mā Ø-ačaw-é blame-F.DIR do.on xadmāt-Ø kaw-í services-PL.PRS-1SG ‘I watch their Pakistani music.CONT-PRS.DIR and word-PL.’ (8.DIR 3.DIR CONT-see.228.Verb usage  (8.M.‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M.’ (WAZ) (8.3[SG.17) zə ṭipak-Ø wis ná wəxəl-ã́ 1SG.18) da mol-ina ile nəžde this.177.‫مګر د خپلو ناوړه او غلطو کارونو پړه په ما اچوې‬ magar də nāwaṛa aw ɣalat-o kār-uno but of improper and mistaken-PL.M.16) .DIR čanel-una ye zə Ø-gor-ə́m channel-PL.OBL CONT-throw-2SG ‘But you're blaming me for the misdeeds.DIR on 1SG.DIR of world-F.STR.F. and discussion channels.M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages...M.WK 1SG.’ (8.F.OBL on.DIR now NEG CONT\take.15) .M] if outside to drim-i go. gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde numerous-M number-M language-PL.DIR gun-M..F.‫ ډرامې او خبري چینلونه یې زه ګورم‬،‫پاکستاني سندرې‬ pākistāni sander-e ḍrām-e aw xabar-e Pakistani song-PL.OBL .M.CONT.DIR here near xarts-íž-i ka bahar ta sold-become.M.PRS-1SG ‘I'm not using the gun now.

1.PRS-PRS.2.5..POSS with such word-PL.21) ‫ولې په خوست کې دری ښوونځى نه جوړېږی؟‬ wali pə xost-Ø ke dari-Ø xuwunʣ-ay ná why in.228. Khost-M .in Dari-M.OBL this.AOR.DIR NEG kaw-e do.F.DIR NEG joṛ-eg-i built-become.AOR.M here expensive-PL.DIR school-M.M.DIR thing-PL.’ (WAZ) 8.PRS.3PL.OBL country-PL.M 1-bring.272  Verbs (8.CONT-2SG ‘Why don't you talk about such things with me?’ When an a-initial verb is negated. ‫ ن‬/n/ is prefixed to the verb and the /a/ length- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR. ens to /ā/.M.DIR NEG CONT-have-1SG ‘Don't I need a wedding?’ (8.177.M.PRS.CONT.DIR COMP wole arzón-Ø wi ile grón-Ø there cheap-PL.DIR wi ro-oṛ-í aw be..WK ‘They bring and sell things that are cheap in other countries and expensive here..STR.PRS-PRS.22) ‫ته ولې زما سره داسې خبرې نه کوې؟‬ ta wali zmā sərə dāse xabar-e ná 2SG.19) de nor-e məlk-e áɣa šay-ina ce of other-PL.3PL.CONT-PRS.M] ‘Why isn't a Dari school being built in Khost?’ (8.1 Negation of present tense verbs The present tense is negated by placing /ná/ before the verb.M.M.3[PL.20) ‫واده ته اړتیا نه لرم؟‬ wād-ə tə aṛtiyā-Ø ná Ø-lar-əm wedding-M.OBL for need-F.DIR be.3[SG.CONT.M] 3.. Note that the negative particle bears the stress of the verb phrase.DIR why 1SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M] and xarts-aw-í ye sold-do.3[PL. For example: ‫نه‬ (8.

OBL people-PL.M and sorrow-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .23) .DIR WOULD 3. see Section 8.WK Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.2.PRS. particularly in the NE dialect.PRS-1SG ‘I'll come to you at 3 o'clock.2. and especially if words like tomorrow or next week are present or when the speaker is contrasting future actions. [lit.1.Verb usage  273 (8.5.M.DIR NEG-CONT-buy.2 Present continuous for expressing future events The present continuous may be used to express a future event: (8.177.‫موټر ناخلم‬ moṭər-Ø n-Ø-ā́xl-əm car-M. (8. and I will eat [their] sorrow.1 for a more common way to express the future. and I am going to take care of it.PRS-1SG ‘I'm not buying a car.5.228.PRS-1SG ‘I feel these people’s sorrow.‫د دې خلکو غم راسره دى او غم به یې خورم‬ də de xalk-o ɣam-Ø rā-sərə of this.‫موټر نه اخلم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL sorrow-M.3SG. However.24) . the sorrow of these people is with me.2.23: .CONT.]’ 16 Standardized version of 8.’ ‫به‬ In addition. the modal clitic /bə/ may accompany the present continuous form to express a future event.25) .’¹⁶ 8.‫درې بجې به درځم‬ dre badje bə dərdz-əm three o'clock WOULD arrive.DIR 1-COMIT day aw ɣam-Ø bə ye be.CONT.

although we believe the term irrealis to be more apt.DIR spin-aw-éma white-do. I will whiten my hair with him.COMIT WOULD head-M..’ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL.OBL . requested. [lit.M.2 Present aorist According to Penzl (1955: 114).M.DIR council-F.PRS-1SG ‘I will grow old with him..DIR WOULD in.OBL 15 day-PL..PRS-2SG ‘Oh.274  (8. and so on. every-PL.3[SG.” This is true. required.. present aorist forms express future events that are expected to occur. In construction with the modal clitic /bə/. what you will do! What you will not do!’ (DZA) 8.]’ (DZA) (8. “in many of their occurrences present [aorist] forms express a subjunctive mood rather than a perfective aspect..228. These uses for perfect aorist forms are described in the following two sections.PRS-2SG what WOULD NEG Ø-k-é CONT-do. by themselves or in construction with other modal particles.28) tsə be Ø-k-é tsə be ná what WOULD CONT-do. doubted.DIR do.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS..F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature.OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də .27) yes ye deɣe sra be sar-Ø now COMIT. him. but is desired..CONT-PRS.CONT.in meeting-F.5.177.2.F] and of child-M.F. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F.26) Verbs ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ .OBL path-PL.3[SG.OBL of development-F. they express a variety of other events whose realization is not established in fact..‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this.

(Examples 8.1. For more examples of expressing the future.Verb usage  275 ‫به‬ 8.228.1). should’ and so on.PRS-2SG ‘I hope you'll be quiet now. Most frequently of all. probable.F.) ‫چه‬ ‫که‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ (8. see Section 10. and questions expressing doubt. there is only one unique present aorist form of to be: the third person form /wi/.1.2 Other uses of the present aorist Present aorist forms are also used for wishes.2.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR š-e become.AOR. as in sentence 8. (8.3[SG. the present aorist is used in subordinate clauses beginning with the complementizer /čə/ (when that clause expresses an event with irrealis semantics) or the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’.DIR do.29.1 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/ Pashto does not have a morphological future tense. customary. Otherwise speakers either default to present continuous forms or else use present aorist forms of /kedə́l/.’ (SW) 8.DIR WOULD teacher-F.29) ‫به‬ .DIR become. expressions of necessity.AOR.30) . ‫دې‬ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’.PRS-PRS.43 below. the present aorist form of the verb expresses an unrealized event that is expected to happen.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . curses.47 are from Shafeev 1964: 46. conjectures.F] ‘She will become a teacher.STR.2.2. as in 8.2. ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ ‘must.5.8. When used with the modal clitic /bə/.2. or usual events.STR.36 and 8. gentle commands.31 and 8.CONT-1SG COMP 2SG.DIR quiet-M. As mentioned earlier (Section 8. which does not encode gender or number.5. The sentences below give examples of some of these uses of present aorist forms. some of these uses will be in construction with modals such as /de/.177.‫اوس هیله کوم چې ته غلی شې‬ os hila-Ø kaw-ə́m če ta ɣə́l-ay now hope-F.2.‫دا به ښوونکې شي‬ dā bə xowúnk-e s-i 3SG.

he said to him.177.3 AOR-hit-PST-PST.M ‘Maybe Doctor Abdullah will be a candidate for the United National Front.’ 17 Standardized version of 8.VOC ‘As he looked directly at Musab.32) .DIR š-e musab-a become.DIR be.PST-PST.OBL for of concern-PL.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.F.M.DIR path-F.OBL bite-INF-PL.OBL one-F.3PL.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.M.OBL and sadness-PL.M.M musab-Ø ta ye wə́-way-əl xwā́r-Ø Musab-M.WK AOR-tell.3[PL.DIR on. 'May you be miserable.AOR.M.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL.ANIM.PRS.AOR.31) !‫ خوار شې مصعبه‬: ‫چی کله مخامخ سترګي پرې ولګیدې مصعب ته یې وویل‬ če kala muxāmux sterg-e pre wé-lag-ed-e COMP when direct eye-PL.’¹⁷ (8.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL.OBL to 3.M.33) ‫د نوکانو ژوول ښايي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابديو د څرګندولو یوه لار‬ . Musab!'’ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .ANIM.M miserable-M.‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله دملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ xāyi ḍāktar-Ø abdəla-Ø də mili jubhay-e maybe doctor-M.3SG.F.228.32: ‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله د ملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL kāndid-Ø wi candidate-M.PRS-2SG Musab-M.DIR wi be.276  Verbs (8.AOR.DIR Abdullah-M.3PL.DIR of national front-F.PRS.

’ (WAZ) (8.‫ښایی د دې بنسټونو د بیارغاونې لپاره جدی پاملرنه وشی‬ xāye də bansaṭ-uno də biyā raɣawən-e lə maybe of foundation-PL.Verb usage  (8.DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.35) māṛ-əy ro-səra wə́-k-e food-F.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M.37) ‫ولی یی باید زده کړي؟‬ wali ye bāyad zda kṛ-i why 3.STR.DIR AOR-gather.OBL from work-M.’ (8.36) muẓ̌ bāyád kār-Ø wú-k-u 1PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .AOR-1SG ‘I don't know which words I should use to remember you.F] ‘Maybe they will take a serious look at rebuilding [our social] foundations.OBL of then building-F.OBL manual.ABL serious attention-F.M] ‘Why do they have to learn it?’ (8.harvest(?)-F.AOR-PRS.228.WK NEC learned do.PRS-2SG ‘Have some food with me.39) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M.177.VOC memory do.DIR 1-COMIT AOR-do.’ (8.PRS-PRS.OBL AOR-do. mother.’ (WAZ)¹⁸ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.38) .34) 277 .’ (8.DIR from pār-a jədi pāmlarəna-Ø sake-M. ‘We must work.3[PL.DIR NEC work-M.‫نه پوهیږم په کوم لفظ دی موري یاد کړم‬ ná poh-ég-əm pə kum-Ø lafaz-Ø de NEG learned-beome.CONT.PRS-1PL.DIR AOR\take.M.AOR.PRS-1SG INSTR which-M word-M NEC mor-e yā́d kṛ-əm mother-F.3[SG. and sometimes we use the reaper.

harvest’ is uncertain. [lit.DIR this.STR. self-M.. Sometimes verbal disputes are created between us.177.OBL become.. too.AOR.F COMP 1PL.PRS-1PL ‘They [often] hide marijuana or opium on themselves’ (WAZ) (8..DIR ham mandz ta rādz-í also center to come.F.in tear-PL.DIR INSTR.POSS in.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we get teary-eyed when we sing this song.OBL oral dispute-F.43) ‫زه په خندا شم؟‬ zə pə xandā́-Ø s-əm 1SG..STR.F] ‘Sometimes we argue.F.DIR wi če mung dā sandera-Ø be.OBL ..PRS-1SG ‘Should I laugh?’ (SW) 18 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual.’ The customary usage of the present aorist can also be expressed with the present continuous: (8.CONT.41) .‫کله کله زموږ ترمنځ لفظي شخړه هم منځ ته راځي‬ kala kala zmung tər mandz-Ø lahfzi šxəra-Ø when when 1PL.228.PRS-PRS.3[PL..278  Verbs (8.DIR song-F. eye-PL.STR.DIR or opium-M.AOR.42) čars-Ø liyā afin-Ø e dzon-Ø səra marijuana-M.]’ (8.INSTR paṭ kšéʣ-i hidden AOR\place.3PL.POSS up.OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫کله کله زموږ په سترګو کې اوښکې وي چې موږ دا سندره وایو‬ kala kala zmung pə sterg-o ke uxk-e when when 1PL.STR.PRS. too.DIR Ø-wāy-o CONT-say.40) ..to center-M..DIR INSTR laugh-F.

OBL Wisa-M.STR..45) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se when COMP 3PL.DIR AOR-do.OBL country-PL.44) če e polis-Ø na xlos-Ø COMP from.OBL .M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you.PRS-1PL ‘After getting rid of the police.M COMP COMIT.OBL .PRS-1PL peace-M.DIR š-i biyā kšén-i arām-Ø become.’ (8.M] then COMP der-bež-iž-i 2-near-become..Verb usage  279 (8.AOR..M. Wesa wanted all nations to battle [these] issues.2.3[PL..M.M] then 1.COMIT muqābala-Ø wə́-kṛ-i resistance-M.177.PRS-1PL then AOR\sit.PRS-3[SG.5..3PL.M.228.DIR NEG come.from free-PL.STR.F.SG.3[PL.OBL from all-PL. police-M.M] ‘[Governor] Mr. then I will go..CONT..AOR-PRS.3 Past continuous The past continuous is used for continuous or habitual events in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..’ (DZA) (8. we sit down and rest.’ 8.46) .DIR 2 after wə́-čaw-i ne če AOR-throw-PRS.STR.M.PST-PST.DIR wé-k-i AOR-do.’ (WAZ) (8.3[PL.DIR bə wlā́ṛ-s-əm WOULD AOR\go-go-1SG ‘If he does not come.‫ښاغلي ويسا له ټولو هيوادوالو وغوښتل چي د ستونزو سره مقابله وكړي‬ xāɣl-i wisā-Ø lə ṭol-o hewād-uno mister-M.AOR.PRS-PRS. problem-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ..DIR fire-M.47) ka háɣa ná rā́s-i no zə if 3SG.OBL wə́-ɣuxt-əl če də stunz-o sərə AOR-want..

.CONT-PST..DIR above do.WK sleep-PL.‫په خلاصو سترګو یې خوبونه لیدل‬ pə xlās-o sterg-o ye xob-una INSTR open-PL.3SG.DIR . self-M..M ‘All the men were dancing at the picnic OR.F.M and dance-PST-PST.in Ø-gaḍ-éd-ə CONT-dance-PST-PST.PST-PST.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M.‫سړي ټول په مېله کې ګډېده‬ sar-̣i ṭol-Ø pə mela-Ø ke man-PL.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST..228.F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.’ (8.OBL WOULD shout-PL..48) .3SG.280  Verbs (8.F.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F. and dancing. picnic-F.OBL world-F.3SG.’ (8.50) .3SG.51) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .M.M..‫ خندېده او ګډېده‬،‫له ځانه سره غږېده‬ lə dzān-a sərə ɣag-éd-ə COMIT.3PL.M ‘He was talking with himself.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . the entire world would cry out.OBL 3. laughing.DIR in.177.‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.M xand-éd-ə aw gaḍ-éd-ə laugh.F..OBL ..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. all the men used to dance at picnics.F.49) .OBL of woman-PL.3SG.’ (8.COMIT voice-PST-PST.M.DIR step-M.3PL.M ‘He was sleeping with his eyes open.DIR all-M.OBL eye-PL.DIR Ø-lid-ə́l CONT-see.PST-PST-PST.

.ABL on this country-M nuw-i bandiz-una wə́-lagaw-əl new-PL. this.DIR .’ (DZA) (8.DIR sanction-PL.WK NEG mər-kaw-ə́l-e killed-do..OBL government-M.DIR affair-F ..’ (WAZ) (8.3SG.DIR yesterday of Iran-M.’ (DZA) 8.3PL.M ‘Yesterday the British government placed new sanctions on Iran in response to their nuclear program.228.DIR 1 CONT-throw-PST-PST.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F ‘I was making great gains in that business. when she threw her mouth upon me].DIR 1SG.. or on the event per se rather than its duration or multiple instances of the event.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ..CONT-PST-2SG ‘All day long.4 Past aorist The past aorist verb form expresses actions with focus on completion.OBL of atomi progrām-Ø lə amal-a pər dáɣa hewād-Ø atomic program-M. that.WK joṛ-aw-ə́l-a built-do.52) pə háɣa čār-Ø ke ḍer-a binga-Ø mi in...55) ‫دبريتانيا حکومت پرون دايران داتومې پروګرام له امله پردغه هيواد نوى بنديزونه‬ .54) če di xwl-ə r Ø-čaw-ə́l-a COMP 3SG..STR.‫ولګول‬ də britānyā-Ø hakumat-Ø parun də irān-Ø də of Britain-F. (8.53) pə da domra wredz-Ø ke ye ná in.5.F.OBL from sake-M.CONT-PST-PST.in 3.3SG.DIR so.177.Verb usage  281 (8.F ‘When she was taking me in her mouth [lit.M. he did not [want to] kill you.M.much day-F.DIR wealth-F.OBL mouth-F.2.in much-F.DIR AOR-hit-PST.

DIR 1SG.282  (8.3SG..on the 3-to AOR\sit. city-M.AOR-PST.59) e sažkol-Ø silab-Ø tsə naqsān-Ø of this. sitting near it...year-M.M ‘Did the flooding cause any damage this year?’ (WAZ) (8.PST-PST.57) .M.DIR of ṭop-i pə sar-Ø nə bya wer-ta kénost-Ø hill-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR on own-M place-M AOR\sit-PST.3SG.3SG. head-M .OBL from pār-a bayrān mešt-o afɣān-āno lāryun-Ø sake-M.‫سړی په خپل ځای کښېناست او نور هم غصه شو‬ saṛ-ay pə xpəl-Ø dzāy-Ø kxénāst-Ø aw nor ham man-M.OBL protest-M.from AOR-leave.OBL .F ‘I hid my affection..‫مينه مې پټه کړله‬ mina-Ø me páṭ-a kəṛ-l-a love-M.177.3SG.’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.60) ye šār-Ø na ó-wet-Ø dā ye from.AOR-PST-PST.’ (8.DIR do.3SG.OBL of release-M.AOR.PST-PST.M ‘Afghans living in Bayern [Germany] protested for the release of Afghan prisoners.3SG..3SG.’ (8.ABL Bayern settled-PL.DIR də́rk-ə give..ANIM.M ‘He has left the town to go wait at the top of the hill..228.PST-PST.M ‘The gentleman took his seat but was angry.OBL Afghan-PL.’ (8.WK hidden-F.DIR what damage-M.OBL on.M.M.M this.M aw other also ɣósa šo-Ø angry become.AOR.OBL flood-M.PST-PST.58) .56) Verbs .DIR wə́-kəṛ-Ø AOR-do..‫د افغان زندانیانو دخلاصون لپاره بایرن مېستو افغانانو لاریون وکړ‬ də afɣān zindān-iāno də xlāsun-Ø lə of Afghan prisoner-PL.

PST-PST. threshold-F.3.STR.SG ‘Thanks a lot.F ‘This story fell into my ear.6).M čə yenənə wer-nə́nawet-Ø when inside 3-AOR\enter.’ (DZA) 8.DIR then this.M. Section 8..F.DIR become..DIR repeated-do-INF-PL.CONT.PRS-2SG healthy-M.DIR thanks-F.3SG.5. (8.AOR.3SG.DIR ear-M nénawet-a AOR\enter.177.62) a kisa-Ø ye mo pə da ɣwaž-Ø this story-F.’ (DZA) (8.SG big-M.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ (8.PST-PST.DIR other-PL.PRS-IMP.‫ نورې ویډیوګانې هم واچوه‬.5.DIR video-PL.‫ډېره ډېره مننه‬ ḍer-a ḍer-a manana-Ø nor-e vidio-gāne many-F.PRS-IMP.228.STR. He penetrated the interior.61) če yenənə pə daṛa-Ø ke wə́-lg-ed-ə COMP inside in.F.64) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.AOR.ABL come.2.DIR of 1SG. Please post more videos.63) .M.3SG.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..DIR ham w-ā́čaw-a also AOR-throw-IMP.PRS-IMP.Verb usage  283 (8.’ (8.OBL house-M.in AOR-hit-PST-PST.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL jahān-Ø sərə ašnā́ š-a universe-M.OBL COMIT friend become.5 Imperative Imperative forms convey commands (Section 8.‫له واړه کوره راوځه لوى جهان سره اشنا شه‬ lə wār-ə kor-a rādz-á loy-Ø from small-M.DIR abuse-PL.DIR .SG ‘Step outside your comfort zone and get to know the wide world out there.3.65) .M ‘He landed on the inside.DIR many-F.OBL on this. at the entrance.

or repetition: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.’ (WAZ) (8.PRS-IMP.’ (8.PRS-2SG ‘Make me some popcorn!’ (DZA) Present continuous stems may be used to form commands as well. thus intensifying them.PRS-IMP.AOR-PST.70) šə waxt-Ø kam-Ø day mo ta good time-M.DIR little-M.OBL for popcorn-PL.PRS.F pə yaw-a marm-əy ye arā́m-Ø kṛ-a COMIT one-F.WK calm-M.F.PL ‘Sit with me.DIR 3. [i.DIR 1SG.‫خپل ظاهر ته دې پوره پام وکړه‬ xpəl-Ø zāher-Ø ta de pura pām-Ø own-M.DIR 1-with AOR\sit.WK complete attention-M.DIR AOR-do.F.e.177.SG ‘If he does anything stupid.AOR-IMP.SG COMP good wə́-žār-əma AOR-cry-1SG ‘Leave me alone for a little bit so I can have a good cry.AOR-IMP.DIR hour-F.SG ‘Okay. calm him with a single shot.WK AOR-do.OBL to ijaza-Ø rók-a permission-M. Let me leave now.’ (8.67) .STR.OBL to 2. like so.M 1SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .71) mo ta nan-e wə́-k-e 1SG.WK AOR\abandon-IMP..284  Verbs (8. imparting a sense of urgency. for half an hour.66) .68) .69) dāse nim-a genṭa-Ø rā-səra kšén-əy such half-F.DIR wə́-kṛ-a AOR-do.’ (WAZ) (8.DIR 3.3SG. kill him]’ (8.‫شېبې مې پرېږده چې ښه وژاړمه‬ šeb-e me prégd-a če xə moment-PL.SG ‘Pay full attention to how you look.228.CONT.DIR give. Time is short.DIR appearance-M. continuation.AOR.DIR be.DIR do.DIR bullet-F.STR.‫ په يوه مرمۍ يې آرام کړه‬،‫که بې بې عقلي يې وکړه‬ ka be be aql-i ye wə́-kṛ-a if without without intelligence-F.

DIR day də xudāy kor-Ø day be..law-F 2.PRS-IMP.SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.3SG.CONT. food-F ke Ø-ačaw-á .Verb usage  285 (8.in CONT-throw-IMP.3SG.law-F.CONT.in. reading Pashto.73) .CONT-IMP.in.’ (8.. it's a holy place.DIR few few of mother.SG ‘Keep speaking Pashto.PRS.SG this.76) .75) .‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL.PRS-IMP.‫ د خدای کور دی‬،‫پام کوه! دا جومات دی‬ pām-Ø kaw-á dā jumāt-Ø attention-M.CONT-IMP.SG Pashto-F.PRS-IMP..‫هره ورځ لږ لږ د خواښې په ډوډۍ کې اچوه‬ har-a oradz-Ø ləg ləg də xwāx-e pə ḍoḍ-əy every-F.’ (8.DIR CONT-tell.’ (8.DIR day-F.M ‘Behave yourself! This is a mosque. and writing Pashto.74) .SG ‘Humbly submit to the government!’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫ پښتو ليکه‬، ‫ پښتو لوله‬، ‫پښتو وايه‬ paxto-Ø Ø-wāy-á paxto-Ø Pashto-F.72) .DIR Ø-lwal-á paxto-Ø Ø-lik-á CONT-read.DIR CONT-kill.OBL in.OBL people-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .SG ‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].ABL 3.DIR be.WK CONT-eat.SG ‘Add a little bit [of poison] to your mother-in-law's food every day.177.DIR do.CONT-IMP.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.PRS-IMP..OBL to helpless-NMLZ do.228.PRS.M.SG Pashto-F.77) sarkor-Ø ta ajiz-i kaw-a government-M.’ (8.DIR CONT-write-IMP.’ (8.M of God house-M.DIR mosque-M.WK freed-do.‫په خواښي دې خوره‬ pə xwāx-e de Ø-xor-á INSTR mother.

which usually occurs before the verb but can also be after it.PRS-IMP.‫د نن کار سبا ته مه پرېږده‬ də nən kār-Ø sabā-Ø ta má of today work-M.82) .AOR-IMP. Negative commands almost always use continuous forms.SG ‘Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today.PRS.ABL self-M.from of thanks-F.OBL .PRS-IMP.3[SG.CONT. other-M.DIR NEG AOR\recognize.STR.CONT-IMP.OBL from sake-M.PRS-IMP.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .SG ‘Don't get upset if he doesn't recognize you.SG ‘Don't expect thanks from someone else!’ (8..286  Verbs All types of commands. don't kill yourself for the sake of another!’ (8.DIR NEG Ø-wažn-á CONT-kill.OBL hope-F.OBL who.SG ‘Son.DIR má kaw-á NEG do.. ‫مه‬ (8.DIR tomorrow-M.228.VOC of other-M.78) !‫ساده مه شه‬ sāda mə́ s-a naive NEG become.M] NEG sad kég-a become..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SG ‘Don't be naive!’ (8.’ (8.81) !‫د بل چا څخه د مننې هيله مه كوه‬ də bel-Ø čā tsəxə də manan-e hila-Ø from. whether using continuous or aorist forms.78. are negated by /má/.177.‫ مه خپه کیږه‬، ‫که تا نه پیژني‬ ka tā ná péžən-i má xapa if 2SG.80) .PRS-PRS.79) !‫زویه د بل د پاره ځان مه وژنه‬ zoy-a də bel-Ø də pār-a dzān-Ø má son-M..DIR to NEG pregd-á CONT\abandon. except in certain stock phrases like 8.

5..‫دونیا منلی یې‬ dunyā-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-ay ye world-F. the auxiliary.1. as can be seen in the sentences below. and are generally best translated using the respective English present and past perfect forms.3 Compound constructions: perfect Agreement in present and past perfect constructions is governed by the main verb.PRS.177. This means that in transitive constructions the main verb.1 Present perfect First and second conjugation verbs form this tense with the past continuous participle and the present continuous of to be..M.CONT.PRS. Qatar-M .Verb usage  287 8.OBL in..2SG ‘The world has accepted you.‫افغانستان کی ژمی زور اخیستی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø ke žim-i zor-Ø Afghanistan-M in winter-M.3.‫طالبانو په قطر کې د سياسي دفتر پرانيستلو خبره منلې ده‬ tālibān-o pə qatar-Ø ke də siyāsi daftar-Ø də Taliban-PL.4.DIR be.3SG.85) .M. and—in the case of third conjugation verbs—the adjectival complement agree with the undergoer of the action.83) .in of political office-M.M.DIR be.1.CONT.’ (8.5.84) . Third conjugation verbs use the aorist participle and the present continuous forms of to be.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ (8.F ‘The Taliban have confirmed that they will be opening a political office in Qatar.M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. (8.F. as illustrated above in Section 8.228.DIR CONT-accept-PST-PTCP.OBL of prānist-əl-o xabara-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-e open-INF-PL.PRS.DIR da be.M ‘Winter has taken hold in Afghanistan.OBL word-F.CONT.OBL CONT-accept-PST-PTCP.DIR Ø-axist-áy day CONT-take[PST]-PTCP. Perfect constructions in Pashto encode relative tense. as can be seen in the example sentences in the following two sections.OBL force-M. 8..3SG.

POSS house-M.OBL of defense-F.1SG COMP translation-F.89) .M.‫اوس دې فیصلې ته رسېدلی یم چې ترجمه کول عیب نه دی‬ os de faysal-e ta ras-ed-ə́l-ay now this.CONT.F COMP marriage-M..’ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PRS. and now it's mine and not yours!’ (8.M.177.‫دواړو د دفاع وزيرانو په افغانستان کښې د پوځ ستړيا احساس کړې ده‬ dwāṛ-o də difah-Ø wazir-āno pə both-PL.3SG.F.in of force-M.. afɣānistān-Ø kxe də paudz-Ø stəṛyā-Ø ihsās Afghanistan-M .PRS.DIR zmā kor-Ø day ná stā 1SG.DIR AOR-do.CONT.3[SG.M.in nənəwat-ə́l-e yəm aw os dā CONT\enter-PST-PTCP.DIR be.DIR be.OBL decision-F.AOR-PTCP.OBL minister-PL..DIR NEG be.88) ..M.STR.3SG.F] ‘Now he's forced Zarghuna to get married.DIR do.M ‘I've finally come to the conclusion that doing translations isn't so bad.PRS.DIR be..PRS.1SG and now this.CONT.ANIM.DIR 3.3SG.OBL exhaustion-F.F.F.’ (8..POSS ‘I've entered an empty house.AOR-PTCP.AOR-PRS.WK now forced-F.DIR ayb-Ø ná day defect-M.DIR feeling kə́ṛ-e da do.86) Verbs .CONT.‫زرغونه يې اوس مجبوره کړې ده چي واده وکړي‬ zarɣona-Ø ye os majbur-a kə́r-e Zarghoona-F.STR.DIR do-INF-PL. one empty house-M .STR.PRS.CONT.OBL in.M NEG 2SG.87) !‫زه په یو خالي کور کي ننوتلې یم او اوس دا زما کور دي نه ستا‬ zə pə yaw xāli kor-Ø ki 1SG.DIR yəm če tarjuma-Ø kaw-əl-Ø be..288  (8.F ‘Both Defense Ministers have seen how exhausted troops in Afghanistan are.3SG.OBL to arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.CONT..DIR da če wād-ə wə́-kṛ-i be.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR in.228.PRS.

AOR.M.’ (8.90) 289 .93) .92.WK benefit-F. as in 8. or doubt or uncertainty about one.M ‘He will also have benefited because he will have killed his cousin.OBL without civilization-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.DIR Ø-ist-ə́l-i wi CONT-remove.OBL on. Because of the irrealis semantics of this construction.AOR..M.ABL WOULD 1PL.‫تا پر ما باندی غلط فکر کړی دی‬ tā pər mā bānde ɣalat fikər-Ø 2SG.AOR-PTCP.‫د سوات غيرتمندو پښتنو به د تالبانو نوغی ايستلی وی‬ də swat-Ø ɣayr tamadun-o paxtan-o of Swat-M..91) ‫وی‬ .OBL .228.M.WK problem-F.3SG.93.OBL mark-PL.OBL Pashtoon-PL.’ (8.F.on mistaken thought-M.177.AOR-PTCP.DIR be.M.DIR tərbur-Ø Ø-waž-ə́l-ay wi cousin-M.DIR be. (8.to very-M.M.ABL border-M.‫هم به يې ګټه کړې وي ځکه چې هم به يې خپل تربور وژلی وي‬ ham bə ye gaṭa-Ø kə́ṛ-e also WOULD 3.‫ترډيره حده به موستونزه حل کړي وي‬ tər ḍer-a had-a bə mo stunza-Ø up. 8.F because COMP also WOULD 3.STR.PST-PST-PTCP.92) . and 8.DIR be. the present aorist form /wi/ is used as the third person auxiliary.3SG.DIR CONT-kill-PST-PTCP..DIR hál kə́ṛ-e wi solution do.DIR kə́ṛ-ay day do.3SG..94.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PL.PRS.AOR.STR.DIR be. 1SG.F.M ‘Those heathen Pashtoons in Swat will have eradicated any trace of the Taliban.DIR do.F ‘We will have more or less resolved the issue.AOR-PTCP.AOR.M.91.M ‘You've got me all wrong.OBL bə də tālibān-o noɣ-i WOULD of Taliban-PL.3SG.’ ‫به‬ ‫دې‬ The modal particles /bə/ or /de/ in combination with the present perfect construction express a supposition about a future event.WK own-M.DIR wi dzəkə če ham bə ye xpəl-Ø be.PRS.PRS.3PL. as in 8.CONT.Verb usage  (8.PRS.PRS.

F.ABL in..OBL WOULD 1SG.PL.CONT.PST.PST.2.) (8.F.M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT.97) .STR.94) . Facebook-M ...1SG ‘He may have seen me.WK from face-M.PRS. yaw-a mujala-Ø ke Ø-lwúst-e one-F.OBL Ø-bal-ə́l-ay wəm CONT-invite-PST-PTCP.DIR CONT-see.WK 3..DIR EMPH 1SG. and third conjugation verbs employ the aorist participle.in CONT-read. first and second conjugation verbs employ the past continuous participle.PST-PST-PTCP. (See Section 8.5..DIR magazine-F. All use the past continuous of to be as the auxiliary.4.PST-PTCP.‫زه راغلم ځه چې تا بللی وم‬ zə rā́ɣl-əm dzəkə če tā 1SG.3SG.DIR come.228.95) .290  Verbs (8.‫په فيس بوک کې يې د مرستې يو پيغام پرېښودلی و‬ pə fesbuk-Ø ke ye də mərast-e yaw peɣām-Ø in.DIR be.STR.DIR be.DIR prexud-ə́l-ay wə CONT\leave-PST-PTCP.‫دوه کيسې خو مې يې د مخه په يوه مجله کې لوستې وې‬ dwa kis-e xo me ye də məx-a pə two story-PL.DIR we be.WK of help-F.DIR yəm be.M ‘She had posted a message on Facebook asking for help.F ‘I had previously read two stories of his in a magazine.’ (8.3.M.DIR ..M.1.’ (SW) 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PST.1SG ‘I came because you had invited me..STR.177..CONT.STR. in this construction.‫هغه به ذه ليدلی يم‬ haɣə́ bə zə Ø-lid-ə́l-əy 3SG.96) .AOR-1SG because COMP 2SG.in 3.3PL.’ (8.2 Past perfect As with the present perfect.CONT.OBL one message-M.PST.

OBL run-PL.’ (8.3 Negation of perfect tenses When compound tenses are negated.DIR built-PL.PRS.98) de dzaɣāst-o duṛ-e jóṛ-e this.101 and 8.DIR kə́ṛ-e we do.PRS.PL.5.CONT.1SG ‘I'm in transit. Likewise. the participle can occur before this negated verb phrase.CONT.OBL on side-F budget-F..M.DIR be. I haven't gotten as far as the station.3PL. 3PL.to encampment-M.DIR do.106.PL.OBL sand.DIR be.DIR kə́ṛ-ay wə do.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .STR. as in 8.Verb usage  291 .102 and 8. or after it.‫زموږ ډیموکرات دوستانو دوه کاله پخوا بودیجه تصویب کړی وه‬ (8.OBL ..DIR NEG be.OBL also COMIT.PST.228.OBL two kāl-a pə xwā-Ø bodija-Ø taswíb-Ø year-M.105 and 8. as in 8.M.103. the light verb construction can occur either before the negated verb phrase.OBL friend-PL.‫دې ځغاستو دوړې جوړي کړی وې‬ (8.M ‘Our friends the Democrats had passed a budget two years ago.3. in perfect constructions with third conjugation verbs. as in 8.AOR-PTCP.3SG.CONT.F.177.F ‘The government had also helped them significantly. as in 8.F ‘Their steps had given rise to sandstorms.CONT-1SG up.F.107.storm-PL.’ .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.‫ تر منزل له رسیدلی نه یم‬.M.PST.’ 8. the negative particle /ná/ immediately precedes the auxiliary verb and forms a constituent phrase with it.ANIM.DIR approval-M.101) .STR.F.3PL. With first and second conjugation verbs. ‫نه‬ (8.DIR do.104.99) zmung ḍimokrāt-āno dost-āno dwa 1PL..DIR be. or after it.CONT.POSS democrat-PL.AOR-PTCP.AOR-PTCP.‫دولت هم د دوی سره د پام وړ مرستې کړي وې‬ dawlat-Ø ham də duy sərə də pām government-M.COMIT of attention waṛ mərast-e kə́ṛ-e we worthy help-PL.‫مزل کوومه‬ mazal-Ø kaw-əma tər manzil-Ø lā distance-M.100) .ANIM..F.F.OBL yet Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay ná yəm CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.

PRS.CONT.104) .228.1SG ‘He hasn't let me talk today.103) .DIR torn-PTCP.’ (8.M ‘Other sources haven't confirmed the Taliban's assertions.M.DIR NEG yəm be.OBL claim-PL.DIR in own-M condition-M NEG day prexúd-ay be.F.DIR oradz-Ø hír-a kə́ṛ-e ná day-F.OBL tā́yid kə́ṛ-e ná di confirmation do.DIR ‘I still haven't had my dream come true.AOR-PTCP.‫خدای پاک انسان په خپل حال نه دی پرېښودی‬ xudāy pāk insān-Ø pə xpəl-Ø hāl-Ø ná God clean person-M.DIR NEG wa be.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .F.to now-M.’ (8.102) tər os-a lā dáɣa lwaṛ-Ø armān-Ø ta ná up.AOR-PTCP.PL.M.DIR other-PL.DIR do.OBL to NEG yəm Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay be.F.105) .PST-PTCP.PRS.DIR ‘God hasn't left mankind behind.M.M.DIR NEG be.CONT.PST.CONT.DIR people-M.OBL high-M.F.F.‫نن يې خبرو ته پرېښودى نه يم‬ nən ye xabar-o ta prexúd-ay ná today 3.3SG.POSS disaster-M.OBL to CONT\permit.‫تر اوسه لا دغه لوړ ارمان ته نه یم رسیدلی‬ (8.3SG.DIR forgotten-F.CONT.STR.3PL.‫زمونږ مصيبت ځپلي ولس دا ورځ هيره کړی نه وه‬ zmung masibat-Ø dzəpəl-i walas-Ø dā 1PL.WK word-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.292  Verbs .M.1SG CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.OBL this.OBL desire-M.106) .’ (8.‫د طالبانو ادعاوې نورو سرچینو تایید کړي نه دي‬ də tālibān-o idā-gāne nor-o sarčin-o of Taliban-PL.OBL source-PL.PRS.CONT.PRS.ABL yet this.177.’ (8.PST-PTCP.F.M CONT\abandon.F ‘Our war-torn nation hadn't forgotten that day.

they do not take agreement suffixes. this.7 and Section 8.DIR do.5.228.Verb usage  293 .AOR.177. but unlike participles.‫پخوا مې هيڅکله په دغشان فعالت کې نه دی ګډون کړی‬ (8.’ 8.PRS-1SG ‘My vision still works and I can still write.in NEG day gaḍun-Ø kə́ṛ-ay be.3.CONT..CONT-PRS.DIR ‘I've never done this type of thing before.DIR do.5.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .1 Expressing potential present events The present tense of the potentiality construction is formed with the present optative form of the matrix verb and the present aorist form of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’: (8. See Section 8.3SG.3.M] and still ham Ø-lik-ə́l-ay š-əm also CONT-write-PST-OPT become.4 Compound constructions: potential ‫کېدل‬ Optative verb forms are used in a construction with aorist forms of the verb /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to express potential.107) pəxwā me hits kala pə daɣšān fālāt-Ø ke ná before 1SG. and should therefore be regarded as optatives.WK still work-M..AOR-PTCP.M.‫نظر مې لا کار کوي او لا هم لیکلای شم‬ nizar-Ø me lā kār-Ø kaw-í aw lā sight-M. 8. 1996: 146).3[SG..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M participation-M.DIR 1SG.108) ‫کېدل‬ .8 for the formation of optative verbs.PRS.4.WK none when in.same activity-M .. These verbs are sometimes analyzed as participles in these constructions (Tegey & Robson.

DIR people-PL.DIR there on time-M.‫پرېښودلای شئ‬ (8.DIR INSTR large-F.110) . or was carried out over an extended period of time in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.111) ‫تۀ هلته پر وخت ورسېدلی شوې؟‬ ta həlta pər waxt-Ø wə́-ras-ed-əl-ay 2SG.OBL to din-Ø xapar-aw-ə́l-ay š-u religion-M.AOR.AOR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL INSTR manner-M also CONT\leave-PST-OPT š-əy become.M.PST-2SG ‘Were you able to get there on time?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction.CONT-PST-OPT become.PRS-2PL ‘You can also leave us your telephone number over the phone or by email.PRS-1PL ‘We can proselytize on a large scale.DIR manner-F.2 Expressing potential past events The past tense of the potentiality construction is formed from the optative forms of the matrix verb and past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson.4.294  Verbs ‫تاسود خپل ټلیفون شمېره موږ ته په غږیزه توګه او دبرېښنا لیک په ډول هم‬ .STR. The aorist optative is used for an event that was actually carried out: ‫کېدل‬ (8.OBL telephone-M.STR.’ (8.DIR mung ta pə ɣagiz-a toga-Ø aw də brixnā 1PL.OBL to INSTR vocal-F.5.177.STR.DIR AOR-arrive-PST-PST-OPT šw-e become.109) tāso də xpəl-Ø ṭelefun-Ø šmira-Ø 2PL. the connotation is that the event either did not take place.DIR spread-do. 1996: 148).OBL number-F.’ 8.‫موږ په غټه پیمانه خلګو ته دین خپرولی شو‬ mung pə ɣaṭ-a pemāna-Ø xalk-o ta 1PL.DIR measure-F.228.DIR and of electricity lik-Ø pə ḍawal-Ø ham prexud-ə́l-ay letter-M.DIR of own-M.AOR.

228...OBL last week corn-M CONT-plant-PST-OPT sw-ə become. and present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.M ‘People in East Germany were able to watch TV shows from West Berlin.ANIM.DIR do.114) . 1996: 146)..PST-PST.3PL..3SG.’ 8.DIR ləg-a mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay šw-a little-F.’ (8.‫افغانانو له موږ سره ډېره لږه مرسته کولای شوه‬ afɣān-āno lə mung sərə ḍer-a Afghan-PL.OBL .M.F ‘The Afghans were able to help us very little [as they were busy with their own armed conflict].’ (8.M. either a continuous or an aorist optative form of the matrix verb.5.STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL people-PL.3SG.3 Expressing potential future events Potential future events are expressed using the modal clitic /bə/.DIR help-F..112) . 1PL. ‫د ختیز جرمني خلکو د لویدیز برلین‬ də xatiz-Ø jermani-Ø xalk-o də lowediz-Ø of east-M..113) .OBL COMIT.OBL Germany-M.AOR.DIR CONT-see.PST-PST.AOR.CONT-PST-OPT become.COMIT very-F. televizyoni progrām-una Ø-lid-ə́l-ay Berlin-M.‫مونږ تېره هفته جوار کرلی شوه‬ mung tera hafta jwār-Ø Ø-kar-ə́l-ay 1PL.OBL berlin-Ø ..‫ تلویژني پروګرامونه لیدلی شول‬.AOR.. televised program-PL.PST-PST.OBL .OBL of west-M.M ‘We might have been able to plant the corn last week [if you had brought the seeds].177. ‫به‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132...STR.M.4.PST-PST-OPT šw-əl become.Verb usage  295 (8. Using the aorist optative implies that the event is expected by the speaker to take place (Tegey & Robson.

OBL WOULD of Afghanistan-M.OBL to AOR-arrive-PST-OPT š-i become.PRS-PRS.DIR WOULD only INSTR dumra way-əl-o préxud-əl-ay so.M.M.M.228.CONT.’ (8.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.177.PRS-PRS.much say-INF-PL.F.‫د خبرو له لارې به د افغانستان لس کلنه جګړه پای ته ورسولی شي‬ də xabar-o lə lār-e bə də afɣānistān-Ø of word-PL.PRS-PRS.F.’ (8.M. [they]'ll be able to end the 10 year-old war in Afghanistan.to.PST-PTCP.AOR.M] ‘People thought that they would be allowed to pass only by talking enough [to convince us].DIR war-F.3[PL.116) .‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become.AOR-OPT become.to some all-PL.PRS.3[PL.M.115) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M] ‘With diplomacy.DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.OBL las kalən-a jagṛa-Ø pāy-Ø ta wə́-rasaw-əl-ay ten year.3 usage-F.OBL this.DIR da če duy bə yawāze pə be.STR.DIR CONT-consider-PST-PTCP.PL.DIR end-M.AOR.117) .AOR.F COMP 3PL.3SG.OBL from side-F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR.296  Verbs (8.DIR up.old-F.3[PL.DIR reader-PL.‫خلكو دا لې ده چې دوی به یوازې په دومره ویلو پرېښودلای شي‬ xalk-o dā Ø-gaṇ-ə́l-e people-PL.OBL AOR\permit-PST-OPT š-i become.

DIR NEG EXT COMP such one thing-M.Verb usage  297 ‫ایاولس مشرکرزای به په دوهم بون کې ورکړي تضمیونونه عملي کړای شي؟‬ (8.228.DIR kaw-ə́l-ay š-e do.DIR guarantee-PL. 1996: 148).’ (NW) (8.DIR joṛ-aw-ə́l-ay wə́-š-i built-do.DIR who.STR.M] ‘Will President Karzai be able to implement the assurances he made at the Second Bonn Conference?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction with the future particle..F ‘Layla might be able to send the letter tomorrow.DIR WOULD letter-M.118) ayā walas məšer-Ø karz-ay bə pə dohəm-Ø bon Q people leader-M.AOR-OPT become.PL.DIR WOULD on this.’ The following two sentences suggest that either a continuous or an aorist optative can be used to express an a repeated event with future time reference: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-PRS.CONT-PST-OPT become.in give.PRS-2SG ‘You may be able to work on [achieving] this same goal.AOR. the connotation is that the action is not necessarily probable.PRS-PRS.177.PRS-PRS.121) .3[SG. . second-M Bonn konferans-Ø ke wə́rkṛ-i tazmin-una conference-M ..119) laylā-Ø bə lik-Ø sabā-Ø ta Layla-F.‫ته به په همدې موخه کار کولای شي‬ ta bə pə hamde moxa-Ø kār-Ø 2SG.DIR amáli kṛ-ay š-i implemented do..AOR.AOR.same goal-F.DIR on Ø-leg-ə́l-ay s-i CONT-send-PST-OPT become.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR Karzai-M.’ (8.120) ..3[SG.DIR WOULD in.M.‫لیلا به لیک سبا ته لېږلی شي‬ (8.M] ‘There's no one else who could build such a thing.DIR work-M.M.3SG.AOR-PTCP.DIR tomorrow-F.AOR. translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson.CONT-PST-OPT AOR-become.‫بل څوګ نشته چې داسې يو شی جوړولی وشي‬ bel-Ø tsok nə́ šta če dāse yaw šay-Ø other-M.

M.DIR and of father-M.AOR.‫شي‬ (8.4 Negative The negative particle must precede the auxiliary verb in a potential construction.DIR from which-F.ANIM.DIR do.M CONT-write-PST-OPT ‘Until now.‫تر څو خلک له کومې ستونزې پرته تګ راتګ کولای وشي‬ (8.ABL 1SG.AOR.WK own-M.DIR prégd-i če pə xlās-a pxa-Ø tag AOR\permit-PRS.M] ‘So that the people can come and go without issue.5.177.’ ‫ناټو دې د مرکچيان طالبان پرېږدي چې په خلاسه پښه تګ راتګ وکولای‬ .298  Verbs .DIR foot-F.3[PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .124) .PRS-PRS .3SG.DIR NEG become.to some people-M.to now-M. 1996: 145–147): (8.PST-PST.M.DIR go rātag-Ø wə́-kaw-əl-ay š-i come-M.‫تر اوسه مې خپل او د پلار نوم نه شو لیکلی‬ tər os-a me xpəl-Ø aw də plār-Ø up.228.OBL num-Ø ná šo-Ø Ø-lik-ə́l-ay name-M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL problem-F.3[PL.M] ‘NATO should allow the Taliban delegates to be able to come and go as they please.DIR Taliban-PL.PRS-PRS.CONT-PST-OPT wə́-š-i AOR-become. but the optative form may come before or after the negated verb phrase (Tegey & Robson.DIR AOR-do-PST-OPT become.AOR. I wasn't able to write either my name or my father's.’ 8.4.OBL without tag rātag-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay go come-M.123) nāto-Ø de marakič-ian tālibān-Ø NATO-M.M] COMP INSTR open-F.122) tər tso xalək-Ø lə kum-e stunz-e prata up.DIR NEC representative-PL.3[SG.

7.DIR seminar-M.WK NEG become.M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.PRS-1PL ‘You can't write anything with a broken pen. infinitives ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.126) .’ 8.5 Infinitives 8.AOR-OPT ‘The University of Kabul wasn't able to offer any seminars on 9–11!!!’ (8.3SG..’ !!!‫ په اړه کوم سیمپوزیم جوړ نشو کړای‬۹/۱۱ ‫د کابل پوهنتون د‬ (8.DIR kum-Ø simpoziyom-Ø joṛ-Ø ná which-PL.DIR 1SG.228.3[SG.1 Infinitives as nouns Infinitives show the default masculine plural agreement (see Section 11.in doctor-PL.M do..CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together.5).‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M. non-direct forms take the /‑o/ oblique/ablative plural suffix used on declension Class II nouns (see Section 5.DIR tašxis-Ø wə-nə́ šo-Ø kṛ-ay diagnosis-M.‫قلم که مات شی څه لیکلی نشو‬ (8.‫په کونړ کې ډاکټرانو سم تشخیص ونه شو کړای‬ pə konaṛ-Ø ke ḍāktar-āno sam-Ø in.M.AOR.3 and Section 11.M.’ (8.OBL correct-M..4).OBL of 9 11 on topic-F. Like other event nominals.AOR.4.AOR. Kunar-M .177.DIR NEG šo-Ø kṛ-ay become.5.128) .125) qalam-Ø ka māt-Ø š-i tsə pen-M.DIR AOR-NEG become.DIR become.ANIM.127) də kābul-Ø pohəntun-Ø də 9 11 pə aṛa-Ø of Kabul university-M.M] what Ø-lik-əl-ay ná š-u CONT-write-PST-OPT NEG become.Verb usage  299 . as in 8.5.3SG.AOR.DIR if broken-M.PST-PST.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PRS-PRS..AOR-OPT ‘The doctors in Kunar couldn't give a correct diagnosis.PST do.5.129.AOR.DIR built-M.PST-PST.2.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫وـ‬ .3PL.ABL opium-M.DIR do-INF-PL. in addition to an aorist form of /kedə́l/..5..3PL. Infinitival phrases may serve as a subject.CONT.F ‘I heard on the radio about the government's helping out.PRS. 8.DIR xoṛ-ə́l-Ø jāyiz-Ø di eat-INF-PL. .DIR COMIT.OBL word-PL.M ‘Helping the government is a duty in an advanced society..135.F. radio-F.129) mā lə rādyo-Ø tsəxə də hakumat-Ø də 1SG.’ 8.130) ‫ايا د زکام لپاره تارياک خوړل جايز دي؟‬ ayā də zukām-Ø lə pār-a tiyārāk-Ø Q of head.OBL of mərast-e kaw-ə́l-o xabar-e w-ā́rw-ed-e help-PL.M. object.OBL from sake-M.STR.2.177.DIR AOR-hear. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR legal-PL.COMIT help-F.cold-M.from of government-M.OBL sərə mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-Ø di .. and 8.OBL job-F.131) .PRS.5.OBL from. as in 8.2 The periphrastic passive As described in Section 8.300  Verbs may take their own complements.PST-PST.M.DIR be.DIR be..2.DIR do-INF-PL.‫ما له راديو څخه د حکومت د مرستې د کولو خبرې وارويدې‬ (8.M.228.OBL .‫د مدني ټولنې دنده د دولت سره مرسته کول دي‬ də madani ṭolən-e danda-Ø də dawlat-Ø of civilized society-F. government-M. Both infinitival and participial complements of /kedə́l/ can optionally have the aorist prefix /wə́‑/in aorist forms of this construction.5.5. or object of an adposition.M.’ (8.F. infinitives and past participles can be used as the nominal component of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ to form a verbal construction that is often referred to as the Pashto passive..M ‘Is it legal to take opium for a head-cold?’ (8..132.133.3PL..CONT.

..DIR š-i become.133) wə́-taṛ-əl s-əm AOR-tie-INF become.‫ تنه وژل شول‬۲۰۰ ‫په برید کښې‬ The prefix (8.in 200 person-PL..’ ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ is not obligatory.‫وتړل شم‬ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ (8.135) wə́-taṛ-əl sw(əl)-əm AOR-tie-INF become.. however: .’ .228.M.134) .PRS-PRS.PRS-1SG ‘I am being tied. attack-M .PST-PST...M] COMP maṇa-Ø lə poṭək-i səra wə́-xoṛ-əl-a apple-F.CONT.CONT.AOR.‫تړل کېږم‬ Ø-taṛ-ə́l kég-əm CONT-tie-INF become.3[SG.3[PL.COMIT AOR-eat-INF-F.AOR.‫تړل کېد)ل(م‬ Ø-taṛ-əl ked(əl)-ə́m CONT-tie-INF become.PST-1SG ‘I was tied.F] ‘It is considered good to eat an apple along with its peel.PRS-PRS. skin-M.CONT.132) xə bal-əl kég-i če good consider-INF become.DIR COMIT..M ‘Two hundred people were killed in the attack.136) .Verb usage  301 .3PL.DIR kill-INF šw-əl become.AOR.PRS-1SG ‘[that] I be tied’ (8.PST-1SG ‘I was being tied.AOR.‫ښه بلل کېږي چي مڼه له پوټکي سره وخوړله شي‬ (8.OBL .’ ..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.137) pə brid-Ø kxe 200 tan-a waz-əl in.177.‫وتړل شو)ل(م‬ (8.

228.143 and 8.’ (8.PRS-PRS.F.F] ‘His feet will be injured.PST-PTCP.142.‫دا وهلې کېږی‬ (8.302  Verbs If a participle rather than an infinitive is used.CONT.‫دوی وهلي کېږی‬ duy Ø-wah-ə́l-i 3PL.M] ‘He is being beaten.STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL INSTR eye-M water-PL.138) day Ø-wah-ə́l-ay 3SG.M.PRS-PRS.3[SG.DIR become.WK WOULD AOR-injure-INF-PTCP.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.M] ‘They are being beaten.F.DIR NEG Ø-mínd-e kež-i CONT-find. In Dzadrani.DIR kég-i become.138 .‫دی وهلی کېږی‬ (8.8.142) pš-e ye wa wə́-tik-əl-e feet-PL.PL.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.DIR kég-i become.F] ‘Not a needle's eyeful of water is [to be] found.DIR become.F.PL.PRS-PRS. however.3[PL. as in 8.F.CONT.PRS-PRS.’ (8. it agrees with the undergoer.CONT.M.’ (WAZ-L) (8.140) .177.F] ‘She is being beaten.’ .144: .3[PL. the participle does not show agreement but remains masculine direct regardless of the gender and number of the subject.3[PL.PRS-PRS.139) dā Ø-wah-ə́l-e kég-i 3SG.M. as can be seen in examples 8.F.DIR 3.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.STR.PL.DIR Ø-š-i CONT-become.3[SG.’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT.F.141) de sten-e pə sim-Ø ob-e ná of needle-SG.STR.F.

DIR CONT-become..M.PST-PST.F ‘The European Union must consider commercial rescue policies.146) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR considered kṛ-i do.F.’ or to form a verbal noun: (8.F ‘Drums were struck.5.Verb usage  303 (8.DIR policy-PL.5.OBL in.143) ḍəndera-Ø ó-wa-l-ay Ø-šw-a drum-F.M.F.6 Present participles Present participles can be used to modify nouns.M..F.OBL beginning-M.145) europay-i ṭulən-a bāyad də Ø-xlas-únk-i Europe-ADJZ society-F.in on work-M.3.PST-PST.3PL.228.177.1.OBL .OBL sawda-gar-iz-e taglar-e ɣwára business-NMLZ-ADJZ-PL.DIR NEC of CONT-liberate-PTCP-SG.M.’ (DZA) (8.DIR ‘A European Union observer has begun work in the Ukraine.144) ḍənder-e ó-wa-l-ay drum-PL. as in: .‫اروپایی ټولنه باید د خلاصونکی سوداګریزې تګلارې غوره کړي‬ (8.3SG.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP.DIR Ø-šw-e CONT-become.‫د اروپایی ټولنې کتونکی په اوکراین کې په کار پیل کړی‬ də europay-i ṭulən-e Ø-kat-únk-i pə of Europe-ADJZ society-F. ukren-Ø ke pə kār-Ø payəl-Ø Ukraine-M.DIR kṛ-áy do.M.OBL CONT-see-PTCP-SG.. 8.AOR-PTCP.F ‘A drum was struck. see Section 11.3SG.’ (DZA) For more example sentences using the periphrastic passive..AOR-PRS.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.177.

In the general style of Indo-European. Brugman 9 Adpositions 9. The postpositional component in such cases may be a lexicalized meronymic expression. The Middle dialects vary from General Pashto in the inventory of adpositions. Sentence 9. are mentioned by Heston (1987). which require or allow one or the other component of a circumposition to be deleted.1 gives an example of this glossing convention. and in some case assignments. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 109) use this term as well.¹ The class of circumpositions is the most difficult to describe exhaustively. Where two components of a circumposition together express a single relation.² • Finally. there is a set of principles that we understand only in part. rendering the effect of independent prepositions or (more typically) postpositions. Lazard (1963) and Phillott (1919). as is shown in Example 9. and circumpositions. though for a given variety the inventory of prepositions and postpositions is fixed.1 Overview Pashto exhibits three categories of adposition: prepositions. In this chapter we discuss those principles that we understand.³ which 1 These items are referred to in other grammars as pre-post-positions (Tegey & Robson. in the pronunciation of individual items. as reflected in the glossing or translation. the functions of adpositions in Pashto range from quite abstract relationships to very specific spatial.) after the gloss. or causal relationships. 2 Circumpositions in Persian. i.177. Much of the description provided of Middle dialect adpositions originates in Septfonds (1994).e. • Second. 3 The translation into English of this work was provided by Melissa Fox.. some items that function as circumpositions are complex in one component.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . some circumpositions appear to be semi-productive combinations of prepositions and postpositions or prepositions and adverbs (as asserted by Babrakzai 1999). temporal. the first component will have an ellipsis (. for several reasons: • First. 1987). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. postpositions. Throughout this chapter. and generally the interpretation of any given adposition will depend on the context. We call these phrasal adpositions complex adpositions.74. The term circumposition more transparently denotes a single discontinuous lexeme.. adpositions that may occur either before or after their objects. and the second will have an ellipsis before the gloss. 1996) or ambipositions (Heston. typically the postpositional component. and in the examples throughout this book. attested examples show that Pashto also has ambipositions.Claudia M.228. including cognates.

. and is therefore properly classified as an adverb.32 gives an example with a case-marked adjectival object. in its function outlined in Section 10.228. however.4 give examples of different adpositions in construction with the complementizer /čə/.4.2. The same can be said for some items identified in this grammar as adverbs of place in Table 10. later’ as an adverb in Table 10. In addition. both of which may be case-marked according to the requirements of the governing adposition (see 9. however.) suggests that the direct case may be becoming the preferred case assignment for some adpositions as well.. example sentences and descriptions may reflect other Middle varieties. adpositions generally govern either oblique or ablative case assignment to their objects. adpositions in Pashto may govern objects other than noun phrases.2. the item /. we identify /wrusta/ ‘after. Rzehak (p.73). This is in addition to some dialect-based variation in the specific combinations of adpositions into complex adpositions or circumpositions. this is reflected in some written examples by the lack of space between the adposition and its object. as described more briefly by Lorimer (1902: 39–40). concurring with other grammars.2. claiming that the use of the oblique form may sound dated to some speakers. it is possible that there are varieties of Pashto that treat it as a simple adposition.c. For instance. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. L. səra/ is identified here primarily as a postpositional component of a circumposition. • Individual adpositions are often described as clitics.120). Conversely. • As expected. and based on the fact that from our information it only governs an object when it is a component of a complex circumposition (see Example 9. Finally.306  Adpositions is a description of the Dzadrani dialect. Furthermore..1. the object in an adpositional phrase may be more or less clausal: one possibility is an infinitive verb and its local argument. it does not take even a notional object.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Many of the subsections of Section 11. however. where the adposition’s object is a subordinate clause. but a dearth of information prevents us from making any substantive claims about how they differ from each other.1.177.2 Adpositions and case assignment For all varieties of Pashto. Furthermore. Our own research suggests the existence of both similarities and differences between Dzadrani (as Septfonds describes it) and Waziri.. including strong pronouns and oblique pronominal clitics.3. ‫ورسته‬ ‫ سره‬. However.72 and 9. Three other points should be remembered about Pashto adpositions: • Items that are identified (in this grammar or elsewhere) as adverbs may in fact function as adpositions. it is possible that some of the features noted here for Dzadrani and Waziri may be found in varieties of Pashto outside of the Middle dialect group as well. 9. 9. ‫چه‬ • Some adpositions are subject to dialect-based pronunciation variation as exemplified in Table 4.

e.DIR in. where some other grammars do not.2.. In Waziri. as shown in sentence 9. in’ preferentially assigns direct case but may also assign oblique case.. when the object is plural. this matter deserves more study. ‫تر‬ (9.. however. oblique.2) claims that the comparative postposition /tǝr/ ‘than’ can assign either oblique or direct case to its object.. the preposition /tər/ ‘up to’ and circumpositions of which it is the prepositional component always assign the oblique case to their objects.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . sometimes case-marking can vary (usually between direct and oblique) without difference in meaning. in some situations either ablative or oblique case may appear in construction with a particular adposition.3[SG.1 Assignment of oblique case Our research suggests that the object of an adposition is most often assigned the oblique case. again.OBL son-M. in other situations.g. There may be varieties of Pashto for which oblique is the only case-marking form governed by adpositions (as is claimed in.3. Also for Dzadrani. so descriptions of the same facts may not line up. /pə/ ‘on.19).‫د زرڅانګي زوی په فرانسې کي اوسېږي‬ də zarʦāng-i zoy-Ø pə farāns-e ki of Zartsangay-M.Adpositions and case assignment  307 the picture is somewhat complicated by several issues: first. however. or ablative case to its object when the object is singular in number. Our own research on Waziri confirms that assignment of direct case predominates. In particular. France-M. this grammar recognizes an ablative case.in Ø-os-éẓ-i CONT-live-PRS-PRS. This includes the appearance of the fused genitive strong pronoun (see Section 7. Septfonds (1994: 262) notes further that circumpositions whose first component is /ye/ or /tər/ may assign the oblique or the ablative case to their objects. the difference in case-marking is associated with a difference in meaning. Septfonds (1997: 8.OBL .3) as the object of the adposition. In addition.1) .2.3.M] ‘Zartsangay's son lives in France.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.228. For Dzadrani in particular. The ablative case is governed by a small number of adpositions. according to Lorimer (1902: 40). 9. the case assignment is always oblique. Dessart 1994: 52). Septfonds (1994) asserts that an adposition may assign direct. however. Our research suggests that Waziri does not observe this constraint: singular or plural objects of /e/ may be case-marked direct (as shown in example 9. Some speakers have reported that vocative case-marking may be assigned..

177.M ‘My notes are in the notebook.ABL’ in example 9.3) .AOR.3PL.5) .M.STR..308  (9.M..ABL wə́-taxt-ed-əl AOR-flee-PST-PST.OBL .2.PST-PST-PTCP.’ (SW) 9.M ‘The members of al-Qaida fled from Afghanistan.DIR be.‫زما نوټونه په کتابچې کې دي‬ zmā noṭ-una pə kitābč-e ke 1SG. /pāsa/ ‘top..’ (9. Tegey & Robson 1996) that treat /a/ as simply a variant of /na/.CONT.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . The ablative case-marking suffix is apparently historically related to the postposition /na/.1.M.228.SW) (9.CONT.OBL ..PRS...’ (NW. most notably GP /lə/ and complex adpositions that contain it. The ablative case is discussed in Section 5.‫د القاعده غړي له افغانستانه وتښتېدل‬ də al-qedə-Ø ɣəṛ-i lə afɣānistān-a of al-Qaida-M.DIR metal-PL...in di be.17 is historically derived from /pas/ ‘top’ plus the postposition /na/ ‘from’. 1SG.ABL come.M... unlike other sources (e.CONT.3PL. for instance. ‫نه‬ ‫پاس‬ ‫نه‬ (9.1SG ‘I have come from father.DIR from Afghanistan-M.g.‫له ما سره په كښتۍ كې ډېر سره او سپين زر دي‬ la mā sərə pə kixt-ey ke ḍer-Ø COMIT.PRS.POSS note-PL.M. boat-F .2 Assignment of ablative case ‫له‬ Some adpositions assign the ablative case to their object.in much-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3.DIR be. In this work..PRS.‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣ-əl-əy yəm from father-M.DIR in.STR.M.3PL.M ‘There is a lot of gold and silver in the boat with me.M.4) ‫پاسه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ه‬ . we nevertheless treat the ablative suffix as a case-marker and /na/ as a postpositional element.DIR and white-PL.COMIT in.OBL member-PL.3..2) Adpositions .DIR sr-ə aw spin-Ø zar-Ø di red-PL. notebook-F.

PRS.2. having the object marked in the ablative case gives the sense of ‘(motion) away from’: ‫د‬ (9.M ‘Without a man.3.DIR empty be.PRS.1)..‫بې سړېه کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-aya kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M. Likewise.10 demonstrates it in direct form.12.11 and 9.3SG.ABL come. assigning ablative as opposed to oblique case affects the meaning of the phrase.‫بې سړي کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-i kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M. for instance with /də/.’ (SW) (9. the adpositions ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘on. in 9. 1996: 158).M ‘Without a man. at’ may assign direct or oblique case to their objects (Tegey & Robson. the noun is in direct plural form..‫د کوره راغلم‬ də kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M.7) . while 9.’ There may also be dialectal variation as to whether the oblique or the ablative case is assigned by a particular adposition.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .ABL house-M..1. ‫کوټه‬ ‫ښار‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. this time using the masculine noun /xār/ ‘city’. which is normally associated with possession (see Section 9. In some dialects or in different styles.’ (SW) For some other adpositions.OBL house-M. ‫نه‬ 9. the house is empty.9 shows the feminine noun /koṭa/ ‘room’ appearing in the oblique form.228.12 contain the same alternation. the house is empty.AOR. We have not found this difference in case-marking to correspond to a difference in meaning.AOR. without a difference in meaning.. In example 9. Example 9.DIR empty be.3 Assignment of direct case In General Pashto. while Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the use of the direct form as literary or formal.6) . examples 9.177. it is in the oblique plural form. our own research on current usage is that direct case may be gaining ground.8) . in’ and ‫کې‬.Adpositions and case assignment  309 Other adpositions can assign either oblique or ablative case to the object.‫ په‬/pə. there is apparently synchronic alternation between the ablative suffix and the postposition /na/ ‘from’.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.AOR.ke/ ‘in.11. (9.3SG.

3SG.DIR .’ (SW) (9...’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.’ (SW) (9.10) . xār-una ke ham xorāki mowād-Ø xalk-o city-PL.177.STR.DIR NEG only in.OBL of nutritional items-PL. village-PL.in also nutritional items-PL.M...M ‘My brother is sitting in the room.OBL progrām-Ø ná yuwaze pə kal-io balki pə program-M.DIR in.OBL but.‫زما ورور په کوټې کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-e ki nāst-Ø 1SG.PRS.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..3[SG..DIR .in sitting-M.‫هم خوراکي مواد خلکو ته وېشي‬ də malgr-o məlit-uno də ɣzāyi mowād-o of friend-PL.9) Adpositions .‫زما ورور په کوټه کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-a ki nāst-Ø 1SG.CONT.POSS brother-M.M.M..M.DIR dəy be...in sitting-M..3SG. room-F.POSS brother-M. room-F.DIR dəy be.310  (9.CONT. but also to those in cities.OBL ..PRS.M.DIR in.M.OBL ta Ø-weš-í to CONT-distribute-PRS..DIR people-PL.also in.M.M ‘My brother is sitting in the room.228.M] ‘The United Nations' Food Program is distributing food items to people not only in villages..11) ‫ بلکې په ښارونه کې‬،‫د ملگرو ملتونو د غذایي موادو پروگرام نه یوازی په ککې‬ .OBL nation-PL..

’ (9.PRS-PRS.3[SG.228.‫نڅاګران لکه د ژوندی قازانو غوندی دي‬ nətsāgār-ān leka də žwand-i dancer-PL.ANIM.M..3[SG..3PL.DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell. Conjoined noun phases inside the adpositional object may fail to agree with each other.OBL of education-F.2.M] COMP CONT-want.3[SG. that-PL.OBL and kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə pār-a village-PL.DIR qāz-āno ɣunde di goose-PL.DIR of country-M.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO.CONT.13 and for demonstratives in 9.DIR like. case-marking is not particularly consistent.in of student-PL.on ‘on those topics’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as shown in example 9.OBL .M.OBL .M.M.M.like be. (9.DIR similar educational-F.PRS.177.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø barābár-a one-M..ANIM.AOR-PRS.M.DIR kṛ-i do.DIR opportunity-F.‫کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو سان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M.OBL in.14) ‫په هغه موضوعاتو باندې‬ pə háɣ-ə mawzo-āto bānde on..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .4 Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions Inside the objects of adpositions..M. as shown for adjectives in sentence 9. Modifiers of the noun inside the adpositional object may fail to agree on case with the governing noun..13) .OBL ministry-M.M ‘The dancers are like energetic geese.14. of alive-PL...M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno aw UNESCO INSTR help-F. city-PL.’ 9.M.Adpositions and case assignment  (9.DIR topic-PL.M.PRS-PRS..12) 311 ‫ چې غواړي د په مرسته د هیواد په ښارونو او‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ ..OBL .OBL from sake..11..DIR prepared-F.

As a determiner (see also Section 6. /de/. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ 9. We describe here several additional prepositions.3).3. while acknowledging its grammatical status as a preposition. Besides their independent functions as prepositions.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‫تر‬ 9. which we treat separately in Section 9. and is used also to mark the complements of transitive nominalizations or gerunds.3. some of them alternate with circumpositions. This group of items expresses functions that are in other languages associated with genitive case marking.5. /ye/.177.228.1 The prepositions /də/. and Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the pronunciation /di/ with what they call the Central dialect.1 The General Pashto preposition /də/ The preposition /də/ is used to express any of a wide range of functional relationships between its object and other elements in the sentence⁴. which is nevertheless discussed separately in Section 9. as well as the subjects of intransitive nominalizations or gerunds. /ye/. by means of’.312 9. Notice that phrases governed by /də/precede their governing noun irrespective of ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 4 Hewson & Bubenik (2006) refer to /də/ as the genitive marker. each of them may also appear as components of various circumpositions.2.1. Other scholars analyze the different pronunciations in terms of dialect differences: Penzl (1955) identifies the pronunciation /da/ with the Eastern dialect. the geographic area including Kabul (labeled Northwest in this grammar). The Middle items appear to vary with relative freedom within the dialect group. while /da/ is additionally attested for in construction with the third person pronouns. Some examples of common relationships expressed using /də/ are given here. and /e/ characteristic of the Middle dialects. it expresses typical possessive and meronymic relations. /e/ ‘of’ ‫د‬ The GP preposition /də/appears to alternate with the items /de/. and /tər/ ‘up to’. The additional prepositions listed in that section may be associated with different varieties of Pashto. while the GP item /də/alternates distributionally with the GP item /lə/.3. so it is possible that what appear to be independent prepositions are circumpositions with omitted postpositional components. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. /pə/ ‘on.3  Adpositions Prepositions ‫د‬ ‫په‬ According to most analyses. Pashto has three prepositions: /də/ ‘of’. however. There appears to be a high degree of variation in the pronunciation of /də/: this same orthographic form may be pronounced as /də/ or /di/ in construction with the first and second person pronouns.

M.3.OBL from direction-F. we consider each phrase consisting of /də/ and its object to be a simple prepositional phrase.2 and 9.OBL elections-PL. the result is a set of coalesced or fused forms that are identified in Section 7.OBL of wazir-Ø də waynā-Ø la məx-e minister-M. Examples of these items are found in examples 9.3 as pronouns expressing genitive functions.3a).M. ‫د‬ ‫د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو د وزیر د وینا له مخی‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də korən-əyo čār-o də of Afghanistan-M.2 Complex adpositions using /də/ In general.2) (9..OBL of internal-PL. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177. In example 9.OBL ‘according to Afghanistan's Minister of the Interior’ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ In many dialects. it is common to find multiple instances one after another. la məxe/. this produces the effect of a circumposition.F. the phrase is pronounced with distinct preposition and object (Penzl.OBL of speech-F. With the lexicalization of meronyms.OBL laɣwa-Ø kaw-ə́l cancellation-M.15) ‫د تیرو انتخاباتو د نتایجو لغوه کول‬ də tir-o intixābāt-o də natāyij-o of past-PL.F.2. In other dialects.15 and the true possessive in 9.OBL affair-PL. the nominal complement in sentence 9.DIR do-INF ‫د‬ ‘invalidating the results of the past elections’ ‫د وطن ساتنه‬ /də/ can govern the objects of deverbal nouns. except for the final one. In such uses. when /də/ governs a strong pronoun.9. 1955: 77. the /də/ has reduced to a single consonant.M.OBL of result-PL. /də māxām storay/ ‘the evening star’ NW ‫د ماښام ستوری‬ ‫ د بالاپوښ لستوڼی‬/də bālāpox lastuṇay/ ‘the coat sleeve’ ‫ د عادل خپلوان‬/də ādil xpəlwān/ ‘Adil's relatives’ ‫ د دوست سپی‬/də dost spay/ ‘the friend's dog’ ‫ د وطن ساتنه‬/də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’ NW /de yespone čapləy/ ‘sandals of iron’ DZA (Septfonds.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .Prepositions  313 the functional relationship between the two—for instance.2.1.228. which is a circumpositional phrase with /də . ‫د‬ (9. as in the example /də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’...16 are both in phrase-initial position. /də/ governs the item denoting the possessor or the holonym of which another adpositional phrase may denote the possessed item or be the meronym. 1994: 4.16.0.. ‫د‬ 9. An apparently independent condition requires the phrase governed by /də/ (or the possessive pronoun mentioned above) to be the first element in the larger phrase it belongs to.16) ‫ له مخی‬.

17.3SG.də pāsa/ ‘above.M ‘The flood came from above the village.38 for a variant on this construction. the glosses reflect the translation of their components. a phrase governed by /de/ or /ye/is often found in pre-clausal position.17..STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫سېلاب‬ . not /ye/. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ 9.. /də.M. /ye/.18: . ‫د‬ ‫ د پاسه‬.17) .POSS ná day NEG be.CONT.228. These two variant forms fulfill functions very similar to the corresponding items /də/ and /lə/ in General Pashto. /e/ In their prepositional uses.. this circumposition can be used in number names. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫سلاو‬ 5 In example 9.3. In Western dialects it is /sélāb/. is found less often in Dzadrani than its variant /ye/..M ‘The books on top of the table are not mine. As is the case for General Pashto. used in some additive number name forms. in that the elements together all govern one object.‫د کلي له پاسه سلاو راغلی دی‬ də kil-i lə pās-a silāw-Ø of village-M.5.CONT. Other common phrases with /də/ that function as complex circumpositions are discussed below in Section 9.. the form closer in pronunciation to General Pashto. the /silāw/ is an Eastern-dialect variant.1. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists only /de/ and /e/. 6 Standardized version of 9.M.‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما ندی‬ də mez-Ø də pās-a kitāb-una zmā of table-M. Section 6.DIR be.‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما نه دي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.lə pāsa/.38 describe how..3SG. ‫د‬ (9.DIR 1SG.3.AOR. in an apparently extragrammatical way (because the construction appears without either /də/ or /lə/governing the grammatical object).PST-PTCP.1. /de/..5.177.’ (E)⁶ (9.17: 7 Standardized version of 9.‫د کلي له پاسه سیلاو راغلی دی‬ . /də. for Waziri.’⁷ This situation results in constructions that function as circumpositions.PRS.2 and Table 6.314  Adpositions as exemplified in 9.1.DIR rā́ɣl-ay dəy come..OBL from top-M.ABL flood-M.PRS. over. (See also Table 6.OBL of top-M. on top of’ ⁵ ‫ له پاسه‬.ABL book-PL.18) .3 The Middle dialect prepositions /de/. these items appear to vary freely with each other. while the sentence translations reflect the meaning of the phrase as a whole.) These collocations are fixed and idiomatic to varying degrees.

DIR be. the uncontracted forms with the governing preposition /ye/ and the strong pronoun objects are found instead.STR. according to Septfonds (1997: 8..228. above’ (compare 9. the contracted forms discussed in Table 7.PRS.DIR of sake-M. 9.’ (DZA) (Example 9. Compare the GP examples with /mǝx/ ‘direction’ (9.1PL ‘We are on your land.’ (WAZ) (9.17) • /ye ....CONT.DIR located-PL. pə manj ke/ ‘in the middle of’ • /ye . the entire phrase governs a single object.89). ye pora/ ‘after’ A number of phrases are based on the combination of /ye/ (in its use indicating motion away from—see 9.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F.PRS.3.3.CONT..2 and Section 9.4 Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/ Septfonds notes that the placement of these phrases before the phrase they modify has resulted in the effect of circumpositions. above’ • /ye .DIR of all-PL.1)..20) da ye to pə oršo ke miʝ prot-ə this.1..DIR of 2SG. pə ɣo/ ‘at the top of. ‫ د‬/də.1.3SG.6 do not exist. The following are constructions mentioned specifically in Septfonds (1994: 258) for Dzadrani: • /ye .DIR yi be. both of which are marked ablative..1.M...Prepositions  (9.16). xo ta/ ‘next to’ • /ye .2.pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9... The second noun is always /liri/ or /lerya/ ‘direction’.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations..20 is from Septfonds 1994: 269. ‫مخې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. pə sar/ ‘at the top of.M.1). but Septfonds records different combinations which result in different circumposition-like phrases.19) 315 ..177.DIR nation-PL. This is analogous to the situation in General Pashto (see Section 9.8) with two nouns in succession. Again in these cases.M.OBL path-F.in 1PL..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . land . due in part to the lexicalization of the meronym.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F..5.. and with ‫ په لور‬.) In Dzadrani.STR in.

bərya lerya/ ‘from .’ (NW. above..pə liri of.316  Adpositions • /ye .on direction ‘toward the house’ (DZA) • /ye .. above [lit. house .. from . While we are neutral as to that issue..PST-PTCP. they are apparently synonymous or reflect dialectal differences.2).. behind [lit...CONT. the preposition /lə/ does not have the possessive interpretation exemplified in Section 9. top direction]’ • /ye ....... for Waziri.. however. 9. the circumposition /ye. bottom direction]’ In addition to these combinations. our own consultants dispute this...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .1.na/ ‘from’ and /be lə.ABL come.. pə liri/ ‘towards’ (9.na/ ‘without’.. from ..... Some sources treat /lə/ as a variant of /də/.5). kiza lerya/ ‘from . ‫له‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ (9.21) ye....3. However. from ... we should nonetheless note that the two items may differ in meaning when appearing as independent prepositions.. if there are two circumpositions that contain the same postpositional element and vary between /də/ and /lə/..22) ‫له‬ ‫له‬ . back direction]’ • /ye . The preposition /lə/ should not be confused with the postposition /la/ ‘to’ ... posa lerya/ ‘from .DIR be.. from .M.. acknowledging that it is relatively rare..1SG ‘I have come from father.2 The General Pashto preposition ‫ له‬/lə/ ‘from’ ‫له‬ Most grammars treat the element /lə/ only as part of a circumposition. when its object appears with ablative case marking. Lorimer (1902: 39) cites it as part of the circumposition /lə..4.1.. In particular.177.PRS. top direction]’ • /ye .na/ ‘from’ governs the standard of comparison where the compared item is the object of /tǝr/ ‘than’ (compare General Pashto: see Section 9. on top [lit. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. reflecting the fact that they are interchangeable as components of many circumpositions. ker .AOR.SW) ‫له‬ The GP variant /lə/ is claimed to be nonexistent in Dzadrani.3. On the other hand.3.. /lə/ can function as a preposition of ablative function or of origin. ʦət̩a lerya/ ‘from .‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣl-əy yəm from father-M.. which exists in some dialects (see Section 9. below [lit..228.

4 The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/.228. as it normally does in General Pashto (see Section 9.OBL of 3SG. la na/ (suggesting that /lə/ is an ambiposition).6 and 9.3. ‫بې‬ /be/ ‘without’ may govern an object which is typically assigned the ablative case. Note that in sentence 9.AOR. items based on the lexical class of the item governed by /be/.DIR lonely be.DIR ECHO corpse-M. fulfilling the function of an adjective..M ‘A brother without a sister is lonely. Penzl 1955) suggest that ‫ بې‬/be/ can be thought of as an affix rather than a preposition.‫ما د ده بې حرکته او دړی وړی جسد وليد‬ mā də də be harkat-a aw 1SG.3SG.177.’ (NW) (9.Prepositions  9. ‫ پر‬/pər/ Scholars disagree as to whether Pashto synchronically possesses one polyfunctional word with two pronunciations.24.PRS.ABL and dəṛ-ay wəṛay jəsad-Ø wə́-lid-Ø shredded-M. he does not discuss case assignment. See also examples 9.24) .3). /pə/ and /pər/.ABL brother-M. /pə/.DIR AOR-see. Both variants are cited by Lorimer (1902: 39) for Waziri..2 for a ‫بې‬ brief description of its use as an affix deriving adjectives. See Section 6.M ‘I saw his lifeless and broken body. /pər/. Arguments Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.‫بې )له( خوره ورور یوازي وي‬ be (lə) xor-a wror-Ø yawāzi wi without (from) sister-F.116.8.PST-PST.’ Some scholars (e.4) claims that the governing of ablative case-marking by /be/ is limited to singular nouns whose stems are consonant-final. ‫له‬ (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . we treat the prefix and the preposition as two separate.OBL without movement-M. 9. but he does mention the presumably cognate circumposition /be . or two words. Our analysis of the corresponding Dzadrani item differs from that of Septfonds (1994: 269) in that he identifies the /be/ with the future marker (the /bǝ/ of General Pashto). Lorimer (1902: 39) gives the same analysis for Waziri. The object shows abla- ‫بې‬ tive case-marking.g.3SG. the prepositional phrase is attributively modifying a noun.STR.3.23) .3 The preposition 317 ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ Alone or in construction with the preposition ‫له‬ /lə/ ‘from’.1.3. We treat it as corresponding to GP /be/ ‘without’. but related. this shows the relationship to the derivational affix.1. By contrast.STR. Septfonds (1994: 5.

28 and 9..⁸ Here we note that the more frequent pronunciation of these items in Dzadrani is /pə/ (Septfonds.CONT.3.1 for a variant of this preposition that incorporates its object. in at least the NW and SW dialects.3SG. that either oblique or direct case may be assigned to the object. /pər/.3.PRS.W) Example 9..M. desert-PL.128. and spelling and pronunciation variation does not line up neatly with differences in function.27.M] ‘They are performing experiments in the deserts and mountains in Afghanistan.CONT-PRS. . Lorenz (1982) takes the position implied here.F.WK pen-M.PST-PST.‫ په‬/pə..‫په مېز قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø qalam-una di on table-M pen-PL.DIR AOR\place.. Below.‫په افغانستان په دښتو اوغرونوکي تجربه کوي‬ ‫کې‬. See Section 9. (9. 9 Standardized version of 9..DIR be..M ‘There are pens on the table..25 with 9.4. /pər/ ‘on’ or a circumposition containing it may be used to express location. This item can also be the first component in several circumpositions. Afghanistan-M in.26 shows a circumpositional phrase containing ‫ په‬/pə/. 1997)..26) pə afɣānistān-Ø pə dəxt-o aw ɣar-uno in.OBL and mountain-PL.. mod- ified by a prepositional phrase headed by (9.’⁹ Note again the possibility.26: . we describe three functions of the prepositions /pə/.M ‘I put a pen on the notebook. as shown in examples 9.318  Adpositions can be made in both directions. while /pər/ is cognate with Persian /bar/ ‘on’ (Heston.1 The locational /pə/.’ (E.6. 1987: 166–167). /pər/ ‘on’ Either the preposition /pə/.177.25) .5.DIR do.in experiment-F.228..OBL 1SG. that there are two words. to’ .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .ke/. Compare example 9.M.‫د افغانستان په دښتو او غرونو کي تجربې کوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫پر کتابچې مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābč-e me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F. which are discussed in Section 9.’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫به‬ ‫پر‬ ‫بر‬ 8 /pə/ is cognate with Persian /ba/ ‘in. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پر‬ 9.OBL ki tajriba-Ø kaw-í .3[PL.3PL. (9.27) .

says that this problem will be solved by means of significant investments from the private sector.F. by means of’ One use of the preposition /pə/ (but not /pər/) indicates instrumentality or means (compare with example 9.30) ‫رګو رام چې د هند د صنعت په کانفیدراسیون کې د انرژۍ د برخې پخوانی‬ ‫سلاکار دی وایي چې دغه ستونزه به د خصوصي سکتور د غټو پانګه اچونو په‬ .’ ‫ په‬/pə/ may govern an event nominal.4.3[SG.DIR INSTR knife-M CONT-eat.3.WK pen-M.in of energy-F.M] COMP dáɣa stunza-Ø bə də xosusi sektor-Ø də this. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫په‬ 9.DIR problem-F.PRS-1SG ‘I eat with a knife.136).STR.3SG.28) 319 . (9.OBL former-M. Note too the use of /pə/ with an inflected adjective complement (9.OBL of part-F. which indicates an event that has a causative or circumstantial relationship to the event denoted in the finite verb..‫زه ډوډۍ په چاکو خورم‬ za ḍoḍ-əy pə čākú-Ø Ø-xor-ə́m 1SG.DIR salākār-Ø day Ø-wāy-í če advisor-M.DIR 1SG.‫مرسته حل شي‬ rago rām-Ø če də hind-Ø də sunat-Ø pə Rago Ram-M.CONT.PRS-PRS.2 The instrumental /pə/ ‘with.228.‫پر کتابچه مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābča-Ø me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F.PST-PST.M.2 show this usage.DIR COMP of India-M..’ (SW) (9..OBL INSTR help-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR food-F. kanfərəns-Ø ke də inerž-əy də barx-e paxwān-ay conference-M .OBL of industry-M.OBL in.DIR be.DIR WOULD of private sector-M.177.PRS-PRS..OBL of ɣaṭ-o pānga āčawən-o pə mərasta-Ø hál large-PL.3[SG.3SG.M ‘I put a pen on the notebook.DIR solved š-i become.32).PRS. often in infinitival form. The examples in Section 5.OBL wealth tossing-PL.4.F] ‘Rago Ram.AOR.DIR AOR\place.Prepositions  (9.29) ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ . who is a former energy advisor in India's Industrial Federation.M CONT-tell.

DIR Pashtoon-M.154.32) .AOR-PTCP. These lexicalized phrases differ across dialects. see also Section 10. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ 9.ABL of nor-o hukәm-Ø ná Ø-axl-í other-PL.‫څه په ګرانه مي کړي‬ tsә pә gran-a mi kә́ṛ-i what INSTR difficult-M. (9.81 for a temporal collocation with /pə/.32.OBL order-M.DIR ‘I did something with great strain. object (as shown in example 9.3. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the sentence takes on the sense of a causative construction in which the grammatical subject denotes an ultimate cause of an event expressed through the rest of the sentence: the actor of the caused event is expressed as the prepositional object.M.DIR NEG CONT-take.31 with 9.CONT. /pər/ ‘at.’ ‫په‬ The preposition /pə/ can appear in a number of idioms indicating manner.‫په خټه پښتون دی‬ pə xaṭ-a paxtun-Ø d-ay INSTR mud-F.DIR person-PL.’ (9.ABL 1SG. rather than nominal.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3 ‘The man ties the horse up with a rope. (9.’ ‫په‬ An example of /pə/ conveying manner can be seen in the following examples (see also 9. Compare 9.3 The temporal /pə/.36.34) .177.2. as shown in 9.3). In this usage.M.ANIM.DIR CONT-tie-PRS.PL.93 and 9.94).DIR INSTR rope-F horse-M.M] ‘These people don't easily take orders from others.PRS-PRS.35 and 9.M. it may be found in construction with an adjectival.M ‘He is Pashtoon by origin.‫دغه کسان په آسانه له نورو حکم نه اخلي‬ daɣa kas-ān pә asān-a də this.228.33) .WK do. /pər/ ‘at.’ (9.3[PL.320  Adpositions ‫په‬ When the object of /pə/ is animate.4.PRS-3SG.31) . on’ The prepositions /pə/ .DIR INSTR easy-M. the animacy value of the prepositional object prompts the interpretation as denoting an intermediate agent or an instrument.‫سړی په رسۍ اس تړي‬ saṛ-ay pə ras-əy ās-Ø Ø-taṛ-i man-M.DIR be. see also 9. on’ can govern a noun that refers to a time of day.

3[SG.DIR drunk wo be.PST-PTCP.DIR very-M.OBL na ḍaḍa-Ø wə́-kṛ-i . Ahmadiya-F.ANIM.‫نه غوښتنه شوېده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ háɣa farmān-Ø če də dāxila čār-o aw də that.’ (SW) (9.M. as well as by the nation's Attorney General.OBL from.M.from request-F.F..PRS...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL of došanb-e pə šp-e lās lik Monday-F..OBL ..DIR AOR-do.OBL hand letter šúw-ay day pə haɣ-ə́ ke become.PST.Prepositions  (9.DIR šúw-e da če də become.3SG.in də ahmadiy-e na ɣuxtəna-Ø from.DIR be.OBL haywād-Ø də loy-Ø ʦāranwāl-i lə xwā-Ø də country-M.OBL beliefs-PL.177..35) 321 .OBL and of mazhabi umur-o də wazir-āno aw də de religious affair-PL.M in..CONT.F] ‘In the order that was written on Monday night by the ministers of Internal Affairs and of Religious Affairs.3SG.M ‘Ahmad was very drunk on that night.M.PRS.‫احمد په هغه شپه دېر نېشه وو‬ ahmad-Ø pə háɣa špa-Ø der-Ø neša Ahmad-M.M..OBL attorney-M.‫غوښتنه شوې ده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ 10 Standardized version of 9..DIR night-F.AOR-PRS.M.OBL .OBL at night-F.AOR.’¹⁰ ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او د دې‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې نه‬،‫هیواد د لوي څارنوالي له خوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ .OBL from side-F..OBL of large-M.M.AOR.DIR be.from side-F.PST-PTCP. it was requested that Ahmadiya refrain from proselytizing its beliefs.228..OBL and of this.DIR order-M.CONT.F.DIR at that. that-M.36: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT.DIR COMP of internal affair-PL.OBL of minister-PL.F COMP of xpəl-o əqāyid-o də xəpar-aw-əl-o own-PL. broadcasted-do-INF-PL.3SG.36) ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او ددې هیواد د لوی‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې‬،‫څارنوالي لخوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ ..

DIR at two-PL.4 With aspectual verbs Described for Dzadrani (Septfonds.DIR hour-PL.DIR 1SG.WK pə wə́-k-ə TMP AOR-do.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3SG.DIR CONT-eat. both pronunciations of the preposition can be found with this meaning: (9.M attack-M.F.OBL food-F.F.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.228. 1994: 269).PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.’ (9.‫زه پر دوې بجې ډوډۍ خورم‬ zə pər/pə dw-e baj-e ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.38.38) .WK 3SG-to AOR-take. which also show that the object can appear as either singular or plural: (9.177. or in the direct form.3.’ In some dialects.PST-PST.’ (SW) 9.DIR food-F.37 and 9.DIR food-F.DIR 1SG.39) . is a use of /pə/ in construction with aspectual verbs to indicate the beginning of the process.3SG.OBL hour-PL.DIR CONT-eat. ‫په‬ (9.M ‘I took it to her and started [to milk]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F.37) .322  Adpositions It may also be used with number terms in time expressions to mean at X o'clock. as expected after a preposition.PST-PST.STR.DIR Ø-xwar-ə́m CONT-eat. Compare 9. the numbers can appear either in the oblique form.F.‫په دوو بجو ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-ó baj-ó ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-PL.40) da me we-ta wə́-niw-Ø brid-Ø me this. and found also in General Pashto. In this construction.DIR hour-F.4.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.‫په دوه بجه ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-á baj-á ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-F.

he took such a large shot right then that the Scots must have heard it in Scotland.M LOL ‘Armal.93 for an example of this use.42) .‫د کراچې نه تر کابله د پښتنو حال‬ dә karači-Ø na tәr Kabul-a dә from.ANIM.OBL so..DIR be.Prepositions  (9..DIR brother-M..3SG.177.OBL situation-M.5 The preposition ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‘'up to'’ ‫تر‬ The preposition /tər/ often appears as the first component of several circumpositions.53 gives an example of /tər/ in a common idiom.DIR ‘the state of Pashtoons from Karachi to Kabul’ In the SW dialect. /tər/ also functions as a preposition in comparative and superlative constructions (see also examples 9.3SG.135 and 9.ABL of paxtan-o hāl-Ø Pashtoon-PL..PRS. until’ is claimed to have an optional second component.DIR EMPH this.‫د‬ (9.’ /tər/ pairs with the circumposition /de . As part of a pair of correlative adpositions ‘from..OBL .M. brother..6. For a reduced form of this preposition in construction with the weak third-person pronoun. ‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫نه‬. Scotland-M .VOC this. 2006: 156)—see 9.136..228. Karachi-M.OBL WOULD in.M. it is also found as an independent preposition with a meaning of 'up to.113 for an alternative form for comparatives and superlatives). LOL’ 9...109 through 9.M COMP skāṭlanḍ-iāno bə pə skāṭlanḍ-Ø ke Scottish-PL..to Kabul-M.3.from up.DIR TMP AOR-do.1. (a) pore/ ‘up to.much ɣaṭ-Ø ḍaz-Ø pə wə́-kəṛ-Ø če big-M. across' (Hewson & Bubenik. the circumposition /tər .‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR shot-M. and can govern the assignment of ablative or direct case marking to its object. Example 9.‫کی اوریدلی وی‬ armal-Ø oror-a dā xo de dumra Armal-M. na/ ‘from’.AOR.. as indicated by the parentheses in examples 9.... see Section 9. Across dialects /tər/ may assign direct or oblique case to its ob- ‫)ه( پورې‬.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .to.M.AOR-PST.41) 323 ‫ دا خو دی دومره غټ ډز په وکړ چی سکاټلینډیانو به په سکاټلینډ‬،‫ وروره‬،‫ارمل‬ ‫ لول‬.....in Ø-āwr-ed-ə́l-ay wi lol CONT-hear-PST-PST-PTCP.

in of police-PL.OBL house-M. interval-M .M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest [of all].’ A circumposition.228.‫سلو ډیرو خلکو ته مرګ ژوبله اوښتې ده‬ də pākistān-Ø pə karāč-əy ke də polis-o pər of Pakistan-M.‫د محمود کور تر ټولو لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø tər ṭol-o lw-ay of Mahmoud-M.43) ‫ تر‬/tər/ can assign either oblique .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Septfonds (1997: 8.324  Adpositions ject.CONT.CONT.M.DIR than France-M.PRS.F ‘More than 150 people were injured or killed during an attack on a police station in Karachi.3SG.’ (9.OBL large-M.DIR day be.3.. which he transcribes as /pa.3SG.’ (9..13).in than one nim səl-o ḍer-o xalk-o ta mərg half one. is cited by Lorimer (1902: 12) as the marker of comparison for Waziri. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS.OBL to death žobl-a Ø-awuxt-é da injury-F.hundred-PL.3SG.2) claims that or direct case to its object..OBL in.DIR be.CONT.OBL center-M of attack-M.DIR be.PST-PTCP. Pakistan.F.3.over..177.na/.M.6 The preposition ‫ لکه‬/leka/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ The preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may appear independently or may be part of a circumposition (see 9.DIR CONT-cross.PRS..OBL big-M.OBL in.‫افغانستان تر فرانسې غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø tər frāns-e ɣaṭ-Ø dəy Afghanistan-M...M.OBL . Karachi-F..OBL on yaw-ə merkaz-Ø də brid-Ø pə traʦ-Ø ke tər yaw one-M.44) . the entire circumpositional phrase precedes the adjectival head.M.. 9.DIR than all-PL.45) ‫د پاکستان په کراچۍ ښار کې د پولیسو پر یوه مرکز د برید په ترڅ کې تر یونیم‬ .OBL more-PL.M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France..OBL people-PL.M. (9. for Dzadrani.

177.DIR become.AOR-PTCP. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) also identify the independent Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4.CONT.DIR self-M.3[PL.1 Overview ‫ته‬ Some other grammars indicate only one postposition for Pashto overall.M. with scope over the corresponding proposition.M.DIR do.228.DIR ‘Everybody’s been trying to doll themselves up using fancy names.PRES-PRS.Postpositions  (9.M.3[SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR INSTR xkl-i num-uno singā́r kṛ-i leka beautiful-PL.‫لکه چه دوی راځي‬ leka čə duy rāʣ-i like COMP 3PL come.PST-PTCP.M] like taɣir-Ø aw umed-Ø Taghir-M.DIR name-PL. /ta/ ‘to’. Tegey & Robson (1996) indicate that /na/ can appear as an independent postposition in NW and NE dialects.F] ‘A [computer] mouse has been made to be worn like a glove. accordingly.4 Postpositions 9. like Taghir and Umed.46) 325 .CONT-PRS.DIR wear-INF become.DIR like lās pox-e aɣwast-ə́l kíg-i hand cover-F. ‫ته‬ ‫کې‬ ‫نه‬ also.DIR and Ahmed-M. However. Although they do not identify the associated dialects.AOR.’ ‫چه‬ The preposition can also be used in construction with the complementizer /čə/.’ (SW) 9.DIR built-M.‫داسې ماوس جوړ شوى لکه لاس پوښي اغوښتل کېږي‬ dāse māws-Ø joṛ-Ø šúw-ay leka such mouse-M.’ (9.DIR effort-F.48) .‫ټلوالې هڅه کړې ځان په ښکلي نومونو سینګار کړي لکه تغییر او امید‬ ṭalwāl-i hatsa-Ø kəṛ-e dzān-Ø pə mass-PL.3 ‘It seems like they are coming. some of them are listed in this section.AOR-PRS. many items treated in other works as adverbs take objects. indicating an epistemic judgment: (9. In any case. as exemplified below.M decoration do.47) . the claim that /ta/ is the only independent postposition may be true for only some dialects: Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that /ke/ can appear independently in Eastern and Western dialects.F.PRS.

‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this. after Lorimer (1902).STR.326  Adpositions ‫باتدې‬ postposition /bānde/ ‘up. in particular the discussion preceding sentences 9.SG ‘Give the book to Ahmad.DIR rupee-F.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself. it is often difficult to decide whether an item is a postposition. ‫ته‬ (9. whose cognate /bondi/ ‘atop. we have found it described for Dzadrani (see Table 9.2).OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.DIR give.‫موږ ښوونځي ته ځو‬ muẓ ṣowəndz-i ta ʣ-ú 1PL.DIR also AOR-take. with the postposition preferred.PRS-1PL ‘We are going to school’ (9.164. above’.PRS-IMP. See Section 9.SG self-M. Shafeev 1964) claim that /la/and /lara/ are variants of /ta/. or a circumposition with its first component omitted. To the extent we can discern.4.50).5. however. Note that /ta/ can also function as the second component of a circumposition. above’ we here identify with Middle varieties. Pate (2012: 18) cites the circumposition as possible for the Kandahari dialect.DIR school-M. and may also govern beneficiary arguments. Its object appears in the oblique case form. In practical terms.OBL to go.228. It governs arguments denoting destinations (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR AOR-take. as in 7.71.50) .7. rather than cases of complete postpositions. in construction with the preposition /wə/.‫احمد ته کتاب ورکړه‬ ahmad-Ø ta kitāb-Ø wə́rkəṛ-a Ahmad-M.162 and 9.PRS-IMP.’ ‫له‬ ‫لره‬ Several sources (Skalmowski 1996.CONT.OBL to book-M. while it was marked as archaic by Lorimer (1902) for Waziri. for’ ‫ ته‬/ta/ is the postposition most commonly described as functioning independently.AOR-IMP.49) ‫و‬ . 9.’ (9. There is little agreement as to which variant is more character- ‫ته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.2 The postposition ‫ ته‬/ta/ ‘to. This form. we consider these cases of incomplete circumpositions. There are several morphosyntactic conditions under which the first component of a circumposition is omitted.49) and recipients (9. appears to be much less common.51) .

9. however.66 and 9.F ‘Mullah Mohammed Omar rejected talks with the Afghan government. It can also be used to govern a predicate or modifier. and the stem as a nominal with the approximate meaning ‘opposite’.OBL Afghan hukumat-Ø səra xabər-e rád government-M.4.DIR rejection keṛ-l-e do.DIR on head-. /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ can be found as an independent postposition: ‫سره‬ (9.OBL on road-F.52) . with the approximate meaning ‘contrary’ (see Section 6.OBL COMIT word-PL.OBL against fāliyat-una tər sar-á kṛ-i activity-PL. among these.AOR-PRS.228. in everyday use.F.AOR-PST-PST.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .99). anti-’ (also pronounced /zed-e/) denotes opposition.M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M COMP of Kabul-M.OBL Mohammed-M.3PL.4 The postposition ‫ ضدی‬/zidi/ ‘against’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against.3[PL.‫ جلال اباد پر لاره دولت ضدي فعاليتونه ترسره کړي‬.‫طالبانو غوښتل د کابل‬ tālibān-o Ø-ɣuxt-əl če də kābəl-Ø Taliban-PL.8. 1996: 155–156).DIR government-M.Postpositions  istic of which dialect group.4.’ This situation is sometimes described as a dialect-dependent optional omission of the first component of a circumposition (Tegey & Robson.OBL Omar-M.PST-PST.2).DIR CONT-want.M.OBL jalālābad-Ø pər lāra-Ø dawlat-Ø zidi Jalalabad-M.M] ‘The Taliban wanted to undertake anti-government activities on the road from Kabul to Jalalabad. (9. 9.M.3 The postposition 327 ‫ لره‬/lara/ appears to be the rarest ‫ سره‬/səra/ ‘with’ Though more common as a component of a circumposition (see examples 9.177.ABL do.‫ملا محمد عمر افغان حکومت سره خبرې رد کړلې‬ mullā-Ø mohammed-Ø omar-Ø afghan Mullah-M.53) .3PL.

WK gulp do.328  9.‫شـربـت غـونـدې يـې غـړپ کـه‬ šarbat-Ø ɣunde ye ɣáṛp k-a alcohol-SG. A use of postposition /bondi/ in Waziri that we have not found in General Pashto is within number names.OBL before of student-PL.M.4.OBL like 3.177.5 Adpositions The postposition ‫ و ړاندې‬/wṛānde/ ‘before’ ‫وړاندې‬ Although it has not been described as a postposition by other Pashto scholars.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. /wṛānde/ ‘before’ fits our definition of a postposition that governs ablative case on its object..SG ‘Chug it like a beer.‫په‬ For some dialects.ANIM. I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F. (9.OBL international-F. (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be. /bānde/ can function with a range of meanings similar to those of /pə. see Section 9.54) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ .3 for more information.6 The postposition ‫ غوندې‬/ɣunde/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ Both this postposition and the preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may independently govern an object.5.7 The postposition ‫ باتدې‬/bānde/ ‫باتدې‬ ‫باندې‬.M.4..bānde/.5.54 for an example.55) .PST-PTCP.M.PST.’ 9.OBL conference-M.13.. an example is given in Section 6.OBL society-F.AOR-IMP.. See 9.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become. or may be combined into the circumposition exemplified in sentence 9.1SG ‘A few days ago.OBL one-M.4.AOR.228.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.’ 9.M.CONT.

harvest’ is uncertain.CONT.56) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M. such as Heston (1987: 169) and Dessart (1994). among others.3[PL. some of the elements found in circumpositions do not function as independent prepositions 11 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual.OBL manual.57 shows /(p)se/ used as a postposition. According to many grammarians of Pashto. and sometimes we use the reaper. each circumposition can be analyzed as a combination of a preposition and a postposition.M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you . and some may exemplify constraints that resemble those of General Pashto.4.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . First. go further and state or hint that the circumpositions are the result of free combinations of prepositions and postpositions and are not completely conventionalized.Circumpositions  329 9.M] ne če der-bež-iž-i then COMP 2-near-become. (9.’ (DZA) 9. This conflicts with most claims about General Pashto that they are only components of circumpositions. /pse/ ‘after’ may be used as an independent postposition in Dzadrani.. Attested examples suggest an even larger inventory of items that can be used as independent postpositions.DIR 2 after AOR-throw-PRS. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. some of these may represent dialect differences.5 Circumpositions The majority of adpositions in Pashto are circumpositions.OBL from work-M.DIR AOR-gather. however.¹² Our analysis is somewhat different in two ways.8 Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects In apparent contrast to GP.3[PL.177.STR. such as the constraint against weak pronouns inside circumpositions: Example 9. some speakers of Northern dialects have reported that they can be found in those dialects as well.228. /londi/ ‘beneath.56 gives an example of /na/ used as a postposition. 12 Some authors.harvest(?)-F.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M. For Waziri. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists the independent postpositions /kxe/ ‘on’.57) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se wə́-čaw-i when COMP 3PL. We nevertheless find it useful to treat the most commonly occurring circumpositions as (discontinuous) lexical items.DIR fire-M. and 9.’ (WAZ)¹¹ (9.DIR AOR\take.PRS-PRS.. as independent postpositions.’ /pere/ ‘across’.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.

on the grounds that such phrases may be in the process of lexicalization.2. the first component of some circumpositions appears to be fairly freely omissible. circumpositions function as single relations governing a single complement. we list the sequence as if it were a circumposition. or is (for instance) a preposition with a postpositional phrase as its object. When we are in doubt as to this question. showing common circumpositions of Dzadrani and Waziri. Table 9.177. Since an adpositional phrase can take an adpositional phrase rather than a noun phrase as an object. Other dictionaries and descriptions show additional combinations or alternative orderings. Second. we want to emphasize that although they consist of separate parts that are in some cases identifiable as independent words. according to the definition above. Other studies treat the components as separate words. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. and variability noted throughout this section constitutes some evidence in favor of this view. and there is not full consensus on even which are the most frequent. either through our own research or in other sources. apparently there is some freedom in how the elements are combined.330  Adpositions or postpositions (though perhaps most do). Of the circumpositions listed in Table 9.228. It is evident that this is also an area of dialectal variation: besides there being differences in pronunciation associated with dialects.1 shows many of the simple circumpositions we have found for General Pashto. In many of the Northern dialects of Pashto.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . there are also differences in which combinations are to be found as circumpositions. rendering the effect of a postposition.1. as well as in some Middle dialects. Some of those differences are reflected in Table 9. it is not always easy to tell whether an item is a true circumposition. the second component of many of these may appear independently with approximately the meaning of the circumposition.

‫له‬ də...134 ‫پورې‬..59 ‫نه‬.pəse ‘after’ ‫ پسې‬....‫تر‬ lə....lānde ‘under’ 9. lə ... .....139 ‫لاندې‬. ‫د‬ .‫د‬ ........ na ‫ نه‬.. ‫پر‬ pər . pə. ʦəxa ‫ څخه‬. pə..‫په‬ də.. səra ‫ سره‬..səra ‘with’ 9. ‫له‬ də ..100 ‫لاندې‬...‫په‬ .61 ‫لاندې‬..lānde ‘under’ 9.66 ‫سره‬.. ‫د‬ ↓first component →second component tər......lānde ‘under’ 9.......65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 331 .na ‘from’ 9..‫له‬ də...pore ‘with’ ‫ پورې‬.. ....pore ‘until.. ke ‫ کې‬...... .... lānde ‫ لاندې‬...... ‫د‬ .228.63 ‫څخه‬..128 ‫باندې‬.‫تر‬ pər..... pəse ‫ پسې‬...99 ‫سره‬.. up to’ 9. behind’ 9..na ‘from’ 9...1: Some GP simple circumpositions   pə........104 ‫نه‬.pore ‘up to..132 ‫سره‬.... ‫کې‬. ‫په‬ tər ...ʦəxa ‘from’ 9..123 pə .‫په‬ ..səra ‘with’ 9. on’ 9.....177. Circumpositions  Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..‫د‬ .. ‫د‬ . ‫تر‬ lə..‫د‬ .....bānde ‘on top of. bānde ‫ باندې‬. . tər.pəse ‘after... pə.. at...124 ‫پسې‬.‫له‬ də. pore ‫ پورې‬.ke ‘in...101 ‫څخه‬.‫په‬ lə. lə. by means of’ 9.65 ‫ پورې‬..... across’ 9..... ‫پر‬ də... Table 9.ʦəxa ‘from’ 9.‫له‬ də...səra ‘with’ 9....

..F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that.1. this.AOR.332  Adpositions Table 9.PST-PTCP. in positions corresponding largely to the ones in Table 9.DIR .58) ʣəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL.3SG..bānde/ (9.DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be.2 shows the circumpositions cited for Middle dialects (Septfonds 1994.nde/).. since in the Middle dialects. and some of them may vary with forms found also in General Pashto (e.g.M.DIR fee-F.2 may be understood as corresponding to the first two rows of that table.228.58) in contrast with /pə..OBL on. /ye/ and /de/ may vary freely in circumpositions.on much-F. (9.DIR CONT-take. /pə. Lorimer 1902).F. The first row of Table 9...PRS.177.’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. Some of these forms may also be found in GP dialects.

pə . at. səra wa..na ‘from. on’ 8. kxe (xe) tər.......  pə.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . .na ‘from. pera pə..nde. with’ 8...44 . (p)se tər...sra ‘with’ yə.. first ↓ component second component → pə.londe ‘under’ pə.....130 ..pse ‘in......127 ..londi ‘under’ yə....42 .. (y)ə ......pera ‘until’ ... londe Table 9...sra ‘with’ 8.pera ‘until.pera ‘with’ yə...2: Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP wa..ta ‘to’ . up to’ pə........ after’ 9... tər . with’ yə.kxe ‘in. na tər...ta Circumpositions  333 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.nde ‘on top’ 9.61 .bondi pə.londe ‘under’ .177..228...

recognizing only the variant /lə/ as a possible components.OBL .M...1.....228.under water-PL.‫د غالۍ لاندې اوبه دي‬ də ɣāl-əy lānde ob-ə d..1SG ‘I am sitting in the shade...PST-PTCP. does give examples of circumpositions with /də/.61) .CONT. Kabuli variety of Pashto.60.’ (9.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.DIR be.AOR.‫د سایې لاندي ناست یم‬ də sāy-e lāndi nāst-Ø yəm under.DIR yəm be.59) .62) .PRS. out of’ In this construction.’ • ‫لاندې‬.. ‫ د‬/də.‫د کابل نه راغلی یم‬ də kābəl-Ø na rā́ɣl-ay from..DIR be.1SG ‘I came from Kabul. ‫ د‬/də.’ (SW) (9.. carpet-F.na/ ‘from. Kabul-M. who claim to describe a Northwest.60) .OBL . Babrakzai (1999: 44). who claims to be describing the same variety.F.PRS..F ‘There is water under the carpet.334  9.PRS... (9. house-M.OBL .under sitting-M...1 General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/ The preposition /də/ can combine with a number of postpositions to form simple circumpositions.5.. oblique case is assigned to the object. do not list /də/ as a component of circumpositions.’ 13 Tegey & Robson (1996: 154ff.lānde/ ‘under’ (9.177..8 with 9..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.1 Adpositions Circumpositions with ‫ د‬/də/ ‫د‬ 9. shadow-F..OBL .¹³ The ones we have found are exemplified in this section. ‫د‬ • ‫ نه‬.from come. Compare example 9.3PL.AOR.CONT..‫د کور نه راغلم‬ də kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from.CONT.from come...).i under.5.

.M.up..pore/.COMIT computer-M. see 9. which is exemplified in Section 9..səra/.‫ له‬/lə.OBL ..in go.to in..7): ‫له دې سره‬ ‫سره‬.65) ..‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه سته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG..lānde/ (see 9.from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit.lānde/ (see 9.. I am afraid of the stick. • ‫څخه‬.. friend-M.228.64.səra/.2.pore/ ‘up to’ (9.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9. best translated as nonetheless or thereby (see also Section 11... • ‫پورې‬.tsəxa/ ‘from..64) .139).‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.......177.STR. (9.Circumpositions  335 This can also be expressed with ‫لاندې‬.63) ...‫د لرګي څخه بېرېږم‬ də larg-i ʦəxa Ø-ber-éẓ-əm from. and with ‫لاندې‬.4..AOR....DIR EXT ‘I have three good books. Ahmad-M.. see 9. stick-M.DIR NEG EXT ‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer.‫له‬ Note too the apparently synonymous phrase /lə.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫د دوسته پورې په موټر کې ولاړم‬ də dost-ə pore pə moṭər-Ø ke wlā́ṛ-əm up.‫تر‬ /tər.. on account of.5.1.‫ د‬/də... The following sentence exemplifies the common “joining with” use of /də.135.....ABL .‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬ də ahmad-Ø səra kampyuṭər-Ø nə šta COMIT.133 ...4. for a postpositional use of ‫ څخه‬/ʦəxa/..102..’ (NE) • ‫پورې‬..9.100).OBL ..’ For dialectal variants...PST-1SG ‘I went to my friend by car’ (NW) This relation can also be expressed with 9....]’ (SW) (9..‫تر‬ /tər.‫ د‬/də.’ (SW) ‫سره‬. as well as the idiomatic phrase /la de səra/ ‘with this’ ..OBL .to. car-M..‫ د‬/də.66) ...OBL from three good book-PL. as in examples ‫سره‬.

and it is the first component in many of the same circumpositions.336  Adpositions (9. However... India-M. Pakistan will be able to send their forces from the border with India to the long border with Afghanistan.M] ‘Nonetheless..1 for more discussion and some examples. we are showing here the circumpositions using the more common variants /ye/∼/e/.2..3[SG.2.177.. ‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتاونېږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل‬ . /e/ A local variant of the GP preposition /də/ is Middle /de/. this...OBL .1.67) ‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتوانیږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل پوځیان د‬ . 9.‫افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ lə de səra bə pākistān-Ø COMIT..OBL .səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ Septfonds (1994: 5.COMIT WOULD Pakistan-M.228.3..OBL border-M.OBL own-PL.COMIT from pul-e xpəl-Ø pawʣ-iān də border-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . it is less common in the Middle dialects than the variants /ye/ and /e/. Because the /de/ form is the less common.’¹⁴ ‫سه‬ The particle /səra/ can appear independently and without an overt object..‫پوځیان د افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ 14 Standardized version of9.5. which apparently vary freely with each other..DIR wə́-tawan-eg-i če də hindustān-Ø səra lə AOR-able-PRS-PRS.1. āfɣānistān-Ø səra ugd-a sarhad-Ø ta Afghanistan-M.DIR force-PL.OBL .M] COMP COMIT.2 Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/. ‫ده‬ • /ə.M. /sa/. less often.4) notes that the postpositional component of this item can be heard as /sra/ and. See Section 10. .M..OBL to w-ā́staw-i AOR-send-PRS.ANIM.67: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. with interpretation determined by context.3[SG.COMIT long-M.DIR COMIT.

109): (9..STR.3SG.M ‘He is invited to the mullah's.. death-M..177.3SG.3SG..’ (DZA) ‫د‬ 9.M ‘Is he younger than you?’ (WAZ) Septfonds notes that this circumposition can work as in a malefactive-type construction.PRS.M] ‘Sometimes their head is in danger..CONT.lə pāra/ ‘for. 2SG. that is.OBL .nə/ The circumposition /ye.is COMIT.AOR.M that.. the rule about positioning a phrase with /də/ at the beginning of its noun phrase often results in the effect of a circumposition. and means.. as exemplified in sentences 9. ‫ د‬/də. kra/..OBL ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ • ‫ دپاره‬. nominal. We conjecture that this use...PRS..1. the first component is that complement marked by /də/.COMIT facing š-i become.’ (WAZ) He notes further that this item fulfills the a broad range of functions including association... of mullah-M.. possession.3 Complex circumpositions with /də/ As discussed in Section 9. for the sake of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.nə/ can be used with various functions associated with separation or differentiation.. • /ye.DIR wi yane e marg-Ø səra məxāmə́x be. home invited be. the second component consists of an adpositional phrase with a complement-taking.OBL . often abstract or relational.. they are faced with death. • /ye . As these examples show. is related to GP phrases using forms of /kor/ ‘house’.3[PL.OBL danger-M. exemplified here.than young-M. including marking the standard of comparison (compare GP 9. kra/ ‘at the home of’ This distinctive circumposition is translated as chez in Septfonds (1994: 267) and cited also by Lorimer (1902: 39) as /de .68) kəla kəla xo e sar-Ø xatár-Ø when when EMPH of head-M.228.AOR.151 and 9.CONT.. ‫ له پاره‬.. ‫ د‬/də.PRS-PRS.Circumpositions  337 (9..PRS.DIR be.1.3.5.. accompaniment...2.the.70) ye de mlo-Ø kra wolma day at...69) e to na kəšər-Ø da than. to mark a participant who is involuntarily involved in and affected by an event..8: ‫کور‬ (9.də pāra/ ..

‫ریاست په دوره کی ترټولو سخته پریکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M.. as in this example.to all-PL.F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term.CONT.3[PL.lə pāra/ is the complement of /prekṛa/ ‘decision’: ‫ له پاره‬.OBL in.PRS-PRS..177.M.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.DIR 3..‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M.M.DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.3[SG.PRS.ANIM.OBL difficult-F.OBL and sadness-PL.DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy.OBL from sake-M.M.M.M COMP medicine-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.PST-PST.WK of national office-M.OBL bite-INF-PL..ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M..ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.71) .AOR.73) ‫د نو کانو ژوول ښایي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابدیو د ځرکندولو یوه لار‬ .’ (9.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.DIR of Ahmad-M.AOR.OBL from sake-M.DIR wi be.DIR .M. Here the circumpositional phrase containing /də.OBL to of thirty thousand-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.ANIM.DIR be.M.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad.OBL for of concern-PL. term-F.F.OBL of send-INF-PL..DIR decision-F.’ (SW) Verbal nouns within adpositional phrases may express the complements of verbs or.OBL one-F. nominalizations.338  Adpositions (9.DIR path-F. ‫د‬ ‫پرېکړه‬ (9.OBL to go.in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up.M.PST...3SG.72) ‫افغانستان ته د دیرش زره اضافی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه یی د جمهوری‬ .228.

.DIR write-INF become.DIR .177.DIR maqāl-e lik-əl šə́w-i article-PL.PL.F.74) .PRS. subject-F..DIR di be....DIR of contest-F.STR..Circumpositions  • ‫ په باره کې‬.F ‘He is talking about how I won the race.DIR .F.pə bāra ke/ ‘about’ (9.PRS.pə bāb/ ‘about’ (9.PL. ‫ د‬/də.CONT..M.‫د احمد په باره کي ډېرې مقالې لیکل شوي دي‬ də ahmad-Ø pə bāra-Ø ki ḍer-e of Ahmad-M.3[SG.STR..OBL in. ‫ د‬/də.M.F. subject-F..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 339 .3PL.in Ø-ẓaɣ-éẓ-i če mā ʦanga CONT-speak-PRS-PRS.AOR..M ‘What have you said about Zalmay to the teacher?’ (SW) • ‫ په ځای‬.F ‘Many articles have been written about Ahmad.’ (SW) • ‫ په باب‬.OBL in...3SG..228.’ (SW) (9.pə ʣāy/ ‘instead of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL how wə́-gaṭ-əl-ə AOR-win-PST-PST.75) ....OBL to of Zalmay-M..OBL on bāb-Ø tsə Ø-way-ə́l-i subject-M what CONT-tell.M] COMP 1SG..OBL teacher-M.PST-PTCP..3PL.DIR di be.76) ‫تاسو ښوونکي ته د زلمي په باب څه ویلي دی؟‬ tāso ṣwunk-i tə də zalm-i pə 2PL. ‫ د‬/də.in many-PL.CONT..‫دی د مسابقې په باره کې ږغېږي چه ما څنګه وګټله‬ day də mušābiq-e pə bāra-Ø ke 3SG.

‫ د‬/də. face-M ....AOR šu ṣə bə wi be.PRS.PL ‘Don't tell me anything in front of Ahmad!’ (9. face-M .M..DIR be..PRS.DIR COMP Kandahar to go.in 1SG.PRS.’ Septfonds (1994) translates the Dzadrani collocation /pə məx/ as ‘immediately’.81 below.AOR. a corresponding item in Waziri can be found in 9.340  (9.DIR assigned-M.1PL good WOULD be.‫د کابل په ځای چه کندهار ته لاړ شو ښه به وي‬ də kābul pə ʣāy čə kandahār ta lā́ṛ of Kabul in place.OBL to what NEG Ø-wāy-ə́y CONT-tell-IMP.OBL in.STR.M ‘He stood in front of the class.‫د ضیا په ځای بل کس مقرر شوی دئ‬ də ziā-Ø pə ʣāy-Ø bal-Ø kas-Ø muqarar-Ø of Zia-M.PST-PTCP...‫د صنف په مخ کې ودرید‬ də sinf-Ø pə məx-Ø ke wə́-dar-id-Ø of class-M.PRS.OBL on place-M other-M.80) .AOR.CONT.77) Adpositions .AOR.DIR person-M.OBL in..pə məx ke/ ‘in front of’ This circumposition has more and less literal uses: (9.SG..DIR šáw-ay dəy become.79) !‫د احمد په مخ کې ما ته څه مه وایئ‬ də ahmad-Ø pə məx-Ø ke mā ta ʦə má of Ahmad-M.3SG.’ (SW) • ‫په مخ کې‬.’ (SW) (9. note the variation in the location of the genitive phrase: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.M..M ‘Someone else has been appointed instead of Zia.3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .in AOR-stop-PST-PST.M ‘It will be better to go to Kandahar instead of Kabul...177.3SG.78) .

STR.3SG...PRS-PRS.M..’ (WAZ) • ‫ )په( خوا‬.M.lə amala/ ‘because of’ (see also 9.M] ‘When these goods become excessive in their area.83) .AOR..Circumpositions  341 (9..M.‫د احمد له امله ما ته زیان ورسېد‬ də ahmad-Ø lə amal-a mā ta zyān-Ø of Ahmad-M.M ‘A car passed beside Ahmad.M] then this.OBL to e rasaw-ə́l-e košəš-Ø Ø-k-í of send-INF-PL.. 9..DIR goods-PL.PST-PST-PST.in passed-M. then smugglers immediately try to send these goods to other big cities in the country.81) dā mol-ina če kala ile ḍér-Ø this.OBL to loss-M.OBL in. • ‫ له امله‬.DIR goods-PL.DIR on face-M of məlk-Ø country-M..’ (SW) Both the version with the postposition and that without were acceptable to our speaker.ABL 1SG.M. ‫ د‬/də.OBL from cause-M..OBL large-PL.DIR š-i biyā dáɣa qāčābar become. ‫ د‬/də.3[PL.DIR smuggling xalək-Ø dáɣa mol-ina pə max-Ø e people-PL.AOR.OBL nor-e stər-e šār-e ta other-PL.177.M.DIR of Ahmad-M.DIR wə́-ras-ed-Ø AOR-arrive.DIR COMP when here much-PL.85) (9.PRS-PRS.M.PST-PST.3[PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..M.84.OBL city-PL...‫موټر د احمد )په( خوا کي تېر شو‬ moṭər-Ø də ahmad-Ø (pə) xwā-Ø ki tér-Ø car-M.DIR CONT-do.M ‘I have suffered much loss because of Ahmad.82) .228.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR šu-Ø become.3SG. side-F .OBL effort-M.DIR this.(pə) xwā ke/ ‘alongside’ (9.M.

177.85) ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .DIR also wounded šúw-ay dəy become.PST-PTCP.AOR-PRS. Afghanistan-M.AOR.OBL .F.84) Adpositions ...OBL INSTR manner-M become.M ‘Like John.PST-PTCP.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ABL from high-F.M.M.’ • ‫ په شان‬.in amniat-Ø ná šta security-M.‫د جان په شان اسد هم ټپی شوی دی‬ də jān-Ø pə šān-Ø asad-Ø ham ṭəpi of John-M.CONT.. ‫ د‬/də.SG má NEG.. elections-PL.PST-PTCP.OBL court-F.86) .87) !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M..OBL fraud-PL.228. Asad too has been wounded.OBL ..3[SG.‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬ də jang-Ø lə amal-a pə afɣānistān-Ø ke of war-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M..OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want..DIR be.PL.F..WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.pə šān/ ‘like’ (9.OBL vast-PL.3SG.DIR NEG EXT ‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war.PRS.CONT.342  (9.DIR 3.ABL in.OBL from cause-M..OBL INSTR manner-M Asad-M.DIR COMP results-PL.M.‫غوښتي چې نتایج باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M.AOR.OBL lawyer-F.’ (9..F..in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become.OBL in.PRS-IMP.’ (9.PL.

DIR also good kār-Ø ná kaw-í work-M.CONT-PRS.PST-PTCP.AOR-SG. ‫ د‬/də..pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9.motion-M.3SG.OBL on direction-M rawān-Ø šáw-ay dəy in..PST.OBL on direction-M in.3SG..OBL house-M.2.Circumpositions  • 343 ‫په څېر‬.motion-M.PRS. ‫ د‬/də..DIR 3..DIR become.‫د امریکا په لور روان شوی دی‬ də amrikā-Ø pə lor-Ø rawān-Ø of America-F..OBL INSTR sort-M Ahmad-M.DIR NEG do.PRS.pə ʦer/ ‘like’ (9.2 and Section 11.‫د محمود په څېر احمد هم ښه کار نه کوي‬ də mahmud-Ø pə ʦer-Ø ahmad-Ø ham xa of Mahmoud-M.M ‘He is heading towards America.AOR.94.91) .91 and 9.’ • ‫ په لور‬.‫د پولیس له خوا کوریی محاصره شو‬ də polis-Ø lə xwā-Ø kor-Ø ye mahāsra of police-PL.DIR from side-F. Ahmad does not do good work. It may also mark the agent of a nominalized form of a verb.5).. ‫ د‬/də.88) ..M.. (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . This is exemplified in 9.M ‘Afghanistan has been moving towards development.lə xwā/ ‘by’ This circumposition may be used to mark the agent of an action when it is not the subject. as in sentence 9.DIR be.177..5.DIR of development-F.M] ‘Like Mahmoud.3.90) .WK surrounded šáw-Ø become..M.DIR šáw-ay dəy become.M ‘His house was surrounded by police.1.‫افغانستان د ترقۍ په لور روان شوی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø də taraq-əy pə lor-Ø Afghanistan-M.’ • ‫له خوا‬.3SG.228.CONT.M.PST-PST.89) .AOR.92 below.CONT. as in denominal verb constructions (see Section 8.5..DIR be.3[SG.’ (9.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

PRS.F ‘Criticisms from America regarding Moscow's history with democracy were not directly mentioned by the Russian president.DIR of America-F.344  Adpositions (9.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.3[SG.92) .OBL of intiqād-uno yadawəna-Ø wə-nə́ kṛ-a criticism-PL.DIR give-INF do.DIR letter-M.92: .’ This circumposition may also express origin: (9.OBL republic-M.93) .OBL pə āṛa-Ø də amrikā-Ø lə xwā-Ø də on topic-F.‫د مذهبي ډلو لخوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ də mazhabi ḍəl-o lə xwā-Ø wər tə salā of religious group-PL.F] ‘Advice is being given to them from religious groups.DIR of Moscow-M.3SG.F.177.OBL president-M.OBL from side-F.’ (SW) 15 Standardized version of 9.OBL from side-F.228.M.M.DIR of Ahmad-M.OBL from side-F.M.‫د امریکا له خوا د انتقادونو یادونه ونکړه‬ də rusiy-e jumhor-Ø rais-Ø pə mustaqima-Ø of Russian-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.OBL 3 to advice mašwar-a wərkaw-ə́l kíg-i advice-SG.OBL statement-F.’¹⁵ (9.OBL INSTR haste-F.PRS-PRS.95) .to Shiranai-M.AOR.’ (9.M.SG.DIR be.OBL of history-F.CONT.PST-PTCP.M ‘This letter came from Ahmad.OBL of democracy-F.DIR self-M.DIR AOR-NEG do.3SG.DIR up.OBL INSTR direct-F.‫دا لیک د احمد له خوا راغلی دئ‬ dā lik-Ø də ahmad-Ø lə xwā-Ø this.‫هغه په نبړه ځان تر سیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.DIR toga-Ø də mosko-Ø də ḍəmokrās-əy də sābəq-e manner-F.OBL rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.AOR-PST.‫د مذهبي ډلو له خوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.94) ‫د روسیي جمهور رئیس په مستقیمه توګه د مسکو د ډموکراسۍ د سابقي په اړه‬ .

M.‫ د‬/də..OBL of Iran-M.M.in wázā šwu-əl established become.PST-PST..’ (9.ABL in.DIR year-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ...’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG..‫یو صراف د غلو له لورې ووژل شو‬ yaw-Ø sarrāf-Ø də ɣəl-o lə lur-e one-M...DIR of thief-PL.177.OBL country-M .DIR of friend-PL.97) .‫کبله پر دې هیواد کې وضعه شول‬ (9.AOR.OBL from side-F.M ‘[The sanctions] were implemented last year in Iran by the United Nations Security Council.3PL.PST-PST. this circumposition can also be used to indicate an agent.M.Circumpositions  • 345 ‫له لورې‬.228.OBL of atomic fāliat-o lə kabəl-a pər de haywād-Ø ke activities-PL.AOR.M.96) ter-Ø kāl-Ø də malgr-o milat-uno də passed-M..OBL from side-F.‫ د‬/də lə xwā/ ‘by’.OBL wə́-waž-əl šu-Ø AOR-kill-INF become..OBL nation-PL. this..M ‘A banker was killed by thieves.OBL from cause-M.OBL of amniat šurā-Ø lə lur-e də irān-Ø də atomi security council-F.DIR banker-M.lə lure/ ‘by’ Like ‫له خوا‬. ‫تیر کال د ملګرو ملتونو د امنیت شورا له لورې د ایران د اتومي فعاایتو له‬ .

OBL from side-F. • ‫له‬ ‫سره‬.PL.2 General Pashto circumpositions with ‫ له‬/lə/ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Many grammars describe /lə/ as a variant of /də/ that can appear in circumpositions.AOR.OBL this.AOR-PST.. ‫له‬ 9.‫ له‬/lə.M] condemned do.102.DIR become.3PL.99 . .DIR 15 britānawi samandari sartir-i xud-ə́l British marine soldier-PL..3SG..COMIT 1SG.‫بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكوم كړه‬۱۵ (9.. The postpositional component is the one to look to for the meaning information..F ‘Britain condemned a video tape broadcast by Iran in which 15 captured Naval soldiers were shown.M.WK word-PL.in seize-INF become.F ‘I talked with Ahmad.PRS-PRS.DIR wə́-kəṛ-e AOR-do.F.DIR xəpura-Ø šuw-e widiỵowi paṭa-Ø broadcast-F.2. as shown in Examples 9.99) .PST-PTCP. Ahmad-M.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9.‫ بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكومه كړه‬۱۵ ‫نیول شوي‬ 16 Standardized version of 9..98: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.DIR show-INF kíg-i mahkúm kṛ-a become.228.‫له احمد سره مې خبرې وکړې‬ lə ahmad-Ø səra me xabər-e COMIT.AOR.5.5.DIR videotaped document-F..’¹⁶ 9..OBL of Iran-M.1 GP simple circumpositions with /lə/ What follows are the most commonly encountered simple circumpositions starting with /lə/.CONT.98) britānyā-Ø də irān-Ø lə lur-e háɣa Britain-F.F..177.AOR-PST.346  Adpositions ‫په كې نیول شوي‬،‫بریتانیا دایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ ...9.OBL .DIR če pə ke niw-ə́l šúw-i 15 COMP in.’ ‫ په كې‬،‫بریتانیا د ایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .PST-PTCP.3[PL.

OBL .‫ له‬/lə. Compare also the function of /səra/ that appears without an object.Circumpositions  347 In NE and NW dialects.DIR of attack-PL.1..F.100) .M.lānde/ under....OBL ...PST-PTCP..‫له‬ preposition (9. ‫د‬ .3SG.‫له کابل څخه راغلی یم‬ lə kābə́l-Ø ʦə́xa rā́ɣl-ay from.101) /lə.OBL . head-M.under di be.2. For a variant with the /də/.PST-PST.103) šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø ʦəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M.PRS-1SG ‘I have come from Kabul.‫کښېننست‬ (9..3SG. 1996: 155–156).OBL Mahmud-M.M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit.228.63. Kabul-M.DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do.102) .CONT.OBL under.M. • ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫لاندې‬.CONT. See also 9...AOR.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ (NW) ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ایسته کړ او هیڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ .177. on account of’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .. leaving the postposition /səra/ (Tegey & Robson.ʦəxa/ ‘from.PRS....from crown-M. from below (9.AOR-PST.3SG.from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit...M ‘Pakistan is under pressure of attack.OBL from.‫پاکستان د حملو له فشارونو لاندې دي‬ pākistān-Ø də haml-o lə fišār-uno lānde Pakistan-M.OBL ...M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne.. stick-M.’ • ‫څخه‬.. pressure-PL.DIR yəm be. see Section 10.3...’ (9.‫له لرګي څخه ډارېږم‬ lə larg-i tsəxə Ø-ḍār-ég-əm from.from come. see 9. it is possible to omit the prepositional component.. I am afraid of the stick]..103.

5..M... which is ungrammatical.. Compare 9. ‫له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR 1SG.2.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.2.177..from come.’ (9. car-M.’ In the NE and NW dialects.DIR 1SG.SG..228...PST-1SG ‘I came from home.. as shown in Section 9. 17 For Babrakzai (1999: 42). ‫نه‬ ‫ـه‬ (9.’ (NE..AOR.PST-PST.AOR.from w-ā́xist-ə AOR-take.‫کالي مي موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭə́r-Ø na w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL. 1996: 155)..na/ from The circumposition ‫نه‬.na/ and /lə/ exist.‫ له‬/lə..‫له کوره راغلم‬ lə kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M.‫کالي مي له موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi lə moṭər-Ø na clothes-M.‫ له‬/lə.107) .PST-PST. It typically indicates motion away or separation from.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ نه‬. this circumposition is unacceptable..’ (9.‫له کور نه راغلم‬ lə kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from.NW) In sentence 9.na/ is the most common simple circumposition starting with ‫ له‬/lə/.348  • Adpositions ‫نه‬. (9.WK from.106 and 9... only the two forms /də. it is possible to omit the prepositional component of this circumposition in informal speech (Tegey & Robson...107. ‫د‬ .105) .ABL come.104) . the ablative marker cannot appear without an adposition governing it..3SG.108.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.OBL .WK car-M.106) .OBL from AOR-take.¹⁷ and it is also used with complex circumpositions. house-M.. The following two examples show how the postposition /nə/ alternates with the ablative case-marker /-a/: the two items may not co-occur.OBL ..

3SG. for another construction.DIR kitāb-una Ø-lar-ə́m book-PL..228.na/ followed by /zyāt/ ‘more’ . Mahmoud-M...M..WK car-M.‫زه له محمود نه لږ کتابونه لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ləž-Ø 1SG.DIR from.‫* کالي مي موټره واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭər-a w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL..na/ is also the most common way to make comparative statements in Pashto.‫له‬ The full form of the circumposition /lə.111) . The object appears in the oblique case (Tegey & Robson.110) ‫زیات‬ ‫دېر‬ .M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France. see the examples in Section 9.. ‫نه‬.DIR from..’ Quantitative comparatives such as more than and less than are created using the circumposition /lə... the object of the circumposition must be preceded by a universal quantifier such as /ṭolo/ ‘all’.109) .M..‫افغانستان له فرانسې نه غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø lə frāns-e na ɣaṭ-Ø Afghanistan-M..‫له‬ ‫لږ‬ (9..177.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.. few’.PRS.DIR CONT-have.3SG.na/ can be used in Pashto to create superlative constructions. (9.PRS-1SG ‘I have much more money than Mahmoud..DIR dəy be.PST-PST.DIR coin-PL..from many-PL.STR. /der/ ‘very’ or /ləg/ ‘less.CONT.DIR CONT-have.’ ‫نه‬.’ ‫نه‬.Circumpositions  (9.PRS-1SG ‘I have fewer books than Mahmoud.. Mahmoud-M.‫له‬ Similarly.from big-M.OBL .OBL ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .F.F.from few-PL.STR..‫زه له محمود نه ډېري زیاتي پېسې لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ḍer-i 1SG.OBL ..3.F.DIR zyāt-i pays-e Ø-lar-ə́m more-PL.108) 349 .’ (9... ‫ټولو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ABL AOR-take. the circumposition /lə...DIR 1SG.5 (from Tegey & Robson 1996: 162). France-M. 1996: 155)..DIR from.M. For the superlative construction.

na/ The circumposition /lə..‫د محمود کور له ټولو نه لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø lə ṭol-o na of Mahmoud-M...DIR from.M ‘Mahmoud is the smartest of all/Mahmoud is smarter than all [of them].CONT. all-PL.AOR. Together they govern the item between the two sets of ellipses.3SG..OBL house-M.3SG.112) .‫له‬ 9..PST-PTCP. 1SG.’ ‫نه‬.177.OBL .. all-PL...‫له‬ ‫نه‬ • ‫نه پخوا‬. Furthermore..228.from before rā́ɣl-ay dəy come..M ‘Ahmad has come before me..STR. outside of’ [ ‫ بهر‬/bahar/ ‘outside’ ] Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.na/ frequently combines with other adpositions or adverbs to form complex circumpositions.from lw-ay dəy big-M..M.’ • ‫نه بهر‬.na/ does not contribute any meaning beyond the meaning of the other element.from smart-M.2. the postposition /na/ governs oblique case-marking on its object.. however.‫ له‬/lə.PRS..OBL . Traditionally...na bahar/ ‘out of.. it may assign case somewhat irregularly..‫ له‬/lə.DIR dəy be..’ (9.OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .PRS.DIR be.CONT..3SG..113) . ‫نه‬.na pəxwā́/ ‘before’ [ ‫ پخوا‬/pəxwā́/ ‘before’ ] (9.... Most of the time.. this object may sometimes appear in the ablative case form.CONT.M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest/Mahmoud's house is bigger than all [other houses]..350  Adpositions (9. /lə.114) ..‫محمود له ټولو نه پوه دی‬ mahmud-Ø lə ṭol-o na poh-Ø Mahmoud-M.2 GP complex circumpositions with /lə..DIR from.‫احمد له ما نه پخوا راغلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə mā na pəxwā Ahmad-M.DIR be.‫له‬ ‫نه‬..5.DIR from....PRS.

3PL.from go.3SG.na/ without [ ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ ] (9. We find /wrusta lə..OBL .STR.‫ وروسته له‬/wrusta lə.. Besides being identifiable as an adverb.Circumpositions  (9..’ • ‫نه‬.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .(na)/ ‘after’ [ ‫ وروسته‬/wrusta/ ‘after..(na) wrusta/..DIR ʦok-Ø wə-nə́ lid-əl who..1] ‫وروسته‬ The item /wrusta/ ‘after.from outside Ø-watə́l-ay dəy CONT-leave....M ‘Ahmad has come out of the house.‫وروسته له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..from 1SG.‫ بې له‬/be lə.119).PST-PST....228...177.‫احمد له کور نه بهر وتلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə kor-Ø na bahár Ahmad-M..M.PRS..‫بې له تا نه ولاړم‬ be lə tā na wlā́ṛ-əm without from.DIR be. See Table 10. later’.(na) wrusta/ (see 9. it appears to be an ambiposition in that it can appear as either a prepositional or a postpositional component of circumpositions.(na)/ next to /lə.. 2SG..PST-1SG ‘I went without you...117) .‫پرته له احمد نه مې بل څوک ونهلیدل‬ prata lə ahmad-Ø na me bəl-Ø except from.115) 351 .’ • ‫نه‬.M. house-M.DIR AOR-NEG see.. (‫)نه‬.OBL .’ • (‫)نه‬. as well as /də.WK other-PL...CONT..DIR from.OBL .PST-PTCP. later’ exemplifies some of the complexity of the system of adpositions.....118 and 9..M ‘I didn't see anybody except for Ahmad..‫ پرته له‬/prata lə.116) ..AOR.na/ except for [ ‫ پرته‬/prata/ ‘except’ ] (9. Ahmad-M.

STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’¹⁸ As the parentheses indicate.119) .AOR-1PL ‘After this.’ (9..‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ (9.140 and the examples that follow it for another variant using the adposition /wrusta/.3SG.228.OBL from side-F. vote-F.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election.DIR INSTR neck-F..OBL eating-F.OBL təl-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M.from after 3.M.OBL collection-F.OBL .‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrusta bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG. ‫وروسته‬ (9.177. See also 9.PST-PST.’ 18 Standardized version of 9.OBL responsibility-M.DIR NEG do.352  Adpositions ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورښ په اړه د‬ ..118) də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.119: .OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.‫اه دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. we won't import fuel through Iran.STR.OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you.DIR after from 2SG. the element /na/ is apparently optional in all three versions.AOR.DIR imported-M.OBL INSTR topic-F.120) ..WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.DIR darlód-Ø have.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL.

M.DIR attacker-PL..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫برید وروسته رامنځته شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ 19 Standardized version of 9.M.3PL.3 Circumpositions with ‫ په‬/pə/ ‫په‬ Circumpositions with /pə/ denote an entity’s relationship to another’s.PST-PST. temporal.121) də háɣe nəxət-e pə traʦ-Ø ke če .DIR 1PL..DIR š-u become.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍod-̣əy mo after from this.OBL from brid-Ø wrustá rā-mánʣ ta šw-a dwa attack-M. these relations may be physical.OBL to WOULD gone-PL.OBL in.AOR.. də of that.Circumpositions  353 ‫دهغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوستې د بلواګرو له برید‬ . or causal.PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner. ‫چه‬ (9.DIR AOR-kill-INF šw-ə́l become. A selection of circumpositions with /pə/ follows: ‫په‬ ‫د هغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوسته د بلواګرو له‬ . of polis-o pər yaw post-e də balwāgar-o lə police-PL.M.OBL COMP food-F.177..AOR...5.3SG..M.F cinema-F.121: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ (SW) 9.OBL dispute-F.OBL after 1-center to become..WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat.‫وروسته رامنځټه شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ (9.F two tan-a balwāgar-Ø wə́-waž-əl person-PL.OBL of attacker-PL.’¹⁹ The following example shows the usual form of clausal complements of adpositions: a demonstrative head and an embedded clause introduced by the complementizer /čə/.AOR.3SG.OBL on one post-F. interval-M .M.PST-PST.228.PST-PST.in COMP .M ‘Two insurgents were killed in a fight which broke out after they attacked a police station.122) .

.123) . into. (9... that it is much rarer than the circumposition (given that it lacks separate description). on... the specific relationship must be inferred from the context...M ‘Mahmoud is in class.OBL .3SG... It appears not to permit direct case-marking on its object. class-M. that it is restricted to the Eastern dialects (Pashtoon..354 •  Adpositions ‫کې‬. introducing a relative clause. a claim that is supported by our research.pəse/ ‘after’ (9..DIR in. See 9.CONT.. however. or that its appearance is restricted to certain kinds of usage. mostly.STR..‫محمود په صنف کې دی‬ mahmud-Ø pə sinf-Ø ke dəy Mahmoud-M. and see 9.. • GP ‫پسې‬.124) !‫په ما پسې راځه‬ pə mā pəsé rāʣ-á after.‫ په‬/pə.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫ په‬/pə..ke/ and the prepo- sition /pə/ in the same clause. .CONT.177.SG ‘Come after me!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL . where the prepositional phrase is modifying the circumpositional phrase.PRS.‫ په‬/pə.after come.ke/ ‘in. /kʂe/ (Henderson. at’ In addition to the variation that one can find in the pronunciation of the prepositional component.121 for a temporal meaning of this circumposition. 2009)..in be. The example 9..160 for an example of this circumposition in construction with an omitted object.‫په‬ This very common circumposition indicates a very wide range of relative locations of juxtaposition (Hewson & Bubenik.PRS-IMP.. 1SG. 2006: 150). into’ can function indepen- dently as a postposition. the postpositional component /ke/ is also subject to substantial variation in pronunciation: various scholars have cited /kxe/.98 shows this circumposition with a null object. 1970) and /ki/.26 shows the use of the circumposition ‫په‬ ‫کې‬.’ Example 9. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that ‫ کې‬/ke/ ‘in. There is evidence...

.after many-PL.M ‘There are many pens on the table. The Dzadrani item /pə.pəse/ ‘after’ (Septfonds. mosque-F. 1994).se/ ‘after.OBL ...130 for conditions on its appearance in Dzadrani.177.DIR NEG kaw-á do...CONT.127) zə xo pə madrasa-Ø še tadris dars-Ø 1SG...CONT-IMP.DIR pen-PL.STR..126...OBL ‘after this’ (9.Circumpositions  (9..M.’ (WAZ) • GP ‫باندې‬.‫په‬ /pə.PRS-1SG ‘I am studying in the mosque school. because of’ corresponds to the GP ‫پسې‬.PRS. see 9...‫په مېز باندې ډېر قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø bānde ḍer-Ø qalam-una on. This circumposition may also appear with the variant (9. (9.M. and this variant apparently exists in other varieties of Pashto as well.126) .on many-PL...3PL.‫ په‬/pə.128) ‫ پر‬/pər/ as its first component.125) 355 !‫په ما پسې ډېرې خبرې مه کوه‬ pə mā pəse ḍer-e xabr-e má after. see notes at example 9.DIR word-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 151) gloss this circumposition as an adverb ‘up’.DIR di be..DIR ... .in study study-M.OBL .SG ‘Don't backbite me!’ For a variant of this form in which ‫پسې‬ /pesə/ acts as a preposition. table-M.STR. but our research has not substantiated this meaning.228.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F..DIR Ø-k-ã́ CONT-do.bānde/ Septfonds (1994) transcribes the second component /bonde/.. 1SG...‫پس له دې‬ pas lə de after from this.F.DIR EMPH in.

OBL on. sara/ ‘[instrumental] with’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132...PRS.‫په‬ (9. the latter is found in poetic registers in these Middle varieties..F ‘The matter is resolved by give-and-take.’ (DZA) A meaning related to this one involves an animate object of this circumposition..DIR CONT-do.. the object of /pə.DIR .DIR 1SG.M ‘I put the book on it.M... while the grammatical subject designates a causer or enabler of the entire event..3SG..... according to Septfonds (1994). Under these conditions..3SG.-PRS. See 9.177.130) če də pə želot-on nde COMP 3SG. he got ready to call the executioners.’ The Middle dialect circumposition /pə.STR..ne/) corresponds to GP /pə. so /bānde/ functions as a postposition.INSTR decision-F..PST-PST.DIR INSTR..3SG. ‫باندې‬.PRS.on ɣag-Ø Ø-k-ə́ voice-M..3 for more discussion and an example.AOR.WK 3 on CONT\put.PRS-become.M ‘Him.DIR wə́-š-i AOR..bānde/ is exemplified .7.‫ په‬/pə.bānde/.‫په‬ ‫په‬ There are dialects in which the first component /pə/ may be omitted. ‫باندې‬..228..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . on’ (also pronounced /pə..DIR dəy be...129 below.’ (SW) • ‫ سره‬.nde/ ‘at. excutioner-PL. what rok-a bonde faysəl-a exchange-F. ‫ په‬/pə . See Section 9. (9.. and 9.CONT...129) ‫باندې‬.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬ kitāb-Ø mi wər bāndi iṣ-ay book-M.131) .356  Adpositions An instrumental/means/manner function of in 9.‫نوبياپه څه وِرکه په څه ُروکه بون ِد فيصله وشي‬ no biyā pə tsə werk-a pə tsə therefore then INSTR what exchange-F.bānde/ designates the proximal actor of the named activity.PST-PTCP.M.157 for an example of the instrumental function. (9.DIR .131 for an example of the locative meaning.M...

1.ABL . For a variant of /tər/ ...3[SG.. rendering a prepositional phrase. see Section 9..228.. which he attributed to the Jalalabad poet Malang Jan. 20 Our thanks to James Caron for this example.F] INSTR.5.4 Circumpositions with ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‫تر‬ The form /tər/ is most often found as the first component of several circumpositions that indicate a movement up to a terminal point in time or space.DIR do..up.protection-M.pore/ ‘up to.‫ تر‬/tər. paxtunwāla sara Pashtunwali ..to.pore/. This is in keeping with the alternation between GP /o/ and M /e/ that is illustrated in Table 4.’ (9.. 1997)..to ‘as far as Kabul’ ‫پوري‬ In the Western dialects..‫ تر‬/tər. until’ ²¹ Where Standard Pashto uses ‫)ه( پورې‬.‫زما ځوانۍ ډول کوي په پښتونواله سره‬ zmā zawān-əy ḍəwəl-Ø kaw-i pə 1SG.CONT-PRS.3.Circumpositions  (9.. (9.133) !‫تر سبا پورې د خدا پامان‬ tər sabā-Ø pore də xodā pāmān-Ø until..5.3. until tomorrow. the postposition /pori/ may be omitted from this circumposition in speech. morning-F. For a discussion of ablative case assignment to its object. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.until of God with.OBL ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ....DIR ‘See you tomorrow! [lit.’ (NE)²⁰ 9.6.177. Kabul-M..132) 357 . pera/ or /tər .. see Section 5.. pere/ (Septfonds.POSS youth-F.INSTR ‘My youth manifests itself in Pashtunwali..... 21 Henderson (1970) additionally cites ‘hence’ as a translation of this term.1. ‫تر‬ • ‫)ه( پورې‬.DIR manner-M..STR.134) ‫تر کابله پورې‬ tər kābəl-a pore up. the corresponding circum- position in Dzadrani is pronounced /tər. with God's protection].

358

 Adpositions

(9.135)

.‫تر سړي )پوري( دي وشرمولم‬

tər
saṛ-i
(pore)
di
wə́-šarmaw-əl-əm
up.to... man-M.OBL (...up.to) 2.WK AOR-shame-PST-1SG
‘You shamed me in front of the man.’ (NW)
(9.136)

.‫تر پلاره )پوري( په منډه ولاړم‬

tər
plār-a
(pori)

mənḍa-Ø wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... father-M.ABL (...up.to) INSTR run-F.DIR go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I ran to my father.’ (SW)

‫ تر څو چه‬/tər ʦo čə/ ‫ ; تر هغه چه‬/tər haɣa čə/ ‘until’
These two expressions both convey temporal relations, and both can introduce subordinate clauses: see 9.137 and 9.138. The translation ‘until’ incorporates the negated
assertion in the subordinate clause.
(9.137)

.‫زه هغې ته لیک نه لېږم تر څو چه ما ته تېلیفون ونه کړي‬

za
haɣé
ta lik-Ø

Ø-leẓ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3SG.F.STR.OBL to letter-SG.M.DIR NEG CONT-send-1SG
tər
ʦo
čə

ta telifún-Ø
wə-ná
up.to how.much COMP 1SG.STR.OBL to telephone-M.DIR AOR-NEG
kr-̣i
do.AOR-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘I am not writing to her until she calls me.’ (SW)
(9.138)

.‫تر هغه چي ته نه یې راغلی ډوډۍ نه خورم‬

tər
haɣə́
či


ye
up.to this.OBL COMP 2SG.STR.DIR NEG be.CONT.PRS.2SG
rāɣl-ay
ḍoḍ-əy

Ø-xur-ə́m
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.M.DIR food-F.DIR NEG CONT-eat.PRS-1SG
‘Until you have arrived, I will not eat.’ (SW)

‫)ه( لاندې‬...‫ تر‬/tər...lānde/ ‘under’

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Circumpositions 

(9.139)

359

.‫سړی تر پله لاندې ناست دی‬

saṛ-ay
tər
pl-a
lānde
nāst-Ø
man-M.DIR under... bridge-M.OBL . ..under sitting-M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘The man is sitting under the bridge.’

‫لاندې‬...‫تر‬

The Dzadrani circumposition /tər...londe/ corresponds to the GP item
/tər...lānde/ ‘under’, and is attested in Dzadrani as appearing both with and without
an object, i.e. as both an adposition and an adverb (see also Table 10.2).

‫ وروسته‬... ‫تر‬

/tər ... wrusta/ ‘after’ (Hewson & Bubenik, 2006). These authors
provide the following examples in comparing this item with the circumposition /lə
... wrusta/ exemplified herein; see also 9.121 and 9.120.
(9.140) tər
dwa ʦalwišt kal-uno
wrusta
after... two forty
year-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after forty-two years’
(9.141) wrusta tər
špag-o
myāšt-o
after
after six-PL.F.OBL month-PL.F.OBL
‘after six months’
(9.142) tər
xwar-əl-o
wrusta
after... eat-INF-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after eating’

9.5.5

A Middle dialect circumposition with

‫ و‬/wə/

‫و‬

The independent preposition /wə/ is not discussed here, since it has been described
as obsolescent (Trumpp, 1873: 85) or only poetic (Skalmowski, 1996).
There appears to be only one circumposition with /wə/ (also sometimes transcribed as /vu/—see Section 3.2.1.2) as its first component, and it is not common in
General Pashto, although it is cited by Lorimer (1902) as a variant of the postposition
/ta/. Skalmowski (1996) cites another variant, the compound postposition
/wə
ta/.

‫و‬

‫ته‬

‫وته‬

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360 

(9.143)

Adpositions

.‫دغسي خلګو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬
daɣase
xalk-o
ta wə xār-Ø
ta

those.same people-PL.M.OBL to to... city-M.OBL ...to of
nənəwat-əl-o
ejāza-Ø

warkaw-ə́l-a
enter-INF-PL.M.OBL permission-F.DIR NEG give-INF-SG.F.DIR
kég-i
become.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘Permission to enter the city is not being given to those [same] people.’²²

9.6

Coalesced adpositional phrases

9.6.1

Pro-adpositional phrases

‫په ې‬

Tegey (1977: 35ff.) lists three adpositions that may govern null objects:
/pə ke/
‘on.3’ ( /pəkʂe/ in the Kandahar dialect, according to Pate 2012),
/pə/ ∼ /pre/
∼ /pe/ ‘on.3’, and /tre/ ‘up.to.3’. Tegey terms these “Pro-Pre/Postpositional Phrases”
and analyzes them as incorporating third person definite objects, an analysis which
reflects the requirement that the incorporated object be recoverable from the discourse
or extralinguistic context. Pate (2012: 23), in contrast, analyzes these items as weak
pronouns that are constrained to function as non-nuclear terms.
There is apparently dialect-based variation on the inventory of these items: Pate
(2012) additionally lists the Kandahari form /dzine/ ‘from.3’ as an object-incorporating
form corresponding to the circumposition
/də ... ʦəxa/ ‘from’.
The pronunciation /pe/ instead of
/pre/ (Section 9.6.1) is cited by Lorimer
(1902: 40) as a characteristic of Waziri.

‫پرې‬

‫څخه‬...‫د‬
‫پرې‬

(9.144)

.‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬
zmā
tre
na
bad raʣ-í
1SG.STR.POSS up.to.3... ...up.to bad come.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘I don't like him.’

(9.145)

.‫ترې پوري ولاړم‬
tre
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to.3.. ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (NW)

22 Standardized version of 9.143:

.‫دغې خلکو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬

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Coalesced adpositional phrases 

‫پرې‬

361

‫پر‬

The following examples show that both
/pre/ and /pər/ are possible in the
same context; this suggests that there is a lexical distinction between the fused forms
and the forms that allow a null object.
(9.146)

.‫زه پرې سپور یم‬
za
pre spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’

(9.147)

.‫زه پر سپور یم‬

pər spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’ (SW)

The relative order of the pro-adpositional phrase and the negative in examples
9.148 and 9.149 lends support to the alternative analysis given by Pate (2012) of these
forms as essentially pronominal rather than essentially adpositional, since the form incorporating the third person assumes second position, as is characteristic of the weak
pronouns:
(9.148)

.‫زه پې نه پوهېږم‬

pe

Ø-poh-eẓ́-əm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 NEG CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’

(9.149)

.‫زه نه په پوهېږم‬


pə Ø-poh-éẓ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR NEG on CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’ (SW)

9.6.2

The adpositional phrase

‫کره‬

‫ کره‬/kara/ ‘at the home of’
‫کور‬

/kara/ is a pro-adpositional phrase related to the noun
/kor/ ‘house’ that
may appear just in case the house’s possessor is identified or recoverable. This form
optionally replaces
/kor ta/. Compare sentences 9.150 and 9.151; see 9.70 for the
corresponding construction in Dzadrani.

‫کور ته‬

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362 

(9.150)

Adpositions

.‫زموږ کور ته مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kor-Ø
ta mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.OBL to guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M
‘Guests came to our house.’

(9.151)

.‫زموږ کره مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kar-a
mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.ABL guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M

‘Guests came to our house.’
Additionally, the special form
/kara/ can be used instead of

‫کره‬

‫ په کور کې‬/pə

kor ke/, as shown in this pair.
(9.152)

.‫احمد د محمود په کور کې دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
pə kor-Ø
ke
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL in... house-M.OBL ...in
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

(9.153)

.‫احمد د محمود کره دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
kar-a
dəy
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL house-M.ABL be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

9.7

Adposition usage

Throughout this chapter and others, we describe various exceptional or idiosyncratic
interactions of adpositions with particular pronouns and nouns that they govern. We
summarize some important ones here.

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Adposition usage 

9.7.1

363

‫ نه‬/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object
‫نه‬

Elsewhere we observe that the postpositional component
/na/ alternates in usage
with ablative case-marking on the noun object. Compare sentences 9.8 and 9.60.

9.7.2

‫ د‬/də/ and strong pronoun objects
‫د‬

In Section 9.3.1.1, we observed that in some dialects the preposition /də/ assimilates
to a following strong pronoun in the first and second persons. In those dialects, the
sequence of /də/ and the pronoun is unacceptable and the fused form is the only
possible form. This is discussed in Section 7.2.3.

‫د‬

9.7.3

‫ په‬/pə/ and ‫باندې‬...‫ په‬/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction

In Section 11.5 we describe a causative construction that involves one or another verb
of causation and a subordinate clause describing the caused event. However, there is
also a use of
/pə/ and
/pə...bānde/ that requires a causative interpretation of the sentence it appears in, even though there is no overt expression of causation, either with another verb or with an affix. In Pashto, the object of
/pə...bānde/ refers to the proximate agent, and the grammatical subject, if present,
refers to ultimate agent.

‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

(9.154)

.‫سړی په ما اس تړي‬
saṛ-ay


ās-Ø
Ø-taṛ-i
man-M.DIR INSTR 1SG.STR.OBL horse-M.DIR CONT-tie-PRS.3
‘The man makes me tie up the horse.’

(9.155)

.‫سړي په ما باندې اس وتړه‬
saṛ-i


bānde
ās-Ø
man-M.OBL INSTR... 1SG.STR.OBL ...INSTR horse-M.DIR
wә́-taṛ-ә
AOR-tie-PST.3SG.M
‘The man made me tie up the horse.’

(9.156)

.‫په جواښي دې خوره‬

xwāx-e
de
Ø-xor-á
INSTR mother.in.law-F 2.WK CONT-eat.PRS-IMP.SG
‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].’

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364 

Adpositions

In some dialects, the first part of the circumposition is optional; in this case, the
postposition alone can fulfil the same function in this construction.

.‫هغه باندې مې چای وڅکله‬

(9.157)

haɣə
bānde me
c̉ay-Ø
wə́-ʦak-l-ə
3SG.STR.OBL INSTR 1.SG.WK tea-M.DIR. AOR-drink-PST.PST.3SG.M
‘I got him a cup of tea to drink.’ (NE)

9.7.4 Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions
As noted in Section 7.3.2, weak pronouns may not appear as objects of adpositions. The
following examples demonstrate that weak pronouns cannot appear as the object of
an adposition as shown in the ungrammatical example 9.158; compare this with the
acceptable 9.159, using the strong pronoun.

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬

(9.158)

pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬

(9.159)

pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)
The object can be omitted entirely if it is known or can be recovered from the context, as in 9.160.²³
(9.160)

.‫په کې اوبه واچوه‬

ke
ob-ə
w-ā́čaw-a
on... ...in water-PL.F.DIR AOR-pour-IMP.SG

‘Pour water in it! ’

23 One speaker reports that a weak pronoun may be placed after the circumposition; we have not
verified this with other speakers or sources.

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Adposition usage 

365

9.7.5 Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics
Some postpositions may govern the oblique pronominal clitics discussed in Section
7.4.

.‫محمود کتاب را ته اخلي‬

(9.161)

mahmud-Ø
kitāb-Ø
rā ta Ø-axl-í
Mahmoud-SG.M.DIR book-M.DIR 1 for CONT-buy.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Mahmoud is buying me a book.’

.‫خلک درپورې خاندي‬

(9.162)

xalak-Ø
dər pore Ø-xand-í
people-PL.M.DIR 2
up.to CONT-laugh-PRS.3[PL.M]
‘People are laughing at you.’
Oblique pronominal clitics cannot be governed by circumpositions; compare the
unacceptable 9.163 with the acceptable 9.164 (and note the claim in Babrakzai 1999:
34 that prepositions also may not take oblique pronominal clitic objects; we have not
found a counterexample to this claim in any dialect). The postpositional component
of a circumposition will cooccur with the directive pronoun.

.‫* زه له ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬

(9.163)

za

wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR COMIT... 3
...COMIT park-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went to the park with them.’
(9.164)

.‫زه ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬
za
wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR 3
COMIT garden-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG

‘I went to the park with them.’

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Melissa Fox and Anne Boyle David

10

Other Lexical Elements

This chapter provides an overview of lexical categories not treated elsewhere in this
grammar.

10.1 Particles
We have classified as particles any lexically free item that does not host inflection and
that does not function as the argument or complement of a verb or adposition. This
second criterion rules out some elements called “particles” in other works, notably
the various pronoun forms. Some particles are formally clitics.

10.1.1 The existential particle

‫شته‬

‫ شته‬/šta/

The particle
/šta/ marks existential clauses in Pashto (including Waziri: Lorimer
1902: 32). The negative form of
/šta/ is
/nə́ šta/. Though derived from an
archaic third person singular form of the verb to be in Pashto,
/šta/ is no longer
inflected. Another example of this construction is found in example 10.1. In example
10.3 the particle is found at the end of the clause with a relative clause following it.
(10.1)

‫شته‬

‫نشته‬

‫شته‬

.‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬

ahmad-Ø
səra
kampyuṭər-Ø

šta
COMIT... Ahmad-M.OBL ...COMIT computer-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer.’ (SW)

(10.2)

.‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬
də jang-Ø

amal-a
pə afɣānistān-Ø
ke
of war-M.OBL from cause-M.ABL in... Afghanistan-M.OBL ...in
amniat-Ø

šta
security-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war.’

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PRS-PRS.ANIM.DIR NEG EXT ‘No.DIR Ø-man-ə́m CONT-accept-1SG ‘There are bad guys around.M.STR.8.AOR.DIR EXT be.3SG. (10. (10.3[PL. which contains a concordant negative. with 10. exhibiting third person masculine singular agreement.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .4) .6) .368  (10.3) Other Lexical Elements .M.‫هم داسی عناصر شته چی نه غواړی حقیقت څرګند شی‬ ham dāse anāsir-Ø šta če ná also such elements-PL. he is not here.228.M this. I get that.DIR EXT COMP NEG Ø-ɣwāṛ-i haqiqat-Ø ʦargánd-Ø CONT-want.PRS-PRS.‫ظالمان شته دي دا منم‬ zāləm-ān šta day dā abuser-PL.’ In the Northern and Middle dialects. which does not: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3[SG.DIR revealed-M.PRS.DIR š-i become.7. the existential particle may exist in construction with the copula. a concordant negative particle may but need not appear within the clause in scope.’ ‫نشته‬ In clauses containing the phrase /nə́ šta/. contrast 10.CONT.177. 1996).M] reality-M.5) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M.M] ‘There are also those parties who don’t want the truth the come to light.’ The existential particle will often be used over the phone to ask or tell someone if a person is at home (Tegey & Robson.‫ هغه نه شته‬،‫نه‬ ná haɣá ná šta NEG 3SG.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ (10.

15.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL from sake-M.1 The modal clitic /bə/ As noted in the Verbs chapter (Section 8. It is used to convey future time reference.23. though given the optionality of the complementizer /čə/ under some conditions.M] ‘There's no organization that one may complain to about America.’ (10. the modal clitic /bə/ often appears in constructions with irrealis semantics.Particles  (10.PRS-PRS.ABL which-M. however.OBL 3-to complaint-M. previous action. it is difficult to discern a difference between these—contrast 10.2.2) if the verb refers to an event that is to be repeated or ongoing.OBL of claim-F. /bə/ conveys habitual. or doubt when it occurs with a present aorist verb and can also express the future with present continuous forms (see Section 8.1.2). since its irrealis and past habitual uses parallel two of the uses of English would. ‫چه‬ ‫به‬ 10.CONT.DIR and or authority-F.8: .2.2.’¹ 10.DIR dreyəm-Ø fariq-Ø ná šta third-M.‫دفنډونو دادعا لپاره کوم دريم فريق نشته‬ də fanḍ̙-uno də idiā-Ø lə pār-a kum-Ø of fund-PL.8) .2 Modal particles In the Indo-European style. The clause within the scope of the particle may appear as a main clause or as a finite subordinate clause. speculation.5.DIR party-M.228. as in 10.1. ‫به‬ ‫به‬ 1 Standardized version of 10.22 with 10.7) 369 .‫هېڅ داسې سازمان او يا مرجع نشته چې له امريکاورته شکايت وشي‬ hets dāse sāzmān-Ø aw yā marja-Ø ná šta none such organization-M.1.177.‫د فنډونو د اعدا لپاره کوم دریم فریق نه شته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. We try to capture its apparent polysemy by glossing this modal clitic as WOULD. Pashto sometimes fulfills modal functions by means of uninflected sentence-level modifiers.DIR NEG EXT če lə amrikā-Ø wər-ta šikāyat-Ø COMP from America-F. With a past continuous verb form.M.DIR NEG EXT ‘There’s no third party claiming the money.3[SG.DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become. as in That would be Mary arriving at the front door and Every day last summer the girls would play in the park.5.

3[SG. (10. then my family will abandon me.10: ‫د دې تړون له مخې به نوموړی شرکت د دې پروژې سروې تر سره‬ .11) .’² (10.DIR WOULD selected-PL.14 is taken from Pate 2012: 26): ‫به‬ .370  Other Lexical Elements ‫به‬ As a second-position clitic (Section 11.OBL sarw-e tər sar-á kṛ-i survey-F.OBL contract-M.M] ‘According to the contract.OBL from direction-F.‫ځانګړې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ 3 Standardized version of 10.DIR up.3[SG.3.OBL WOULD numwaṛ-ay šarkat-Ø də de prož-e aforementioned-M.10) . the aforementioned company will complete a survey of this project.F.2.ABL do.F.228. The following sentences illustrate the uses of /bə/.’⁴ .STR.PRS-PRS.2).DIR Christian become.F] ‘A special court will investigate these cases.‫کړي‬ 4 Standardized version of 10.STR. If other clitics are present.POSS korən-əy bə mā prégd-i family-F.‫ځانګړ ې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ (10.DIR court-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR company-M.‫ددی تړون له مخې به نوموړي شرکت ددی پروژی سروي ترسره کړي‬ də de təṛun-Ø lə məx-e bə of this.’³ (10.DIR WOULD 1SG.5.3[SG. these follow a particular order discussed in Section 11.9) ʣāngr-e mahkma-Ø bə ṭākəniz-e qazy-e special-F.DIR wə́-ʦeṛ-i AOR-investigate-PRS.AOR-PRS.OBL project-F.PRS-1SG then 1SG.F] ‘If I become a Christian.OBL AOR\abandon.AOR.to head-M.3.DIR of this.DIR case-PL.177. /bə/ must appear after the first stressed element of the clause.9: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.11: ‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدي‬،‫که زه عیسائي شم‬ 2 Standardized version of 10.‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدى‬،‫کۀ زۀ عیسائى شم‬ ka zə isayí š-əm no zmā if 1SG.

’ See also Section 8.DIR wə́-ɣwāṛ-u AOR-want.13) .Particles  (10.PRS-PRS.3 for more examples of the uses of Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ به‬/bə/.3[PL.4. .’ (10.DIR snake-M.177.OBL world-F.ABL help-F.STR.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F.DIR š-i become.OBL of woman-PL.PTCP-3MSG be.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M.5.DIR above do.AOR.AOR.F.OBL WOULD shout-PL.‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.’ ‘Davud should have come [but I'm not sure].DIR WOULD dragon-M.12) 371 .M] ‘Davud might have come.3PL.CONT-PST.PRS.F.1 and Section 8.M] ‘This big snake will turn into a dragon.5. the entire world would cry out.DIR WOULD from outside-M.14) dāwud bə rāɣəl-ei wi Davud WOULD come.15) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .‫دا لوى مار به ښامار سي‬ dā loy-Ø mār-Ø bə xāmā́r-Ø this.228.F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.3[SG.’ (10.DIR large-M.e.‫مونږ به له بهره مرسته وغواړو‬ mung bə lə bahar-a mərasta-Ø 1PL.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST.3SG. foreign aid].’ (10.DIR step-M.PRS-1PL ‘We'll ask for help from the outside [i.M.3.

M] ‘The others should be ashamed in front of God and the Prophet Mohammed.372  Other Lexical Elements ‫دې‬ ‫باید‬ 10. below room-PL.DIR NEC AOR-do.3[SG.16) haɣá di wlā́ṛ-Ø š-i 3SG..’ (10.M] ‘The Al-Jazeera network should censor reports on Bahrain.‫نارینه دي په لاندې کوټو کې کښېني او ښځې دي په پورته کوټو کې‬ (10.DIR NEC gone-M..in ‘Let the men sit in the downstairs rooms and the women in the upstairs rooms.DIR xabar-una sānsór-Ø kṛ-i news-PL.M.DIR do.M] ‘He should go!’ (SW) ..ABL and from Prophet-M.3[PL.’ (W) .VOC good haste-M.M] aw ṣəʣ-e di pə porta koṭ-u ke and woman-PL.20) .‫نور دې له خدايه او له رسوله وشرميږي‬ (10. you'd better hustle!’ 5 According to Babrakzai.OBL on topic-F.OBL . in construction with the present aorist form of the verb: ‫دې‬ ‫دي‬ !‫هغه دي ولاړ شي‬ (10.‫الجزيره تلويزيون دې د بحرين په اړه خبرونه سانسور کړي‬ (10.STR.’ .18) nor-Ø de lə xudāy-a aw lə rasul-a other-PL.DIR become.DIR NEC from God-M.AOR-2SG ‘Hey Jalan. ‫ دې‬/de/ functions as an enclitic.M.in AOR\sit.DIR television NEC of Bahrain-M.2.M.DIR NEC in.3[SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228. above room-PL..1.AOR-PRS.AOR.‫جلانه! ښه مزې دې وکړې‬ jālān-a xə məz-ay de wə́-kṛ-e Jalan-M.177.OBL .PRS-PRS...PRS-PRS.ABL wə́-šarm-eg-i AOR-shame-PRS-PRS.17) nārina di pə lānde koṭ-u ke kṣén-i men NEC in..3[PL.19) aljazira-Ø televisyon-Ø de də bahrayn-Ø pə aṛa-Ø Al-Jazeera-M.DIR censored-PL..2 The modal particles /de/ and /bāyad/ The particle /de/ ( /di/ in the Western dialects) ⁵ functions most frequently as a deontic modal. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

21) wə́ ye way-əl zə bāyad dzān-Ø AOR 3.M 1SG.‫ښايي چه ورور مي سبا ته کورته راشي‬ ṣāyi čə wror mi sabā ta maybe COMP brother..in AOR-meet.‫ښايي زه دی په واشنګټن کې ووينم‬ (10.SG.OBL to come-PRS.M.PST-PST.’ (SW) (10.WK tell.22) ṣāyi za day pə wāšəngṭən ke wə́-win-əm must 1SG be. must’ This particle is positioned sentence-initially and may appear in construction with the complementizer /čə/. ‫چه‬ .AOR-1SG ‘He said: I should just kill myself!’ 10.228. Washington .4 The optative particle Pashto uses the particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’—also ‫ کاشکي‬/kāški/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . 373 ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ is also found in construction with the present aorist form !‫ زه بايد ځان مړ کړم‬: ‫ويې ويل‬ (10. to express a counterfactual wish • with a present aorist verb.23) .PRS-1SG ‘I should meet him in Washington...M in.’ (SW) 10.WK tomorrow to kor ta rāš-i house..1.3 ‘It is possible that my brother will come home tomorrow.STR.2.SG. It can be used one of two ways: • with an optative verb.DIR do. to express a polite request Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ کشکي‬/kaški/—to introduce clauses expressing a wish or desire that something would happen or would have happened.Particles  The particle of the verb.DIR 1SG.DIR NEC self-M.3SG.M. ‫ کشکې‬/kaške/.DIR mə́ṛ-Ø kṛ-əm killed-M.3PL.177.1.2.3 The modal particle ‫ ښایي‬/ṣāyi/ ‘may.

’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ It appears to be found more frequently in affirmation questions than in affirmation statements. affirmation questions and statements contain an affirmation particle.DIR be.1.STR.OBL to come. In speech. of course.103 for an example of this use.374  Other Lexical Elements The verb in a sentence with counterfactual meaning must appear with optative mood marking (see Section 8.2 for the formation of these verbs): (10. 10.STR.3.PST.PST-PTCP.PRS-2SG ‘Please come to my house! [lit.AOR.3. see 11. The most common of these particles is /kə na/.24) !‫کشکي وختي راغلئ وای‬ kaški waxti rā́ɣl-əy wāy if. If only you would come to my house!]’ ‫که‬ It is also possible to use the form /kə/ ‘if’ plus the optative to achieve this counterfactual effect.AOR.228. The verb in a sentence with this meaning must appear with present aorist marking.OPT ‘I wish you had come earlier! [lit. which expresses an irrealis event (see Section 8. If only you had come earlier!]’ (SW) In the second use.‫هو که نه‬ wo kə na yes or not ‘Yes.PST-2SG or not ‘You understood.POSS house-M.DIR 1SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . a polite request. intonation differentiates the question use from the affirmation use.3.177. didn't you?’ (SW) (10.7 and Section 8.DIR become.M.8 for the formation of these verbs): (10.only early come. ‫که نه‬ (10.AOR.CONT.3 Affirmation particles In Pashto.27) . the speaker is stating a hope that the event will take place.only 2SG. a phrase that translates literally as 'or not.25) !‫کشکي ته زما کور ته راسې‬ kaški tə zmā kor-Ø tə rā́s-e if.26) ‫پوه شوې که نه؟‬ póh-Ø šw-e kə na learned-M.

PRS-1SG CONT-go.after NEG become.1.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL brother-M.DIR be. not some other man's brother!’ 10.PST-PST-OPT ‘Stop.4 The emphatic clitic The particle (10. women!’ .STR. tā pse ná š-əm Ø-təl-ə́l-ay 2SG../ .’⁶ 10.STR.3... 6 Standardized version of 10.OBL ..28: 7 The emphatic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫ وا‬/wā . In Pashto.DIR more after.DIR man-M.SG or not 1SG.CONT.‫راودرېږه که نه! زه نور په تاسې نه شم تللای‬ ‫ خو‬/xo/ is considered to be different from the conjunction ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‘but’.‫ او‬/o .STR...29) ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‫ خو‬/xo/⁷ is a second-position clitic and expresses emphasis. !‫ د بل سړي وررو نه‬،‫دا خو زما ورور دی‬ dā xo zmā wror-Ø day də this. man!’ !‫ آ سړیه‬/ā saṛaya/ ‘Hey.Particles  (10..DIR NEG ‘He is in fact my brother.. the vocative particles are called /də nədā adāt/ ‘call particles’...177. man!’ !‫ ای ښځو‬/ay ṣeʣu/ ‘Hello there.5 Vocative particles A vocative particle may introduce a noun in the vocative case form (see Section 5.3SG.PRS.4). Examples of vocatives in Pashto are: ‫د ندا ادات‬ • • • • • !‫ اې سړیه‬/ē saṛaya/ ‘Hey.1./ . OK? [because] I can't follow you any longer.1.28) 375 .‫راودرېږه که نه؟ زه نور په تاپسې نشم تللی‬ rā-wə́-dar-eg-a ka ná zə nor pə 1DVC-AOR-stand-PRS-IMP.DIR EMPH 1SG..AOR.228.POSS brother-M..M of bel-Ø saṛ-i wror-Ø ná other-M.

‫ توبه‬/toba/ For corroboration or agreement (Yes!. ‫ وا‬/wā/. ‫ آه‬/āh/ • To express grief or pain (Ouch!. for calling or urging various domesticated animals. Really?!): • • • ya/ E (Penzl. ‫ واوا‬/wā wā/. Oh!): • To express admiration or praise (Bravo!): /aški/ ‫اشکي‬ ‫ آفرین‬/āfarin/. ‫ یه‬/ya/. ‫ واخ‬/wāx/. ‫ شاباس‬/šābāš/.1. ‫ خیر‬/xayr/ For contradiction or disagreement (No!): ‫ نه‬/na/. ‫ وای وای‬/wāy wāy/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177.6 Interjections Below are some common interjections: ‫ آخ‬/ax/. ‫ بلې‬/bale/. 1955: 44) • To threaten or caution (Whoa!): ‫ وښ‬/uṣ/ A number of interjective particles are used. ‫ نه نه‬/na na/. usually in fully-reduplicated form.228. All right!): ‫ هو‬/ho/. ‫ آپرین‬/āprin/. They include: ‫ کچ کچ‬/kuč kuč/ To shoo a dog: ‫ چغه چغه‬/čiɣa čiɣa/ To make a camel kneel: ‫ اېخ اېخ‬/ex ex/ To call a cat: ‫ پش پش‬/piš piš/ To shoo a cat: ‫ پشتې پشتې‬/pište pište/ • To call a dog: • • • • ‫ اشه اشه‬/aša aša/ To call a donkey: ‫ کورو کورو‬/kuru kuru/ To urge on a horse: ‫ چ چ‬/č č/ To call sheep: ‫ درهۍ‬/drhey/ To urge on oxen: ‫ او او‬/aw aw/ • To urge on a donkey: • • • • Another set of interjections is onomatopoetic: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ افسوس‬/afsos/. ‫ های های‬/hāy hāy/. ‫ یه یه‬/ya • To express surprise (Wow!. ‫ بلې هو‬/bale hō/ Yes!. ‫ ارمان‬/armān/ What a pity!. ‫ اوف‬/of/. ‫ رښتیا‬/rixtyā/ To express regret (For shame!): ‫ اپسوس‬/apsōs/.376  Other Lexical Elements 10.

As is often the case. we have classed it as an adposition.1). • Said after praising someone to ward off the evil eye: God willed’ • Said in relief or in thanks: ‫ما شاء الله‬ /mašallāh/ ‘what ‫ الحمد لله‬/alhamdulillāh/ ‘praise to God’ • Said when beginning something such as a speech or starting a journey: /bismillāh/ ‘in the name of God’ • Said when talking about an action to be completed in the future: lāh/ ‘if God wills’ ‫بسمالله‬ ‫ ان شاء الله‬/inšal- • Said after swearing. verbs or verb phrases.Adverbs  377 ‫ ټک ټک‬/ṭek ṭek/ Whispering: ‫ پس پس‬/pes pes/ Water: ‫ شړپ شړپ‬/šṛap šṛap/ Gunfire: ‫ ډز ډز‬/ḍez ḍez/ • Knocking: • • • There is also a set of interjections borrowed directly from Arabic for religious reasons and used in certain cultural contexts.228. after saying or doing something inappropriate. Functionally. we have classified it as an adjective. Both of these points deserve further clarification: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177. we have classified adverbs in terms of both lexical and functional properties. these are classified in this work as particles (Section 10. we have excluded “style disjuncts”—terms that have scope over the entire proposition or speech act.2 Adverbs For the purposes of this grammar. adverbs comprise modifiers of adjectives. we have not found mentioned in the literature or from our own research any derivational morphology that results in lexical adverbs. it is less straightforward to find lexical properties that differentiate adverbs from other word classes. • If a word is uninflected (and therefore not a verb) but governs an object. and sentences. or when being modest: /astaɣfarallāh/ ‘I ask God for forgiveness’ ‫استغر الله‬ 10. Our criteria for eliminating an item from the class of adverbs are these: • If a word has an adjectival function.

The position that we take here is that an item is an adverb if. as discussed in Section 10. adverbs of place or time may also take complements and under those conditions are classified as adpositions (e. some items are multifunctional: adverbs of degree may also be nominal quantifiers (e. acting alone.3[SG.2.1 Adverbs of time Adverbs of time include both adverbs with time reference and quantifier-like items.g.AOR. see also Septfonds.DIR ‘May it always be Afghanistan!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177. /həlta/ ‘there’). /ham/ ‘thus’. and because of the numerous conditions under which adpositions can appear without an overt object. some adverbs listed here are exophoric in their reference and can therefore be classified as demonstratives (e. (10. we have placed the adverbial pro-forms in this section.PRS. However.g. since our chapter on pro-forms has been confined to pronouns.M] Afghanistan-M. and when they modify verbs.2. /ləg/ ‘a little’). some adverbs refer anaphorically and may therefore be classified as pro-forms (e. Unlike adjectives functioning adverbially. In addition. Adverbs can generally be divided into the traditional semantic classes of time.7.g. Similarly.2. They can appear in any position in the clause that precedes the verb. We treat both circumstances as adjectival modification. there is a fair amount of uncertainty as to whether a particular item has a distinct function as an adverb. and degree. /wrusta/ ‘after. Table 10. it modifies one of the constituents listed above.30) !‫تل دي وي افغانستان‬ təl de wi afɣānistān-Ø always NEC be. In this last case.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . many of the terms here listed as adverbs but not listed as adpositions may in fact (or in addition) be adpositions.228.g. place.30. In Pashto as in many other languages. it may not be possible to tell whether an adjective is being used adjectivally or adverbially without looking at the overall syntax and interpretation of the sentence. later’).2 on /xpəl/ ‘own’ as an adverb with reflexive reference). section 4. find examples of their use in sentences. ‫لږ‬ ‫وروسته‬ ‫هم‬ ‫خپل‬ ‫هلته‬ 10.1 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of time. since some classes of adjectives in Pashto do not undergo inflection. however. the adverbs discussed in the current section are never inflected. manner. beginning with 10.378  Other Lexical Elements • Two circumstances exist in which adjectives function adverbially: when they modify other adjectives. • Because adpositional phrases are substantially “adverbial” in their functions.

Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫تل‬ təl ‘always’ ‫همېشه‬ hameša ‘any time’ ‫هر کله‬ har kala ‘whenever’ (see Section 7.177.89. then’   Table 10.2.228.1: Some adverbs of time Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. see also Section 9.7) (‫هیڅ کله )نه‬ hiʦ kala (na) ‘never’ ‫کله‬ kala ‘sometimes’ os ‘now’ ‫اوس‬ ‫اکنون‬ ‫الحال‬ aknun ilhāl ‫نن‬ nən ‘today’ ‫پرون‬ parun ‘yesterday’ ‫سبا‬ sabā ‘tomorrow’ ‫وختي‬ waxti ‘early’ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta ‘after’ (11.2) ‫مخکښې‬ məxkṣe ‘before’ ‫لا‬ lā ‘yet’ ‫پس‬ pas ‘later.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 379 .5.

F.DIR NEG be.OBL yet food-F.3SG.PRS. distal reference as the demonstrative pronouns (Section 7.STR.228.34) !‫دلته راشه‬ dəlta rā́š-a here come.32) tā lā ḍoḍ-əy ná da 2SG.CONT.AOR.‫کتاب مې پورته پروت دئ‬ kitab-Ø me porta prot-Ø dəy book-M.31) .’ ‫تا لا ډوډۍ نه ده خوړلې؟‬ (10.PRS.380  Other Lexical Elements (10.2 Adverbs of place Table 10.’ (W) ‫دلته‬ ‫هلته‬ 8 Notice that /dəlta/ and /halta/ follow the same d/h alternation for proximal vs.PRS-IMP.‫زه همیشه کار کوم‬ za hamiša kār-Ø kaw-ə́m 1SG.33) halta kṣén-a there AOR\sit.35) .DIR 1SG.DIR ‘Haven't you eaten yet?’ 10.PST-PST-PTCP.177.2 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of place. 9 Also: /bāhar/ ‫باهر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M ‘My book is lying on top.CONT-1SG ‘I always work.F Ø-xwoṛ-ə́l-e CONT-eat.DIR do.SG ‘Sit there!’ (10. Some items mentioned here as adverbs also function as adpositions.33 provide examples of their use in sentences.STR.2.5).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .WK above lying-M.DIR be.SG ‘Come here!’ (10.DIR always work-M.CONT.PRS-IMP. sentences beginning with 10.3SG. !‫هلته کښېنه‬ (10.

below’ ‫نژدې‬ nəžde ‘near’ ‫پوري‬ pori ‘around’ ‫لرې‬ lare ‘far (away)’ ‫کښته‬ kṣətə ‘below. upon’   Table 10. dolata WAZ ‫هلته‬ halta⁸ ‫هلې‬ hale ‫پورته‬ porta ‫پاسه‬ pāsa ‫)د(ننه‬ (də)nəna ‘inside’ ‫دباندي‬ dabāndi ‘outside’ ‫بهر‬ bahar ⁹ ‫باندې‬ bānde ‘on top’ ‫لاندې‬ lānde ‘down.2: Some adverbs of place Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 381 .Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫دلته‬ dəlta ‫دلې‬ dale ‘here’ dele. underneath’ ‫هيچرې‬ hičare ‘nowhere’ ‫هيچرته‬ hičarta ‘there’ ‘above.

OBL shining-M.DIR become..OBL light-F. this.3. as discussed in Section 9.PRS-IMP. in examples 10.in still of de ʦəlānd-ə stur-i raṇā-Ø zmung pər this.2).3 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of manner.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL insufficient-M..DIR dəy be.F but of paxto-Ø də adab-Ø pə hask-Ø ke lā də pashto-M. The preposition /pə/ can be used with an adjective object.DIR if INSTR physical side-M.2.‫ددې ځلانده ستوری رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ ḍāktar-Ø kabir-Ø stori-Ø ka pə fiziki ləhāz-Ø doctor-M.DIR Kabir-M.OBL world-F.382  (10.PRS.3SG. height-M .OBL də de nimgəṛ-i žwand-Ø lə madār-a of this.CONT..OBL .STR. This stands next to the more usual construction of /pə/ with a noun object.37) ‫په‬ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکی لحاظ د دی نیمګری ژوند له مداره واوښت‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا‬، ‫او له دی نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ .3SG.36) Other Lexical Elements .from ye kaḍa-Ø wə́-kəṛ-l-a magar də 3.’¹⁰ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. ‫په‬ (10. to render an adverbial phrase (10.DIR AOR-do.3SG.DIR 1PL.’ (W) 10..3SG.PST-PST.OBL from orbit-M.AOR-PST-PST..PRS.OBL star-M.37).4. the light of his shining star is still above our heads.WK movement-F.38 and following.OBL life-M. Kabir Stori has physically turned away from movements of his meager life and left this world. find examples of their use in sentences.228.OBL of literature-M.‫ دباندې باران دئ‬،‫دننه ولاړ شئ‬ dənəna walā́ṛ-Ø səy dəbānde bārān-Ø inside gone-M.3 Adverbs of manner Table 10.M and from.F ‘Even though Dr.. also used to convey manner.ABL w-ā́wuxt-Ø aw lə de naṛ-əy ʦəxə AOR-cross.POSS on sar-Ø da head-M be.CONT.177.over..AOR.M ‘Go inside! It is raining outside. in the heights of Pashto literature.SG outside rain-M.DIR Stori-M..OBL in.

Adverbs  (10.M ‘Their guests suddenly entered their home.‫مېلمانه یې ناڅاپه کور ته ور ننوتل‬ (10.DIR be.DIR COMP sitting-PL.PRS-IMP.SG COMP quick come.3[SG.AOR-IMP.M] slow wro xabr-e wə́-kəṛ-a slow word-PL.’ (10.SG ‘Talk softly when there are elders present!’ .WK sudden house-M.M.40) !‫ورته ووایه چې عاجل راشي‬ wər-ta wə́-wāy-a če ājil rā́s-i 3-to AOR-tell.177.3PL.37: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.39) melm-ānə ye nāʦāpa kor-Ø ta wər guest-PL.F.228.3[PL.AOR.AOR.M.PRS.OBL to 3DVC nə́nawat-əl AOR\enter.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .38) 383 !‫مشران چې ناست وي ورو ورو خبرې وکړه‬ məšr-ān če nāst-Ø wi wro elder-PL.ANIM.DIR 3.PST-PST.PRS-PRS.‫ځلانده ستوري رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ 11 Also: ‫ دا سي‬/dā si/ 12 Also: ‫ ځبله‬/ʣabla/ 10 Standardized version of 10.DIR AOR-do.M] ‘Tell him to come quickly!’ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکي لحاظ د دې نیمګري ژوند له‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا د دې‬، ‫مداره واوښت او له دې نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ .ANIM.

228.384  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ‫ژر‬ žer ‫په لغت‬ pə laɣat ‫جلته‬ jalta ‫عاجل‬ ājil ‫ورو‬ wro ‫آهسته‬ āhista ‫نا څاپه‬ nā-ʦāpa ‫بې څافه‬ be-ʦāfa ‫ناګاه‬ nā-gāh ‫دا هسي‬¹¹ dā hasi ‘thus’ ‫دا رنګ‬ dā rang ‘in this manner’ ‫سره‬ səra ‘together (with)’ ‫بهم‬ baham ‫زبله‬¹² zablah ‫هم‬ ham ‘also. too’ ‫بې جا‬ be-jā ‘improperly’ ‘quickly’ ‘slowly’ ‘suddenly’   Table 10.177.3: Some adverbs of manner Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .

’ (10. generally determined through context..DIR wǝ́-kṛ-i AOR-do.OBL affair-PLF. the adverb can appear either preceding the substantive word or may occur between the substantive and the verbalizer.PRS-1PL ‘whenever we come face to face with [them]’ Note too that the omitted.‫په دوهم پړاو کې به سره سيالي وکړي‬ (10.42) . in that instance. • A second likely interpretation involves the null object of reference: (10.DIR] become.43) ‫ سره‬/səra/ having anaphoric ‫چي کله سره مخامخ شي‬ če kala sǝrǝ mǝxāmǝ́x-Ø š-i COMP when COMIT facing-[PL. the verb that allows this usage of /səra/ is a denominal verb. subject to predictable semantic conditions: .M] ‘They will compete with [each other] in the second round.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . it has a number of potential meanings.1 The adverb /səra/ Across Pashto varieties.’ ‫سره‬ Often. /səra/ (otherwise an adposition) can appear without an overt object.in WOULD together competition-SG.M. • ‫ سره‬/səra/ may indicate a reciprocal reading of the predicate.OBL 1PL. In this usage. a translation into English might include the particle along.228.M ‘We discussed those efforts [among ourselves].. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M..41) pǝ dohǝm-Ø paṛāw-Ø ke bǝ səra siyāl-i in.41 and 10.DIR be.43.F..‫په هغو لارو چارو مو بحث سره وکړ‬ pǝ haɣo lār-o čar-o mo bahs-Ø in.AOR-PRS. understood object need not be animate.Adverbs  385 ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ 10.3[PL. as shown in 10..PST-PTCP.DIR səra kǝ́ṛ-ay day together do.2. second-M stage-M ..AOR.WK discussion-M. and when it is.CONT.OBL road-PL.177. that.PRS.3SG.F.AOR.3.

4: Some adverbs of degree 13 Also: 14 Also: ‫ سرپ‬/sirp/.4 Adverbs of degree Often adverbs of degree will be used to modify adjectives or verbs to denote intensity or emphasis. 1867) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as a corruption of the Persian ‫ صرف‬/sirf/(Raverty.386  Other Lexical Elements 10. and they strongly tend to precede the modified element.4 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of degree.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .44.177. their use in sentences can be seen in examples beginning with 10. Table 10. Adverb Gloss ‫لږ‬ ləg ‘a little’ ‫ډېر‬ ḍer ‘very’ ‫زښت‬ zəxt ‫خورا‬ xwarā ‫تنها‬ tan(h)ā ‫صرف‬¹³ serf ‫مازې‬ māze ‫بیښي‬ bixi ‫کورټ‬ kwərṭ ‫چټ‬¹⁴ čaṭ ‫څخو‬ ʦaxo ‘only’ ‘completely’ ‘slightly’   Table 10. 1867) ‫ چټ پټ‬/čaṭ paṭ/(Raverty.2.

M ‘The gunfire scared the child immensely. 1964: 50).228.F.M ‘I ran a little yesterday.’ 10.’ (10.OBL voice-M.WK little AOR-run-PST. a number of adverbs have also been borrowed from Persian and Urdu (Shafeev.DIR very wə́-berāw-ə AOR-scare-PST. they are listed among the Pashto adverbs.3SG.5 Adverbs borrowed from Arabic A number of adverbs in Pashto have been borrowed from Arabic and have retained their Arabic morphology.¹⁵ ً‫ا‬ /‑an/. Borrowings from Arabic include all categories of 15 Similarly.‫پرون مې لږ وځغستل‬ parun me ləẓ wə́-ʣɣast-əl yesterday 1SG.‫د مرمیو ږغ ماشوم خورا وبېراوه‬ (10.DIR daily-M.3PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .AOR-PST. These adverbs are recognizable because they end in the Arabic accusative case marker adverbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR work-M.46) .2.44) 387 .45) də maram-io ẓaɣ-Ø māšum-Ø xwarā of bullet-PL.3SG.‫خپل ننی کار مې چټ پټ خلاص کړ‬ xpəl-Ø nan-ay kār-Ø me čaṭ paṭ own-M.M ‘I completely finished my work for today.DIR do.Adverbs  (10.DIR 1SG.’ .OBL child-M.177. though since these borrowings do not have a peculiar morphology.WK complete ECHO xlā́s-Ø kṛ-Ø finished-M.

OBL own-M.388  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ً‫تقریبا‬ taqribán ‘approximately’ ً‫رسما‬ rasmán ‘officially’ ً‫دفعتا‬ dafatán ‘suddenly’ ً‫فورا‬ fawrán ‘immediately’ ً ‫كاملا‬ kamilán ‘completely’   Table 10.DIR father-M.48 and 10. In many cases there is a shorter form as well as a longer (sometimes two word) form starting with /ʦə/.ANIM.CONT-PRS.’ 10. See 10.AOR.49 for examples with /wáli/ ‘why’.3PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6 Adverbial interrogatives Other interrogative words fill the positions of adverbials .48) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do.PST-PST.M that suddenly INSTR laugh-F.47) kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.6 and exemplified beginning with 10.2. They words are summarized in Table 10.228.50.M] 1SG.5: Arabic adverbs in Pashto .PST-PST. /sə/ ‘what’.M ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father. (10.‫کله چې ماشومانو خپل پلار ولید نو دفعتاً په خندا شول‬ (10.3[SG.3SG. suggesting from the variable ‫ولي‬ ‫څه‬ position of the weak pronoun clitic that this element may be outside the clause.M.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā́-Ø AOR-see.DIR šw-əl become.177.

DIR come.CONT-PRS.AOR. sə waxt ʦə waxt.177. sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ čeri.WK kiss-do.50) ‫کله راغلې؟‬ kəla rā́ɣl-e when come.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) (10. sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) (10. sərga ‘how (what manner)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri.6: Some other interrogative words ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ (10.Adverbs  GP M Translation ‫ ولي‬wáli wále ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla (če) kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخت‬ʦə waxt.AOR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 389 . sanga ʦanga.228. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga.49) wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG.3[SG. səranga ʦərga.51) ‫څه وخت راغلې؟‬ sə waxt-Ø rā́ɣl-e what time-M. čere ‫ چرې‬čare   Table 10.

everywhere’.AOR.. Come anytime!].‫هرکله راشئ‬ har kala rā́š-əy every when come.52) čere z-əy where go.390  Other Lexical Elements ‫چېري ځئ؟‬ (10. Negative statements with /hets/.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) As with interrogative pronouns. /hes/ ‘any’ also occur with other interrogatives/indefinites.56.PRS-IMP. as in Example 10. restaurant-M .STR. these interrogatives.228.3 for more on reduplication.CONT-PRS. as shown in 10.DIR built-do. See Section 10.56) .DIR how table-M.58.CONT.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) ‫نجار څرنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ (10.’ Also like interrogative pronouns.53) čerta z-əy where go. The reduplication of the question word gives the sense that the eating events are distributed over time.CONT-PRS.DIR how table-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . (10.in CONT-eat.54) ‫نجار څنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ najār-Ø sanga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M. as in /har kəla/ ‘whenever.‫کله کله زه په رستوران کي خورم‬ kəla kəla zə pə restorān-Ø ki Ø-xwar-ə́m when when 1SG.’ (SW) (10.CONT.DIR in.57) . can occur with /har/ /ar/ ‘every’.177..PL ‘You are always welcome [lit.. when being used indefinitely. ‫هر چېري‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هر کله‬ ‫هېڅ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) ‫چېرته ځئ؟‬ (10. anytime’ and /har čere/ ‘wherever.PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) (10..3[SG.PRS-1SG ‘Sometimes I eat in restaurants.55) najār-Ø səranga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M. these interrogatives also may be used with indefinite meanings.DIR built-do.3[SG.

Bhitrauti. contiguous with Punjabi areas—a fact which suggests that adverbial concord is an areal feature.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR ʣ-í go.59) hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-a never when backbiting-M.M] ‘This camel rides very comfortably [lit. While it has been briefly described elsewhere. Some adjectives that frequently modify verbs are: /xə/ ‘good’ (adjective). when playing this adverbial role they show agreement with the direct object if there is one.DIR none where gone-M.7 Adjectives as adverbs Many adjectives can also be used as verbal or sentential modifiers. and Kazakhstan) and those of the western Indo-Aryan languages.’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫دا اوښ په لاره پوست ځي‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښایسته‬ ‫سخت‬ dā ux-Ø pə lāra-Ø post-Ø this.‫زه هېڅ چېرې ولاړ نه شوم‬ (10. and Kashmiri (Hook & Chauhan 1988b.DIR on road-F.CONT-IMP. and with the subject if not.DIR soft-M. Notably. Hook & Koul 2008). The following examples use the adjectives /post/ ‘soft’ and /səxt/ ‘hard’: ‫ډېر‬ (10.CONT. the Pashto-speaking region is situated between the regions in which Avar is spoken (western Dagestan.DIR NEG do. /zyāt/ ‘heavy’ (adjective).SG ‘Never backbite!’ 10.60) ‫زیات‬ ‫پوست‬ . This unusual type of concord has been observed in the Caucasian language Avar.Adverbs  391 .228. ‘very’ (adverb).PST-1SG ‘I didn't go anywhere. /ḍer/ ‘many’ (adjective). northwest Azerbaijan.AOR. concord in Pashto adverbs is a subject ripe for further linguistic investigation. in fact. ‘many’ (adverb).STR. Hook & Joshi 1991. /xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ (adjective).177. According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 87).’ (NW) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ (10. ‘well’ (adverb). and is.PRS-PRS.DIR camel-M. Punjabi.DIR NEG become. as well as certain western Indo-Aryan languages—for example. Gujarati.58) zə hes čere wláṛ-Ø ná šw-əm 1SG. ‘very’ (adverb). goes soft].2.3[SG.

DIR pushed kṛ-ə do.DIR on road-F.DIR ʣ-í go.DIR camel-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . go soft].’ (NW) 10.DIR camel-M.DIR pushed kṛ-əl-a do.61) dā uxa-Ø pə lāra-Ø past-a this.3SG.DIR hard-F.DIR on road-F.OBL this.M.‫ما دغه اوښ سخت ټېلې کړ‬ (10.STR.228.PRS-PRS.DIR soft-PL.’ (NW) .M] ‘These camels ride very comfortably [lit.3SG.3[PL.AOR-PST.OBL this.‫دا اوښه په لاره پسته ځي‬ (10.CONT.DIR soft-F.64) .63) mā dáɣa ux-Ø səxt-Ø ṭelé 1SG.’ (NW) (10.M ‘I pushed this camel hard.2.F ‘I pushed this she-camel hard.‫دا اوښان په لاره پاسته ځي‬ (10.DIR hard-M.M. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.8 Reduplication of adverbs Degree adverbs may undergo full reduplicaton to indicate increased intensity of the action.’ (NW) .3[SG.‫ما دغه اوښه سخته ټېلې کړله‬ mā dáɣa uxa-Ø səxt-a ṭelé 1SG.AOR-PST-PST.PRS-PRS.62) dā ux-ān pə lāra-Ø pāst-ə this.DIR camel-F.392  Other Lexical Elements .DIR ʣ-í go.177.F] ‘This she-camel rides very comfortably [lit.DIR camel-PL.STR. goes soft].CONT.

full reduplication is a morphological process with effects dependent on the lexical class of the word reduplicated.F] ‘Fatima went very quickly.8.CONT. and Austroasiatic languages.2.228. Dravidian. if the noun refers to an object.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .67: .7 gives a list of some more doublet words and the stem from which they are derived (Pashtoon.8.4.69: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Section 6. the doublet construction may be a generalized plural. It seems reasonable to assume that their existence in Pashto is due to areal influence. The meanings of these doublet words are similarly conventionalized. the quality of this altered segment is conventionalized for the particular stem.2 Partial reduplication: echo words Partial reduplication (resulting in a doublet that consists of a lexeme plus an echo word) typically involves the alteration of only the initial sound.‫فاطمه زر زر ځي‬ fatəma-Ø zər zər ʣ-í Fatima-F. Section 6. the functions of reduplication for each of these are found in Section 5. as in examples 10. Nouns.Reduplication  (10. Section 10. number names. where they occur in Indo-Aryan.6 respectively. For instance. Some attested examples are given here.DIR quick quick go. Echo words are an areal phenomenon throughout South Asia. and interjections are subject to full reduplication.177.4. though some patterns exist.1.2.‫دومره ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنو کی ساری نه لری‬ 17 Standardized version of 10. ¹⁷ 16 Standardized version of 10.’ (NW) 10.3. and Section 10.66 and 10. 2009).67. The doublet may convey intensity if the repeated element refers to an action (example 10. 10.1 Full (morphological) reduplication In Pashto.3 Reduplication 10.3[SG.3.3. adjectives. Tibeto-Burman.¹⁶. and Table 10.PRS-PRS.69).‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ ‫د رایې گیري نه وروسته یې د ټگي برگي او رشوت خوري په اړه د‬ ‫دغو بی هویتو او بی پتو مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل‬ .5. adverbs.65) 393 .

DIR ECHO 3.OBL responsiblity-M.OBL .CONT.AOR..from after 3.3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL INSTR topic-F.’ (10.OBL sickness-F...OBL collection-F.PST-PST.228.DIR darlód-Ø have.‫مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.M] ‘Do you like flowers and such things?’ (NW) (10.WK xwāx-íg-i sweet-become.DIR INSTR neck-F.66) ‫ګلان ملان دې خواښیږی؟‬ gul-ān mulān de flower-PL.3[PL.DIR and of prevention-M.68) ‫د ملاریا ناروغی او د مخنیوۍ لاری چاری یی‬ də malāryā-Ø nāroɣ-i aw də məxniw-i of malaria-F.ANIM.PRS-PRS.67) ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورئ په اړه د تحقیقاتو‬ .M.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL. vote-F.WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.394  Other Lexical Elements (10..OBL lār-e čāre ye path-PL.WK ‘The Disease of Malaria and the Ways to Prevent It’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election.M.F.OBL eating-F.177.DIR ECHO 2.

..OBL of fābrik-o pə joṛ-aw-ə́l-o ke xpəl-Ø factory-PL.M COMP 1PL.PRS.M.in example-M.M.3[SG..DIR in..OBL without identity-M.M.3SG.POSS of dear-M.STR..M. ras-éd-o ke šātə pātə arrive-become-PL.OBL in.STR.OBL ke sār-ay ná Ø-lar-i .ABL məšr-āno zmung də grān-Ø hewād-Ø elder-PL.OBL to in..AOR.ABL and without honor-M.177.M.OBL .3[SG.in behind ECHO súw-ay day become.POSS tārix-Ø pə dw-o saw-o kal-uno history-M. the capital of our dear country..DIR Kabul-M.OBL goal-M.DIR NEG CONT-have-PRS.’ (10.DIR and də́ṛ-ay wə́ṛay kəṛ-Ø če zmung shredded-M.M.69) 395 ‫دغه بی هویته او بی پته مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل دومره‬ .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ANIM.70) ‫هند څو ځلي د برېښنا د فابریکو په جوړولو کې خپل ټاکل شوي هدف ته په‬ . built-do-INF-PL.228.in own-M..DIR some time-PL.M.F] ‘These nameless and honorless leaders destroyed Kabul.OBL plazmena-Ø kābul-Ø dumra wijā́ṛ-Ø aw capital-F.‫رسیدو کې شاته پاته سوی دی‬ hind-Ø ʦo ʣəl-i də brixnā-Ø də India-M. and tore it to such pieces that our history has had no such example in two hundred years.AOR. two-PL.M] ‘A couple of times now..OBL country-M.DIR be..much destroyed-M.‫ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنوکی ساری نلری‬ daɣá be huyat-a aw be pat-a this.OBL .PST-PCTP.AOR-PST.M.OBL hundred-PL...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL year-PL.PST-PTCP.OBL 1PL.DIR ECHO do.M.M.DIR of electricity-F.DIR so.OBL ṭāk-ə́l šúw-i hadaf-Ø tə pə select-INF become.CONT. India has fallen behind in its desired goal of building power plants.Reduplication  (10.

228..OBL sərə ye hiʦ ḍawal-Ø xabar-e atere wə́ ná .DIR ECHO AOR NEG kṛ-u do. America-F.OBL and friend-PL.‫موږ به د امریکا او ملګرو سره یې هیڅ ډول خبری اتری و نه کړو‬ mung bə də amrikā-Ø aw malgər-o 1PL.396  (10.177.AOR-1PL ‘We will not hold talks with America or any of its allies...DIR word-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .with 3.WK nothing manner-M.F..M.STR[DIR] WOULD with.71) Other Lexical Elements .

‫وار پار‬ wār pār ‘through and through’ ‫ناسته پاسته‬ nāsta pasta ‘social intercourse’ recognition’ ‫ وار‬war ‘time. non-diligent’ ‫خل پل‬ xal pal gloss unknown ‫هلې ځلې‬ hali zali ‘effort’ ‫ سست‬sust ‘listless’ ‫ خل‬xal ‘faith.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . bend’ ‘bent’ ‫سست پست‬ sust pust ‘quite listless.7: Some doublets and their base stems Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. turn’ ‫ ناسنه‬nāsta ‘sitting’ ‘conduct’ ‫تت پت‬ tət pət ‘disordered’ ‫ تت‬tət ‘confused’ ‘confused’ ‫غټ پټ‬ ɣaṭ paṭ ‘very big’ ‫ غټ‬ɣaṭ ‘large’ ‫لټ پټ‬ laṭ paṭ ‘soiled’ ‫ لټ‬laṭ ‘sluggish’ ‘besmirched’ ‫خوړین پړین‬ xuṛin pṛin ‘boiled very soft’ ‫ خوړين‬xuṛin ‘boiled soft.228. overcooked’ ‘overripe’ ‫کړینګ پړینګ‬ kṛing pṛing ‘curved’ ‫ کړينګ‬kṛing ‘curve. confidence’ ‫هله‬ hala ‘attach’.Reduplication  Doublet 397 Stem ‫پوښتنه اتنه‬ poxtәna utәna ‘questioning’ ‫ پوختنه‬poxtәna ‘question’ ‫پېژنې اېجنې‬ pežәne ajane gloss unknown ‫ پېژنه‬pežəna ‘familiarity.177. lax. ‘worry. alarm’ ‫ ځله‬zila   Table 10.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.

there is a phrasal position outside the clause after the verb phrase.2.1 Noun phrases Pashto noun phrases¹ generally exhibit the internal order Determiner . It is not a comprehensive treatment of Pashto syntax. In addition. Brugman and Anne Boyle David 11 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . we refer to this position as pre-clausal position.2.189. Pate (2012). Lorimer (1902). A genitive determiner (headed either by /də/ or by a fused strong form—see Section 7. the research we conducted with native speakers rendered differences in lexical forms or case-marking patterns.3.2. described in Section 11. Pashto is a pro-drop language: the pronoun coreferential with the agreement marker on the verb may be omitted under the conditions detailed in Section 7.186. Because it apparently fulfills many independent grammatical requirements of Pashto. For the most part.2.1.Claudia M.Noun. but not restricted to. in generative terminology. before the subject. rather than as a Focus position. a focus function. There is at least one phrasal position outside the clause. It is used for a variety of purposes including. Pashto exhibits strong head-final order in noun phrases and verb phrases. and Tegey (1979). A set of apparent exceptions to the general order of elements in a clause results from the large inventory of second-position clitics. our field research on syntax was more limited than that on other aspects of Pashto grammar. not in the general properties of Pashto syntax.2.1. focusing on questions of word and phrase order. We refer to this position as the post-clausal position. when they are used as genitive determiners (which is indicated only by their proximity to the noun).1 Syntax Overview This grammar has concentrated on Pashto word-formation and phrase-formation. irrespective of its function (see Section 9.Quantifier . they may follow ‫د‬ 1 We use this term in its traditional sense of a noun and its complements.1 for more examples). The current chapter covers some aspects of Pashto sentence construction. and determiners. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. however. which has been described in various degrees of detail by Babrakzai (1999). Because weak pronouns are second-position clitics.Adjective . modifiers.2 Phrasal syntax 11. and case-marking and agreement. Penzl (1955). Most of the description in this chapter has been synthesized from these works. which is similarly used for a variety of functions. 11.3) is generally phrase-initial.3. this is called the Determiner Phrase or DP. among others.2.

‫په فراه کې تښتول شوي کارګران خوشې شول‬ pə farā-Ø ke təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i in.M...WK AOR-hit-INF become.’ (SW) Participial phrases modifying nouns pattern as adjective phrases and tend to precede their heads.WK book-M.75.76.AOR.2) .in kidnap-INF become.PST-PTCP.DIR 1SG. as is shown in 11.2. as shown in 11.PST-PST.OBL also sorrow-M. postpositions.DIR AOR-NEG eat.7. They may also precede their head.3PL. but may also appear in the post-clausal position.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬ dā mi kitāb-Ø dəy this.5. respectively.4 and Section 9. as shown in example 11. and nobody even cared.2.3SG.189.’ Relative-clause modifiers appear after their heads in the same phrase.DIR kārgar-ān xóše šw-əl worker-PL. Farah-M .M. given the existence of prepositions. 11.PRS.. (11.DIR be.3) .’ (11.PL.AOR.AOR.2 Adpositional phrases The salient exception to the head-final principle can be found in adpositional phrases.ANIM.DIR released become.186.3PL.M ‘Our forests were destroyed.DIR 1PL.M ‘The workers kidnapped in Farah were released.3SG. This is exemplified in 11.1) . these are discussed in Section 9.400  Syntax their head.3: (11.M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná xoṛ-Ø 3.PST-PST.WK none who.M. and circumpositions.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . as shown in example 11. having to do with the interrelationships between weak pronouns or oblique pronominal clitics and adpositions.CONT.1.‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL.7.PST-PST. A number of additional conditions obtain on the internal structure of adpositional phrases.M ‘That is my book.

) foot’ ‫ سا اخیستل‬/sā axistə́l/ ‘to breathe’ < ‫ سا‬/sā/ ‘(f.5 for examples. respiration’ ‫ ڼېل وهل‬/ṭel wahə́l/ ‘to push. In addition to the verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. with the verb.2.)’ < ‫ کنګل‬/kangál/ ‘(m. As for the other type of LVC—Verb + Verb (V-V)—since it is abundant in South Asian languages of both the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families.2. the LVC is the only means of creating new verbal forms in the language.4. Relative clauses and sentence-level modifiers may appear in postclausal position.2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . further investigation is necessary. the morphosyntactic requirements on the complement are discussed in Section 8.4. LVCs are so prominent and productive in Pashto that they serve as simplex predicates for further syntactic purposes—for example. Pashto has a robust system of light verb constructions (LVC). and /istə́l/ ‘to throw out’ as light verbs. See Section 8.186. As verbs are a closed class in Pashto. 2011). to do’. two-word expressions that are semantically interpretable as a single predicate. Only one of the two canonical types—those of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb (N-V)—appears in our data and has been described by other authors as occurring in Pashto. as in the following examples: ‫کېدل‬ ‫نيول‬ • • • • • • ‫اخیستل‬ ‫ایستا‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وهل‬ ‫ پښه اخیستل‬/pša axistə́l/ ‘to stride’ < ‫ پښه‬/pša/ ‘(f.) breathing.) wrestling’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. (See Section 11. shove’ ‫ ببوزی وهل‬/bəbozay wahə́l/ ‘to fan’ < ‫ ببوزی‬/bəbózay/ ‘(m. with the borrowed word filling the complement slot. Pashto uses the verbs /axistə́l/ ‘to take’. which we refer to as the intransitive and transitive verbalizers when they act as light verbs.3 401 Verb phrases Generally. they can license further complementation. /wahə́l/ ‘to beat’. to grasp’. it is also used as a way of importing loanwords. as the final element. /niwə́l/ ‘to seize.4.2.) The inventory of light verbs in Pashto should not surprise anyone familiar with LVCs.4 for a detailed description of their morphosyntactic behavior. if any.1 Light verb constructions Like many other languages of the Western Asian and South Asian areas. head-final order is found also in the verb phrase.Phrasal syntax  11. 11.) fan’ ‫ کنګل نيول‬/kangal niwə́l/ ‘to freeze (intr. it would not be surprising to find it in Pashto as well. For that reason we will not say definitively that V-V LVCs do not occur in Pashto.189.) push. as described by Tegey (1979) and Pate (2012). and has recently been reported for Persian (Kshanovski.3.) ice’ ‫ کشتي نيول‬/kuští niwə́l/ ‘to wrestle’ < ‫ کشتي‬/kuští/ ‘(f. shove (one another)’ < ‫ ڼېل‬/ṭel/ ‘(m.

.4) .DIR machine-M. further research in this area is needed.‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL.5) ..’ (11.DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.ABL 3.WK freed-do.6) .DIR kaw-í do.DIR in.in of "P R T" team-M. In addition.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . as these are so common in Pashto.186..CONT-IMP.189. A few examples follow of typical LVCs.on services-PL.OBL people-M.DIR CONT-kill.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د "پي آر ټي" ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də "pi ar ṭi" ṭim-Ø Australia-F. gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde xadmāt-Ø numerous-M number-M language-PL.OBL .M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages.402  • Syntax ‫ اړ ایستا‬/aṛ istə́l/ ‘to compel’ < ‫ اړ‬/aṛ/ ‘obstacle.’ Uncontracted LVC: (11.M.3[SG.M..DIR of world-F. but again.F] ‘Australia is establishing a 'P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam]' team in Afghanistan. Contracted LVC: (11. there are likely more light verbs in Pashto. we do not know how productive the other verbs in the above examples are as light verbs..‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M. many more can be seen throughout this book.F..3[SG..CONT-PRS.SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.PRS-IMP.CONT-PRS..OBL on. compelled’ While LVCs with ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ are by far the most common and extremely productive. Afghanistan-M .

or pronominal clitics and ‫ مو‬/mo/ 2 Standardized version of 11.2.186. ‫ دې‬/de/ .DIR imported-M. similarly to adjective complements.OBL tel-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M. some nominal complements behave like part of the verb lexeme and allow a direct object.OBL from side-F. . which is in turn marked in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M. ‫ یې‬/ye/ .2.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 3 However. or prefixed.2 Elements in the verbal group 11.DIR NEG do.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.AOR-1PL ‘After this.’² (11.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart. as the verb can have at most two arguments.2. we won't import fuel through Iran. and are therefore also case-marked according to split-ergative alignment. • A prefix or pseudo-prefix and its verb. it is instead indicated by an adposition and accordingly case-marked oblique.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this. on the other hand.OBL bull-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3.AOR-PST.3. see Section 8. verbs.2.4.OBL cart-F.8) .189. (This includes both the a-initial complex verbs and second conjugation.) • The complement of a denominal verb and its verbalizer.’ Adjective complements of N-V LVCs always show agreement with the undergoer of the action of the verb. cannot be a direct object. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.³ 11. The particles that interact with verbs in this way are: • The modal clitics ‫ به‬/bə/ and ‫ دې‬/de/ • The weak personal pronouns.7: ‫ مې‬/me/ .Phrasal syntax  (11. The undergoer of the action. Nominal complements are usually treated as the direct object of the verb.4 for a discussion of these exceptions.DIR pulled do.3SG.7) 403 .1 The verbal group in General Pashto Certain particles can be inserted between: • The aorist prefix ‫ وـ‬/wə́/and its verb.

and adverbials are all second-position clitics.10) ‫وـ‬ .‫بو به مې نه زې‬ bó bə me ná z-e take.’ With second conjugation (= prefixed) verb: (11.12) .186.’ With a-initial verbs. if it is a non-aorist form).‫ا مې خیستل‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG.M ‘I beat him. and the clitics follow the negative. but only when the /a/ is stressed (the a-initial verbs are unusual in that they have variable stress placement): (11. Also. the negative marker—not the initial syllable of the verb—takes the stress.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .WK buy.PRS WOULD 1SG.404  Syntax ‫ خو‬/xo/ and ‫ نو‬/no/ The negatives ‫ نه‬/ná/ and ‫ مه‬/má/ • The adverbial clitics • Modals.PST-PST.WK buy.3SG.3PL.WK NEG take-2SG ‘You won't take me.‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG. They also obey strict rules of ordering relative to each other. if an aorist form is negated.‫و مې واهه‬ (11. Some examples of these phenomena follow (examples are from Kopris 2009 and Tegey 1977 ).’ With /wā́/ (< /wə́/+ /a-/): ‫واـ‬ (11.M ‘I bought them.PST-PST-3PL.189. the negative precedes the verb.AOR. Tegey (1977) reports the following ordering of enclitics between verbal components: /xo/> /bə/> { /mo/| /me/| /de/| /ye/} > /no/ ‫خو‬ ‫به‬ ‫مو‬ ‫مې‬ ‫دې‬ ‫یې‬ ‫نو‬ If the first syllable of the verb does not carry stress (that is.M ‘I was buying them. weak personal pronouns.WK beat-PST. With aorist prefix /wə́/: ‫وـ‬ .9) wə́ me wāh-ə AOR 1SG.’ versus: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.11) .

OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.DIR 1SG.down-PST.AOR-PST.down-PST. (11.’ With denominal verbs: (11.3SG.down 1SG.16) .14) .WK knock.‫وران مې کړ‬ warān-Ø me k-ə worse-M.PST-PST-3PL.M 1SG.AOR-PST.’ (11.3SG.Phrasal syntax  (11.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him.15) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .WK ‘I was buying them.3.3PL. The Waziri particles take the following forms: • The modal clitics /wa/ and /de/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M ‘I knocked them down.WK do.OBL AOR\knock.2.3PL.STR. as illustrated below.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M. They differ somewhat in form.17) .’ ‫څملول‬ The pair below with the second conjugation verb /ʦamlawə́l/ ‘to knock down’ shows that the choice of pronoun is optional: either the strong pronoun may precede the intact inflected verb.M ‘I knocked them down.‫څه مې ملول‬ ʦá me mlaw-əl AOR\knock.189.186.M ‘I made it worse.DIR AOR-NEG do.13) 405 .’ A negated aorist form (note stress on negative): (11.2.‫اخیستل مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy.’ 11.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects Particles in the Middle dialects interact with verbs similarly to those in the General Pashto dialects. or the weak pronoun clitic may cliticize to the initial stressed syllable of the verb.‫ما څملول‬ mā́ ʦámlaw-əl 1SG.

it takes the main stress in an aorist verb phrase: ‫نه‬ ‫و‬ (11. and /mo/ • The adverbial clitics /xo/ (see Section 10.PST-PST. and nobody even cared. or the light verb complement for complex verbs.PST-PST.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. /ye/ .4) and /nu/ • The negative morphemes /ná/ and /má/ The Dzadrani particles take these forms: • The modal clitics /be/ and /de/ • The weak personal pronouns.M ‘I didn't read [them] over.18) .M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná 3.189.DIR AOR-NEG xoṛ-Ø eat. the prefix.OBL AOR NEG read-PST.WK AOR-hit-INF become. /(y)e/ . but Septfonds reports Dzadrani ordering as follows: adverbial clitics > pronominal clitics > modal clitics Note that this ordering distinguishes between modal /de/ and pronominal /de/ ‘you’ . or pronominal clitics /mi/ .‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL. /di/ . where the two occupy the same slot. and either initial /a/. Because it carries an inherent stress. In aorist constructions. it therefore follows the aorist marker /wə/ for simplex verbs.3.M.WK none who.OBL also sorrow-M.’ (11.3SG. or pronominal clitics /me/ ∼ /be/.DIR 1PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .2.2.1.STR.186.3PL.M ‘Our forests were destroyed. and /əm/ • The adverbial clitic /xo/ • The negative morphemes /nə́/ and /má/ We do not have information on the ordering of Waziri clitics. 11. /de/ .19) .406  Syntax • The weak personal pronouns.AOR. in contrast to General Pashto dialects.3PL.‫ما و نه لوستل‬ mā wu nə́ lwast-əl 1SG.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase The negative particle /ná/ nearly always precedes the verb and is placed as close to the verb stem as possible.

DIR AOR-NEG do.AOR-PST.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him.PST-PST.3SG.’ .’ .M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit.DIR NEG kṛ-a do.OBL own-F.22) baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M. the order of the other elements depends on the presence of a subject and object or both.DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do..189.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ (11.F ‘She didn't open her umbrella.DIR umbrella-F.Phrasal syntax  (11..AOR-PST.AOR-PST.OBL Mahmud-M.‫کښېنناست‬ šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø tsəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M.1.3SG.OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .‫هغې خپله چترۍ خلاصه نه کړه‬ (11. as indicated in Table 11. head-M.1: Element ordering in negative future constructions Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3SG.DIR opened-F.OBL from.’ Because /bə/ is a second-position clitic and therefore must follow the first stressed word in the clause or sentence. when negating future time reference.STR.186. ‫به‬ Condition Order of elements subject OR object expressed subject/object + subject AND object expressed subject + NEITHER subject NOR object expressed ‫ و‬wə + ‫ به‬bə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + object + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb   Table 11.OBL .3SG.21) haɣe xpəl-a čatr-əy xlā́s-a ná 3SG...M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne.from crown-M.F.20) 407 ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ايسته کړ او هيڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ .

3[SG.DIR AOR NEG deliver-PRS.OBL orband-Ø tə ziyān-Ø wə ná rasaw-i cease. as in 11.’ (11.ABL WOULD aforementioned-M.‫کومه فایده به درته ونه رسوي‬ kum-a fāyida-Ø bə dər-tə wə-nə́ rasaw-i any-F.OBL path-F.F. [lit.‫دا ډول دسیسې به د دوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ 4 Standardized version of 11.189.408  Syntax In the case of simplex verbs (i.’ (11.OBL to AOR NEG arrive-PRS-PRS.DIR manner-M.DIR WOULD of 3PL.26) .4).M] ‘Even now.OBL time-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .25) .to that.3[SG.2. ‫نه‬ (11.F] ‘Only in Balkh Province will the railroad not be completed.DIR own-F.23) .‫د اور ګاډي لار به یوزاي په بلخ ولایت کې پای ته ونه رسیږي‬ də orgād-i lār-Ø bə yawāze pə balx-Ø of train-M.25: . the negated verb is simply /ná/ + inflected verb stem.DIR WOULD only in.23 through 11.‫تر هغه وخته به نوموړی خپلې موخې ته و نه رسیږي‬ tər háɣə waxt-ə bə numwaṛ-ay xpəl-e up. examples of the orderings in Table 11..1 (Tegey & Robson.. all first conjugation verbs except a-initial ones. Balkh-M walāyat-Ø ke pāy tə wə-nə́ ras-eg-i province-M .OBL mox-e tə wə ná ras-eg-i goal-F.3[SG] ‘It won't do you any good.e.‫داډول دسیسې به ددوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ dā ḍawal-Ø dəsis-e bə də duy this..DIR WOULD 2-to AOR-NEG deliver-PRS.]’⁴ (11. This type of conspiracy won't bring damage to their cease-fire.3[SG.M] ‘This type of conspiracy won't hurt the cease-fire.DIR benefit-F..fire-M.STR.24) .DIR conspiracy-PL. see Section 8.186.28.OBL to damage-M. he won't reach his goals. 1996: 128).in end to AOR-NEG arrive-PRS-PRS..

M] ‘[The votes] won't be counted.2.4).2.186. /bə/ always appears after the first stressed element of the sentence: ‫به‬ • a-initial verb ‫ اخیستل‬/axistə́l/ ‘to take.e.28: . Note that the prefix /wə/ occurs only in a-initial verbs.DIR AOR-do. second conjugation verbs. to buy’: 5 Standardized version of 11.‫و به نه شمېرل شي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PRS-1SG do.‫وبه نه شم کړاى د پارلمان له لارې خدمت وکړم‬ (11.29 through 11. examples of this negative placement.27) wə́-ba ná š-əm kə́ṛ-āy də AOR-WOULD NEG become. see Section 8.AOR-1SG ‘I won't be able to serve in Parliament.3.AOR.2. Note that in these constructions.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .Phrasal syntax  409 .AOR-OPT of pārlamān-Ø lə lār-e xadmat-Ø wə́-kṛ-əm parliament-M. Table 11. and third conjugation verbs.OBL service-M.31. the negative particle is inserted between the first element and the verb stem. ‫و‬ Verb type Positioning a-initial verbs w + ā (note lengthening) + verb Second conjugation verbs prefix + Third conjugation verbs noun or adjective + ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ نه‬ná + rest of ‫ نه‬ná + rest of verb ‫ نه‬ná + verbalizer   Table 11.OBL from path-F. a-initial verbs.2 describes the relative position of the elements.’ .PRS-PRS.’⁵ With complex verbs (i..28) wə́ bə ná šmir-ə́l š-i AOR WOULD NEG count-INF become.189.‫وبه نه شمېرل شي‬ (11.AOR. See also Section 11.2: Negative placement Consider 11.3[PL.

31) ‫ واردول‬/wāredawə́l/ ‘to take’: .‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 6 Standardized version of 11.1.1 and Section 5.‫نوبیابه هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ no biyā́ bə ham zə də de kār-Ø then then WOULD also 1SG.OBL work-M.DIR from.OBL from side-F.DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon.DIR AOR-take NEG take...PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone.PRS-1SG ‘Then I also won't quit my job.AOR-1PL ‘After this. this.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this..29: 7 Standardized version of 11.DIR imported-M.3. .STR.’⁷ 11.31: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.30) ‫ پرېښودل‬/prexud-ə́l/ ‘to abandon’: . and because the direct case reflects nominative.OBL ʦəxə lās-Ø w-ā́ ná xl-əm .29) .DIR NEG do. accusative.186. This affects word order in that subjects may be expressed through verb agreement suffixation alone.2).3 Main clause sentence types Pashto is a pro-drop language: it often lacks overt marking of arguments. and absolutive functions (see Section 5.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG.410  Syntax (11.189.DIR WOULD 3SG.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M. both because the direct case marker is often zero.STR.OBL tel-Ø wāréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M.‫نو بیا به هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ .’⁶ • second conjugation verb (11.’ • third conjugation verb (11. we won't import fuel through Iran.STR.from hand-M..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

in ninety-PL.32.‫ترکي انجينران ددوى کسانو نه دي تښتولي‬ turki injinir-ān dә duy Turkish engineer-PL.PL.1 411 Declaratives 11.1 Order of elements in declaratives Subject to several more specific conditions. has been confirmed by speakers as a possible interpretation.M Ø-taxtaw-ә́l-i CONT-kidnap-PST-PTCP. the nominal /māmurin/ ‘officials’ is the first of the two directmarked nouns. Compare examples 11. in keeping with the strong preference for the subject to precede the object. The second one.DIR CONT-eat.Main clause sentence types  11.3. one. suggesting that the pre-clausal position is being used in this case for focus. “Word order within a clause is very flexible. be signaled through special intonation (including a heavy pause).33) .M.‫په سلو کې نوي دولتي مامورین رشوت خوري‬ pə səl-o ke nuw-i dawlati in.60 and 11.DIR ‘Their people didn't kidnap the Turkish engineers.OBL kas-āno ná di person-PL.PRS-PRS.hundred-PL..M. the order of elements in main clauses in Pashto is S . for emphasis or contrast.CONT.3PL.STR. According to our sources. Babrakzai (1999: 13–14) notes that outside of a strict verb-final condition.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .ANIM. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. and is the head of the subject noun phrase.M] ‘Ninety percent of government officials take bribes.32) ..” The following example shows that (for some speakers at least) the object may precede the subject. providing that the larger context supports the interpretation: (11. In addition to verb agreement.OBL NEG be.61.DIR governmental māmur-in rašwat-Ø Ø-xor-í official-PL.M.V. the first translation is the intended one. the second possible translation (O-S-V) would require a supporting context and would.3.’ There are various exceptions to the basic S-O-V principle.186.1. in speech.. In example 11.189.OBL . word order contributes to interpretation in present-tense clauses where both subject and object are case-marked as direct.M..DIR of 3PL.3[PL. One is that the required second position of a weak pronoun may result in a violation of the S-O-V order.O .ANIM.’ In the following attested example. ‫مامورین‬ (11.PRS.M.DIR bribe-F.M. however.

3[PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3[SG]F ‘The dog. In these constructions. According to Roberts. which he claims places focus on the object.DIR AOR-see-1SG ‘It's you I see!’ Because Pashto’s denominal verbs place the verb’s complement in the direct object position.CONT-PRS.OBL soldier-PL. as shown in 11.OBL 1SG.M. he claims further that in such cases.STR.37). We leave to future research whether these somewhat contradictory claims reflect dialect variation. where the weak pronoun co-refers with the noun /spay/. ‫مرسته‬ 8 Standardized version of 11. (11.ANIM.WK hurt-do.36) tā zə Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.186.DIR 3. Note that this example contrasts with the previous one in that only one direct object expression appears.35. where the ergative-absolutive case-marking pattern provides disambiguation.DIR cat-F. (11. this lends support to the view that the object noun phrase is in a preclausal position.DIR CONT-kill. The agreement suffix on the verb reflects that /mərasta/ ‘help’ is the grammatical direct object.DIR why foreign pāwdz-iān Ø-wažn-í force-PL. the adpositional phrase containing the undergoer precedes the denominal verb.PRS-PRS.M.34) Syntax ‫د ملي اردو سرتيري ولې بهرني پوځيان وژني؟‬ dә mili urdu-Ø sartir-i wale baharəni of national army-M.412  (11. or register or stylistic variation. no special intonation is associated with the O-S-V word order.189. the cat is hurting him. present-tense sentences with O-S-V order instantiate a construction that contains a pronoun coreferential with the object.34: ‫د ملي اردو سرتیري ولي بهرني پوځیان وژني؟‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. the undergoer of the expressed action is often given in an adpositional phrase (highlighted in example 11.34 is much more likely in past tense sentences.’ Penzl (1955: 133) provides a present-tense example for Kandahari with O-S-V word order.STR.35) sp-ay pišo-Ø ye xog-aw-í dog-M.M] ‘Why are the nation's soldiers killing foreign fighters?’ ‘Why are foreign fighters killing the nation's soldiers?’⁸ Roberts (2000: 11–12) claims that O-S-V order such as is shown in 11.

She shows that three-argument predicates such as load.. ‫ته‬ 11.WK də pākistān-Ø sərə mərasta-Ø COMIT. allow either the undergoer of the activity or the location affected to appear as a nuclear term. the remaining argument appears in an adpositional phrase.189.OBL at time-M 3..OBL .39) Bill bus-Ø pə lar-əy bār-aw-i Bill hay.from bār-aw-i load-do.3SG.DIR wə́-kəṛ-l-a AOR-do. Afghanistan-M ...38) Bill lar-əy də.COMIT help-F.Main clause sentence types  (11.1.” Shafeev (1964: 55) claims that the indirect object preferentially precedes the direct object in the Kandahari dialect.on of attack-PL. This is in keeping with Pashto’s limit of two distinct noun phrases per clause.’ She shows further that whichever argument appears in the direct object function is the trigger of verb agreement in the past tense.DIR[PL.3 Locative alternation Takahashi (2008) explores the phenomenon of locative alternation in Pashto.. “as long as the grammatical functions of the arguments are clear from context or case-marking [and] ..M] on wagon-SG..’ 11.3..F.186. bus-o .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .. Roberts (2000: 13) demonstrates that in sentences that have a subject.’ (11.3[SG.. Pakistan-M.3. the verb appears finally.CONT-PRES. spray. indirect objects are always marked with an adposition.‫په افغانستان باندې د حملې پر وخت یې د پاکستان سره مرسته وکړله‬ pə afɣānistān-Ø bānde də haml-o pər waxt-Ø ye on. (11. a direct object...F[DIR] from.37) 413 .F[DIR] load-do.AOR-PST-PST.1. which express the caused movement of material into or onto a location...M] ‘Bill is loading hay onto the wagon.na Bill wagon-SG.2 Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses There is in Pashto no double-object ditransitive construction. and smear. any order of arguments is possible. hay-PL. and that either argument may also Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..CONT-PRES..M] ‘Bill is loading the wagon with hay.M...OBL .F ‘He helped Pakistan when Afghanistan was under attack.3[SG. and an indirect object marked with the postposition /ta/ ‘to’.

.3.AOR.M. Similarly.OBL loaded šew-i dā become. Descriptions produced well into the 20th century (including Penzl 1955) often confound Pashto’s split ergativity with the existence of a passive construction. The undergoer of the action is expressed as the grammatical subject of the ‫کېدل‬ 9 The form /i/ for the participial endings originates with Takahashi. This construction does have the properties characteristic of passives that it alters the canonical termhood of actors and undergoers.2.5 Passive clauses Pashto does not have a clearly distinguishable morphological or periphrastic passive..3.PST-PTCP.DIR be..F ‘The wagon has been loaded with hay by Bill. that adpositional phrase will generally precede the verb immediately.AOR.laxwā pə lar-əy bār hay-DIR[PL..SG. a phenomenon discussed at greater length in Section 8.PST-PTCP. Bill . Bill from.laxwā pə bus-o bār wagon-SG. they may identify the construction described here as a passive. The verbal part of the construction consists of a form of the verbalizer /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and a verbal complement.DIR be.F.41) bus-Ø də. Like us. a position we do not concur with. This complement appears in the infinitive form.M ‘The hay has been loaded onto the wagon by Bill.1.side on hay-PL.M] from.40) lar-əy də...⁹ (11. and is one we have not otherwise encountered..PRS. if an adpositional phrase includes an oblique pronominal clitic as its object. with the pronominal cliticizing to the verb. Bill from.5..3PL.4 Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 172). with both the actor argument and the other oblique argument available to appear in their respective adpositional phrases. however. we have not otherwise seen the long /ā/ of the be-verb in 11.PL.189.3SG.F[DIR] loaded šew-i di become. Bill .414  Syntax appear as the subject of the construction that Babrakzai (as cited by Takahashi) identifies as passive (see Section 11.186.’ (11.2. Grammars produced later usually do not include this confound..PRS.F[DIR] from. as shown in the examples that follow. The construction identified by some contemporary linguists as a passive comprises a special case of denominal verbs.3.CONT.side on wagon-SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .1.40.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.5.. Tegey (1979) explicitly denies the existence of a distinct passive construction.’ 11.M..CONT.5). 11.1.

44) .. we will continue our protests.3[PL.. Tegey (1979) asserts that there is no dedicated means of marking an agent within this construction.M.3SG. ‫د‬ 10 Standardized version of 11.lə xwā/ or /də.DIR place-INF become. the subject may be expressed through the verb agreement suffix alone.c..AOR.F.PRS-PRS.AOR.3). “any [adposition] that gets the semantic job [of marking the agent] done is a suitable candidate.M] ‘Both that man and that woman must be killed.’ (11.).WK AOR-NEG accept-INF š-i muzāhər-o ta bə become.‫]که[ غوښتنې مو ونه منل شي مظاهرو ته به دوام ورکړو‬ [ka] ɣuxtən-e mo wə-nə́ man-ə́l [if] request-PL. or.3[PL.PST-PST.1. if expressed.45 and 11.M ‘The foundations of two buildings were laid in Kunar.‫هغه سړی او هغه ښځه دواړه باید ووژل شي‬ háɣə saṛ-ay aw háɣa xəʣa-Ø dwāṛ-a that..‫په کونړکې د دوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. as in example 11... and that noun is case-marked direct and triggers verb agreement (in both tenses). (11.46.in of two-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ...AOR-1PL ‘If our requests are not accepted. Kunar-M .OBL building-PL.DIR 1PL.OBL bənsaṭ-Ø kexud-ə́l šo-Ø foundation-M.DIR woman-F.44: ‫له لورې‬..5.’ (11.OBL to WOULD dawām-Ø wárkṛ-u continuation-M.189.F.. However.PRS-PRS.lə lure/(as seen in examples 11.46 and in Section 9.F. will most likely appear in an adpositional phrase governed by the circumposition /də. and James Caron has remarked (p.’¹⁰ The actor.F] protest-PL.43) .DIR bāyad wə́-waž-əl š-i NEC AOR-kill-INF become.DIR both-PL.AOR.F.Main clause sentence types  415 sentence.42) . as with active sentences.‫په کونړکې ددوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ pə kunaṛ-Ø ke də dw-o wədān-əyo in.186.DIR man-M.‫د‬ .DIR give...DIR and that.” ‫له خوا‬.

PST-PTCP.‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F.OBL society-F.F.F.‫وړاندې شوې طرحه دولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ wṛānde šúw-e tarha-Ø də walas before become.186.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL.OBL conference-M.’ An embedded instance of this construction may modify a noun.ANIM.416  (11. I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.CONT.PST-PTCP.DIR ‘The presented drafts have been accepted by President Karzai.DIR be.M.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.AOR.45) Syntax .PST. it precedes the head: 11 Standardized version of 11.AOR.OBL one-M.OBL Karzai-M.189. like most noun modifiers.DIR of people məšər-Ø Karz-i lə lur-e man-ə́l elder-M.M.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become.AOR.M.OBL before of student-PL.OBL from side-F.DIR draft-F.46) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ .PST-PTCP.1SG ‘A few days ago.OBL accept-INF šúw-e become.45: ‫وړاندې شوې طرحه د ولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL international-F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’¹¹ (11.

3SG. with interrogative elements..DIR ‘The works that were written by Dr.PST-PST-PTCP.47) 417 ‫دډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شوي اثارو په دې وروستیو کې په ځوان کول‬ .3.PL.DIR writing-PL.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL food-F.OBL from side-F. ‫آیا‬ (11.F ‘Have you eaten yet?’ (SW) ‫د ډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شویو اثارو په دې وروستیو کې‬ .F.‫کې خورا مینه وال موندلي‬ də ḍāktar-Ø zākir-Ø nayak-Ø lə lur-e of doctor-M.M.PL.PST-PTCP.STR..M.in many admirer-PL.2.OBL Nayak-M.‫په ځوان کول کې خورا مینه وال موندلي دي‬ 12 Standardized version of 11.3.OBL lik-əl šúw-i āsar-o pə write-INF become.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Zakir Naik have become popular with young people. ʣwān-Ø khol-Ø ke xorā minawāl-Ø young-M generation-M .189. or.DIR da be.186.’¹² 11.M.48) ‫آیا تا ډوډئ خوړلې ده؟‬ āyā tā ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e Q 2SG.47: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR Ø-mund-ə́l-i CONT-find. Questions in Pashto can be differentiated from statements through the presence of the particle associated with yes-or-no and affirmation questions. in the place where they would be expected if they were not interrogatives.M.PRS.2 Interrogatives Pashto uses the same word order for questions as for statements.Main clause sentence types  (11.OBL Zakir-M.AOR.1 Yes-or-no questions with the particle /āyā/ Pashto uses the interrogative particle /āyā/ to introduce yes-or-no questions.CONT. It is thought to be more characteristic of Western dialects than others. through intonation.OBL in. ‫آیا‬ 11.. in speech.DIR CONT-eat.. or of the interrogative pronouns used for information questions. if any.

11.50) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M.418  Syntax In addition. sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga.DIR AOR-hit-PST. reproduced here from Section 10.186.M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2 Information questions with interrogative pronouns As discussed in Section 7. here.189. the existence or presence of something may be queried by means of the existential particle /šta/. ‫څوک‬ ‫چا‬ Pashto Translation ‫ ولي‬wali ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخټ‬ʦə waxt.2. the identity of the undergoer of the action is being asked about.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ 11.OBL who. the human interrogative pronoun is /ʦok/ (direct) or /čā/ ‘who?’ (oblique).50 shows that interrogative elements appear in the position characteristic of their grammatical function. and Table 11.6. səranga ‘how (what manner)?’   Table 11. (11.3: GP additional interrogative adverbs Example 11. and the interrogative element appears in direct object position.49) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ ‫شته‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M.3SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri.2. lists other interrogative terms.6.3. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga. (11.49 is an example.3.

5.DIR then this.3.3.2. 11.3 Affirmation questions with the particle /kə na/ Affirmation questions are formed through use of the particle /kə na/.3.Main clause sentence types  419 Example 11. see Section 8.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) ‫یو‬ Section 7.52) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫زلمیه‬ zalm-aya wə́-dar-eg-a Zalmay-M. The addressee subject is generally omitted from the sentence. This is described in Section 8.51 shows that verb agreement sanctions the omission of the subject noun for questions just as it does for statements.PRS-IMP. This is exemplified in Section 10.DIR abuse-PL.DIR become.186. Suggestions or polite commands may be conveyed with the use of the second person present aorist form of the verb.3. with associated word forms summarized in Section 8.2.6. given that there may be no word order difference between them.PRS-2SG healthy-M.3.3 ‫که نه‬ Imperatives 11. stop!’ (NW) (11.1 The imperative verb form Pashto utilizes an imperative verb form.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .5 and Table 8.AOR.STR.7 explains the use of the number name /yaw/ ‘one’ to differentiate between indefinite statements and information questions. case-marked vocative.52: (11.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want.DIR CONT-see.5. as in 11. although a name may be used. and both show normal Pashto word order.2 for more explanation and examples.53) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.3. ‫که نه‬ 11.SG ‘Zalmay. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.3.48.5 and Section 8.DIR repeated-do-INF-PL.189.M. (11.2.1.51) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ Use of the imperative verb form is not the only way to express a command.M. which shows that both the question and its answer may be marked with the same particle.

55.SG má NEG.OBL brother-M. 'Don't go to the movies.CONT.420  Syntax ‫مه‬ 11.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) (11.2 The negative imperative particle /má/ Normally /má/ precedes a verb in the imperative form to create a negative command.OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell.OBL to NEG ʣ-a go.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M COMP cinema-F. In example 11.186.56) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-á never when backbiting-M.SG ‘Never backbite!’ (11.54) ‫مه‬ !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M.3. in which the particle /má/ instead appears sentence finally.3.OBL INSTR manner-M become.57) !‫د خپل ورور په باب غلط فکرونه مه کوئ‬ də xpəl-Ø wror-Ø pə bāb-Ø ɣalat-Ø of own-M.CONT-IMP.DIR NEG.IMP do.PST-PST-3PL.'’ Notice that example 11.PRS-IMP.OBL on subject-M wrong-PL.IMP do. See also example 11.DIR INSTR laugh-F.54.OBL laugh-F.M.M. ‫مه‬ (11.SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me.189.56 exhibits negative concord. (11.‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځخ‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M.CONT-IMP.DIR NEG. the negative imperative appears inside a direct quotation.55) .CONT.PL ‘Don't think badly about your brother!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR fikr-una má kaw-əy thought-PL.PRS-IMP.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .. .many language-PL..’ (NE) 11.F but in.CONT. (11.. the weak pronoun is in second position irrespective of its role in the sentence.F ‘While there are many languages in the world.3.61. verb agreement allows for unambiguous interpretations.O . (11.. there is not one that is without meaning.PRS.3SG.3..Main clause sentence types  11.3PL. world-M .DIR 2.in such one-F.189.’¹³ (11..PRS.DIR EXT ‘I have three good books.‫نشته چې بې مانا وي‬ ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبې چې دي خو په دوي کې داسې یوه هم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. In sentences 11.5.F.STR.in so.1.5 Other principles of word order in main clauses 11.OBL be. 3PL.‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه شته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG.DIR also NEG šta če be mānā-Ø wi EXT COMP without meaning-F.60) .‫زه دې وهم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́m 1SG.STR.M.186.58) 421 ‫ شته‬/šta/.OBL from three good book-PL.STR.4 Generic and existential sentences with ‫ شته‬/šta/ Generic and existential sentences are formed using the clause-final particle as outlined in Section 10.AOR.’ 13 Standardized version of 11.58: ..DIR COMP di xo pə duy ke dāse yaw-a ham nə́ be..60 and 11.‫مانا وی‬ ʣəka pə dunyā-Ø ke ʦumra žəb-e če because in.3.1 Weak pronouns Because weak pronouns must appear in second position in the clause.WK CONT-beat-1SG ‘I am hitting you.1. the order of two pronouns may violate the basic S .V ordering in main clauses.59) . ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبی چی دی خو په دوی کی داسی یوه هم نشته چی بی‬ .

‫* دې وینم‬ di Ø-win-ə́m 2.PST-PST. an adverb. in contrast with 11.63) .WK CONT-see. as in example 11.3SG.WK CONT-beat-PST-1SG ‘You were hitting me.AOR-PTCP.M.PRS-1SG 2.M ‘And they abandoned the city.‫او ښار یي پریښود‬ aw xā́r-Ø ye préxud-Ø and city-M.‫په اسرایيلو یی غږ کړې‬ pə isrāyel-o ye ɣag-Ø kéṛ-ay on Israeli-PL.64) .189.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.65.‫تا وینم‬ tā́ Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.66) .65) .DIR do. as in example 11.DIR ‘They have called upon the Israelis.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.OBL CONT-see. or the complement of a denominal verb. in example 11.’ (11. Compare the unacceptable 11. as in example 11.WK ‘I see you.‫زه دې وهلم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́l-əm 1SG.66.68.OBL 3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR 2. (11.61) Syntax .WK AOR\leave.‫وینم تې‬ Ø-win-ə́m di CONT-see.62. where the strong pronoun can occur before the verb.186.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.64.2). (11. the verb must precede the pronoun. an adpositional phrase. as in example 11.62) .WK voice-M.DIR 3.STR.422  (11. it may follow a direct object.’ (SW) When a weak pronoun is the subject of a past tense transitive verb (see Section 7.’ (SW) (11.M.STR.’ Similarly. because it is not prohibited from appearing in clause-initial position.63.3.’ (SW) (11.67.

DIR darlód-Ø have.3SG.F ‘I drank water.68) .71.DIR mulberry-PL.186.M ‘I ate many mulberries. (11.’ (11.OBL water-PL.72. (11. and may therefore not be the second word.M.DIR 3.. It contrasts with sentence 11.M ‘Previously.3SG.AOR.M.71) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do.‫پخوا مي د جهاد نیت درلود‬ pəxwā́ me də jihād-Ø niyat-Ø before 1SG.PST-PST.70) . it may instead appear in post-clausal position.AOR-PST.M] 1SG.F. to be contrasted with the unmarked order of 11..3[SG. This is shown in example 11.Main clause sentence types  (11.67) 423 .DIR 1SG.69) .‫ما لوبه وڅکلې‬ mā́ ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG.WK do.189.WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ Example 11.WK of Jihad-M.3PL.F COMP ‘And he added that.’ (11. which shows that the sentence-initial position for pronouns may acceptably be filled with a strong pronoun.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tút-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.STR.’ (NW) Given that a weak pronoun cannot appear sentence-initially.69 shows that the weak pronoun may be the next element after an entire noun phrase..70.OBL intention-M.WK AOR-eat.3PL.PST-PST.CONT-PRS. I intended [to undertake] a Jihad.‫او زیاته یی کړه چي‬ aw ziyā́t-a ye kṛ-a če and more-F.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

M ‘The kidnapped workers were released in Farah. as shown above in the contrast between example 11.ANIM.4 Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/ As shown in Section 9.3.72) Syntax ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG.5.2 for summaries of the order of negative particles with respect to other segments of the verb. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 14 Roberts (2000: 121ff. Another feature of these phrases is that any such phrase may appear in pre-clausal position¹⁴. and deverbal nouns.186.3.WK kiss-do..AOR.73. (11. nouns.2 provides a comprehensive discussion of the order of particles with respect to verbs. too.73) .PL. See also Table 11.424  (11. 11..3[SG.3PL.PST-PST. Other discussions of particle order are found throughout Chapter 8.1. Farah-M . and shows also that this may result in the effect of a complex circumpositional phrase.M.2. The appearance of such a phrase in this pre-clausal position does not necessarily put that phrase in focus.145 shows that a phrase governed by /də/ may appear extracted from its governing phrase—in this case. Example 11.57 shows this.PST-PTCP. ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3.5.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR worker-PL.CONT-PRS.) discusses the separation of possessive clitics from their possessee phrases in terms of an apparent possessor raising construction.3.‫تښتول شوي کارګران په فراه کې خوشې شول‬ təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i kārgar-ān kidnap-INF become. That concept could account for this phenomenon. aside from the fact that /də/ ‘of’ encodes a much wider range of relations than possession.’ ‫د‬ 11. Example 11.M.3 Adpositional phrases in main clauses Adpositional phrases may be governed by verbs.1.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) 11.1 and Table 11. and 11.AOR. In general. the phrase governed by the circumposition.3.3.5.189.DIR pə farā-Ø ke xóše šw-əl in.2 Particles Section 11.in released become. adpositional phrase modifiers precede the element they modify... noun modifiers governed by /də/ ‘of’ are extremely common and may be nested within one another.

.ki Ahmad WOULD COMP now in. as cited by Pate (2012: 79ff).OBL house-M.M] sabā zmā kor-Ø ta rās-i tomorrow 1SG.PRS-1SG COMP tut-Ø Ø-lar-í mulberry-PL..PRS-PRS.M] ‘I am going to the garden that has the mulberries.PRS-3[SG.186.in os-iʐ-i.‫هغه باغ ته ځم چه توت لري‬ háɣa bāɣ-Ø ta ʣ-ə́m čə that. will come to my house tomorrow.3[SG. reside-PRS-3[SG. sometimes combined with another item (which may be classifiable as a resumptive element).4. including relative clauses.STR. reported speech. we believe rather that the condition is for specificity.’ The rest of this section concerns restrictive relative clauses.. verb-governed subordinate clauses.78 has a specific indefinite item in the determiner position). ‫چه‬ (11. 2012) that all finite subordinate clauses are determiner (i. complementizer) phrases with noun-phrase complements. Relative clauses in Pashto all employ the complementizer /čə/. non-restrictive relative clauses are signaled prosodically by pauses.1 Relative clauses According to Babrakzai (1999)...M] ‘Ahmad.. who now lives in Germany.CONT.AOR. orthographically by commas (though this does not always differentiate them from restrictive relative clauses). 11. Germany ..74) ahmad bə. and syntactically by allowing a second position clitic to intervene between the head noun and the relative clause: (11. jarmani .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . All tensed subordinate clauses except verb complements require the complementizer (Pate.189.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. The analysis of relative clauses in Tegey & Robson (1996: 206–208) implies that the head noun must be definite. and adverbial clauses.Some subordinate clause types 11.OBL garden-M. the general condition accords with Pate’s claim (Pate.OBL to go.4  425 Some subordinate clause types The complementizer ‫ چه‬/čə/—also ‫ چې‬/če/ in Eastern and ‫ چي‬/či/ in Western dialects— can introduce numerous types of subordinate clauses. not definiteness (sentence 11. 2012).75) ..M.DIR CONT-have. čə os pə.OBL to come.e.

‫کسان په القاعده پوري تړلي وه‬ be piloṭ-a alotek-o .DIR do.from 12 person-PL.OBL from.M..WK blue-F.DIR COMP good work-PL. 252 terrorist-PL. however.189.STR.77) ۱۲ ‫ ترهګریی ووژل چي دهغوی له جملي څخه‬۲۵۲ .. (11.DIR da be.M.76) Syntax ‫هغه کور چه دروازه یې شنه ده‬ háɣa kor-Ø čə darwāza-Ø ye šn-a that. (11..DIR COMP door-F..3[SG.. of whom twelve were definitively tied to Al-Qaida.CONT-PRS.DIR . 1996: 208).DIR be.M COMP of 3PL.79.PRS.PRS-PRS.DIR on Al-Qaida-M.OBL ʦexə 12 kas-ān pə al-qeda-Ø pori ..DIR in death-F. the full noun phrase identifying the actor is apparently in pre-clausal position. relative clauses that modify objects appear in the post-clausal position (Tegey & Robson.DIR also yād-éẓ-i remembered-become.‫بی پیلوټه الوتکو‬ .77.ABL airplane-PL.M.3[SG.M] ‘He who does good deeds is remembered even after his death.186.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 252 tərhagər-Ø without pilot-M.3PL.STR. total-F..PL..CONT.426  (11.DIR 3.DIR house-M.‫څوك چه ښه كارونه كوي هغه په مړینه هم یادېږي‬ ʦok čə xə kār-una kaw-í who. with a resumptive weak pronoun appearing before the verb (see also Roberts 2000: 176–177 for a fuller description of the conditions on the appearance of resumptive pronouns).M.M.75 and 11.77. contrast these with 11.M] haɣá pə mṛinə-Ø həm 3SG.PST.3SG. as shown in 11.OBL complete Ø-tṛ-ə́l-i wə CONT-tie-PST-PTCP..’ Notice too that in sentence 11.78) ..CONT.CONT. where the relative clause immediately follows its head.F ‘the house the door of which is blue’ Relative clauses that modify subjects generally follow their subjects immediately.M ‘Drones killed 252 terrorists.M.WK AOR-kill-PST.3PL.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR ye wə́-waž-əl če də haɣwi lə jaml-e 3.ANIM.

M.DIR be. no overt resumptive pronoun appears.OBL that. direct objects and intransitive subjects do not have a corresponding overt resumptive pronoun.OBL to tl-ə́l-əy wə də gabina-Ø go.M COMP many 3. see Table 7.2. This follows from the occurrence restrictions described in Section 7.79: .3[SG. His analysis shows also that relative clauses employ resumptive pronouns whose distribution reflects split ergativity: in present-tense relative clauses relativizing on nominative arguments.M.OBL COMIT Ø-ɣag-ég-i ná wə́-lid-a CONT-speak-PRS-PRS.M of Gabina-F.CONT.DIR wə́-waž-əl če ḍer ye mulk-iān AOR-kill-PST.186.PST-PST-PTCP.3PL. (11.F] NEG AOR-see-PST.DIR wəl be.DIR woman-F.DIR COMP market-M. many of whom were civilians. direct objects.CONT. while transitive subjects do (as in 11.M ‘Two separate explosions killed 16 people.OBL 16 person-PL.M.WK civilian-PL.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي ونه لیده‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ (SW)¹⁵ (11.OBL explosion-PL. while accusative arguments require an overt pronoun (see also Babrakzai 1999 and Roberts 2000: 152ff).DIR be.M ‘The boy who went to the market is Gabina's nephew.OBL wrār-ə dəy nephew-M.3PL.F.3SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189.Some subordinate clause types  427 .81) . Pate (2012) shows that any argument type— subjects. and adpositional objects.3SG.PST.3SG.F.80) .PST. In pasttense relative clauses.9.DIR boy-M.F ‘Xushal didn't see the woman who was talking with Zarang.3.’ (SW) Among others studying relativization.‫ کسان ووژل چي ډیر ئې ملکیان ول‬۱۶ ‫دوه بیلابیلو چاودنو‬ dwa belābel-o čāwdən-o 16 kas-ān two separate-PL.1.ANIM.‫هغه هلک چه بازار ته تللئ و د ګبینه وراره دئ‬ háɣa hələk-Ø čə bāzār-Ø ta that.PST.79) xušāl-Ø háɣa ṣəʣa-Ø čə zarang-Ø sara Xushal-M.CONT. regardless of nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive alignment—may relativize (under conditions discussed below).DIR COMP Zarang-M.81).CONT.PRS.ANIM.’ 15 Standardized version of 11.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي نه ولیده‬ (11.

3PL.in own-PL.DIR COMP turban 3..CONT..F.OBL first-PL.74 above: ‫به‬ (11.OBL miyāšt-o ke xpəl-e mil-i žəb-e month-PL. case-marked direct and with its relative clause modifier..‫مصؤن ځای ولرو چې هلته په لمړیو دو میاشتو کې خپلې ملي ژبې زده کړي‬ pə har-o lumṛ-ayo kāl-o ke če in. appears in pre-clausal position.AOR-PRS.DIR zdá-Ø kṛ-í learned-PL.DIR place-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL ke yaw-Ø mašax-Ø aw masun-Ø ʣay-Ø . instead.F də sabā bə rās-i be.’ ‫چه‬ When the subordinate clause relativizes on a location expression.M.OBL year-PL. as evidenced by the second-position clitic /bə/ (example is from Pate 2012: 80).DIR private-M.M.PRS-PRS.3[SG.DIR and safe-M. we must have a private and safe place in Kabul where they will study their national languages for the first two months.OBL .83) ‫په هرو لمړیو کالو کې چې استخدام کیږي باید په کابل کې یو مشخص او‬ .82) haɣə səṛei čə lungota ye pər sar-Ø kər-e that man.M.428  Syntax Pate (2012) reanalyzes the assertion in Tegey (1979) that ergative subjects cannot head relative clauses. /čə/ is often preceded by the interrogative adverb /čərta/ ‘where’ or followed by the locative adverbial /həlta/ ‘there’ (see sentence 11.83).189. Kabul-M.PTCP-SG..’ 11.. ergative arguments cannot co-occur with restrictive relative clause modifiers. contrast this with sentence 11. first-PL.F. the subject function is filled with a pronoun (or by agreement)... Fully nominal.DIR become.M NEC in. As is the case Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.WK on head-M.186.84) can govern a subordinate clause expressing the content of that state or event. and the coreferential nominal.OBL two-PL.M.DIR do...F.PRS.OBL .M..PRS-1PL COMP there in.4..DIR wə́-lar-u če həlta pə lumṛ-ayo do-Ø AOR-have.DIR do. ‫چرته‬ ‫مړیو‬ (11.M.3PL.M.M ‘In the first years in which they are hired.DIR comrade-ADJZ language-PL.-PRS.in one-M.. every-PL.2 Noun complement clauses ‫تجربه‬ Nouns that denote states or events (such as /tajraba/ ‘experience’ in 11.F tomorrow WOULD come.3SG.M] ‘That man who is wearing a turban will come tomorrow.in COMP istixdām-Ø kég-i bāyad pə kābul-Ø hired-PL.

DIR 3.F. heads of complement clauses must have a determiner.OBL of this.DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.. are also introduced with the complementizer /čə/ ‘that’.F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term.F.189.OBL difficult-F.. nārina .3SG..M.. term-F. (11.Some subordinate clause types  429 for the heads of relative clauses.DIR front-F.in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up. see sentence 11. men .OBL of send-INF-PL.’ 11..4.OBL author-M. biyā də xəʣ-o be.CONT..PRS.. this.OBL one-F.3 Verb complement clauses Verb complement clauses..OBL in..DIR da če .3SG.to all-PL.PST..DIR CONT-have-PST-PTCP..3SG.OBL from sake-M.DIR .PRS.M..F ‘The author of the Asia Times study has had the experience that men have started another war against women and children.OBL to of thirty thousand-PL..DIR be. ‫ دا تجربه لرلې ده چې‬.186.OBL on opposite-M of war-F.DIR experience-F. ‫د ایشیا ټایمز د دې مطلب لیکوال‬ . sometimes called subordinate noun clauses.PST-PST-PTCP.M.. dā tajraba-Ø Ø-lar-ə́l-e .OBL Times-M.F.84) ..WK of national office-M.DIR prānist-ə́l-e da CONT\open.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .F COMP ...OBL study-M... When a subordinate clause is an ar- ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Here the complement clause appears in post-clausal position.ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.F.DIR decision-F. then of woman-PL.DIR be.CONT.’ Complements of nouns may also take the form of infinitive verbal nouns governed by adpositions.OBL aw njun-o pər zid-Ø də jagr-e yaw-a jabhha-Ø and girl-PL. (11.‫ریاست په دوره کی تر ټولو سجته پرکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M.85.CONT....DIR .‫بیا د ښځو او نجونو پرضد د جگړې یوه جبهه پرانستلې ده‬ də asiyā-Ø tāymz-Ø də de matlab-Ø likwāl-Ø of Asia-F.85) ‫افغانیستان ته د دیرش زره اضاقی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه بی د جمهوری‬ . ‫ نارینه‬.

as shown in sentences 11.3SG. see sentence 11. ‫دا‬ (11.‫خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi wú-gərʣ-ed-e danger-M.3SG.DIR be.’ (SW) It is more common to find verb-governed a subordinate clause as the internal argument: (11.metal-PL.89 shows a past tense transitive verb.430  Syntax gument of the predicate.M COMP alone wú-gərʣ-ed-e AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone.STR. which by convention is marked third person plural masculine (this default agreement registration also holds of infinitive verbal noun arguments.M ‘You know that gold is a very expensive thing.DIR zar-Ø xə grān-Ø šay-Ø precious.86 and 11.DIR be.DIR di be.M.DIR thing-M.M.87) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR danger-M.PST.3PL.86) . Example 11.’ (SW) (11. in the past continuous aspect.CONT.189.CONT.85). ‫ویل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 1996: 199–200). it is likely to appear in post-clausal position.CONT.PST.‫دا خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ dā xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi this.PRS-2PL COMP gold-PL.’ (SW) When the main clause verb is in the past tense.DIR very expensive-M. and with the agreement suffix for the subordinate clause. split ergativity dictates that the agreement be with the subordinate clause. /wayəl/ ‘to tell’.‫تاسو پوهېږئ چه سره زر ښه ګران شی دی‬ tāso puh-éẓ-əy čə sr-ə 2PL. In this case the demonstrative pronoun /dā/ may appear in the usual position of the subject (Tegey & Robson.186.DIR learned-become.M COMP alone AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone.PRS.88) .87.CONT.

F ‘Afterwards my mother would say that the house's atmosphere slowly grew sorrowful.3[SG.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M.3SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . the embedded verb will be in the present aorist as in 11.Some subordinate clause types (11.OBL .OBL CONT-tell.90 (see Section 8.90) ‫کشش کو‬ ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .DIR ɣámjan-a šw-a sad-F.F.89)  431 .3.OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want.‫وروستو به مې مور ویل چې وروسته ورو ورو د ماڼۍ فضا غمجنه شوه‬ wrusta bə me mor-Ø Ø-way-ə́l later WOULD 1SG.OBL atmosphere-F.WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.PST-PST.F.ABL from high-F.189.AOR-PRS.PL.M.M.AOR.PST-PST.DIR become.’ When appearing with control verbs such as /ɣwāṛ‑/ ‘to want’ and /košiš kaw‑/ ‘to try’.OBL vast-PL.‫غوښتي چې نتایج یې باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F.3PL.OBL court-F. elections-PL.M.OBL fraud-PL.OBL in. An example showing the main subject controlling the embedded subject is found in 11. ‫غواړ‬ (11.PL.PST-PTCP.DIR 3..M če wrusta oro oro də mān-əy fəzā-Ø COMP later slow slow of house-F.2)..in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become..OBL lawyer-F..186.F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.PST-PTCP.AOR.WK mother-F.F.DIR COMP results-PL.91.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

189.DIR similar educational-F.OBL from pār-a sake-M.432  Syntax (11. as in sentences 11.M.95 rather than a relative-tense expression.M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno UNESCO INSTR help-F.94 and 11.’ 11.OBL ministry-M. the verb form is present-tense and imperative.OBL aw kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə and village-PL..DIR of country-M.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO.in of student-PL.1 Reported speech Verbs of speaking may govern clausal complements.OBL in. In example 11.‫ښارونو او کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو شان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M.DIR WOULD rā́š-i come. Pashto accepts both direct and indirect forms of reported speech (although Penzl 1955: 141 claims that only direct speech is found in Kandahari). The complementizer /čə/ is optional for introducing direct speech. as sentence 11.’ /čə/ may also introduce a subordinate clause serving as the second element in a copular construction.4. as we would expect of quoted speech.91) ‫ چې غواړي د یونسکو په مرسته د هیواد په‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ .DIR barābár-a prepared-F.3[SG.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø one-M.93 demonstrates.DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell..CONT.DIR opportunity-F.DIR be.OBL .PRS-PRS.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3[SG.3[SG.OBL of education-F. Note the use of the present-tense form of the verb in the subordinate clause in 11.F] ‘The hope is that peace will come.M. but it is obligatory for indirect speech.3[SG.‫امېد دی چه سوله به راشي‬ omed-Ø day čə sola-Ø bə hope-M.3SG. ‫چه‬ (11.55.95. ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..PRS-PRS.AOR.PRS.92) .M..186.M COMP peace-F.PRS-PRS.AOR-PRS. city-PL.DIR kṛ-i do.M] COMP CONT-want.3.

3[SG.ABL .3SG.PST-PST..‫پخلاینې پروسه بریالۍ شي‬ də wə́-way-əl če də afɣānistān-Ø 3SG.STR.up..DIR successful-F.M čə zməka-Ø da ɣwāy-i pə xkər-Ø walāṛ-a COMP earth-F.‫یو سړی وویل زه تر اوسه پوری چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ yaw saṛ-i wə́-way-əl zə tər one man-M.186.3PL.OBL WOULD this.‫یو سړي وویل زه تر اوسه پورې چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL lə walas məšər-Ø sərə yawzāy hatsa-Ø COMIT.M.189.93)  433 .DIR of ox-M.’¹⁶ (11.CONT.DIR da be.‫پخوا خلقو به دا ویل چه زمكه د غوائي په ښكر ولاړه ده‬ pəxwā xalq-u bə dā Ø-way-ə́l before people-PL...M] COMP of peace-F.PRS.’ (E) 16 Standardized version of 11.STR.PST-PST.AOR-PTCP. os-a pure čā ná yəm xatā now-M..OBL .F] ‘He said that he and the president of Afghanistan are working together to make the peace and reconciliation process a success.3PL.OBL process-F.3PL..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .to.OBL NEG be.93: .Some subordinate clause types (11.CONT-PRS.PRS-PRS..OBL and paxlāyən-e prosa-Ø baryā́l-e reconciliation-F.AOR.OBL AOR-tell.PST-PST.DIR up.COMIT together effort-F.3[SG.M.DIR ‘A man said.F ‘Formerly people would say that the earth rested on the horn of an ox.DIR kaw-í če də sol-e aw do.DIR CONT-tell. 'No one has tricked me yet'.M COMP of Afghanistan-M.CONT.1SG mistake kə́ṛ-ay do.PRS.OBL on horn-M standing-F.’ (11.to who.95) .DIR š-i become. people elder-M.94) ‫ده وویل چې د افغانستان له ولسمشر سره یوځای هڅه کوي چې د سولې او‬ .M..OBL AOR-tell.M 1SG.

DIR sinking-M.3SG.97) .OBL xábr-a sw-a samdasti də informed-F.M then xalaq-Ø wur sara ɣárq-Ø people-PL.F cinema-F.DIR house-M.OBL COMP food-F..M.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍoḍ-əy mo after from this.’ (SW) • ‫ کله چه‬/kəla čə/ ‘when’ (11.DIR 1PL.AOR.PST-PST.‫له‬ (11.PL.M ‘When the ship sank.M.4.3SG.DIR šw-əl become.98) . In some cases.4 Syntax Subordinate clauses as modifiers 11.‫کله چه ډیوه د توریال په خور خبره شوه سمدستي د دوی کور ته لاړه‬ kəla čə ḍiwa-Ø də toryāl-Ø pə xor-Ø when COMP Diwa-F.3SG.DIR š-u become.189..PST-PST.DIR 3 COMIT sinking.OBL on sister-F.STR.AOR.F immediately of duy kor-Ø ta lāṛ-á 3PL.DIR of Toryal-M..OBL to WOULD gone-PL.434  11.4. the subordinate clause is the object of an adposition such as /wrusta lə.M.AOR.DIR become.PST-PST.3SG.‫چه جهاز غرق شو نو خلق ورسره غرق شول‬ čə jahāz-Ø ɣárq-Ø su-Ø no COMP ship-M.AOR.F ‘When Diwa heard about Toryal's sister she immediately went to their house.3PL.AOR.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat. ‫چه‬ ‫)نه( چه‬.PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner..1 Subordinate clauses with time reference Clausal modifiers take the usual form of complementizer /čə/ and tensed clause.(na) čə/ ‘after’ (as in 11.’ (SW) This relationship may sometimes be expressed with the complementizer alone: (11.PST-PST.4.96).96) .186.DIR become.OBL to go.PST-PST.’ (NE) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. people were drowned along with it.

DIR Ø-niw-ál-ay wu CONT-seize.100) .2 and Section 8.STR. The conditional clause generally precedes the main clause.2 Conditional and counterfactual clauses with /kə/ ‘if’ Conditional clauses in Pashto are marked by the particle /kə/ ‘if’.DIR WOULD album-M.AOR. see Section 8.STR.AOR-1SG ‘If you come I will show you the album.PRS-1SG ‘I will leave as soon as he comes.OBL xabr-e kaw-ə́l-əy ṭol-o ɣwaz-Ø̣ word-PL.CONT.OBL Obama-M. /kə/ may also appear as an element of a correlative conjunction (see Section 11.M] za bə lā́ṛ-Ø š-əm 1SG.STR.‫هغه وخت چه ولسمشر اوباما خبرې کولئ ټولو غوږ نیولی وو‬ haɣá waxt-Ø čə wuləs məšr-Ø obāmā-Ø this.DIR WOULD gone-M.PRS-2SG 1SG.M.PRS-PRS. This construction requires that the verb in the antecedent clause appear in the present or past aorist.3[SG.‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬ kə rā́š-e za bə album-Ø dər-ṣkārá if come.DIR come. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M. 1996: 216).M ‘When President Obama was speaking everyone was listening.Some subordinate clause types •  435 ‫ څنګه چه‬/ʦənga čə/ ‘as soon as’ (11.AOR. ‫نو‬ ‫که‬ (11.PST-PST-PTCP.99) .186.4.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4 for the appropriate verb forms.6.DIR be.3PL.‫څنګه چه دی راشي زه به لاړ شم‬ ʦənga čə day rā́š-i how COMP 3SG. which may begin with the particle /no/ ‘then’ (Tegey & Robson.2).3SG.’ (SW) ‫که‬ ‫که‬ 11.OBL ear-M.M.PST.F all-PL.DIR become.DIR do.’ (SW) • ‫ هغه وخت چه‬/haɣa waxt čə/ ‘when’ (11.DIR COMP people leader-M.189.DIR time-M.4.3.M.’ (SW) ‫ که‬/kə/ may also combine with other particles to introduce conditional clauses.101) .AOR.DIR 2DVC-clear kṛ-əm do.CONT-PST-PST.3.

therefore’ may mark either the cause clause or the result clause.103.OBL to ʣ-í no za ham ʣ-ə́m go.189.DIR also go.M.’ (SW) A counterfactual interpretation of an antecedent clause in construction with a main clause is possible when both the main and the antecedent clause have optative verb forms and the main clause additionally contains the irrealis /ba/.3 Subordinate clauses with /ʣəka/ ‘because’ /ʣəka/ ‘because.436  • Syntax ‫ که چېري‬/kə čeri/ ‘if’ (11.STR.F] then 1SG.WK AOR-cause.OBL imam-M. As shown in sentence 11. Note the following variants of word order of /ʣəka/.103) !‫که موږ امام شافعي غوندې مشران درلوداي‬ kə mung imam-Ø šāfi-Ø ɣunde if 1PL.104) .STR.186.3[SG.CONT. then I am going too.‫ نو زه به یې وګډوم‬،‫که چېري اسد و نه ګډېږی‬ ke čeri asad-Ø wə-ná gaḍ-eẓ-i no if where Asad-M.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR picnic-F.M] then za bə ye wá-gaḍaw-əm 1SG.CONT.DIR AOR-NEG dance-PRS-PRS.STR.AOR.3[SG. its correlative /no/.102) . a counterfactual interpretation of the conditional clause relies on the verb appearing in the optative form.4. ‫ځکه‬ ‫ځکه‬ (11.4.STR.DIR.OBL Shafi-M.‫ځکه چه هغه مېلې ته ځي نو زه هم ځم‬ ʣəka čə haɣá mel-e ta because COMP 3SG.PRS-PRS.OBL like məšr-ān darlód-ay leader-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . even when there is no main clause: ‫به‬ (11.DIR WOULD 3. I will make him dance. and their respective complements.PRS-1SG ‘Since she is going to the picnic.ANIM have.PST-OPT ‘If only we had leaders like Imam Shafi!’ ‫ځکه‬ 11.dance-1SG ‘If Asad does not dance.

CONT.PRS.PL.DIR be.DIR COMP muslim day be. ‫څومره‬ 17 Standardized version of 11.M.CONT.DIR be.in CONT-seize..‫ چې مسلمان دی‬،‫نیولی‬ -‫وای‬ ‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دي یې ځکه په امریکا کې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.‫مسلمان دی‬ (11. The first introduces a relative clause that modifies its head noun.‫زه ناروغ یم ځکه نو داکتر ته ځم‬ za nāroɣ-Ø yəm ʣəka no dāktər-Ø 1SG.PRS.STR. the second introduces the sentential complement of /wāy-/ ‘say’.M. Example 11..’ (SW) ‫ چې‬،‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دی یې ځکه په امریکا کې نیولی‬ .OBL Sharukh-M..CONT. has said that they arrested him in America because he was Muslim.3PL.107 shows three instances of /če/ .PRS-1SG ‘I am sick so I am going to the doctor.OBL khan-M.M 3.CONT.OBL star-M. bearing three different relation- ‫چې‬ ships to the sentence as a whole.106: .PRS.M ‘A famous celebrity.WK because pə amrikā-Ø ke Ø-niw-ə́l-ay če musəlmān in.Some subordinate clause types (11.’¹⁷ It may be rarely that punctuation is used to delimit a subordinate clause in Pashto.3SG.1SG because then doctor-M.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL ta ʣ-ə́m to go.106) yaw-ə watəl-i stor-i šarux-Ø xān-Ø one-M.DIR sick-M..PST-PST-PTCP.189. Sharukh Khan.OBL famous-M.105)  437 .OBL Ø-way-ə́l-i di ye ʣəka CONT-tell.186. the third introduces the complement of the quantifier /sumra/ ‘so much’.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . America-F .

189.OBL embassy-M.DIR COMP in.. Often.PRS.3PL.3[SG.CONT.PL.CONT.WK very-F.186..in of America-F.in bribe xor-i dumra ziyāt-a da če čāra eating-F...DIR be.108 for an example.3SG.M..F] ‘The secret documents that were prepared at the American Embassy in Kabul say that the bribery within Afghanistan's government is so extensive that resolving it has turned out to be very difficult.ً‫کله چې ملشومانو خپل بلار ولید نو دقعتا‬ kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.OBL own-M.108) .much more-F.M CONT-tell.DIR difficult-F.4 Subordinate clauses expressing result The particle /no/ . ‫نو‬ (11.OBL in.4.3PL.M.4.DIR so.’ 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M] če də afɣānistān-Ø pə hakumat-Ø ke rašwat COMP of Afghanistan-M.PST-PST.DIR secret-PL.M ‫چه‬ ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father. see sentence 11.AOR..M.DIR malum-ég-i known-become.3[PL.438  Syntax ‫دغه محرم اسناد چې په کابل کې د امریکا سفارت برابر کړي دي وایی چې‬ ‫د افغانستان په حکومت کې رشوت خوري دومره زېاته ده چې چاره سازي یې‬ .‫ډېره گرانه معلومېږي‬ (11. may also be used alone to introduce a result clause.107) dáɣa mahram-Ø asnād-Ø če pə kābul-Ø this.AOR-PTCP. but not always.M.DIR be.ANIM.CONT.PST-PST. most often used in conditional sentences.DIR 3.M then suddenly INSTR laugh-F. Kabul-M ke də amrikā-Ø safārat-Ø barābár-Ø .PRS. the main clause in such constructions uses the complement- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR šw-əl become..M..F COMP affair sāz-i ye ḍer-a grān-a wellness-F.3SG.DIR documents-PL.DIR father-M.’ /čə/ may introduce clauses that show the direct result of an action or a state of being.PRS-PRS.PRS-PRS.DIR kṛ-i di Ø-wāy-í do.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā-Ø AOR-see. government-M .OBL prepared-PL.

WK slow AOR-manage-PST.6 Subordinate clauses expressing purpose Pashto purpose clauses require the use of the complementizer /čə/.DIR me wro wə́-čalaw-u 1SG.PST-PST-PTCP.STR.3SG.F.‫زه په منډه راغلم ولي څي وږی وم‬ za pə manḍa-Ø rā́ɣl-əm wale 1SG.4.189.PST-1SG because čə wəz-̣ay wəm COMP hungry-M.107.F COMP CONT-stand-PST-PST-OPT NEG š-əm become.much food-F.CONT.‫ما دومره ډوډۍ خوړلې ده چي ولاړېدلای نه شم‬ mā dumra ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e 1SG.F car-M.112.AOR. ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4.’ (SW) 11.111) .5 • Subordinate clauses expressing reason ‫ په دې چه‬/pə de čə/ ‘because’ (11.3SG.’ (SW) • ‫ ولې چه‬/wale čə/ ‘because’ (11.4. (11.Some subordinate clause types  439 ‫دومره‬ taking quantifier /dumra/ ‘so much’ (although Penzl (1955: 80. see also example 11.PRS-1SG ‘I have eaten so much that I cannot stand up.OBL so.DIR INSTR running-F.DIR CONT-eat.DIR be.CONT.DIR come. the embedded verb in the subordinate clause appears in the present aorist form.5) claims that this form is not colloquial among Kandahar speakers).OBL COMP fog-PL.F.109) .PST.DIR be.DIR də či Ø-wəlāṛ-ed-ə́l-ay ná be.4.M ‘I had to drive slowly because of the fog. as shown in 11.‫په دې چه لړې وه موټر مې ورو وچلوو‬ pə de čə ləṛ-e wa moṭər-Ø in this.CONT.1SG ‘I came running because I was hungry.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .AOR.STR.110) .’ (SW) 11.186.PRS.3SG.PST.

DIR be.DIR taglāra-Ø ṭingār-Ø kāw-ə́ policy-F.1SG but ob-ə ná š-əm Ø-ʦəṣ-ə́l-āy water-PL. I cannot drink.3[SG.DIR with from this.PST.DIR of Ahmad-M.PST-PST.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad.114) .4. morphological production of causative predicates is no longer productive in Pashto.112) .CONT.3SG.186.7 • Subordinate clauses of concession ‫ سره له د چه‬/sara lə də čə/ ‘despite.CONT-PST.DIR be.DIR NEG become.‫هغه سره له ده چه ګواښل سوی و پر خپله تګلاره ټینګار کاوه‬ haɣá sara lə də čə gwāṣ-ə́l 3SG.PRS-1SG CONT-drink-PST-OPT ‘Although I am thirsty.DIR thirsty-M.STR.PRS.2.M ‘He persisted in going his own way.4.M.DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy.STR.AOR.3SG.ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M.440  Syntax (11.‫اګر چه زه تږی یم خو اوبه نه شم څښلای‬ agar čə za təẓ-ay yəm xo although COMP 1SG. notwithstanding’ (11. despite the warning.AOR.’ (SW) 11.F.’ (SW) 11.M on own-F.5 Periphrastic causatives As noted in Section 8.OBL from sake-M.CONT.DIR emphasis-M. we present here commonly-encountered forms of periphrastic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.7.OBL COMP threaten-INF sə́w-ay wə pər xpəl-a become.113) .3SG.189.M COMP medicine-M.OBL to go.‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-PTCP.’ (SW) • ‫ اګر چه‬/agar čə/ ‘although’ (11.PRS-PRS.DIR do.AOR.

116—here found in post-clausal position).118 with the infinitive (in this example.OBL to majbór-a kṛ-l-a forced-F.INF-PL.4 and Section 11.117.DIR of horse-M. along with a complement denoting the caused event.4.AOR-PST-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse.115) .DIR tie-. One such construction encountered in Pashto uses the instrumental circumposition /pə.AOR-PST-1SG COMP ās-Ø wә́-taṛ-әm horse-M.AOR-PST-PST.3.‫* سړي رسئ د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ sar-i ras-əy də ās-Ø taṛ-әl-o ta man-M.‫په‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫اړ ایستا‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫ته‬ ‫چه‬ (11.. A different construction involves the light verb constructions /majborawél/ ‘force’ and /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ (see Section 8..STR.115) or with a present aorist clause introduced by /čə/ ‘that’ (11. or its simple adpositional variants.DIR AOR-tie-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse. The sentences 11.116 show the construction with /majborawél/ ‘force’.2. The caused event may be expressed either with an infinitive object of the postposition /ta/ ‘to’ (11.DIR man-M.116) .OBL of horse-M.OBL rope-F. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. the infinitive affix has been omitted).‫زه سړي د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ zә sar-̣i də ās-Ø taṛ-ә́l-o ta 1SG.’ (SW) (11. ‫باندې‬.’ (SW) ‫اړ ایستا‬ The lexical causative /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ shows the same two forms of embedded predication as seen in 11.115 and 11.OBL forced-M. and 11.‫زه سړي مجبور کړلم چی اس وتړم‬ zә sar-̣i majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm če 1SG.115 and 11.DIR do.116: 11.STR.1).M.F ‘The man made the rope tie up the horse.3.117) .OBL to majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm forced-M.DIR do.186.’ (SW) (11..Periphrastic causatives  441 causatives.3SG. The actor of the caused event must have animate reference: it is odd to use this construction with a true instrument.M.189.7.DIR do.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . as shown in the unacceptable 11.119 with the present aorist subordinate clause. with no additional verb of causation: see Section 9..2.DIR man-M.DIR tie-INF-PL.bānde/.

189. clauses.‫ خفه دی‬،‫احمد نه راځی‬ ahməd-Ø ná rāʣ-í xapa Ahmad-M.AOR-1SG ‘I was forced to share these people's words with my esteemed countrymen.OBL .DIR topic-F..DIR 3..F.‫شریکه کړم‬ (11.DIR NEG come. frequently expressing simple coordination but also other relationships.’ 11.PST-1SG COMP this.OBL countryman-PL. grān-o hewāwāl-o səra šarík-a great-PL.OBL person-PL.PRS-PRS.3[SG.OBL word-PL.STR. as in the following example of simple apposition expressing a causal relationship: (11.M ‘Ahmad isn't coming.DIR sit-PL.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.CONT.442  Syntax (11.M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M ‘They made him sit quietly.118) .3SG.6 Conjunction In Pashto.CONT.OBL to forced Ø-ist-ə́m cě dā mawzo-Ø la CONT-remove.‫هغه یې پټه خوله کښیناستو ته اړ ایست‬ haɣá ye paṭ-a xola-Ø kxenāst-ó ta aṛ 3SG.’ ‫د دی خلکو خبرو زه دی ته اړ ایستم چي دا موضوع له ګرانو هیواوالو سره‬ .M] sad day be. and nouns can be conjoined using similar markers.PST-PST.PRS.DIR COMIT.DIR mouth-F... he is sad.3SG.WK hidden-F.M.COMIT shared-F.120) . verbs.119) dә de xalk-o xabar-o de ta aṛ of this.M.DIR kṛ-əm do.M.OBL to forced Ø-ist-Ø CONT-remove.OBL this. Apposition is also found.

186.OBL to come.Conjunction  11.123) .6.DIR be.DIR and Khaibar-M. Most often the phrases are joined by simple apposition.CONT.1 443 Coordinating conjunctions ‫او‬ 11.STR.‫زه کور ته راغلم او ډوډۍ مې وخوړه‬ za kor-Ø tə rā́ɣl-əm aw ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.CONT-1SG ‘I'll go to Kandahar and spend the feast of Eid there.M.DIR halta tər-aw-ə́m there pass-do.CONT. phrases.1.3[SG.M] ‘Mahmoud is going to the market and having lunch.PST-PST.F ‘I came home and ate [dinner].OBL to go. the pronoun comes first: (11.CONT.6.PRS-PRS. however.122) .DIR very-PL.DIR CONT-eat. the conjunction /aw/ ‘and’ may be used: ‫او‬ (11.121) ‫او‬ .OBL to go.STR.DIR me wə́-xoṛ-a 1SG. (11.DIR house-M.’ Example sentences in Tegey & Robson (1996: 191–194) suggest that when one of the conjoined words is a pronoun.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .WK AOR-eat.AOR.’ Two verb phrases with the same subject may be conjoined.‫زه کندهار ته ځم او اختر هلته تېروم‬ za kandahār-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m aw axtar-Ø 1SG.DIR market-M.124) .PRS-1SG and feast-M.PRS-PRS.DIR close malgər-i wā́st friend-PL.189.‫محمود بازار ته ځي او د غرمې ډوډۍ خوري‬ mahmud-Ø bāzār-Ø tə ʣ-í aw də Mahmoud-M.M.’ (11.M] and of ɣarm-e ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-í noon-F.DIR Kandahar-M.3SG.STR.‫ته او خیبر ډېر نژدې ملګري واست‬ tə aw xeybar-Ø ḍer-Ø nəžde 2SG.3[SG.PST-1SG and food-F.2PL ‘You and Khaibar were very good friends.PST. or clauses that perform the same function inside a sentence.1 /aw/ ‘and’ The particle /aw/ ‘and’ is used to connect two words.OBL food-F.

including nouns.’ 18 Shafeev (1964) additionally cites /ka/ as a disjunction marker.DIR w-ā́ɣund-a AOR-wear.SG ‘Wear a white or black suit!’ It may also conjoin two verb phrases.PRS-1SG səporṭ-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m (aw) yā kitābxān-e tə sport-M.STR.’ ‫یا‬ 11.DIR CONT-eat.M] ‘Ahmad eats food and drinks water.DIR give. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2 /yā/ ‘or’ This conjunction¹⁸ may conjoin items of many classes.PRS-PRS.DIR clothing-PL.PRS-1SG (and) or library-F.OBL to water-F.444  Syntax (11.CONT.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .126) .DIR Ø-ʦiṣ-i CONT-drink-PRS.OBL to go.6.189.128) ‫ یا‬/yā/may com- ‫او‬ .M.M. When used to join phrases.STR.’ (11.DIR or black-PL. (11.DIR or juice-M.DIR food-F. bine with the conjunction /aw/ to express disjunction.‫زه چه سهار د خوبه راکښېنم سپورټ ته ځم )او( یا کتابخانې ته ځم‬ za čə sahār də xob-a rā́kṣen-əm 1SG. and adjectives: (11.PRS-1SG ‘When I wake up in the morning I go to the gym or to the library.DIR COMP morning from sleep-M.CONT.OBL to ʣ-ə́m go.‫احمد ډوډۍ خوري او اوبه څښي‬ ahmad-Ø ḍod-̣əy Ø-xor-í aw ob-ə Ahmad-M.‫ماته اوبه یا شربت راکړه‬ ma tə ob-ə yā šərbat-Ø rā́kṛ-a 1SG.3[SG.125) .M.AOR-IMP.186.127) !‫سپین یا تور کالي واغونده‬ spin-Ø yā tor-Ø kāl-i white-PL.3[SG.M] and water-F.PRS-IMP.ABL AOR\arise.1.SG ‘Give me water or juice. noun phrases.

CONT.PST-PST.130) .‫زه کور ته درتلم خو موټر مې خراب سو‬ za kor-Ø tə dərtəl-əm xo moṭər-Ø 1SG.PRS.3SG.DIR AOR-dance.‫دا ښه هوټل دئ خو ډوډۍ یې خرابه ده‬ dā ṣə hoṭəl-Ø dəy xo ḍoḍ-əy ye this. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. ‫س‬ ‫ شو‬/šwə/.M ‘Layla or Aman danced.CONT.DIR or Aman-M.WK bad-M.‫لیلا یا امان وګډېده‬ laylā-Ø yā amān-Ø wə́-gaḍed-ə Layla-F.3 /xo/ ‘but’ The conjunction /xo/ in Pashto functions similarly to its English counterpart but.’ (SW)¹⁹ (11.DIR AOR-dance. /so/ is the Kandahari pronunciation of but may sometimes be spelled with instead. but my car broke down.‫امان یا لیلا وګډېده‬ (11.’ ‫خو‬ 11.DIR or Layla-F.PRS.STR.DIR be.F ‘Aman or Layla danced. (11.OBL to come.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . the verb must agree with the last element (examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996: 194): .3SG.132) .DIR me xarāb-Ø so-Ø 1SG.3SG.M ‘I was coming to your home.131) ‫خو‬ . (Tegey & Robson.M but food-F.131.189.DIR be.Conjunction  445 ‫او‬ ‫یا‬ Unlike with /aw/ ‘and’ .PST-PST.AOR.3SG.CONT.DIR good hotel-M.’ (W) ‫سو‬ 19 In 11. this is usually spelled with ‫ش‬. 1996: 196).3SG. but its food is awful.DIR 3.1.F ‘This is a good hotel.DIR house-M.’ (11.WK xarāb-a da bad-F.129) amān-Ø yā laylā-Ø wə́-gaḍed-a Aman-M.6.PST-PST.PST-1SG but car-M.DIR become. when the two elements conjoined by /yā/ ‘or’ differ in gender.

!‫ډوډۍ پخه کړه او بیا یې وخوره‬ ḍoḍ-əy pax-á kr-̣a aw byā ye food-F.‫ هم‬/ham.DIR cooked-F.AOR..SG and then 3..and’ (11.DIR CONT-manage-PST..DIR first shop-F. • ‫او هم‬. (11.‫محمود هم موټر چلوئ او هم یی خبرې کولي‬ mahmud-Ø ham moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy aw ham Mahmoud-M...F.DIR do.AOR.6.6.. then I came home.134) ‫ او‬/aw/ ‘and’ optionally accompanies ‫ بیا‬/byā/ (Tegey & Robson.‫زه اول مغازې ته ولاړم بیا کور ته راغلم‬ 11.3PL.OBL to go.446  Syntax ‫ )او( بیا‬/(aw) byā/ ‘then’ ‫ بیا‬/byā/ may be used to express the sequencing of events.133) ...1.aw ham/ ‘both.3SG.SG ‘Cook and then eat!’ 11.‫ نه یوازې‬/ná yawāze.PST-1SG ‘First I went to the store..OBL tə rā́ɣl-əm to come.2 Correlative conjunctions Elements conjoined in a correlative structure are generally of the same phrasal class..balkə/ ‘not only.DIR do.’ The conjunction 1996): (11.AOR-IMP.189.CONT-PST-PST.OBL also car-M.PST-1SG then house-M...4 The adverb za awəl maɣāz-e tə wlā́ṛ-əm byā kor-Ø 1SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .F ‘Mahmud was driving and also was talking [on the phone].135) .WK wə́-xor-a AOR-eat-IMP.186.but also’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ • ‫بلکه‬.WK word-PL.M and also ye xabr-e kaw-ə́l-i 3.STR.

4.‫نه ډوډۍ خورم او نه اوبه څښم‬ ná ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m aw ná ob-ə NEG food-F.138) .. negating both clauses.F ‘Mahmud was not only driving but was also talking [on the phone].136) .DIR CONT-manage-PST.3PL.ná/ ‘neither.’ • ‫نه‬.. • ‫خو‬. Khan.4.4. ‫نه‬ • ‫نو‬.F.186.4.. so’.3SG.’ • ‫یا‬.no/ ‘if..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .WK also do..AOR..‫ یا‬/yā .nor’ (11. xo/ ‘even if..PRS-1SG and NEG water-PL.‫ نه‬/ná.189.4.DIR 3....M balkə xabr-e ye ham kaw-ə́l-i but..‫محمود نه یوازې موټر چلوئ بلکه خبرې یې هم کولې‬ mahmud-Ø ná yawāze moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy Mahmoud-M. yā/ ‘either.. These two components are discussed respectively in Section 11..F. Ali & Ahmed (2011: 57) suggests that one instance of the negative particle /ná/ in the second conjunct of a correlative construction has a possible reading of wide scope.OBL NEG only car-M..Conjunction  447 (11.SG ‘Either eat here or go. although’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..PRS-IMP.DIR Ø-ʦṣ-ə́m CONT-drink-1SG ‘I neither eat nor drink.DIR AOR-eat-IMP.CONT-PST-PST.‫ که‬/kə. and may or may not appear in construction with the particle ‫ نو‬/no/ ‘then.SG or gone-M..also word-PL.DIR CONT-eat.then’ ‫ که‬/kə/ ‘if’ introduces the antecedent clauses of conditionals.137) .. a single example in Bilal..or’ (11.DIR s-a become..‫ که څې هم‬/kə ʦe ham .’ Although we have not found this attested elsewhere....‫یا دلته ډوډۍ وخوره یا ولاړ سه‬ yā dəlta ḍoḍ-əy wə́-xor-a yā wlā́ṛ-Ø or here food-F.2 and Section 11.

139) .4.7 Principles of case-marking and agreement In this section we provide some of the principles that underlie case-marking and agreement patterns. Table 11. and the ergative-absolutive alignment is used in the past tenses.STR..much also 3SG..7. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3[SG.M. we present a summary of the expressions of split ergativity. Table 11.1.3SG.186. In this section we summarize the morphosyntactic expressions of this property.in sad be.7..9. By contrast with many familiar nominative-accusative languages that mark nominative and accusative cases differently on nouns. also reflecting split ergativity. he is sad deep inside.‫ خو په زړه کي خپه دی‬،‫که څې هم دی خاندی‬ kə ʦe ham day Ø-xānd-í xo pə if how. A somewhat different pattern. Pashto instead uses the direct form for both.1 Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity Pashto uses two strategies for case-marking nouns: the nominative-accusative alignment familiar from Western European languages is used in the non-past tenses.5 shows a similar pattern for human interrogative pronouns. 11. as described in Section 7. Pashto is a morphologically split ergative language. Essentially the same pattern is found for resumptive pronouns (see Section 11. we describe briefly a few constructions in which the general nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive agreement patterns are not found. In Section 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . That is. Table 11.448  Syntax (11. In Section 11.7. as shown in Table 7.4 shows this.189.6. direct case suffixes. the two-way distinction between ergative and absolutive is realized on nouns in the differential use of oblique vs.1) and for the distribution constraints on weak pronouns.4 and Section 11. can be found for the personal pronoun systems.7. zər-̣a ki xəpa day heart-M .’ (SW) 11..CONT.6 shows how the two-way split is manifested in the pattern of case-marking for strong pronouns.5.M ‘Although he is laughing.M] but in.PRS. In the past tenses.DIR CONT-laugh-PRS.

Principles of case-marking and agreement  Non-past tenses (nominative-accusative alignment) Transitive subject Past tenses (ergative-absolutive alignment) OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 449 .5: Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns Non-past tenses Transitive subject DIRECT Intransitive subject Direct object Past tenses OBLIQUE DIRECT OBLIQUE   Table 11.6: Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4: Case-marking pattern for nouns   Non-past tenses Transitive subject Past tenses  OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.186.

7. a phrase governed by /də/ or a possessive pronoun. The thing experienced may be expressed as the accusative argument.7 summarize agreement properties for conjoined elements in noun phrases. except that the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase (recall that weak pronouns appearing in apposition to their heads may express a genitive relation).4.‫د زلمی ګرمی کېده‬ də zalm-i garm-i ked-á of Zalmay-M.2.CONT. ‫کېږـ‬ • ‫ ګرمی کېږـ‬/garmí keg‑/ ‘feel hot’ (11.3 and Section 6. A brief description is given by Tegey & Robson (1996: 184) of a set of collocations expressing preference or sensation. or as the complement to the denominal verb in Section 11.4.7. 11.1.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .1 Four denominal verbs of sensation Three verbs in this group consist of the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ with a noun. i.7.DIR become. as among the predicates discussed in Section 11.2 Agreement of conjoined items Section 5. though they can be compared to similar constructions in other languages.3SG.186.2.189.’ • ‫ ساړه کېږـ‬/sārə́ keg‑/ ‘feel cold’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.F ‘Zalmay was feeling hot.450  Syntax 11. In these constructions.3 Concordant adverbs See Section 10. We present the group in subcategories as determined by case-marking or agreement patterns associated with the construction.4.7.7.4 Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference In the following sections.140) .OBL heat-F.7. ‫د‬ 11. we discuss two constructions that show case-marking strategies other than those outlined elsewhere.7. the experiencer is expressed by means of a genitive phrase. the construction resembles a denominal verb construction.PST-PST. 11.e.

’ A third collocation uses the verb /da/ ‘be’ as an auxiliary. the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase.4.CONT.3[SG.WK be.STR.DIR 2.’ 11.142) . 1996). the thing experienced governs agreement. Again.‫تورتاوده ته مې زړه کېږی‬ tortāwdə-Ø tə me zṛ-ə kég-i pilau-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . enjoy’ ‫کېږـ‬ A fifth denominal verb.3[PL. generally written as one word.3SG. if the thing experienced is expressed through a clause. for’ or.143) ‫ته‬ .DIR sweet-become.’ • ‫ رړه کېږـ‬/zrə keg‑/ ‘feel like’ ‫زړه‬ This idiomatic expression consists of the verbalizer plus the word /zṛə/ ‘heart’.DIR to 1SG.M.PRS-PRS. pleasant’.DIR become. ‫ده‬ • ‫ تبه ده‬/təba də/ ‘have a fever’ (11.‫تبه یې ده‬ təba-Ø ye da fever-F. The thing experienced is expressed as a noun.7. ‫خوښ‬ (11. Verb agreement is governed by the noun expressing the thing experienced.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.CONT. it will take the usual form of a tensed complement (Tegey & Robson.Principles of case-marking and agreement  (11. derives from the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ plus /xwax/ ‘sweet.PRS-PRS.3[PL.F] ‘I like American food.‫ساړه دې کېږی‬ sāṛ-ə de kég-i cold-PL. and the experiencer appears as a genitive phrase.DIR 3. (11.‫زما امریکایی ډوډۍ خوښېږی‬ zmā amrikāi ḍoḍ-əy xwax-ég-i 1SG.M] ‘I am craving pilau.POSS American food-F. The thing experienced is expressed inside an adpositional phrase governed by /ta/ ‘to.CONT.WK become.189.2 Denominal -‫ خوښېږ‬/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like.F ‘He has a fever.PRS.141) 451 .144) .WK heart-M.M.186.PRS-PRS.CONT.M] ‘You feel cold.

and the experiencer appears as a phrase governed by the preposition /də/.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL husband-M.3PL.‫د محمود د کیمیا له درس نه بد راغلل‬ də mahmud-Ø də kimyā-Ø lə dars-Ø of Mahmoud-M. Unlike the preceding example.M] ‘I don't like him..4.. /bad/ ‘bad’ and /xə/ ‘good’ in these expressions show variable agreement inflection: both these and the verbal component agree with the noun expressing the thing experienced..‫د هر چا ډیوې ښه ایسی‬ de har-Ø čā ḍiw-e xa Ø-yis-í of every-M. ‫بد‬ ‫ید‬ (11.DIR 3.147) ‫بد ایسـ‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه ایسـ‬ ‫ایسـ‬ .189.F] ‘Everyone likes Diwe.’ The expressions /bad yis‑/ ‘dislike’ and /xə yis‑/ ‘like’ are idioms made up of /bad/ ‘bad’ or /xə/ ‘good’ plus /yis‑/ ‘seem’.WK bad CONT-seem-PRS.CONT.OBL who.’ (11..STR..7.145) .M ‘Mahmoud didn't like his chemistry class.DIR good CONT-seem-PRS.M] ‘He doesn't like Sana's husband. a strong possessive pronoun..up.3.3[SG.from bad come.PST-PST.148) .3[SG.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3 Three more expressions of preference The expression /bad rāʣ‑/ ‘dislike’ is an idiom. The verb component always carries third person plural agreement inflection.. lesson-M.146.’ (11..‫د سنا مېړه یې بد ایسی‬ dǝ sanā-Ø meṛ-ə ye bad Ø-yis-í of Sana-F.OBL of chemistry-F.to.to bad come. as in 11.. according to Tegey & Robson (1996).186.na/.AOR...146) .3[PL. ‫بد راځـ‬ ‫نه‬. or..POSS up.OBL from.PRS-PRS.‫له‬ ‫د‬ (11.‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬ zmā tre na bad raʣ-i 1SG. .452  Syntax 11. The thing experienced is expressed as the object within the circumpositional phrase /lə.OBL Diwe-F.OBL na bad rā́ɣl-əl .

150) . /zarəl/ ‘to cry’. The verb itself exhibits PNG marking of third person masculine plural.M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing.‫نن مې ډېر وخندل‬ nən me ḍer wə́-xand-əl today 1SG. /ɣapəl/ ‘to bark’. nevertheless trigger oblique case marking on their subjects in past tenses.5 An unergative or middle voice construction A number of authors (Babrakzai 1999. this construction resembles a middle voice construction.OBL and Abaseen-M. Septfonds 2006.WK much AOR-laugh-PST.151) .3PL. /trapəl/ ‘to jump’. though formally intransitive.’ (11. Recall that the oblique case form is expressed through the presence of the weak pronoun in 11. /lambəl/ ‘to bathe’.3PL.7. the default agreement value in Pashto.M ‘I laughed a lot today. The verbs that exhibit this case-marking pattern comprise a small set of vocalization verbs and a small number of activity verbs: /xandəl/ ‘to laugh’.149) ‫غپل‬ ‫ترپل‬ ‫ټوخل‬ ‫ژرل‬ .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL CONT-laugh-PST. ‫خندل‬ ‫لمبل‬ (11.DIR ‘I was crying my eyes out.’ (11. and we have also found examples of this construction in General Pashto.M.149 and 11. /ṭuxəl/ ‘to cough’. Though Septfonds’ research reports on Dzadrani.150.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. we have not through our own research been able to confirm the existence of this case-marking pattern in Waziri. Functionally.‫ښـــه ډیــر مې ژړلي‬ xə ḍer me Ø-žār-əl-i good much 1SG.WK CONT-cry-PST-PTCP.‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F. It occurs only with past tense verbs. Septfonds 1997. according to Septfonds.189.186.PL. Tegey & Robson 1996) describe a set of verbs (called “anti-impersonals” by Septfonds) which.Principles of case-marking and agreement  453 11.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . written in the Extensible Markup Language XML. 1992) to convert both the descriptive and the formal grammars into a single PDF for readers who wish to see both.3. The electronic form of the grammar.189. also in XML. • As a template for writing similar grammars of other languages. The mechanism for producing the PDF (or other output formats) in these two forms is sketched in Section A.e. This formal grammar is available for download from deGruyter Mouton. in the printed version) omitted. These intended uses are described in more detail in Section A. such as morphological parsers. When the grammar is converted into a PDF for on-line viewing or printing. and the twin processes for converting the XML document into a descriptive grammar (specifically..186. • As a resource for automated grammar adaptation to related languages. Included is a brief description of the structure of the formal grammar.1 Overview This book is a descriptive grammar of Pashto. It is also possible to use the technique called “Literate Programming” (Knuth. and which may be used to build a morphological parser. in a form that a researcher with a minimum of training in descriptive linguistics would understand— i. in an order and arrangement that would make sense to the human reader. The XML-based descriptive grammar is converted into a PDF for people. and the XML-based formal grammar is converted into a computational form for morphological parsers. The formal grammar may be used in several ways: • As a grammar which is easily converted into computational tools. The other grammar is a formal grammar of morphology and phonology.Michael Maxwell and Anne Boyle David A Structure of this Grammar A. is supplemented by a formal grammar.6. rather than an arrangement that might be required by the computer language’s compiler program. the parts containing the formal grammar can be (and have been. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. This appendix describes how the grammar is conceptualized. which encapsulates the morphological and phonological part of the descriptive grammar. the grammar is structured into two separate but largely parallel grammars: one is a traditional linguistic description in English. Literate Programming was developed as a way of improving the documentation of computer programs by allowing the programmer to embed pieces of a computer program into a prose document describing the program. a PDF) and into a morphological parser. this book. As an XML document. suitable for automatic extraction and conversion into a form usable by a computer program.

Of course.189. whereas the formal grammar should be unambiguous. particularly of a related language. whether they wish to understand the structural properties of Pashto. For such a user. This is particularly important since some paradigm cells are likely to be sparsely attested in typical corpora. the formal grammar. For the sake of all audiences. people who wish to learn about the grammar—linguists and learners of Pashto—form the primary audience of this book. where the English description is (unintentionally) ambiguous. a descriptive grammar written in a natural language such as English tends to be ambiguous. the parser can be tested on those more rarely used parts of the paradigm. In the form in which both are woven together. Another audience we have tried to keep in mind is the linguist who is charged with describing the grammar of another language. the formal grammar may be of less interest.2 Audience The multi-use grammar is in a format which is expected to be useful to linguists ten years or a hundred years from now. may be of interest to those users. Depending on the purpose. a weakness of formal grammars (and particularly formal grammars that are computer-readable. Since the formal grammar is especially concerned with morphology. we have kept the terminology and the Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. this application assumes that the computational linguist is knowledgeable about technology for morphological analysis. In particular. One intended user is a computational linguist. both the descriptive grammar and the formal grammar will be of interest. The descriptive and formal grammar sections on a given topic are written in parallel fashion. as is ours) is that they tend to be difficult for people to comprehend. A. our intention is that the meaning of the formal grammar will be clarified by the descriptive grammar. and in particular with supporting the creation of morphological analysis tools.456  Structure of this Grammar Weaving together the two grammars allows the strengths of each to support the weaknesses of the other. the examples in the paradigm tables and the examples of usage can serve as tests of parser implementations. although the sections on usage of the descriptive grammar will probably be of less concern. making it easy to perform such disambiguation or clarification. Conversely. Since these users are largely concerned with understanding how the grammar works. and conversant in basic linguistic terminology for morphology and phonology. referring to the formal grammar should disambiguate the intended meaning. supplementing the use of corpora for parser testing. This is why we have presented the formal grammar separately. the descriptive grammar. or to use the grammar or parser on a new platform or computer environment. Again.186. Such a person may wish to adopt the model given here to this other language. In addition. But since the complete paradigms of exemplar words are provided in this descriptive grammar. and with the functional meaning of constructions. or both.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

with some extensions described later.1 The grammar as a basis for computational tools As we have discussed.and article-like documents. such as reading the grammatical description.3 More on uses of this grammar In this section we describe in more detail the potential applications we see for this grammar.189. We describe in Section A. 2 Finite State Transducers (FSTs) combine parsing and generation capabilities. This can be done by a variety of means. the descriptive grammar’s source document is structured as a DocBook XML¹ document. and the modifications to that formalism that we have used in this project. it is convenient to format the text for viewing by converting the XML tags into formatting appropriate to the printed page. beginning with computational uses. The DocBook formalism. A. DocBook is a form of XML that has been developed for book. and 1 We use DocBook version 5. because this document is intended as a description of the grammar of Pashto which will be simultaneously unambiguous and understandable. if the morphological parsing engine being used is an FST (such as the Xerox or Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools). The XML source of this grammar is available. the native XML is the appropriate format. But for other purposes.6 the method we have used to convert it to camera-ready copy as PDF. In the following section.3.186. as described in the next sub-section). but we continue to refer to this as a “parsing engine” for reasons of familiarity. The Extensible Markup Language XML is a computer representation of text in which the function of pieces of text is indicated by tags. are described in more detail in the documentation supporting the formal grammar. we describe how the XML document is converted into software. For some purposes (such as converting the grammar into a form suitable for use with computational tools. and many tools are available for conversion. Specifically.More on uses of this grammar  457 linguistic analysis itself as basic as possible. the “parsing” engine serves both as a parser and as a generator. we should therefore use the term “transducer” for the computational program which uses our grammar. and in particular as a morphological parser or generator. since the DocBook XML format is a widely used format.² We describe the method for converting this grammar. Therefore. it is suitable for implementation as a computational tool.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . avoiding as much as possible theoretical constructs which do not correspond directly to observable linguistic phenomena. A. particularly technical documents like this one. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. It provides a mechanism for describing the structure (as opposed to the display format) of documents. Technically.

1. This part of the converter program is analogous to the front end of a programming language compiler: it ensures that the formal grammar is syntactically correct. a formal grammar. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.1). written in some unambiguous format. We have opted instead to blend our XML formal grammar with a descriptive grammar.2. In fact. Our goal in this is to make it more portable to future computing environments by extensively documenting in English each construct of the formal grammar. We have implemented our converter in the Python programming language. and if so generates an intermediate representation in terms of Python objects.3. In the first step. In theory. However. This operation has been programmed as a simple XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation). there are elements in the XML grammar corresponding to classes in the Python converter for linguistic objects such as affixes. thereby making this grammar understandable by humans. using the technology of Literate Programming (briefly described in Section A. and allomorphs.1 Building a parser and generator Using this grammar’s source document to produce computational implementation (a parser) requires several steps.3.³ Second. written in natural language. a grammar intended to be used by a computer would not need a descriptive component.1. This conversion could be done by any program which can parse XML and convert the result into other formats. the formal grammar is extracted from the grammatical description as a whole (including the descriptive grammar).186. phonological rules. A. this extracted XML grammar is translated into the programming language of the chosen morphological parsing engine.1. largely because it is difficult to define a formal grammar mechanism for syntax which would be as generic and a-theoretic as the formal grammar schema for morphology and phonology. which operates on the complete XML grammar to extract the formal grammar in its XML format. The result should be that a computational linguist who is unfamiliar with our formal grammar schema should be able to understand the meaning of the formal grammar itself by referring to the descriptive grammar. as well as unambiguous to computers.189. would suffice. there is no formal grammar of the syntax. For example. into a form usable by computational tools in Section A.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . in which each linguistic structure expressed as an element in the XML grammar corresponds to a class.458  Structure of this Grammar in particular the formal grammar of Pashto morphology and phonology. The descriptive grammar also describes basics of Pashto syntax. 3 An example of a piece of this formal grammar structure in XML form is given in Section A. We chose Python because it allows the use of an object-oriented programming approach. such formal grammars have already been written for a variety of natural languages—and in many programming languages.3.

there are some linguistic constructs in other languages.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . an electronic dictionary is a required resource. and the grammar needs to be ported to that new parsing engine.⁴ Our converter currently targets the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools. This half is thus analogous to the back end of a programming language compiler: it translates from the intermediate representation of the grammar as Python objects. the same converter will work for a grammar of any language for which an XML grammar conforming to the schemas has been written. SFST’s own compilation phase becomes very slow and memory-intensive under certain circumstances. and it rewrites the grammar into that programming language.⁵ Targeting a different parsing engine would require rewriting this half of the converter for the new parsing engine.uni-stuttgart.⁶ The final step of the conversion process is to use the parsing engine to compile the converted grammar together with an electronic dictionary of the language. for other languages. however. into the target programming language. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. available from http://www. the final morphological transducer would be virtually the same regardless of this optimization. In particular. including declension classes (for nouns and adjectives) and stem class allomorphy. dictionaries are almost always more easily obtained than grammars. 4 Modern programming language compilers often include a “middle end. the XML-based grammars serve as a stable way to define the morphological analysis of natural languages. which are allowed in the formal grammar schema but are not yet handled by the converter. this work will be simply extracting words belonging to the various parts of speech into separate files. When a new and better parsing engine is developed.html. This affects only SFST’s compilation. our converter breaks large compilation steps into shorter ones.de/projekte/gramotron/SOFTWARE/SFST. since any optimization is highly dependent on the target programming language. This is not directly relevant to our converter. more information is required. it supports the kinds of constructions needed for most languages. The converter program is generic in terms of the language being described: that is. 6 While the converter accounts for the morphological constructions needed for Pashto. only part of the converter needs to be changed. including Pashto.⁷ In summary.189. In fact. Fortunately. 7 Normally.More on uses of this grammar  459 The other half of the converter is specific to the particular morphological parsing engine being targeted. The details of how this information needs to be represented will vary.ims. depending on the particular parsing engine. the back end of our converter currently does do some optimization for the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer (SFST). The converter can be used for any language for which the morphology has been described using the formal grammar. 5 The Stuttgart Finite State Transducer is an open source program.” where optimization is done. require effort to convert them into the form required by the parsing engine. at least grammars of the sort required for morphological parsing.186. so that the grammars can be used by different parsing engines. For some languages. the grammatical description can be re-used without change. such as infixes and reduplication. In order to avoid this. Electronic dictionaries will.

a more useful (and more readable) display of this XML structure might be the following table. For example.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . It is possible. however.186. and in fact one which may help disambiguate the descriptive grammar. in which the slots have been treated as columns in a table of affixes. The formal grammar also constitutes a description. and the individual affixes are displayed as a pairing of a gloss and a Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. to add to our XML-to-PDF conversion process the capability of converting the XML formal grammar notation into a notation more similar to a traditional linguistic description. the XML representation of inflectional affixation in agglutinating languages uses a structure which (in somewhat simplified form) looks like the following (this example is based on Turkish): <Ln : PartOfSpeech name="noun"> <Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d ="slotNumber '> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f S i n g u l a r "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f P l u r a l "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d =" s l o t C a s e "> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" afNominative "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f G e n i t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f D a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A c c u s a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A b l a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f L o c a t i v e "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > </Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > <Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Number" i d r e f ="slotNumber "/ > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Case " i d r e f =" s l o t C a s e "/ > </Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > </Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > </Ln : PartOfSpeech> For a linguist.2 Structure of this Grammar The grammar as a description This grammar may of course be read as simply a linguistic description of the Pashto language.3. it is difficult for people to read.189.460  A. By linguistic description we mean a description that uses such traditional linguistic constructs as allomorph and morphosyntactic features. in order to make the formal grammar more accessible to linguists (particularly to linguists who are not familiar with the XML notation). In its current format as an XML document.

Pashto’s extensive orthographic variation is not well documented in the literature. as we have noted in Chapter 1. in the absence of special rules allowing for spelling variation. This particular step (the conversion process from our XML-based grammar to a display in the form of tables or other forms familiar to linguists) is not implemented yet. not a change in the underlying XML. That is. However.Spell correction  461 form. This could obviously be important in the application of computer processing to printed texts. rather than a reference to the definition of the affix elsewhere (the “idref” in the above XML code): Stem Number suffix slot Case suffix slot -Ø “-Singular” -Ø “-Nominative” -in “-Genitive” (Noun) -e “-Dative” -ler “-Plural” -i “-Accusative” -den “-Ablative” -de “-Locative” We emphasize that this is a matter of how the XML structure is displayed. the parser cannot suggest a corrected spelling.4 Spell correction A morphological parser constitutes a spell checker. it does not by itself constitute a spell corrector. without changing the underlying XML documents.189. However. a parser requires that words be spelled in a particular way in order to be parsed. A.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Failure of a word to parse can therefore be construed to mean that the word is misspelled (although in fact. However. it is possible to build a spell corrector on top of a morphological parser. the use of an XML formalism for both the descriptive and formal grammars means that when the display mechanism is programmed. there is considerable variation in the spelling of Pashto. In particular. That is. many parse failures can be attributed to other errors. However. such as a missing lexeme in the dictionary). when a word fails to parse. it is frequently the case—particularly in less documented languages— that spelling conventions are not as fixed as they are for languages like English. This can be a problem. we will be able to produce versions of this grammar as PDFs and other formats which incorporate the new display.186. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. because while a morphological parser acts as a spell checker.

org is the standard reference on languages of the world).462  Structure of this Grammar Spelling variation may in fact result from several different causes.⁹All of these. but not all. but regardless. we believe. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. We do not treat spelling variation in the formal grammar. In the absence of spelling standardization. Another difficulty. Spell correction is therefore an important technology that can complement morphological parsing. A. perhaps 1500 to 2000 are written languages. is that parsing engines tend to be replaced with newer and better engines after a few years. variations can be termed errors. The multi-use grammar method which we have developed provides a way to avoid the first problem: to the extent that the descriptive and formal grammars are separable. and then use the former knowledge to encode the latter knowledge. An obvious impediment to this approach is that it is difficult to find one person who combines all these skills. all variation can cause problems for morphological parsing. Of these. discussed above. knowledge of the 8 Ideally.5 Grammar adaptation There are hundreds of languages for which one might want to build morphological parsers. such rules are given “weights” which encode the likelihood that a given spelling variation will be found. However.5.1 Manual grammar building The traditional way to produce morphological parsers is to rely on highly trained linguists and computational linguists to learn the programming language for some morphological parsing engine (or to write one’s own parsing engine).⁸ A. and probably the majority of these have non-trivial inflectional morphologies. rendering the parser that was built with so much expert effort obsolete.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . There are two major ways that our work could be leveraged so as to make grammars of a large number of languages. Over 300 languages have at least a million speakers. available: by having it serve as a model or template for other grammar writers. The two sub-sections below discuss each of these approaches in turn. learn the grammar and perhaps the writing system of the target language. Some finite state tools allow the use of such weights. 9 There are in the neighborhood of 7000 languages in the world today (http://ethnologue.186.189. they can be written by people who bring either of two skill sets: one. and by automatically or semi-automatically adapting the formal grammar of one language to another language. can benefit from grammar writing using the multiuse framework we have developed. the finite state technology currently used for morphological parsing can also be used to encode spelling variation rules. some. and tools built on those grammars.

But the use of model grammars may prove useful for unrelated languages as well. and it has become clear that this approach to grammar writing makes it easier to build teams that can construct grammars and morphological parsers. Olsen & Diab.5. While the authors of this pair of descriptive and formal grammars have worked in nearby offices. We have in fact employed this division of labor in writing our grammars. something which is well beyond the current state of the art. The two grammars must still be written collaboratively. than it is to find one person with both skills. It is. bilingual corpora in the third language and English. we believe.) This task might be done with various sorts of resources in the third language: corpora. perhaps in a different country.186. it might be mediated by email or other collaborative technologies. experience in computer programming. since the typology of the languages would be similar. one with each of these skill sets. which calls for a close working relationship between the descriptive grammar writer and the formal grammar writer. Such testing of course needs to be supplemented by testing against corpora. another approach to grammar adaptation would be to create a computer program that could automatically adapt an existing formal grammar to work for another language. In particular. if new grammars can be modeled after existing grammars. It may be possible to further reduce the expertise needed to write grammars.g. the Bible is available in nearly every written language and therefore constitutes a parallel corpus (Resnik. related to the initial target language. To some extent. A. In particular. (A computer could not be expected to adapt a descriptive grammar. bilingual corpora in the third language and the initial target language. easier to find two different people (or perhaps two teams of people). allowing a descriptive grammar writing team from the linguistics department located in the country where a language is spoken. these tools use the example sentences and paradigm tables of the descriptive grammar as a source of parser test cases. since that would require understanding of an English grammatical description. there Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. e. although we have introduced some new techniques with each new language. we believe that this working relationship can probably be more remote. 1999).2 Automated grammar adaptation Rather than writing grammars by hand.Grammar adaptation  463 grammar (and writing system) of the target language. Using grammars as models might work best if the new grammars were for languages related to the ones already described.189. etc. which may reveal morphological constructions not previously described. the other. We have also developed grammar testing tools based on the information in the descriptive grammar. dictionaries of the third language.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . this Pashto grammar re-uses the model of earlier grammars we have written using this same framework. While the vocabulary of the Bible is not always useful in a modern context. together with a formal grammar writing team from a computer science department..

6 Formatting the grammar for viewing This section describes the method we have used to convert this grammar into a format readable by people. Some work on automatic grammar adaptation has been described in Yarowsky (2002) and Feldman & Hana (2010). this is an open source program. For example. Scheffczyk & Schmitz 2006 and Bird & Simons 2003).g. The primary method for formatting XML DocBook documents is through the use of XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects. and developed by Jonathan Kew.186. The author. quite pleasing.1. the steps we have used to format this grammar are the following: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. We have tweaked it slightly to allow for the conversion of the literate programming constructs and interlinear text. XML is now recognized as a standard for long term preservation of documents. which was designed to convert DocBook into LaTeX (and now into XeLaTeX). we believe. Fortunately. Content markup means that not only is the markup easily extensible. we can extract elements for various purposes.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .net/projects/dblatex/). In outline. It remained to find a way to convert our DocBook XML files into XeTeX. but by means of the judicious use of tags. see Stayton 2005). the latest distribution is currently included in the TeX Live distributions.189. and available in the same Tex Live distribution as XeTeX. we were not satisfied that any of the available XSL-FO processors would do a good job of typesetting the Arabic script required for Pashto and other languages. a Unicode-aware version of TeX and LaTeX. While this method would work (provided it was supplemented with the XSL transformations needed for our literate programming and interlinear text extensions). while LaTeX is a presentation markup system. there is an alternative typesetting method in the form of XeTeX. particularly linguistic documents (see e. Again. Benoît Guillon. (XeTeX is released under a free license. we can automatically extract all the words in both interlinear examples and example words in text. as mentioned in Section A. Rödig. Borghoff. Fortunately. Again. In part because of this. available from Sourceforge (http://sourceforge.464  Structure of this Grammar is no reason good Bible translations in two related languages could not serve as the basis for converting the formal grammar of the morphology of one language into a formal grammar of the other language’s morphology. One might ask why we did not write the grammar in LaTeX directly (or XeTeX). and use them to test a parser. The main reason for this is that XML is a content markup system.) Perhaps in part because Kew had worked with Arabic scripts. these are freely licensed. see http://tug. A. the result is. we found the dblatex program.5.org/texlive/. the latter was made easier by the existence of Michael Covington’s LaTeX macros for interlinear text. has been very helpful in modifying it to work well with XeTeX.

characters in the Arabic block of Unicode).189. For all sequences of characters which require a special font (e. 2.g. Run XETEX (in its LATEX form. Combine the various files of the descriptive and formal grammars into a single file. we wrap the sequences in a special tag. Any non-DocBook standard elements. Run dblatex to convert this file into a XeLaTeX file.Formatting the grammar for viewing  465 1. 4.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 3. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. XeLaTeX) to produce a PDF. such as interlinear text and inline examples. telling XeLaTeX to use the appropriate font for these characters. which can interact badly with right-to-left scripts. must be provided with special code to convert them into the format expected by XeLaTeX. Special care needs to be taken at this point with punctuation marks. using the xsltproc program and the XSL weave stylesheet.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.189.

com/ 7.25 http://www. 7.186.1 Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web Chapter 1: About this Grammar 1. 6.net/ 6.com/ 9. 8. 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .facebook.22 http://larawbar.bloguna.com 2.com 5.tolafghan. 8.benawa.37 http://www.net 8.sada-e-azadi.com/ Chapter 6: Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 1.afghanjirga.1 http://www.55 http://www.wikipedia.pajhwok.21 http://www. 6.com/ 8. 6. 6. 8.tolafghan.13 http://www.27 http://www.26 http://sangaar.14 http://www.20 http://eqtisad. 6.19 http://www. 8.26 http://www.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.16 http://ps.shamshadtv.benawa. 6.aminzay. 6.com Chapter 7: Pronouns 1.28 http://www.36 http://www.15 http://www.tv 7.com/watch?v=Hw08YbmNFLo/ 4.20 http://eslahonline.sporghay.com 3.com 6. 6.youtube.net/ 4. 8.miliehsas.bloguna.com/ 2.25 http://www.com/ 3.189. 8.B Sources of Pashto Data B.com/PashtoJokes/ Chapter 8: Verbs 1. 1.tolafghan. 8.facebook. 8.org/wiki/ 5.aryen.

8. 8.af/ 24.com/ 28. 8.73 http://www.46 http:/kandahartv-gov. 8. 8.org/wiki/ 12.63 http://dailyshahadat.arawbar.facebook.41 http://bloguna.wikipedia.net/ 32.net/ 27. 8. 8.50 http://www.40 http://www.com/ 20.com/israrahmadzai/posts/246413462138948/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.bloguna.khyberwatch.blogsky.com/Zhwand/ 19.tolafghan. 8.468  Sources of Pashto Data 10.net/ps/ 23.pajhwok.afghan-german. 8.com/en/photo/96113 13.com.65 http://www. 8.com/ 11.68 http://www/.38 http://awakening.37 http://www.57 http://www. 8.34 http://www. 8.com/ 29.bakhtarnews.s-rohi.baheer.31 http://ps. 8.66 http://www.com/watch?v=UxcFrUw1ybQ/ 18.bosa. 8.33 http://www.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .org/ 33. 8.com/all_comments?v=xjHs0–6bOo/ 30.186.32 http://www.com/ 26.org/ 21.67 http://eslahonline.30 http://khabarial.youtube. 8. 8. 8. 8.com/ 17.com/ 31.189.64 http://www.mirmanbaheer.bloguna.com/ 15.tolafghan. 8.56 http://www.com/video/video/php?v=180813528650225/ 16. 8. 8.com/ 14.af/ 34.51 http://iwpr.youtube.org/ 22. 8.74 http://www.55 http://www.rohi.facebook. 8.mirmanbaheer.49 http://www.58 http://www.com/ 25. 8.

ir/ 52.79 http://www. 8.com/ 55.189.com/ 59.com/ 43.com/ 39.com/ 45.89 http://taand. 8.scprd.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  35.h-obaidi.87 http://www.dawatfreemedia.com/ 53.76 http://www. 8.75 http://taand.91 http://www.com/ 41.com/ 58. 8.81 http://www.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 469 . 8.com/ 44.ahena.voanews. 8.org/ 37.com/ 47. 8.96 http://www. 8.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.irib.cri.facebook. 8.com/ 38. 8. 8.pashtunforums.82 http://bloguna.s-rohi.84 http://khaibarial.com/pashto/ 57.90 http://pushtu.blogfa.93 http://pashtu.blogspot.102 http://scprd. 8. 8. 8.com/ 54.bloguna. 8. 8.com/ 46.benawa.cn/ 49. 8.97 http://www. 8.blogfa.99 http://www.95 http://sporghay. 8.com/ 50.com/ 36. 8.com/ 56.com/ 48.com/PashtunUnity/posts/318701911484713/ 42.86 http://yahyaghafoorzai.83 http://www.85 http://ghazal. 8.com/ 40.com/ 51.92 http://www.jahanionline. 8.98 http://www.baheer.tolafghan.101 http://didanona.80 http://www.186.afghanjirga.100 http://afghan-warlods. 8.88 http://www. 8.benawa. 8.

cn/ 65.com/ 64.com/ 72.pashtoonkhwa.470  Sources of Pashto Data 60.com/ 70. 8.bloguna. 8. 8.115 http://wolas-ghag.com/ 66.net/ 74. 8. 8.186.118 http://nunn.asia/ 75. 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 8. 8.net/ 76.uk/pashto/world// 78. 8.114 http://iwpr.107 http://pushtu.co. 8.com/ 73.net/ 84.113 http://www.111 http://quizlet.bbc.120 http://afghanfoundation.106 http://www. 8.destaar.net/ 62. 8.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.com/ 82.net/ 71. 8.meenapukhto.com/ 67.116 http://islam-iea.109 http://khabarial.126 http://aryen.121 http://www.117 http://eslahonline.com/ 63.130 http://taleemulislam-radio.com/ 61.blogfa.110 http://nunn. 8.org/ 81. 8.bloguna.asia/ 68.com/pashto/ 80.com/ 69. 8.tolafghan. 8. 8.123 http://afghanjirga.104 http://ghorzang. 8.127 http://rohi.189.105 http://taand. 8.voanews.108 http://baheer.af/ 83.esalat.cri.com/ 77. 8.125 http://www. 8.124 http://www. 8. 8.122 http://www.net/ 79.103 http://waak.tolafghan. 8.129 http://iwpr.

131 http://www.4 http://www.32 http://www.47 http://www.94 http://da.facebook.org/ 15.96 source: from a 12/22/2010 Azadi Radio Broadcast.af/ Chapter 9: Adpositions 1.com/ 10. 9.azadiradio. 9.org/ 12. 9.com/ 2.41 http://www.24 http://lashkargah.com/ 16.46 http://larawbar.net/ Chapter 10: Other word classes 1.voanews. 18.tolafghan.15 http://pa.com/ 2.com/ 7. 8. 10.11 http://afg-liberal-party. 9.voanews.bloguna.45 http://pa. 9.bloguna.com/ 13.azadiradio.baheer.tolafghan.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.blogfa.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  471 85. 10.voanews.14 http://www. 9.67 http://pa.acsf. 9.com 4.facebook. 9. 9.azadiradio.mashriqsoft.wakht. 9.com/ 8.com/Israratal/posts/193484757403886/ 9.com/ 20.fbjs.92 http://lokrana.benawa.98 http://www.26 http://sporghay.97 http://www. 9.36 http://www.186. 9.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .com/ 6.azadiradio.cn/ 3.facebook. 9.net/ 14.189.com/ 19.33 http://www.org/ 5.cri. 9. 9.org/ 17. 9. 9.3 http://www.121 http://www.13 http://pushtu. 9. 9. 9.sada-e-azadi.com/afghanistancricketboard/posts/245676592129372/ 11.

com/ 17.wikipedia. 10.wordpress.voanews. 11.org/ 8. 10.blogspot.com/ 4. 10.22 http://ps. 10.com/ 19.bloguna.khost-web.20 http://s-rohi. 10.21 http://www.com/ 14.com/ 18.gotquestions.42 http://sola.186.3 http://www.com/ 5.sada-e-azadi.10 http://www. 10. 10.com/ 10.8 http://www. 11.com/ 16. 10.com/ Chapter 11: Syntax 1.19 http://bowraa. 10.tolafghan. 11.net/ 7.67 http://www.11 http://www.9 http://www.benawa.com.18 http://www.12 http://khyberwatch.com/ 4.com/ 5.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.28 http://www.19 http://khedmatgar.com/ 13.70 http://www.7 http://www. 11.23 http://www.71 http://larawbar.69 http://wepakhtoons.net/ 7.talafghan.af/ 6. 10.pajhwok. 10. 10.tolafghan.org/wiki/ 6.189.com/ 11.benawa. 10.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .com/ 12.com/ 9. 11.voanews.20 http://www. 10. 11. 10.com/ 15.com/ 2.472  Sources of Pashto Data 3. 10.sada-e-azadi.21 http://thanda.kitabtoon. 10.bloguna.24 http://www.gma.khabarial.68 http://lifeinafghanistan. 11.com/ 3.afghanijokes.

26 http://peshgaman.azadiradio.com/ 32.com/ 24.tolafghan.org/ 31.27 http://iwpr.voanews. 11.65 http://lawaghar. 11.surgar.com/ 12.189. 11. 11. 11.47 http://www. 11.org/ 30.90 http://pa. 11.tolafghan.34 http://loyafghanistan.tolafghan. 11.pashtozeray. 11.31 http://www.blogfars.46 http://eslahonline.org/ 25.loyafghanistan.dailyshahadat.32 http://origin-pa.azadiradio.com/ 23.186.85 http://pa.af/ 13.com/ 26.84 http://www.org/ 17.42 http://www.com/ 18.bbc.com/ 16.pajhwok.af/ 15. 11.uk/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.106 http://www. 11.co.azadiradio.azadiradio.com/ 22.tolafghan. 11. 11.com/ 20.67 http://www.com/ 28.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 473 .net/ 21. 11. 11.com/ 19.benawa.68 http://pa.93 http://www. 11.81 http://www. 11. 11.net/ 11.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  8.44 http://www.org/ 29. 11.com/ 9. 11.25 http://www.29 http://www.net/ 27.afghanijokes.tatobay. 11.43 http://www. 11.azadiradio. 11.45 http://www.com/ 10. 11.37 www. 11.91 http://pa.org/ 14.khabarial.77 http://www.

http://da.2 List of web pages mined for language data 1.co.af/ 13. http://lokrana. http://www.org/ 6.afghanistantoday.com/ 23.com/ 21.aminzay. http://bakhtarnews.afghanistanvotes.org/ 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .com/ 8.bbc. http://www. http://peshgaman.blogfa. http://www.org/ 10.com/ 17. http://nojavan.com/ 24.com/ 2.com/ 15.186.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.blogfars. http://www.bloguna.com/ 19. http://www.dailyshahadat.com/ 16.benawa. http://afg-liberal-party.afghanistanonlineforums. http://pa.com/ 20.com. http://wepakhtoons.afghanjirga.ghatreh.blogspot.blogfars.afghanijokes.com/ 5. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ 7.189.azadiradio. http://www. http://www.com/ 18.facebook. http://www.org/ 9.azadiradio. http://www.474  Sources of Pashto Data B. http://ghorzang. http://origin-pa.uk/ 14. http://eslahonline.bloguna.tolafghan.com/ 3.net/ 22.baheer.com/ 12.azadiradio.net/ 4. http://www.

com/ 44.net/ 46.com/ 39. http://www.List of web pages mined for language data  25. http://www.kabirstori.ntm-a. http://www.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. http://khatez. http://lawaghar.mohe.com/ 43. http://www.net/ 49.gotquestions.com/ 36.com/ 48.net/ 29.af/ 38. http://rohella-pashto-forum.com/ 30.com/ 47.irib. http://www.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 475 . http://www.186. http://www.qamosona. http://www. http://khyberwatch.tatobay. http://www.af/ 37. http://larawbar.org/ 27.spenghar.net/ 32.com/ 33. http://www.net/ 31. http://www.surgar.org/ 41.com/ 35.189.gma.pajhwok. http://sporghay.af/ 26. http://kw.loyafghanistan.af/ 34. http://rohi.ir/ 42. http://www. http://iwpr.af/ 45.sada-e-azadi. http://www.gov. http://pashtu.khost-web.com. http://www.pashtozeray.com/ 28. http://graanafghanistan.com/ 40.

com/ 52. http://www.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.com/ 57.net/ 60.189. http://tolonews. http://www. http://article. http://cricket.tv/ 53.com/ 59.tolafghan.wakht. http://www.zarlakht.com/ 55.476  Sources of Pashto Data 50. http://www.com/ 54.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .com/ 56.186.tolafghan. http://lifeinafghanistan. http://tolo. http://zwand.voanews.wordpress.com/ 51. http://www.com/ 58.wn.wranga.

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384—410. In Charles-Henri de Fouchécour & Philippe Gignoux (eds. 2001. Spain. James W. Henry G. and its affinity to the Semitic and other Oriental tongues.3. The way of the Pathans. Rishtin. 127—153. 1867. 2000. 297—313. or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 26(2). Decker & Daniel G. 2006. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. Hallberg. Etat des travaux et publication. Split ergativity in Pashto. Languages of Kohistan. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 46(1/2).186. Takahashi. Wiesbaden: Dr. 1989. Henry G. Pashto dictionary. A computational theory of writing systems. Sproat. A guide to the world's languages. volume 1: Classification. Raverty. Kurdica 5. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. The Bible as a parallel corpus: Annotating the “Book of 2000 tongues”. Stayton. 1997. Paris: Association pour L'avancement des Études Iraniennes. 231—235.. Daniel. 2005. 2001b. Septfonds. thesis. 1964. L'Atlas linguistique des parlers iraniens: Atlas de l'Afghanistan 13.D. Taylor. 2000. Dative counterparts in Pashto. London: Robert Hale Limited. Wojciech. Roberts. 2008. and vocabulary. Pashto. MIT. A dictionary of the Puk'hto. Septfonds. 1998. 1994. 1880. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Taylor. Taylor. In Clare F. In Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Olsen & Mona Diab. quelques cartes onomasiologiques [State of travels and publication. 2001a. Raverty. Habibullah. 1992. descriptive studies. Paris: Peeters. 1962. The optimal second position in Pashto. D.). Louvain. The Pushto manual: Comprising a concise grammar. Pashto grammar. Ph. Skalmowski. 7—19. London: Williams and Norgate. H. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. thesis. Roberts. Le Dzadrâni: Un parler pashto du Paktya (Afghanistan) [Dzadrani: a Pashto dialect of Paktya (Afghanistan)]. familiar phrases. S.). O'Leary (ed. DocBook XSL: The complete guide. Bob. Ruhlen. Journal of School of Foreign Languages 35.). Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. Roberts.]. Ph. Septfonds. Calvin R. Computers and Humanities 33.). Santa Cruz: SageHill Enterprises. Richard. Sandra J. Resnik. Merritt.482  Bibliography Afghan tribes. http://www. In Rüdiger Schmitt (ed. The dative. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Taylor. Tegey. Mari B. Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard [Irano-Aryan studies offered for Gilbert Lazard]. exercises and dialogues. Daniel. Anti-impersonal constructions in Pashto. Some onomasiological maps.D. 2001.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Roberts. A. Du Pashto standard au Wanetsi: /kawəl/ ou /kṛəl/? note de dialectologie Pashto [From standard Pashto to Wanetsi: /kawəl/ or /kṛəl/? Pashto dialectology note]. 1989. Sociolinguistic survey of northern Pakistan.yorku. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Allen & Co. The grammar of clitics: evidence from Pashto and other languages. Naoko. London: W. Daniel. In Keith Brown (ed. Rensch. 1996. volume 1. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. Redard. Philip. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. A short grammatical outline of Pashto. Taylor.). 1997. 129—153. Khyber Bazar. 1994. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.html. 395—406. Boston: Elsevier. 2nd edn. Split-agreement and ergativity in Pashto. 1974. Bloomington: Indiana University. 129— 152. Clitics and agreement. Skjærvø. Prods O. 1999. 1977. In William van Belle & Willy van Langendonck (eds.ca/twainweb/troberts/pashto/pashlex1. Shafeev. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. Roberts. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. Peshawar: University Book Agency. 1987. 3rd edn. Pus'hto. P. Daniel. Pashto. Deriving second position. proverbs.189. Septfonds. Georges.

Wikipedia. expressions. Matthias. Weinreich. D. Encyclopaedia of Islam. van Donzel & W. idioms. Tegey. 301—330.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Tegey. P.). Iran & the Caucasus 5. In I. Wilber. translation & comparison.D. Bianqius. its culture. E. thesis. Pashto reader passages in transcription. Rauch & G. A corpus-based finite state morphological analyzer for Pashto.org/wiki/Pashtun_tribes.brillonline. Trübner & Co.C. Ph. Die Pashto-Sprecher des Karakorum: Zur Migrationsgeschichte einer ethno-linguistischen Minderheit [The Pashto speakers of the Karakoram: Toward a migration history of an ethno-linguistic minority].: Center for Applied Linguistics. Tegey. URL http://www. David. Ergativity in Pushto (Afghani). M. 2010. 2010. Zyar. 1996. D. Heinrichs (eds. compared with the Īrānian and North-Indian idioms. Yarowsky. 1979. A reference grammar of Pashto. A. vol.wikipedia. 107—132.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-8051. Johns Hopkins. Washington. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Modeling and learning multilingual inflectional morphology in a minimally supervised framework. E. Walsh. A. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. C. 1993c. Shah Mahmood Ghazi.C. 1993a. Peshawar: Sopi's Center of Pashto Research and Development. M. Janua Linguarum Series Maior. Washington. 369—418. Washington. 1993b. Office of International Education. Pashto-English glossary for the CAL Pashto materials. D. M. Iran & the Caucasus 9(2). 2005.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Tegey. Peshawar: Danish Publishing Association. 2000. D.: Center for Applied Linguistics. E. A English-Pashto dictionary of prepositions & postpositions. 2003. Grammar of the Pḁṣ̌tō or language of the Afghāns. In P. DocBook: the definitive guide. 2003. Norman & Leonard Muellner. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. 1873.C. its society. Matthias. University of Maryland: Brill Online. Qissa Khwani Bazar. Pashtun tribes. Afghanistan: Its people. Ernest. In Conference on language & technology 2009. Habibullah. Th. Carr (eds. Sebastopol. Bearman. Tegey. Pashto im Karakorum: Zur Sprachsituation und Sprache einer ethnolinguistischen Minderheit [Pashto in the Karakorum: On the language and linguistic situation of an ethno-linguistic minority]. Donald N. Pashto grammar. Yapp. 79. Linguistic Method: Essays in honor of Herbert Penzl. Trumpp. 2001. Zuhra. Weinreich. Inc. 2002. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. United Nations Development Programme. Bosworth.Bibliography  483 Tegey.C. Intermediate Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition. Washington. http://en. Beginning Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition. Zyar. 1992. CA: O'Reilly & Associates. London: Messrs. Center for Applied Linguistics.186. 1962. 1999. Fatima & Mohammad Abid Khan. The Hague: Mouton.). New Haven: HRAF Press.189. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Habibullah & Barbara Robson.: Center for Applied Linguistics. 2009. Yūsufzay. Afghan transitional Islamic administration ministry of communications: Computer locale requirements for Afghanistan. Watt.

. predicative 154 – Class I 104 – animate 109 – derivational suffixes 150 – dialect variation 104 – ending in /-gár/ 105 – ending in /-ján/ 105 – ending in /-mán/ 105 – ending in /-wár/ 105 – forms with stem allomorphy 104. – interrogative 147 – count and non-count 148 – negative – derived with /be-/ 152 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – number names see Number names – participles as – past 247 – present 246.. 303 – predicative 154 – reduplication of 153 – superlative 156 – see also Adjectives. constructions with /kara/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. kra/ 337 – see also Location. comparative – usage 154 – verbs derived from 200. Class I. 246. etc. 111 – forms without stem allomorphy 115 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class III 116 – Class IIIa derivational suffixes 152 – IIIa 116 – IIIb 118.189. 247 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class IV 119 – derivational suffixes 152 – loanwords 119 – comparative 156 – with /lə. 202 Adpositions 305 – /be/ 317 – /be (nə)/ 317 – /be lə..186.Index Abbreviations 4 Adjectives 103 – as adverbs 391 – as complements of denominal verbs 201 – as nouns 155 – animacy of 155 – inflection of 79 – attributive vs.na/ 351 – /bondi/ 329 – /bānde/ 328 – /de/ 314 – /de .na/ 349 – with /tər/ 323 – compound 153 – derivation of 150 – by compounding 153 – Class I suffixes 150 – Class IIIa suffixes 152 – Class IV suffixes 152 – from loanwords 152 – from participles 116 – from verbs 118 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – inflection 45. 105 – forms without stem allomorphy 107 – in Middle dialects 121 – regularization toward 104.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .... 103 – comparable to noun inflection 103 – inflectional classes see Adjectives. 119 – Class II 109 – diphthongization 113 – forms with stem allomorphy 110.

. variant /pre/ – /pse/ 329 – /pə/ – /pə.bānde/ 355... /lə.səra/ 336 – see also Adpositions. 363 – in aspectual constructions 322 – in circumpositions 353 – in manner phrases 320 – instrumental use 319 – locational use 318 – manner adverbs 382 – temporal use 320 – variant /pre/ 360 – variant /pər/ 317 – /səra/ 327 – reciprocal constructions with 385 – /ta/ 326 – elided in /kara/ 361 – /tre/ see Adpositions.lə xwā/ 343 – /də.189.. /də/ – /kxe/ 329 – /la/.... /trə/.. 356... see Adpositions.pāra/.lānde/ 347 – /lə..pə lor/ 343 – /də..pə ʦer/ 343 – /də..pə bābi/ 339 – /də. 346 – /lə..na/ 156.... variant /tre/ – /tər/ 323 – /tər. 363 – in complex adpositions 313 – in possessive interrogatives 178 – in postpositional phrases 334 – variant /lə/ see Adpositions..nde/ 356 – /pə.... /lə/ – with ablative case 309 – word order of /də/ clauses 424 – /e/ 314 – /e.na/ 348 – assigns oblique case 48 – complex circumpositions with 350 485 – in comparatives 349 – in superlatives 349 – /lə/ 316..Index  – possessive use 313 – see also Adpositions..lə amala/ 341 – /də. 334 – /də.pə bāra ke/ 339 – /də.ke/ 354 – /pə.tsəxa/ 335 – /də..lə lure/ 345 – /də.na pəxwā́/ 350 – /lə.... /pə/. /lara/ – as variants of /ta/ 326 – /leka/ 324 – modal constructions with /če/ 325 – /londi/ 329 – /lə.....pə ʣāy/ 339 – /də.......lə pāra/ 337 – /də...lānde/ 334 – /də.....londe/ 357 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186... /də..pə məx ke/ 340 – /də.ʦəxa/ 347 – alternation with /də/ 316 – assigns ablative case 48 – in expressions of preference 452 – /na/ 329 – vs...səra/ 335 – /də. /də/ – /də/ 312 – /də də.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM ....na/ 156..na/ 351 – /pre/ see Adpositions... ablative case-marking 363 – /prata lə.pə šān/ 342 – /də..səra/ 346 – /lə...pəse/ 354 – assigns ablative case 48 – causative with animate objects 320.....na bahar/ 350 – /lə...pore/ 335 – /də..lə pāsa/ 314 – /də.na/ – /lə..... 441 – /pə.ʦəxa/ 156 – alternation with /lə/ 316 – expressing possession 163 – fusion with pronouns 313.

. /kara/ 361 – weak pronouns not allowed as objects of 167 Adverbs – adjectives as 391 – adpositions as 306 – agreement of 391 – Arabic loanwords 387 – interrogatives as 388 – of degree 386 – of manner 382 – of place 380 – of time 378 – reduplication of 392 – with /čə/ 438 Affixes 209 – /-(a)war/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-(w)o/ – Class IV oblique plural adjective (variant) 119 – /-(y)ún/ – Class I masculine direct singular animate noun (M) 61 – /-a/.pere/ 357 – /tər.. 323 – in Middle dialects 324 – variant /tre/ 360 – /wrusta/ – /wrusta lə. 307 – mixed case-marking inside 311 – omission of pronoun objects 364 – postpositions 305.(na)/ 351 – /wə/ 359 – /wṛānde/ 328 – /ye/ 314 – /ye.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .186.lānde/ 358 – /tər.. 325 – postpositional phrases 334 – with oblique pronominal clitics 365 – prepositions 305.. 329 – complex 337 – complex circumpositional constructions with /də/ 313 – in Middle dialects 332 – incomplete 326 – oblique pronominal clitics not governed by 365 – omission of preposition 348 – table of circumpositional elements 330 – table of Middle vs. /-ə/ – feminine Class I derived noun 71 – feminine Class I noun 67 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94...189.nə/ 337 – in complex phrases 315 – see also Adpositions.486  Index – /tər.. Standard forms 333 – with /də/ 334 – with /lə/ 346 – with /pə/ 353 – complex 305 – with /də/ 313 – in comparatives and superlatives 156 – objects of – in ablative case 48.. /də/ – /zidi/ 327 – as negator 153 – /ɣunde/ 328 – adpositional phrases – overview of syntax 424 – structure of 400 – word order 424 – ambipositions 305 – and case assignment 306 – as adverbs 306 – circumpositions 305. 312 – omitted from circumpositions 348 – usage 362 – vs.pore/ 357 – assigns ablative case 48 – in circumpositions 357 – in comparatives 156. 308 – in direct case 309 – in oblique case 48...

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 151 – /be-/ – derived negative adjective 152 – /nā‑/ – derived negative adjective 153 – /wə́-/ – first conjugation aorist verb 197.189. 254 – second conjugation infinitive verb 199 – /-ə́m/ – ordinal numbers (W) 144. 204 – on infinitive in periphrastic passive 300 – /‑(a)náy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑dā́r/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑gān/. edə́l-/ – past tense intransitive verb 214 – /-eg/ – present tense intransitive verb 214 – /-in/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-iz/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-ján/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-man/ – derived Class I adjective 150 – /-ya/ – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (E) 118 – /-yé/ – Class III oblique plural and feminine adjective (M) 122 – /-ám/ – ordinal numbers 105. 122 – masculine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ba/ – derived nouns: master. 52. 151 – /-í/ – Class II adjective (M) 122 – /-ín/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 487 – /-úna/ – masculine Class I plural inanimate noun 51. /-ān/ – masculine Class I plural animate noun 51. 144. 52 – /-ān/ – masculine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āne/ – feminine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āno/ – oblique animate adjective 108 – /-ā́t/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 – /-əma/ – first person singular (poetic) 191 – /-əy/ – feminine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ə́l-/ – infinitive verb 194 – optional/prohibited in some past bases 215 – past tense transitive verb 214. 55 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. keeper 73 – /-e/ – Class II oblique plural adjective (M) 122 – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (W) 118 – /-e/. /-ye/ – masculine Class I derived noun 55 – /-ed.Index  – /-an/ – Arabic adverbs 387 – /-aw-/ – causative verb 227 – /-ay/ – masculine Class III direct singular adjective 116.

488  Index – /‑nāk/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wāl/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wālā/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑áy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑í/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑ə́/ – masculine Class II singular or direct plural adjective 111 – adjectival derivational suffixes 152 – Middle dialect personal endings 194 – table of derivational noun suffixes 98 – table of verbal affixes 187 – verbal prefixes – as second-position clitics 209 – deictic 172. 62. aorist Case – ablative 48 – instrumental usage 48 – objects of adpositions in 48. 363 – of adjectives – Class I 109 – used as nouns 155 – of nouns 50 – and gender 45 – and stem allomorphy 55 – Class II 73 – grammatically inanimate 62 – kinship terms 93 – switching animacy categories 68 Aspect 185 – aorist – as subjunctive with present base 252 – contracted denominal verbs separable in 202 – definition 203 – first conjugation base 204 – negative placement in 406 – no negative imperatives in 260 – of a-initial verbs 197 – periphrastic passive in 300 – position of enclitics 404 – second conjugation base 209 – third conjugation base 210 – aorist optative 263 – constructions with /pə/ 322 – continuous – contracted vs. 111 – of nouns 45.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 69 – Class IIa 75 – in Middle dialects 61 Ambipositions see Adpositions. continuous – perfective see Aspect. uncontracted denominal verbs in 202 – definition 204 – continuous optative 261 – imperfective see Aspect.189. 105 – Class II 110. 52 – Class I 55. 317 – of adjectives 103 – vs. natural 51 – human vs. 308. 67. postposition /na/ 363 – accusative – expressed with the oblique 162 – in Arabic loanwords 387 – adpositions and – case assignment 306 – in Middle dialects 307 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. nonhuman objects 176 – in adpositional constructions with /pə/ 320. 198 Allomorphy – of adjectives – Class I 104. 198 – derivational 191.186. 356. ambipositions Animacy 50 – grammatical vs.

.... /čə/ – compounds with /čə/ 440 Consonants – elegant see Pronunciation...but also' 446 – /nə..189...nor' 447 – /yā..nə/ 'neither.then' 447 – /ná yawāze.. consonants. conditional clauses Conjunctions 442 – coordinating 443 – /aw/ 'and' 443 – /byā/ 'then' 446 – /xo/ 'but' 445 – /yā/ 'or' 444 – omission of in conjoined verb phrases 443 – correlative 446 – /ham..balki/ 'not only......aw ham/ 'both. elegant Determiners – demonstrative 124 – distal 128 – medial 127 – proximal 124 – indefinite 130 – quantifiers see Quantifiers Dialect – about Pashto dialects 31 – approaches used in this book 34 – Central – adposition /də/ in 312 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..186..or' 447 – exclusive 447 – inclusive 446 – subordinating – /čə/ see Particles. comparative Conditionals see Subordinate clauses. 307 – strong pronouns and 162 – with transitive verbs 48 – strong pronouns and 162 – syntax of case-marking 448 – vocative 49 – identical to ablative in masculine nouns 48 – of adjectives used as nouns 156 – particles assigning 375 – variant forms in Class III adjectives 118 – weak pronouns and 166 – with verbs of sensation 450 Causation see Verbs. with /kə/.no/ 'if.yā/ 'either..and' 446 – /kə.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . causative Circumpositions see Adpositions. circumpositions 489 Clauses – subordinate see Subordinate clauses Comparative see Adjectives.Index  – mixed case-marking in adpositional objects 311 – direct 48 – identical to ablative in feminine nouns 48 – in present tense 48 – in strong pronouns 157 – objects of adpositions in 309 – predicative adjectives in 154 – strong pronouns and 162 – with intransitive verbs 48 – ergativity and 448 – in Middle dialects 48 – instrumental – causative with instrumental circumposition 441 – expressed by /pə/ 319 – oblique 48 – in objects of adpositional phrases 334 – in past tense 48 – in possessives 163 – in pronominal phrases 365 – in strong pronouns 157 – marking direct object 162 – objects of adpositions in 48. subordinating.

490  Index – Eastern 41 – adposition /də/ in 312 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – unreduced strong possessive pronouns 163 – five-dialect approach 32 – four-dialect approach 35 – international differences 36 – map of dialect regions 32 – Middle 37 – a-initial verbs 207 – adjectives 121 – adposition /lə/ unattested in 316 – aspectual constructions 322 – circumposition /wə ... 186 – and case 448 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 448 – see also Verbs Existential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 348 – soft vs. 348 – Northern 41 – existential constructions 368 – omission of first circumpositional component 330 – Northwest 35 – case marking with /pə/.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .189. pore/ 323 – present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ 236 – three-dialect approach 42 – two-dialect approach 40 – variation 8. 330 – morphology 32 – noun class membership 62 – Western 41 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – interrogative particle 417 – omission of postposition /pori/ 357 – ordinal numbers 144 – vowel mutation in Class I adjectives 104. 105 – vowel mutation in ordinal numbers 105 Dictionaries 459 Distance – distal demonstratives 176 – distal strong pronoun 157 – medial demonstratives 173 – proximal demonstratives 172 Dzadrani see Dialect. hard 41 – Southeast 35 – Southern 41 – Southwest 8. 35 – case marking with /pə/. 330 – pronouns 157 – vowels 13 – Waziri metaphony 37. ta/ 326 – circumpositions 332 – consonants 39 – existential constructions 368 – independent postpositions 329 – omission of first circumpositional component 329. /pər/ 318 – circumposition /tər ..186. 357 – Northeast 35 – elision of weak pronouns 169 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347. Middle Echo words see Reduplication Emphasis – emphatic particle 375 – marked by strong pronouns 161 Ergativity 50. 32 – cardinal numbers 137 – circumpositional combinations 330 – independent postpositions 326. /pər/ 318 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347..

gender – of verbs 185 Human vs. infinitive Instrumental see Case.Index  491 – particle /šta/ 367 – see also Particles. interjections Interrogation – adverbial interrogatives 388 – as indefinites 390 – affirmation questions 374. 369 – optative – with optative particle /kāške/ 374 Gender – in strong pronouns 157 – lack of gender distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in number names 133 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124. non-human distinctions see Animacy Loanwords 102 – adjectives derived from 152 – Arabic – adjectives 119 – adverbs 387 – interjections 377 – nouns 95 – gender assignment 92 – Hindi/Urdu – as dialect signifier 37 – Persian – adjectives 119 – as dialect signifier 37 Location – adverbs of place 380 – constructions with /kara/ 361 – constructions with /pə/.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 286 – of to be 229 – positive commands in present continuous 284 – syntax of commands 419 – usage 283 – optative Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. existential – questions 418 – statements 421 – future – with modal clitic /bə/ 274. 419 – existential questions 418 – interrogative adjectives 147 – interrogative particle /āyā/ 417 – interrogative pronouns 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – with interrogative pronouns 418 – word order 417 Irrealis – counterfactual – with subordinating particle /kə/ 436 Manner – adverbs of 382 – constructions with /pə/ 320 Modals – /kedə́l/ as modal auxiliary 293 – as second-position clitics 404 – constructions with /leka če/ 325 – in present aorist constructions 275 Mood 185 – imperative 258 – continuous vs. aorist 260 – negative 258. instrumental Interjections see Particles.186.189. 126 – of nouns 45 – in Class III 80 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – irregular 92 – loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – see also Nouns. /pər/ 318 – in relative clauses 428 – locative alternation 413 Indirect discourse see Reported speech Infinitive see Verbs.

189.492  Index – aorist 294 – of kinship terms 93 – continuous 294 – switching animacy categories 68 – counterfactual constructions with /kaški/ – Class I 52 373 – animate 55 – expressing potential 293 – derived feminine nouns 71 – lack of PNG distinction in 261 – derived masculine nouns 55 – particle /kāške/ 261. 79 Nouns 45 – in Middle dialects 73 – abstract 46 – sample paradigms: class IIa 75 – adjectives as 155 – sample paradigms: class IIb 79 – inflection of 79 – stem allomorphy: class IIa 75 – animacy 50 – stem allomorphy: class IIb 79 – and gender 45 – Class III 80 – and stem allomorphy 55 – gender of 80 – Class I nouns 55 – IIIa 84 – of grammatically inanimate nouns – IIIa: ethnic denominations 84 62 – IIIa: feminine 85 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 373 – feminine nouns 67 – inanimate 62 Negative – inflected as Class II 64 – adjectives – kinship terms in /ə́/ 62 – derived with /be-/ 152 – overlap with Class IIb 79 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – plural formation 55 – aorist phrases 406 – professional titles 55.186. 75 Nominalization see Nouns. 64. 69 – /má/ 258. 390 imate 62 – of perfect constructions 291 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects – of potential constructions 298 61. deverbal – IIb 73. 61 – correlative conjunctions 446 – sample paradigms: feminine animate – existential 367 67 – future tense 407 – sample paradigms: feminine inani– infixation in 409 mate 70 – imperative 258 – sample paradigms: masculine ani– only in continuous aspect 260 mate 55 – with particle /mə́/ 286 – sample paradigms: masculine inan– indefinite pronouns 181. 420 – switching animacy categories 68 – /mə́/ 286 – Class II 73 – /ná/ 404 – alternate inflection of Class I nouns – /nə́ šta/ 367 64 – present tense 272 – animacy of 73 – quantifiers 132 – gender of 73 – with /zidi/ 153 – IIa 73. 62. 67.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 71 – particles 404 – stem allomorphy in 55.

/-ye/ 55 – switching animacy categories 68 – deverbal 313 – formation of – deverbal 313 – feminine nouns in /a/. uncontracted denominal verbs 201 Number – in loanwords 95 – lack of number distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124 – in weak pronouns 164 – of nouns 46 – Arabic loanwords 95 – irregular plural forms 92 – mass nouns 46 – of verbs 185 Number names 132 – /yaw/ as indefinite determiner 130 – cardinal 133 – counting 137 – in Middle dialects 136 – inventory 137 – morphology 133 – reduplication of 146 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 52 – in Middle dialects 61 – subordinate noun clauses 429 – used for reported speech 432 – syntax of noun phrases 399 – verbs derived from 200 – contracted vs. /ə/ 71 – from adjectives 155 – masculine nouns in /-e/.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .Index  – IIIb 87 – IIIb: feminine 88 – IIIb: masculine 84. 300 – inflection 45 – irregular 92 – in Middle dialects 71 – kinship terms 93 – Class I in /ə́/ 62 493 – loanwords – class and gender assignment 92 – from Arabic 95 – mass 46 – interrogative adjectives specifying 148 – noun classes 51 – dialectal variation in class membership 62. 92 – of irregular nouns 92 – number of 46 – quantifiers as 130 – reduplication 101 – stem allomorphy in 45. mass – compound 101 – derivation of 98 – by compounding 101 – by suffixes 98 – feminine nouns in /a/. 89 – collective see Nouns. /ə/ 67 – gender 45 – in Class II 73 – in Class III 80 – of abstract nouns 46 – of derived nouns 55 – of irregular nouns 92 – of loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – governing relative clauses 428 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – infinitives as 194.189. 87 – in Middle dialects 89 – sample paradigms: IIIa feminine 85 – sample paradigms: IIIa masculine 84 – sample paradigms: IIIb feminine 88 – sample paradigms: IIIb masculine 87 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects 89 – stress 80.186.

369. /pər/ 322 – ordinal 144 – declined like Class I adjectives 105 – in Middle dialects 146 Orthography see Spelling Participles 185. 436 – /no/ 438 – /pə de čə/ 439 – /wale čə/ 439 – /če/ 325 – /čə/ 181. 365 – emphatic – /xo/ 375 – enclitics 403 – in Middle dialects 405 – existential – /nə́ šta/ 367 – /šta/ 367. 246 – agreement of 265 – aorist 249 – in future perfect tense 289 – in past perfect tense 290 – verbs using 249 – as adjectives 116 – declension of 246 – past 247 – as adjectives 247 – irregular forms 249 – present 246 – as adjectives 246 – as noun modifiers 303 Particles 367 – adverbial – /no/ 404 – /xo/ 404 – as second-position clitics 404 – affirmative – /kə na/ 374. future. 420 – /mə́/ 286 – /ná/ 404 – /nə́ šta/ 367 – optative – /kaški/ 373 – /kāške/ 261 – pronominal see Pronouns. 198 – directional verbal clitics 171 – oblique pronominal clitics 170. 418 – future – /bə/ 274. 425 – /ʣəka 436 – vocative 375 – weak personal pronouns 403 – word order 424 – dialectal variation 258 – in Middle dialects 406 – in separable verb constructions 404 Pashto Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. enclitics – interjections 376 – Arabic loanwords 377 – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – to express emotion 376 – interrogative – /āyā/ 417 – modal 369 – /bāyad/ 373 – /de/ 372. /bə/ – negative – /má/ 258.494  Index – in time expressions with /pə/. 403 – in separable verb constructions see Particles. 403 – /ṣāyi/ 373 – see also Particles.186. 404.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 419 – deictoids 169 – deictic prefixes 172. 275.189. weak – second-position clitics 404 – modal clitic /bə/ 369 – verbal prefixes 209 – weak pronouns 166 – subordinating – /kə/ 435.

as indefinites – indexical vs..189. strong – reciprocal 184 – vs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .186. adpositional constructions 385 – relative 181 – interrogative pronouns as 181 – subordinating particle /čə/ 425 – resumptive 426 – in relative clauses 427 – strong 157 – agreement 161 – as emphatics 161 – distal 157 – fusion with /də/ 313. anaphoric 160 – interrogative 176 – as adverbials 388 – as indefinites 179. lə xw/ā 343 – periphrastic with infinitive 212 – as third conjugation verb 212 Person – lack of person distinction – in optative 261 – in weak pronouns 164 – of verbs 185.. possessive 181 – demonstrative 172 – as dummy subject 430 – distinguished from distal strong pronoun 157 – proximal 172 – vs. 390 – as relatives 181 – human 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – non-human 178 – possessive 178 – omission of 161 – ergativity and 448 – in adpositional phrases 364 – see also Pro-drop – overview 157 – personal see Pronouns. interrogative. 363 – in past tense 161 – in present tense 161 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. determiners 172 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – indefinite see Pronouns.. prepositions Pro-drop 161 495 Pronouns 157 – coreferential 181 – /xpəl/ 182 – vs. lə lure/ 345 – with /də. postpositions Prepositions see Adpositions.Index  – about 7 – dialects 8 – see also Dialect – history 8 – phonology 8 – speakers 7 – variation 8 Passive 414 – adpositional constructions – with /də. 32 – Class II adjectives 113 – consonants in Middle dialects 39 – glide insertion 207 – lenition of possessive /də/ 163 – Waziri metaphony 37 – of denominal verbs 201 – vowel variation in deictoids 170 – see also Allomorphy – see also Pronunciation Plurality see Number Possession – constructions with strong pronouns 163 – constructions with weak pronouns 168 – in conditions of coreference 182 – in interrogatives 178 – with /də/ 313 Postpositions see Adpositions. 191 Phonology 9 – dialectal variation 8.

resumptive – sentential stress and 166 – with intransitive verbs 166 – with transitive verbs 166. 126 – demonstratives 172 – in deictoids 170 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . demonstratives 160 – with intransitive verbs 161 – weak 164 – agreement 166 – as second-position clitics 166 – in past tense 166 – in possessive constructions 168 – in present tense 166 – in separable verb constructions 403 – lack of case distinction in 166 – not allowed as objects of adpositions 167 – omission of 166 – person and number syncretism in 164 – position in sentence 411 – see also Particles.189. 313 – replacing verbal enclitic 405 – vs. purpose clauses Quantifiers 130 – as determiners 131 – as nouns 130 Reduplication – echo words 393 – full vs. partial 393 – in interjections – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – of adjectives 153 – of adverbs 392 – of coreferential pronoun /xpəl/ 182 – of interrogatives 390 – of nouns 101 – of number names 146 Relative clauses see Subordinate clauses. with /čə/. with /čə/. relative clauses – /čə/ + interrogative 181 Reported speech 432 Script 15 – representation of vowels 25 Spelling 1. 15 – international differences 36 – Pashto-specific letters 16 – transcription 28 – table of characters 18 – variation 29 Split ergativity see Ergativity Stem allomorphy see Allomorphy Stress 15 – sentential – and weak pronouns 166 – negative aorist phrases 406 – with future particle /bə/ 370 – word – Class I and Class II adjectives 103 – Class III nouns 89 – Class IIIa adjectives 116 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – Class IV adjectives 119 – demonstrative determiners 124. 421 Pronunciation 37 – consonants 9 – elegant 9 – in Middle dialects 39 – vowels 11 – dialectal variation 32 – elegant 13 – in Middle dialects 13 – Waziri metaphony 37 – see also Phonology Prosody see Stress Purpose see Subordinate clauses. enclitics – resumptive pronouns 426 – see also Pronouns.496  Index – in relative clauses 426 – possessive 163. 422 – word order 404.186.

186. 217 – strong pronouns vs.Index  – negatives 272 – second conjugation aorist base 209. and result clauses 436 – see also Particles. 425.189. cause.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . demonstratives 160 – third conjugation aorist base 210 – verbal group 404 – with directional verbal clitics 171 – with oblique pronominal clitics 170 Subordinate clauses 425 – with /kə/ – conditional clauses 435 – irrealis clauses 275 – with /no/ – result clauses 438 – with /čə/ 425 – adverbial clauses 438 – irrealis clauses 275 – noun clauses 429 – other subordinating conjunctions 440 – purpose clauses 439 – relative clauses 181. comparative Syntax – adpositional phrases 424 – agreement 448 – commands 419 – conjunction 442 – noun phrases 399 – passive clauses 414 – sentence types 410 – subordinate clauses 425 – see also Subordinate clauses – verb phrases 401 497 Tense 185 – and case-marking 448 – future – expressing potential 295 – negative 407 – with particle /bə/ 275 – with present aorist + /bə/ 275 – with present continuous + /ba/ 273 – future perfect 289 – past – /-ə́l-/ in past bases 215 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 294 – oblique case and 48 – oblique case in 48 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – past aorist 256 – usage 281 – past continuous 254 – usage 279 – past perfect 267. 427 – reported speech 432 – temporal clauses 434 – word order 437 – with /ʣəka/ – reason. subordinating Superlative see Adjectives. 290 – past potential 268 – perfect constructions – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 290 – present perfect 287 – present – direct case in 48 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 293 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – present aorist – expressing obligation with 373 – in imperatives 229 – irrealis constructions in 274 – polite requests in 373 – usage 274 – with purpose clauses 440 – present continuous 249 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

287 – present potential 268 Time – adverbs of 378 – constructions with /pə/. aorist – auxiliary 200 – to be see Verbs. 209 – compound 228. 265 – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 267. 290 – past potential 268 – potential 293 – potential constructions 267 – present perfect 265. 363 – periphrastic constructions 440 – vs. denominal – in negative future tense 409 – prefixed 198. 228. 229 – forms of 239 – in light verb constructions 401 – table of bases 220 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 220 – /kedəĺ/ – in light verb constructions 401 – /kedə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200.498  Index – in imperatives 284 – usage 270 – present perfect 265. 228. transcription Transitivity see Verbs Verbs 185 – /biwə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /ixodə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /kawə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200. to be – see also Verbs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . stem 214 – first conjugation 204 – formation from stem 215 – of a-inital verbs 204 – of weak verbs 215 – second conjugation 209 – third conjugation 210 – types of verbal base 214 – causative 227 – /aṛ istə́l/ 441 – /constructions with /pə 320 – constructions with /pə/ 356. verbalizers – base 186 – base vs. 444 – with subordinate noun clauses 430 – aorist see Aspect. 287 – present potential 268 – conjoined verb phrases 443 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. 204 – definition 196 – denominal 200 – see also Verbs.189. 229 – expressing potential 293 – forms of 234 – in periphrastic passive 212 – table of bases 222 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 223 – /rātlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /tlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /wṛəl/ – table of bases 221 – agreement of – in perfect constructions 287 – with conjoined subjects 97. contracted denominals 203 – classification 186 – a-initial 204 – conjugation classes 203 – complex – a-initial 196. /pər/ 320 – subordinate clauses of 434 Transcription see Spelling.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . complex. 209 – prefixed 198 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs. 194 – as citation form 190 – as nouns 300 – as objects of adpositions 306 – formation of 194 – in periphrastic passive 212 – inflected 300 499 – intransitive – denominal 263 – direct case and 48 – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – predicative adjectives and 154 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 166 – irregular – past participles 249 – to be 229 – light verb constructions 401 – agreement in 403 – denominal 200 – middle voice constructions 453 – of preference 452 – of sensation 450 – participles see Participles – passive see Passive – personal endings 191 – root see Verbs. complex. base 214 – strong vs. see Mood. continuous – denominal 200 – adjective agreement in 202 – and word order 412 – aspect of 202 – contracted 200 – in first conjugation 210 – in imperative constructions 202 – lexicalization of 201 – negation of 409 – of sensation 450 – omission of light verb in aorist optative 263 – periphrastic passive 212 – phonology of 201 – uncontracted 200 – with adjective complements 201 – with conjoined objects 149 – with enclitics 405 – derivation of 186 – a-initial 196 – denominal 200 – from denominal constructions 200 – from nouns or adjectives 200 – light verb constructions 401 – prefixed verbs 198 – first conjugation 196. base – second conjugation 196. a-initial – imperative see Mood. imperative. 204 – causatives 227 – formation of aorist base 204 – in Middle dialects 207 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs.186. imperative – infinitive 185. prefixed – simple verb constructions – aorist optative 263 – continuous optative 261 – imperative continuous 258 – past aorist 256 – past continuous 254 – present aorist 252 – present continuous 249 – simplex 196 – stem – multi-stem verbs 219 – one-stem verbs 215 – stem classes 212 – stem vs. 204 – a-initial 197.Index  – continuous see Aspect. weak verbs 212 – table of stem shapes 190 – two-stem verbs 218 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.

239 – /kedə́l/ 228. 374 – see also Irrealis – syntax of noun phrases 401 – third conjugation 196. elegant Word order – denominal verbs and 412 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – in existential constructions 367 – in imperatives 419 – in negatives 420 – negative aorist phrases 406 – negative future 407 – in noun phrases 399 – in questions 177. 229. 229.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 234 – aorist participles of 249 – transitive 234 – weak 215 Vowels – elegant see Pronunciation.500  Index – strong – base formation 218. 219 – list of 224 – multi-stem 219 – tables of multi-stem verbs 220 – two-stem 218 – structure of 187 – subjunctive 252 – present aorist as 252. 210 – see also Verbs. 417 – in statements 411 – ditransitive 413 – with multiple pronouns 421 – in verb phrases 401 – locative alternation 413 – of /də/ clauses 424 – of adpositional phrases 400 – of particles 424 – in separable verb constructions 404 – of relative clauses 426 – of subject and object 48 – of weak pronouns 166 – Pashto as verb-final language 410 – second-position clitics 166. 404 – subordinate clauses 425. 437 – weak pronouns and 421 Waziri see Dialect.189. denominal – to be 228. vowels. 229 – as copula 269 – imperative 229 – in existential statements 421 – in Middle dialects 229 – past continuous 269 – present aorist 275 – present continuous 269 – transitive – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – locative alternation in three-argument predicates 413 – past tense 48 – strong pronouns and 161 – verbalizers 234 – weak pronouns and 166 – unergative 453 – verbalizers 200 – /kawə́l/ 228. Middle Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.

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