Anne Boyle David
Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Mouton-CASL Grammar Series

Editors
Anne Boyle David
Claudia M. Brugman
Thomas J. Conners
Amalia Gnanadesikan

Volume 1

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Anne Boyle David

Descriptive Grammar
of Pashto
and its Dialects
Edited by
Claudia M. Brugman

DE GRUYTER
MOUTON

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Funding/Support: This material is based upon work supported, in whole or in part, with funding
from the United States Gouvernment. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the University of Maryland, College Park and/or any agency or entity of the United States
Gouvernment. Nothing in this report is intended to be and shall not be treated or construed as an
endorsement or recommendation by the University of Maryland, United States Gouvernment, or
the authors of the product, process, or service that is the subject of this report. No one may use
any information contained or based on this report in advertisements or promotional materials
related to any company product, process, or service or in support of other commercial purposes.
The Contracting Officer’s Representative for this project is John Walker, Gouvernment Technical
Director at CASL, (301) 226-8912, jwalker@casl.umd.edu.

ISBN 978-1-61451-303-2
e-ISBN 978-1-61451-231-8
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A CIP catalog record for this book has been applied for at the Library of Congress.
Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie;
detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.dnb.de.
© 2014 University of Maryland. All rights reserved.
Cover photo: A Khan Mamdi carpet from Pakistan. Image graciously provided by Bunyaad Oriental
Rugs, committed to producing hand knotted Oriental rugs made by fairly paid adults
(http://rugs.tenthousandvillages.com).
Printing: Hubert & Co. GmbH & Co. KG, Göttingen
♾ Printed on acid-free paper
Printed in Germany
www.degruyter.com

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM


To my teacher, Eric P. Hamp

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Foreword
It is remarkable that, in this age of unprecedented global communication and interaction, the majority of the world’s languages are as yet not adequately described. Without basic grammars and dictionaries, these languages and their communities of speakers are in a real sense inaccessible to the rest of the world. This state of affairs is antithetical to today’s interconnected global mindset.
This series, undertaken as a critical part of the mission of the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL), is directed at remedying this
problem. One goal of CASL’s research is to provide detailed, coherent descriptions
of languages that are little studied or for which descriptions are not available in English. Even where grammars for these languages do exist, in many instances they are
decades out of date or limited in scope or detail.
While the criticality of linguistic descriptions is indisputable, the painstaking work
of producing grammars for neglected and under-resourced languages is often insufficiently appreciated by scholars and graduate students more enamored of the latest theoretical advances and debates. Yet, without the foundation of accurate descriptions of
real languages, theoretical work would have no meaning. Moreover, without professionally produced linguistic descriptions, technologically sophisticated tools such as
those for automated translation and speech-to-text conversion are impossible. Such
research requires time-consuming labor, meticulous description, and rigorous analysis.
It is hoped that this series will contribute, however modestly, to the ultimate goal
of making every language of the world available to scholars, students, and language
lovers of all kinds. I would like to take this opportunity to salute the linguists at CASL
and around the world who subscribe to this vision as their life’s work. It is truly a noble
endeavor.

Richard D. Brecht
Founding Executive Director
University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Similarly. much work had been done.186. Claudia M. One of our goals is for these grammars to reach a broad audience. In commencing our work. the authors of that grammar have relied on close working relationships with native speakers. some in regions associated with political. All grammars in the series. Gnanadesikan Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. corpora of naturalistic speech and text. the availability of source material in the target language varies widely: in some cases. we were surprised at how many of the world’s major languages lack accessible descriptive resources such as reference grammars and bilingual dictionaries. We look forward to the publication of many such works. Each of the grammars is presented as a springboard to further research. which for every language continues to be warranted. In cases where such fieldwork was impractical. For that reason the authors have worked to make the volumes accessible by providing extensive exemplification and theoretically neutral descriptions oriented to language learners as well as to linguists. we realize that in many cases they will supply that role as well. these circumstances often make it difficult to conduct intensive. include the native orthography. While they are not intended as pedagogical grammars. Conners Anne Boyle David Amalia E. in-country fieldwork. furthermore. where possible. comparative. computational.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . and their own corpora allow. This series of grammars presents some of the linguistic description we have undertaken to fill such gaps. and pedagogical developments in the future. and. while for other communities plentiful written texts exist. virtually no materials in English existed. They are spoken in areas of international significance.Series Editors’ Preface This series arose out of research conducted on several under-described languages at the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language. The authors have worked with the available resources to provide descriptions as comprehensive as these materials. or environmental instability. Brugman Thomas J. Providing resources for these languages is therefore of particular importance. accompanied where relevant by Romanization. the native speaker consultants. but had never been collected into a single overview. in other cases. The conditions for data-gathering—and hence our approach to it—vary with the particular situation. The languages covered by the series represent a broad range of language families and typological phenomena. We found the descriptive state of each language in the series to be different from that of the others: in some cases. social. However.189. Among the ongoing projects at the Center is the development of such resources for various under-described languages. We hope that our empirical work will provide a base for theoretical. literacy and media are very sparse.

189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .186.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

Wilma Heston. and a free translation. Furthermore. along with a detailed exposition of the dialectal situation. it is particularly useful not only to the language expert but also to the language learner.G. Habibullah Tegey and Barbara Robson. has undergone longterm influence from the many neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. D. such that the descriptions and explications contained within this grammar will be of use not only to descriptive linguists. Georg Morgenstierne.N. D. and David Pate. among them J. available online for download to purchasers of this volume. In our description we have attempted to be theory-neutral without being simplistic. demographic shifts. and migrating peoples. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.Preface Pashto is a challenging language to study and describe. and Grjunberg 1987.c. and complex contact situations have contributed to significant dialectal variation. Among the features our grammar adds to the corpus of Pashto research are some new analyses of previously described data and coverage of all the regional dialects in a single volume. including Lebedev 1996. We provide extensive examples and full paradigms. Two areas in particular that we wish we could devote more time to are syntax and prosody. Lebedev 2003. has led to alternating cycles of isolation and upheaval in the various Pashto-speaking regions. Centuries of political turmoil. Farooq Babrakzai. Shafeev. Pashtoon. Although native orthography is frequently omitted from descriptive grammars. complemented by naturalistic corpora and work with native speaker consultants. data presented in both native orthography and transcription.186. the current political situation makes in-country fieldwork highly problematic. The data for this grammar come from a wide range of printed resources. a formal grammar which can be used to feed a morphological parser. Lorimer. p. Taylor Roberts.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . Manfred Lorenz.¹ Without their diligent scholarship we would not have been able to begin this task. at the heart of a historical crossroad for traders. This grammar builds on the considerable previous work of many scholars. Herbert Penzl. invaders. a member of the Iranian language group itself. although the description 1 We have been made aware of a substantial literature on Pashto written in Russian (Lutz Rzehak. but also to those from a variety of theoretic backgrounds. a morpheme-bymorpheme gloss line.189. However. our primary loyalty is to the language being described and not to a particular theoretic approach to Language. and finally.A. for several reasons. Any abstract description of a language is necessarily informed by theory at some level. we have unfortunately been able to consult Grjunberg only briefly and Lebedev not at all. Its location in areas of rugged terrain. A descriptive grammar is never really finished. complete with full interlinearization of the example sentences: a native script line. a phonemic transcription. MacKenzie.). Pashto. Daniel Septfonds. In addition. Naseer Hoonar Pashtoon and Zeeya A. We aim to be theoretically informed in as broad a way as possible.

The authors would like to thank all our colleagues at the University of Maryland Center for the Advanced Study of Language for their support—in particular. We also thank the generous native speakers of Pashto who worked with us patiently. Michael Marlo. Evelyn Browne. also deserves special mention for his assistance in promoting the idea of this series and for his constant. Wilma Heston. and without whom this volume would not exist. Tristan Purvis. James Caron. Thomas Conners. I especially thank Claudia Brugman for her conscientious editing of this entire book and Sarah Goodman for her tireless work finding and making sense of naturally occurring example sentences. Zeeya Pashtoon. Nathanael Lynn.xii  Preface of Pashto syntax provided here is more detailed than previous overviews available in English and benefits from analyses of individual phenomena made by other scholars. All of these people have worked with scrupulous care to ensure that as few mistakes and misstatements crept into this book as possible. Amalia Gnanadesikan. who is much missed since his retirement. Farooq Babrakzai. CASL’s Executive Director. Amy Weinberg. always stimulating project. infectious enthusiasm for the enterprise of language description. for being willing to disagree with me when I was wrong. Many people have helped in the creation of this book. and for never losing their senses of humor. and our founding Executive Director. Mohammed Shahab Khan. and we view this volume as a springboard for scholars to continue working on this fascinating language in all its varieties. Shawna Rafalko. Richard Brecht—as well as Pashto language experts in the United States Government. Craig Kopris. Anne Boyle David Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. There remains much work to be done on Pashto. Katherine Burk. those that remain fall to me alone. Paul Rodrigues.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . and Tamara Wehmeir. Our colleague and patron David Cox. Individuals who have had a part in producing this manuscript or advising our research include Nikki Adams.189. And finally. I would like to thank my co-authors for devoting themselves so diligently to this sometimes frustrating.

1 Scope of this book  1 1.1 The script  15 3.1.2 Vowel transcription  11 3.1.2.1 Phonetics and phonology  9 3.2.2.1.1 Word-initial vowels  25 3.2.2 “Elegant” consonants  9 3.1.3 Stress  15 3.2.1.1.2 Word-internal vowels  26 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.1.2 Orthography  15 3.2.2 2.3.2 The Pashto Language  7 Background  7 Population of speakers  7 History and classification  8 Dialectal variation  8 3 Phonology and Orthography  9 3.2 Orthography  1 1.1.3 Tables and examples  2 1.1.2.1.4 Middle dialect vowels  13 3.2.2 Tables of letters and numerals  18 3.1 2.4 Abbreviations and symbols  4 2 2.1 2.2.1.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .2.1.1 Inventory  10 3.1.1.186.2.3.Contents Foreword  vii Series Editors’ Preface  ix Preface  xi 1 About this Grammar  1 1.1.189.3 Representation of vowels  25 3.1 Letters unique to Pashto  16 3.2 Vowels  10 3.1.3 “Elegant” vowels  13 3.2.1 Inventory  9 3.1 Consonants  9 3.

3.2.2 Middle dialect consonants  39 4.1 Direct case  48 5.1 Inflection  45 5.2.2.2.1 Gender  45 5.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .1 Two dialects  40 4.3.1.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  67 5.1 Middle dialect vowels  37 4.1 Overview  52 5.3 The four dialects of General Pashto  35 4.4 Animacy  50 5.3.1.xiv  3.2 Class I masculine nouns  55 5.2 Three dialects  42 5 Nouns  45 5.2 Oblique case  48 5.2 3.3.4.3.1 Dialect marking in this work  34 4.2.3.2.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri  61 5.4.3 Case  47 5.3.2 Inflectional affixation  51 5.3.2 Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations  52 5.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples  34 4.1.5 Split ergativity  50 5.2.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto  55 5.1 Introduction  31 4.1.2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.3 Class I  52 5.2 Number  46 5.5 Other approaches  40 4.1 International differences  36 4.1.3.1 Dialect marking in tables  34 4.3.2.2.4 The Middle dialects  37 4.2.2.2.2.4 Vocative case  49 5.3 3.5.3.3 Ablative case  48 5.1 Introduction  51 5.2.1.1.3.3.1.2.3 Contents Word-final vowels  28 Rationale for transcription system  28 Orthographic variation  29 4 Pashto Dialects  31 4.1.186.189.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns  67 5.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  62 5.5.3.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns  69 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3.3.3.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects  31 4.

2 Stem allomorphy  104 6.2 General Pashto Class II  109 6.4.5 Animacy in Class I adjectives  108 6.2.1 5.1.2.1.2.186.1.Contents  5.1.1 5.3.2.2.1 General Pashto Class I  104 6.1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives  103 6.2.2 5.2 5.5.2.4.2.2.1 5.2.1.2.1 Introduction  103 6.6 5.4 5.4 5.189.4.5.2.2.2.2.2.2.4.2.1.2.3 5.3 5.5 5.2.2.1.4.2 Stem allomorphy  110 6.5.6.2.2.2.1 Case-marking suffixes  104 6.1.5.2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xv .2 5.3.2.1 5.2.1.1.1 5.1.1.2.1.3.1.2.5.3 General Pashto Class III  116 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.5.1.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.1.1 5.1.5.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy  105 6.6.1.5.4.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns  71 Class II  73 Overview  73 General Pashto Class IIa  75 General Pashto Class IIb  79 Class III  80 Overview  80 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto  80 Class IIIa  84 Masculine Class IIIa nouns  84 Feminine Class IIIa nouns  85 Class IIIb  87 Masculine Class IIIb nouns  87 Feminine Class IIIb nouns  88 Class III in Waziri  89 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto  92 Kinship terms  93 Arabic borrowings  95 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  97 Derivational morphology and loanwords  98 Derivational morphology of nouns  98 Nouns derived with suffixes  98 Compounds  101 Reduplication of nouns  101 Loanwords  102 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers  103 6.4.4 5.2 5.4.2.2.1.1.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy  107 6.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  103 6.2.3 5.2 5.2.5.2.3.1 5.3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy  111 6.2 5.1 Case-marking suffixes  109 6.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy  115 6.

4.xvi  6.9 6.5.4.2.9.2.1 7.2 6.5.2.2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .3 6.2.2.2.2.2.8.1 6.1 6.8.4 7 7.1.2 6.189.3 6.1.2 6.8.3 6.9.8.2 6.5 6.2 6.9.1.1 6.2 6.2 7.3 6.1.7 6.5.4 6.1 6.4.3 6.2. /ar/ ‘every’  131 The quantifier /heʦ/ ‘none’  132 Number names  132 Cardinal numbers in Pashto  133 Morphology  133 Inventory  137 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri  144 Reduplication of number names  146 Interrogative adjectives  147 Inflection of conjoined adjectives  149 Derivation of adjectives  150 Derivational suffixes  150 Some Class I derivational suffixes  150 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes  152 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes  152 Negators  152 Compound adjectives  153 Reduplication of adjectives  153 Usage  154 Attributive and predicative adjectives  154 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives  155 Comparatives and superlatives  156 Adjectives as adverbs  156 ‫یو‬ ‫ټولـ‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هیڅ‬ Pronouns  157 Overview  157 Strong personal pronouns  157 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects  157 Usage  161 Strong possessive pronouns  163 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.9.2 6.2.1 6.4 6.2 6.5.2.1 6.3 6.8.3 6.3.1.5.8 6.186.3 Contents Class IIIa  116 Class IIIb  118 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives)  119 Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives  121 Waziri Class I  121 Waziri Class II  122 Waziri Class III  122 Determiners and definiteness  124 Demonstrative determiners  124 The indefinite determiner /yaw/ ‘one’  130 Non-numerical noun quantifiers  130 The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’  130 The quantifier /har/.8.1.3.2.1 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.3.1.2 7.1.8.1 7.2 6.1 6.3.1 6.

2.2.2.2.2. and /wər/  169 Oblique pronominal clitics  170 Directional verbal clitics  171 Deictic prefixes  172 Demonstratives  172 Interrogative pronouns  176 Indefinite pronouns  179 Relative pronouns  181 Expressions of coreference  181 Reciprocal pronouns  184 Other pro-forms  184 ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ 8 Verbs  185 8.5.2.4.4 Denominal verb constructions  200 8.5.2 7.4 Second conjugation  209 8.2.2 7.3.2.2 7.2 Verb components  187 8.2.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/  212 8.4.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs  210 8.5 Conjugation classes  203 8.5.3.1 Properties of verbs  185 8.2.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects  207 8.3 The infinitive  194 8.3.1 7.5 7.4.2.9 7. /dər/.5.2.2 Classifying verbs  186 8.5.1 7.4 Simplex and complex verbs  196 8.3.2 a-initial verbs  196 8.1 The four verb bases  214 8.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xvii .2.1 7.2.3 7.2.4.6.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto  204 8.1 Overview of conjugation classes  203 8.2.5.3 7.2.186.4.6 7.5.11 Weak personal pronouns  164 Forms  164 Usage  166 Occurrence restrictions  166 Possessive constructions  168 Deictoids: /rā/.2 Weak verbs (one stem)  215 ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.6.4 7.2.1 Overview  196 8.4.2 Personal suffixes  191 8.7 7.1 Overview  185 8.2.1.1.3 Prefixed verbs  198 8.10 7.4.Contents  7.6 Stem classes and the four bases  212 8.8 7.2.5.2.1 Structure of the verb  187 8.5.5 Third conjugation  210 8.

6.1 8.9 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.5.5.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM ‫کول‬ .3.5.5 8.2.1 8.6.4.8. to do’  239 Participles  246 Present participle  246 Past participle  247 Irregularities among past participles  249 Simple verb constructions  249 Present continuous  249 Present aorist  252 Past continuous  254 Past aorist  256 Continuous imperative  258 Aorist imperative  260 Continuous optative  261 Aorist optative  263 Compound verb constructions  265 Perfect constructions  265 Present perfect  265 Past perfect  267 Potential constructions  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 Verb usage  269 Uses of the verb to be  269 to be as a copula  269 to be as an auxiliary verb  270 Simple verb constructions  270 Present continuous  270 Negation of present tense verbs  272 Present continuous for expressing future events  273 Present aorist  274 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/  275 Other uses of the present aorist  275 Past continuous  279 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.1 8.1 8.2.8.3.186.2.189.2.2 8.3.8 8.2.2.2.3.3 8.4.4.2.3 8.5.2 8.5.1 8.2.4.2.3.4 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2.3.2 8.2.3.4.1.3.1 8.1.7 8.8 8.2.7 8.9.2.3 Contents Strong verbs (more than one stem)  217 Strong verbs with two stems  218 Strong verbs with three or four stems  219 List of strong verbs  224 The causative morpheme  227 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/  228 Forms of to be  229 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.3 8.3 8.1.1 8.1.2.1.5.3.5.9.3.5.2.2.5.1 8.1.1 8.9.8.3.2.4.1 8.2.2.6.2 8.2 8.2 8.5.xviii  8.6.5 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.1 8.2.2.2.6 8.5.2.

Contents 

8.5.2.4
8.5.2.5
8.5.3
8.5.3.1
8.5.3.2
8.5.3.3
8.5.4
8.5.4.1
8.5.4.2
8.5.4.3
8.5.4.4
8.5.5
8.5.5.1
8.5.5.2
8.5.6

Past aorist  281
Imperative  283
Compound constructions: perfect  287
Present perfect  287
Past perfect  290
Negation of perfect tenses  291
Compound constructions: potential  293
Expressing potential present events  293
Expressing potential past events  294
Expressing potential future events  295
Negative  298
Infinitives  299
Infinitives as nouns  299
The periphrastic passive  300
Present participles  303

9
Adpositions  305
9.1
Overview  305
9.2
Adpositions and case assignment  306
9.2.1
Assignment of oblique case  307
9.2.2
Assignment of ablative case  308
9.2.3
Assignment of direct case  309
9.2.4
Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions  311
9.3
Prepositions  312
9.3.1
The prepositions /də/, /de/, /ye/, /e/ ‘of’  312
9.3.1.1
The General Pashto preposition /də/  312
9.3.1.2
Complex adpositions using /də/  313
9.3.1.3
The Middle dialect prepositions /de/, /ye/, /e/  314
9.3.1.4
Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/  315
9.3.2
The General Pashto preposition /lə/ ‘from’  316
9.3.3
The preposition
/be/ ‘without’  317

‫د‬

9.3.4
9.3.4.1
9.3.4.2
9.3.4.3
9.3.4.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3

‫د‬

‫له‬
‫بې‬
The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/  317
The locational ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘on’  318
The instrumental ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘with, by means of’  319
The temporal ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘at, on’  320
With aspectual verbs  322
The preposition /tər/ ‘'up to'’  323
The preposition
/leka/ ‘like’  324
Postpositions  325
Overview  325
The postposition /ta/ ‘to, for’  326
The postposition
/səra/ ‘with’  327

‫تر‬
‫لکه‬

‫ته‬
‫سره‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

xix

xx 

9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.4.7
9.4.8
9.5
9.5.1
9.5.1.1
9.5.1.2
9.5.1.3
9.5.2
9.5.2.1
9.5.2.2
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.5.5
9.6
9.6.1
9.6.2
9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2
9.7.3
9.7.4
9.7.5

Contents

‫ضدی‬
‫و ړاندې‬
‫غوندې‬
‫باتدې‬

The postposition
/zidi/ ‘against’  327
The postposition
/wṛānde/ ‘before’  328
The postposition
/ɣunde/ ‘like’  328
The postposition
/bānde/  328
Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects  329
Circumpositions  329
Circumpositions with /də/  334
General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/  334
Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/, /e/  336
Complex circumpositions with /də/  337
General Pashto circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP simple circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP complex circumpositions with
/lə...na/  350
Circumpositions with /pə/  353
Circumpositions with /tər/  357
A Middle dialect circumposition with /wə/  359
Coalesced adpositional phrases  360
Pro-adpositional phrases  360
The adpositional phrase
/kara/ ‘at the home of’  361
Adposition usage  362
/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object  363
/də/ and strong pronoun objects  363
/pə/ and
/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction  363
Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions  364
Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics  365

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫له‬

‫له‬
‫نه‬...‫له‬

‫په‬
‫تر‬

‫و‬

‫کره‬

‫نه‬
‫د‬
‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

10
Other Lexical Elements  367
10.1
Particles  367
10.1.1
The existential particle
/šta/  367
10.1.2
Modal particles  369
10.1.2.1
The modal clitic /bə/  369
10.1.2.2
The modal particles
/de/ and
/bāyad/  372
10.1.2.3
The modal particle
/ṣāyi/ ‘may; must’  373

‫شته‬

‫به‬

10.1.2.4
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.1.6
10.2
10.2.1

‫دې‬
‫باید‬
‫ښایي‬
The optative particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/  373
Affirmation particles  374
The emphatic clitic
/xo/  375
Vocative particles  375
Interjections  376
Adverbs  377
Adverbs of time  378

‫خو‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

Contents 

10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.3.1
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.2.8
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2

Adverbs of place  380
Adverbs of manner  382
The adverb
/səra/  385
Adverbs of degree  386
Adverbs borrowed from Arabic  387
Adverbial interrogatives  388
Adjectives as adverbs  391
Reduplication of adverbs  392
Reduplication  393
Full (morphological) reduplication  393
Partial reduplication: echo words  393

‫سره‬

11
Syntax  399
11.1
Overview  399
11.2
Phrasal syntax  399
11.2.1
Noun phrases  399
11.2.2
Adpositional phrases  400
11.2.3
Verb phrases  401
11.2.3.1
Light verb constructions  401
11.2.3.2
Elements in the verbal group  403
11.2.3.2.1 The verbal group in General Pashto  403
11.2.3.2.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects  405
11.2.3.2.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase  406
11.3
Main clause sentence types  410
11.3.1
Declaratives  411
11.3.1.1
Order of elements in declaratives  411
11.3.1.2
Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses  413
11.3.1.3
Locative alternation  413
11.3.1.4
Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics  414
11.3.1.5
Passive clauses  414
11.3.2
Interrogatives  417
11.3.2.1
Yes-or-no questions with the particle
/āyā/  417
11.3.2.2
Information questions with interrogative pronouns  418
11.3.2.3
Affirmation questions with the particle
/kə na/  419
11.3.3
Imperatives  419
11.3.3.1
The imperative verb form  419
11.3.3.2
The negative imperative particle
/má/  420
11.3.4
Generic and existential sentences with
/šta/  421
11.3.5
Other principles of word order in main clauses  421
11.3.5.1
Weak pronouns  421
11.3.5.2
Particles  424
11.3.5.3
Adpositional phrases in main clauses  424

‫آیا‬

‫که نه‬

‫مه‬

‫شته‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

xxi

xxii  Contents

‫د‬

11.3.5.4
Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/  424
11.4
Some subordinate clause types  425
11.4.1
Relative clauses  425
11.4.2
Noun complement clauses  428
11.4.3
Verb complement clauses  429
11.4.3.1
Reported speech  432
11.4.4
Subordinate clauses as modifiers  434
11.4.4.1
Subordinate clauses with time reference  434
11.4.4.2
Conditional and counterfactual clauses with
/kə/ ‘if’  435
11.4.4.3
Subordinate clauses with
/ʣəka/ ‘because’  436
11.4.4.4
Subordinate clauses expressing result  438
11.4.4.5
Subordinate clauses expressing reason  439
11.4.4.6
Subordinate clauses expressing purpose  439
11.4.4.7
Subordinate clauses of concession  440
11.5
Periphrastic causatives  440
11.6
Conjunction  442
11.6.1
Coordinating conjunctions  443
11.6.1.1
/aw/ ‘and’  443
11.6.1.2
/yā/ ‘or’  444
11.6.1.3
/xo/ ‘but’  445
11.6.1.4
/(aw) byā/ ‘then’  446
11.6.2
Correlative conjunctions  446
11.7
Principles of case-marking and agreement  448
11.7.1
Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity  448
11.7.2
Agreement of conjoined items  450
11.7.3
Concordant adverbs  450
11.7.4
Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference  450
11.7.4.1
Four denominal verbs of sensation  450
11.7.4.2
Denominal
/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like, enjoy’  451
11.7.4.3
Three more expressions of preference  452
11.7.5
An unergative or middle voice construction  453
A
Structure of this Grammar  455
A.1
Overview  455
A.2
Audience  456
A.3
More on uses of this grammar  457
A.3.1
The grammar as a basis for computational tools  457
A.3.1.1
Building a parser and generator  458
A.3.2
The grammar as a description  460
A.4
Spell correction  461
A.5
Grammar adaptation  462
A.5.1
Manual grammar building  462
A.5.2
Automated grammar adaptation  463

‫ځکه‬

‫که‬

‫او‬
‫یا‬
‫خو‬
‫)او( بیا‬

-‫خوښېږ‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

List of Tables 

A.6

Formatting the grammar for viewing  464

B
B.1
B.2

Sources of Pashto Data  467
Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  467
List of web pages mined for language data  474

Bibliography  477
Index  487

List of Figures

4.1
4.2

Pashto dialects  32
Waziri metaphony  39

List of Tables

‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’  3
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make, to do’  4

1.1
1.2

Class I, stem alternation:
Present continuous of

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

Pashto consonants  9
“Elegant,” or formal, consonants  10
Pashto vowels  10
Pashto diphthongs  11
Comparison among vowel transcription systems  12
Comparison among M vowel transcription systems  14
Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak  16
Pashto letters with dot below and dot above  17
Pashto affricate letters based on  17
Pashto letters based on  17
Pashto alphabet  19
Positional variants of letters  22

‫ی‬

‫ح‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

xxiii

xxiv 

List of Tables

3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18

Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals  24
Short vowel diacritics  25
Word-initial vowels  26
Pashto initial digraphs  26
Word-internal vowels  27
Word-final vowels  28

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects  33
Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words  33
Four dialects of General Pashto  35
Tribal and geographical associations by dialect  36
Waziri metaphony  38
Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP  40
Alternative dialect codes  40
Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto  42
Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared  43
Three-dialect approach  44
Pronunciation of  44

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23

GP Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
Middle dialect Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
GP Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
Middle dialect Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
GP Class I Masc. animate—morphophonemic alternations  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/wextə́/ ‘hair’  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bandá/ ‘slave’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bāzú/ ‘arm’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/darzí/ ‘tailor’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/plandár/ ‘stepfather’  60
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/pil/ ‘elephant’  60
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’  62
Class I Masc. inanimate—stem allomorphy  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣar/ ‘mountain’  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/daftár/ ‘office’  64
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’  65
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/psə/ ‘sheep’  65
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’  65

‫ژ‬

‫وېښته‬
‫بنده‬
‫ډاکو‬
‫بازو‬
‫میرزا‬
‫ماما‬
‫درزي‬
‫پلندر‬
‫پیل‬

‫غر‬
‫دفتر‬
‫غوږ‬
‫پسه‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

List of Tables 

5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28

Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’  66
GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy  67
GP Class I Fem. animate:
/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’  68

5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
5.35
5.36
5.37
5.38
5.39
5.40
5.41
5.42
5.43
5.44
5.45
5.46
5.47
5.48
5.49
5.50
5.51
5.52
5.53
5.54
5.55

GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/bizó/ ‘monkey’  68
GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/brexnā/ ‘lightning’  69
GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy  69
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/áspa/ ‘mare’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/miāšt/ ‘mouth’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/raṇā́/ ‘light’  71
Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’  72
GP Class IIa noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIb noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy  75
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/tanúr/ ‘oven’  77
GP Class IIa animate/inanimate:
/ɣal/ ‘thief’  78
GP Class IIa animate:
/melmá/ ‘guest’  78
GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy  79
GP Class IIb:
/duxmán/ ‘enemy’  80
GP Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  81
GP Class IIIa Fem. noun suffixes  82
GP Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIb Fem. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIa Masc. animate:
/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’  84
GP Class IIIa Masc. inanimate:
/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’  85
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’  86
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/koranə́y/ ‘family’  86

5.56
5.57
5.58
5.59
5.60
5.61
5.62
5.63
5.64

‫خواښې‬

‫بیزو‬
‫برېښنا‬

‫اسپه‬
‫میاشت‬
‫رڼا‬

‫پالېز‬
‫پښتون‬
‫تنور‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫غل‬

‫دښمن‬

‫سپی‬
‫ګډی‬
‫سپۍ‬
‫کورنۍ‬
GP Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’  87
GP Class IIIb Masc.: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’  88
GP Class IIIb Fem.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’  89
Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-áy/  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-o/  91
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-yé/  91
Waziri Class IIIa Masc. animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’  91

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

xxv

xxvi  List of Tables

5.65
5.66
5.67
5.68
5.69
5.70
5.71
5.72
5.73
5.74
5.75

Waziri Class III Masc. inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’  91
Waziri Class III Fem.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’  91
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’  92
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’  92
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/mor/ ‘mother’  93
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’  94
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/zoy/ ‘son’  94
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/lur/ ‘daughter’  95
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’  96
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mawzó'/ ‘topic’  96
Derived noun suffixes  98

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

GP Class I adjective suffixes  104
GP Class I, stem alternation:
/spək/ ‘light’  106
GP Class I,
/wár/ alternation:
/zṛawár/ ‘brave’  106
GP Class I,
/ján/ alternation:
/ɣamján/ ‘sad’  107
GP Class I, consonant-final adjective, no alternation:
/palwánḍ/
‘fat’  108
GP Class II adjective suffixes  109
GP Class II, -ə́-final adjective:
/terə́/ ‘sharp’  111
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/pox/ ‘cooked, ripe’  112
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/ṛund/ ‘blind’  112
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/tod/ ‘hot’; stem = /tawd/  113
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’; stem = /xwag/
or /xwaẓ/  114
GP Class II, Syncope II:
/sur/ ‘red’  114
GP Class II, Syncope II and epenthesis:
/trix/ ‘bitter’  115

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21
6.22
6.23
6.24
6.25
6.26

‫مور‬
‫وراره‬
‫زوی‬
‫لور‬
‫مجاهد‬
‫موضوع‬

‫سپک‬
‫زړهور‬
‫غمجن‬

‫ـور‬
‫ـجن‬

‫پلونډ‬

‫تېره‬

‫پوخ‬
‫ړوند‬
‫تود‬
‫خوږ‬

‫سور‬

‫تریخ‬

‫اوم‬

GP Class II, consonant-final adjective, no stem allomorphy:
/um/
‘raw, green’  116
GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes  117
GP Class IIIa:
/zalmáy/ ‘young’  117
GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes  118
GP Class IIIb:
/sə́way/ ‘burnt’  119
GP Class IV:
/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’  120
GP Class IV:
/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’  120
GP Class IV:
/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’  121
Waziri Class I adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class II adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class III adjective suffixes  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’  123

‫زلمی‬

‫سوی‬
‫ښایسنه‬
‫یوازي‬
‫هوسا‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

List of Tables 

‫دا‬
‫دغه‬

6.27
6.28
6.29
6.30
6.31
6.32
6.33
6.34
6.35

Proximal demonstrative /dā/  124
Proximal demonstrative
/dáɣa/  126
Medial demonstratives  128
Distal demonstratives  129
GP /yaw/ ‘one’  133
Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’  134
GP
/dwa/ ‘two’  134
Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’  134
GP
/dre/ ‘three’  135

6.36
6.37
6.38
6.39
6.40
6.41
6.42
6.43

GP
/ʦalor/ ‘four’  135
Waziri plural forms of declinable number names  137
GP numerals and number names  138
Waziri number names that differ from GP forms  144
GP Class I:
/lasám/ ‘tenth’  145
Waziri irregular ordinal number names  146
GP interrogative adjectives  147
Waziri interrogative adjectives  147

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21

GP strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
GP strong pronouns, 3rd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 3rd person  159
Distal 3rd person pronoun
/haɣá/  159
Possessive pronouns  164
GP weak pronouns  165
Middle dialect weak pronouns  165
Distribution pattern for weak pronouns  166
Oblique pronominal clitics  171
GP proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
Middle dialect proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
GP proximal demonstrative
/daɣá/  174
Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
GP medial demonstrative
/haɣ-ə́/  175
Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
GP distal demonstrative
/huɣ-ə́/  176
GP human interrogative pronoun
/ʦok/  177
Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/  177

8.1
8.2

Structure of weak (one stem) verbs  188
Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs  189

‫یو‬

‫دوه‬

‫درې‬
‫څلور‬

‫لسم‬

‫هغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫هوغه‬

‫څوک‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

xxvii

xxviii 

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17
8.18
8.19
8.20
8.21
8.22
8.23
8.24
8.25
8.26
8.27
8.28
8.29
8.30
8.31
8.32
8.33
8.34
8.35
8.36
8.37
8.38
8.39
8.40
8.41
8.42

List of Tables

Stem shapes  190
GP verbs: personal suffixes  192
Waziri verbs: personal suffixes  193
Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes  193
Infinitives  195
Deictic verb prefixes  198
Non-productive verb prefixes  199
Examples of prefixed verbs  200
Behavior of denominal verbs  202
Examples of denominal verbs  203
GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases  205
GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases  206
Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense)  209
Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense)  211
Verbs and their stems: strong and weak  213
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive)  216
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive)  216
Weak verb bases: second conjugation  217
Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems)  218
Strong suppletive verb, first conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases:
/kawə́l/ ‘to do’  220
Strong verb bases:
/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’  221
Strong verb bases:
/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’  221
Strong verb bases:
/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’  221
Strong verb bases:
/kedə́l/ ‘to become’  222
Strong verb bases:
/tlə́l/ ‘to go’  222
Strong verb bases:
/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’  222
Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  224
Strong verbs  224
Causative verbs  228
GP present continuous of to be  230
Waziri present continuous of to be  230
Dzadrani present continuous of to be  231
GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231

‫کول‬
‫وړل‬
‫بېول‬
‫ایښودل‬
‫کېدل‬
‫تلل‬
‫راتلل‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.140
Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM

81 8.46 8.52 8.186. second conjugation  253 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.62 8.51 8.68 8.44 8.48 8.61 8.64 8.63 8. to do’  241 Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.67 8.82 8.77 8.60 8.49 8.56 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  250 Present continuous.53 8.70 8.45 8. to do’  239 Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’  243 GP past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.72 8.73 8.76 8.59 8.54 8. to do’  245 Present participles  246 Present participle: declension  247 Past participles  248 Past participle: declension  248 Past participles built on aorist bases  249 Present continuous.189.79 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xxix . first conjugation (transitive)  252 Present aorist.58 8. second conjugation  251 Present continuous.71 8.83 Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231 Dzadrani present aorist of to be  232 GP past of to be  232 Waziri past of to be  233 Dzadrani past of to be  233 Imperative of to be  233 GP present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 GP present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  236 GP past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 GP past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  239 GP present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 8. to do’  242 GP past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’  242 Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. third conjugation  251 Present aorist. to do’  243 Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.75 8.50 8.43 8. to do’  244 Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.80 8.47 8.74 8. to do’  241 Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’  245 Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.55 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  252 Present aorist.78 8.57 8. first conjugation (transitive)  250 Present continuous. to do’  240 Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.69 8.List of Tables  8.66 8. to do’  240 GP present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.

100 8.101 8.95 8.4 10.103 8. second conjugation  261 Aorist imperative.5 10.186.189.97 8.2 Some GP simple circumpositions  331 Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP  333 10. first conjugation (intransitive)  256 Past aorist.86 8. first and second conjugations  265 Present perfect.108 Present aorist.7 Some adverbs of time  379 Some adverbs of place  381 Some adverbs of manner  384 Some adverbs of degree  386 Arabic adverbs in Pashto  388 Some other interrogative words  389 Some doublets and their base stems  397 11. first conjugation (transitive)  257 Past aorist.85 8. third conjugation  261 Continuous optative forms  262 Aorist optative forms  264 Present perfect.88 8.5 11.87 8. third conjugation  258 Continuous imperative. second conjugation  255 Past continuous.2 10.6 10.84 8.1 10. first conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative. negative  260 Aorist imperative.89 8.104 8.91 8.xxx  List of Tables 8. third conjugation  266 Past perfect  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 9. third conjugation  256 Past aorist.102 8.3 11. first conjugation (transitive)  255 Past continuous.6 Element ordering in negative future constructions  407 Negative placement  409 GP additional interrogative adverbs  418 Case-marking pattern for nouns  449 Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns  449 Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns  449 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. first conjugation (intransitive)  254 Past continuous.96 8.98 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . second conjugation  257 Past aorist.94 8. second conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative.107 8. third conjugation  260 Continuous imperative. first conjugation  259 Continuous imperative.93 8.92 8.2 11. third conjugation.3 10.105 8.1 9.90 8. first conjugation  260 Aorist imperative. third conjugation  253 Past continuous.1 11.4 11. second conjugation  259 Continuous imperative.106 8.99 8.

and our data collection strategy enabled us to include examples from a wide swath of dialectal situations. Pashto writing varies significantly according to a number of factors such as region.1 Scope of this book This grammar covers the four standard dialects and the Middle dialects—including Waziri—of modern Pashto. as described in Chapter 4). We present all authentic written examples as we found them. is constantly evolving. apparent word boundaries can vary as well. 1.2 Orthography Except for the fact that written Pashto always uses the Perso-Arabic script. treat forms we believe to be bound forms as if they are free (e. publicly available data on the internet. Chapter 4 contains a more complete description of the differences among Pashto dialects. in their syntax—only one description is given.1 About this Grammar 1. In order to describe the wide range of Pashto dialects with precision. Speakers were asked to provide complete paradigms and examples of usage. we represent words as consistently as possible from one transcription and morpheme-by-morpheme gloss to the next.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . which may Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. each speaker was recorded pronouncing single word examples from prescribed lists.g. by joining a preposition with the word it governs). we presume that it conforms to General Pashto. For instance. Morphological and some lexical features specific to the Middle dialects are given their own sections. and so on. and consultations with native speakers. as a living language spoken in a politically volatile region. with their original spellings and word boundaries.g.165. corresponding to their counterparts in General Pashto (the set of dialects that exist in contrast to the Middle dialects. Where Middle dialects (abbreviated as “M”) and General Pashto (“GP”) are not known to differ—for example. or. by separating an aorist prefix from its stem).126. asking for grammatical judgments about specific examples and more open-ended commentary on general issues. If no Middle-specific form of a particular feature is described. with greatest emphasis on morphology. and many words may have multiple widely-accepted spellings. including previously published grammars. Native speakers from several dialect areas were consulted on issues ranging from basic pronunciation to the appropriate use of complex syntactic constructions. Over the course of several sessions. Additionally. however. we consulted a variety of sources. conversely. We were able to consult speakers about phenomena that were insufficiently or inconsistently described in the literature. the speaking tasks increased in complexity. After providing detailed personal language background information. some writers orthographically treat forms we assert to be free forms as if they are bound forms (e. influence of other languages. Pashto.

Table 1. In Table 1. • The masculine plural ablative and vocative.1. these are shown vertically. the form in the table should be taken as applying to all dialects. we have retained as much information as the original example provides. we have not added it. identical to the form to its left). unless we were certain of their transcription system. or if the form above it is separated with a horizontal line.126. where relevant. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 1. Where there is no dialect information in the table title. if there is no form above it. we have adapted the Romanization system or the morpheme glossing used by the author in order to elucidate the point at hand. the feminine singular oblique. Forms whose existence is uncertain are represented with a question mark. In Table 1. Where the authentic text represents variance from what we believe to be standard conventions of spelling or word boundaries. a standardized version of the Pashto script is presented in an accompanying footnote.165. respectively.3 Tables and examples Table titles are marked. or in which multiple words in the Pashto script are represented as a single word in the gloss. Where we have cited examples from other scholarly works.2 are examples showing these table layouts. Where different dialect forms exist.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . Authentic spoken examples are represented in the dialect of the speaker and this dialect information is indicated in subscript. and the feminine plural ablative and vocative forms are the same as the masculine plural oblique. The complete absence of a form is denoted by a dash in the cell. Where no alternate forms are given.2. the tables in this grammar use an empty cell to represent a form which is identical to the form above it (or. the contents of that table are presumed to hold for all dialects (General Pashto and Middle dialects). • The masculine singular oblique form is the same as the masculine singular direct.2  About this Grammar result in examples in which a single word in the Pashto script is represented as multiple words in the gloss. the feminine singular ablative and vocative. with the initial of the dialect name in subscript after the form. with information about the dialect(s) concerned. • The masculine singular vocative form is the same as the masculine singular ablative. and the feminine plural oblique. (If such an example does not contain script.1 and Table 1. To more easily represent widespread syncretism in Pashto grammatical forms. this is more likely in Middle dialects than in General Pashto. when known. and • The masculine plural direct form is the same as the masculine singular direct.11.) In some instances. A complete table of the transcription schema used in this book is given in Table 3.

3SG.DIR building-F.CONT.1: Class I. stem alternation: spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Examples of Pashto words appear occasionally in text.1) !‫ انسان جوړونه ده‬،‫ښوونځی جوړونه‬ xuwəndz-ay joṛawəna-Ø insān-Ø joṛawəna-Ø school-M.DIR people-M.126. and the translation of the sentence in the last line.Tables and examples  3 • The third person feminine singular form is the same as the third person masculine singular form.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .F ‘Building schools means growing our youth!’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ə∼o∼e Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 1.1 is a sample of an interlinear example. while other forms have different spellings as well as different pronunciations. with the Pashto script in the first line. Some of these forms are spelled the same but pronounced differently from one dialect to the next.PRS. with the Pashto script followed by the transcription in phonemic slashes and the gloss in single quotation marks: /spək/ ‘light’. Examples of phrases and complete sentences appear in numbered four-line interlinear examples. the morpheme-by-morpheme gloss in the third.165.DIR building-F.DIR da be. the transcription in the second. and • Both the third person plural forms are the same as the third person singular form. ‫سپک‬ (1. 1.

mpg.4 Abbreviations and symbols Where possible. and the free translation may be bolded if the English words clearly correspond to the Pashto.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. morpheme glosses in this grammar follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules. the term appears in bold type.eva. The transcription and morpheme gloss are always bolded in such instances.2: Present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. For ease of reading.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .165.¹ a set of formatting conventions widely adopted in the linguistics community. 1. Commonly used abbreviations in this grammar include the following: *: non-existent or unacceptable form ∼: variation in forms (within or across dialects) [ ]: non-overt element Ø: zero morpheme 1: first person pronominal clitic 1DVC: first person directional verbal clitic 2: second person pronominal clitic 2DVC: second person directional verbal clitic 3: third person pronominal clitic 1 http://www. to do’ When an interlinear example is used to illustrate a particular word or morphological concept. the Pashto script is never bolded.4  About this Grammar ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 1.126.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM 5 .165.Abbreviations and symbols  3DVC: third person directional verbal clitic ABL: ablative ADJ: adjective ADJZ: adjectivizer ANIM: animate AOR: aorist C: consonant COMIT: comitative COMP: complementizer CONT: continuous DIR: direct DZA: Dzadrani (dialect) E: Eastern (dialects) ECHO: echo word EMPH: emphatic EXT: existential particle F: feminine GP: General Pashto INF: infinitive IMP: imperative INSTR: instrumental LVC: light verb construction M: (as diacritic) Middle (dialect) M: (in glosses) masculine N: noun NE: Northeastern (dialect) NEC: modal of necessity or obligation NEG: negative particle NMLZ: nominalizer NW: Northwestern (dialect) OBL: oblique OPT : optative PL: plural PNG: person-number-gender POSS: possessive PRS: non-past PTCP: participle PST: past Q: question particle SE: Southeastern (dialect) SG: singular STR: strong Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

165.6  About this Grammar SW: Southwestern (dialect) V: vowel VOC: vocative W: Western (dialects) WAZ: Waziri (dialect) WAZ-L: Waziri (dialect). example comes from Lorimer WK: weak WOULD: modal of irrealis or habitual events Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .126.

g. although there may be some attrition through marriage. MacKenzie 1992) to above 20 million (Inozemtsev 2001. Paktika). the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (including Waziristan). dialectal variation. and western (Herat. after Persian. figures have tended to be outdated or otherwise underestimated. Lorenz 1982.126. Zabul). etc.2 Population of speakers Pashto is an Indo-Iranian language of the East Iranian branch. In Pakistan it is primarily spoken in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province). 2. MacKenzie 1987. Austin (2008) sets the range at 30–50 million speakers. linguistic classification. Ethnologue tentatively reports 49. central (Kabul. Paktiya.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . Directorate of Intelligence 2009b). Pashto is a relatively dominant language. Lockwood 1972. and small populations of Pashto speakers have been documented in Tajikistan (Lewis. spoken primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan.6 million inhabitants and 15. including the city of Quetta. and available linguistic resources. Khost. the numbers are probably more than offset by speakers of other languages who adopt Pashto as a second language. Kunar). southwestern (Kandahar.42% of Pakistan’s total population of 176 million (Directorate of Intelligence 2009a. Laghman. southeastern (Ghazni. immersion in non-Pashto speaking urban settings. and in northeastern Balochistan. its official status in Afghanistan.1 Background Pashto is considered to be the second-most important Iranian language. Wardak). Skjærvø 1989)..Anne Boyle David 2 The Pashto Language 2. see e. and its long literary tradition dating back to or before the 16th century (MacKenzie 1992. this appears to be a fairly sound figure when compared to the estimate of 41.165. Babrakzai (1999) notes that most estimates of the number of Pashto speakers in available linguistic studies and encyclopedic descriptions are quite rough. including demographic information. Uruzgan. Communities of Pashto-speaking migrant laborers from Afghanistan and Pakistan are reportedly found in Iran and the United Arab Emirates. ranging from 13 million (a figure widely quoted from Penzl 1955. given its widespread use in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 2009). Farah) regions. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3 million speakers that can be derived from the World Factbook’s population projections and ethnic percentage figures: 42% of Afghanistan’s 33. In Afghanistan it is predominantly spoken in the eastern (Nangarhar. so it is reasonable to expect that Pashtun ethnicity corresponds roughly with Pashto language acquisition. Tegey & Robson 1996).¹ At the upper end of this range. This section provides an overview of the Pashto language. Logar. Helmand.5 1 Though itself dominated by neighboring languages such as Dari and Urdu in some spheres. Furthermore. Until recently.

11 in Section 3.2. It is somewhat less closely related to the neighboring Nuristani languages and to Indo-Aryan languages such as Urdu. depending on dialect.1 History and classification Pashto belongs to the East Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. and Sindhi. For example. Southwest /ṣ/ is elsewhere pronounced as /š/. Dialectal differences in Pashto are primarily phonological in nature. where Pashto is a less dominant language. as described in more detail in Chapter 4.2. 2009). Beyond the classification of Pashto as an East Iranian language. Attrition is more likely in Pakistan.4. or /x/. Lorimer 1902). in which case the World Factbook’s estimated 8% Pashto language use would be a more conservative indicator than the 15.2. or varieties. Kurdish. cf. the retroflex fricatives. meaning it is closely related to other Iranian languages such as the Pamir languages (also in the East Iranian branch) and Persian. especially for the dialects classified as Middle (M) in Section 4. 2.1.42% ethnic population.126. are replaced with other phonemes. One result of this dialectal variation is the use of both Pakhto and Pashto as Romanized spellings of the language’s name. MacKenzie 1987).2. 2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. especially Ormuri and Parachi.8  The Pashto Language million speakers of Pashto in all countries (Lewis.165. Another result is the assignment of several alternative values to the pronunciation of the relevant Pashto letters. shown in Table 3. /ç/.2 Dialectal variation Pashto can be divided into numerous dialects.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . The Southwest (Kandahar) dialect makes use of retroflex fricatives /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ and of the dental affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/. Punjabi. there are competing views and descriptions regarding the exact subclassification of Pashto and the degree of affinity between Pashto and certain related languages. In other dialects. Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. On the lower end. and more distantly related to other Indo-European languages. which differ more from other dialects of Pashto than the other dialects do among themselves (Hallberg 1992. and sometimes also the dental affricates. and Balochi (in the West Iranian branch). a posthumously updated version of MacKenzie’s description in The World's Major Languages places the number at about 25 million (MacKenzie 2009.

It is possible that this discrepancy is due Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.1. Labial Dental Palato.Retroflex Palatal alveolar Velar pb td ṭḍ kg Stops Affricates (ʦ ʣ) čj š (ž) Fricatives (f) sz Nasals m n Lateral Approximants (ṣ ẓ) (ç ʝ) Glottal xɣ h ṇ l w r y ṛ   Table 3. they may use what are sometimes called “elegant” consonants.1. these are listed in Table 3. when speaking in what they regard as a formal situation.1: Pashto consonants 3. The representation of these segments in the written language is discussed in Section 3.1.Corey Miller and Anne Boyle David 3 Phonology and Orthography 3.1 Inventory Pashto has consonants at seven possible places of articulation. Penzl (1955) did not seem to think that the voiced pharyngeal fricative was ever pronounced in Pashto. Tegey & Robson (1996) reported 41 years later that it does occur in some speakers’ formal speech. Consonants not used by all speakers are parenthesized.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . as shown in Table 3.1.165.2. many educated speakers will approximate the Arabic pronunciations of those consonants. however.1.1 Phonetics and phonology 3.1 Consonants 3. That is.1.2 “Elegant” consonants Depending on how closely speakers wish to approximate Arabic sounds not otherwise present in Pashto.2.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.10  Phonology and Orthography Arabic consonant Educated.165.126. consonants to an ongoing linguistic change under Arabic influence or to a difference between the dialects being reported on. formal Pashto Uneducated or informal Pashto ‫ ء‬glottal stop ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ع‬voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ or ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ح‬voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ h (or not pronounced) ‫ ق‬voiceless uvular stop q k   Table 3.” or formal.2: “Elegant. Elfenbein (1997: 742) notes that /h/ is often dropped and is only retained in some dialects as an “elegance”.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .

1.2. we provide the corresponding transcriptions of the vowel sounds in Table 3.165. who describes the Kandahari dialect.126.2.1.5.1 Inventory Most dialects of Pashto have seven vowels and seven diphthongs (Heston. makes a distinction between /ey/ for and /ei/ for . and does not include /oy/ in his inventory.3 and Table 3. Penzl.1. Front High i Mid e Low a Central Back u ə o ā   Table 3. as shown in Table 3. Note that Tegey and Robson’s distinction between both /i/ and /ɪ/ (row 1) and /u/ and /ʊ/ (row 2) may correlate with the presence or absence of and respectively in the spelling of the word (see Section 3. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ۍ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 1992).2 Vowel transcription For the sake of comparison with other sources.4: Pashto diphthongs 3.4.Phonetics and phonology 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .2.3: Pashto vowels Front Central High Back uy Mid əy Low oy ay āy aw āw   Table 3.2  11 Vowels 3.3).1.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .126.165. ei əy oy ‫ زوی‬zoy ‘son’ oj uy oy ay ‫ سړی‬saṛay ‘man’ aj ay ay āy ‫ ځای‬ʣāy ‘place’ ɑj aay āy aw ‫ یو‬yaw ‘one’ aw aw aw āw ‫ واوره‬wāwra ‘snow’ ɑw aaw āw   Table 3. ɪ u ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ u u u. wor ‘fire’ o oo o a ‫ لس‬las ‘ten’ a a a ā ‫ کال‬kāl ‘year’ ɑ aa ā uy ‫ دوی‬duy ‘they’ uj uy uy əy ‫ لکۍ‬lakəy ‘tail’ əj ey.5: Comparison among vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.12  Phonology and Orthography This grammar Example IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson i ‫ امتحان‬imtihān ‘test’ i i i. ʊ e ‫ یې‬ye ‘you are’ e ee e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə e ə o ‫ اور‬or.

however. to our knowledge. despite the usual convention of not representing short vowels in Arabic scripts. by Septfonds (1994).6. aṇ. We have provided two examples of the /e/ vowel: one that shares an /e/ with other dialects of Pashto. One issue is the phenomenon described as “Waziri Metaphony” in Section 4. respectively) are sometimes pronounced with long vowels by educated speakers. In order to compare these treatments to each other.6.1. Like some consonants in Arabic loanwords. and ö (presumably IPA /ø/) as a variant of /e/ may reveal that there existed “midway” points between the GP vowels and their metaphony targets (see Section 4.1. there exists no systematic representation of M pronunciation using Pashto script. the short vowels /i/ and /u/ are now sometimes represented in Pashto writing with and . Lorimer uses è as a variant of his é before /r/. Lorimer and Hallberg distinguish between /a/ and /ā/.4). and Hallberg (1992).2. Septfonds distinguishes between /əy/ and /ay/.4. we compare three treatments of the M vowel system. In Table 3. we have provided Pashto script reflecting the General Pashto pronunciation.126. whereas Septfonds does not. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Lorimer makes some additional distinctions compared to the others. Due to variation in pronunciation. For example.Phonetics and phonology  13 3. For these. or speakers of the Northeastern dialect (Section 4. we provide example words representing each class of sounds. As can be seen in Table 3.165. they all fall under the M rubric as described in Chapter 4. There does not seem to be a reliable contrast in M between /o/ and /u/.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . whereas Lorimer does not.3).1 and Section 3.3 “Elegant” vowels Persian or Arabic loanwords that contain an etymologically long /ī/ or /ū/ (spelled with mārufa ye and wāw. Lorimer also employs a sequence of two symbols. these may be called “elegant” vowels.1. to indicate /ã/. Lorimer (1902).2.4 Middle dialect vowels The vowel inventory for the Middle dialects described in Chapter 4 differs slightly from that described in Section 3.2. and another that represents the metaphony target corresponding with GP /o/. While the objects of study in each of those works are slightly different.2.1. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ 3. Lorimer’s use of ü (presumably IPA /y/) as a variant of /i/.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ɑi. u ʌ o ‫ پلار‬plor ‘father’ o o o o a a a ʌ ɑ a ā ɑ a ā ã əy ay aw ‫ سر‬sar ‘head’ ‫ میاشت‬myāšt ‘month’ ‫ وتپم‬wətapã ‘I ã ‫لمسۍ‬ əj əy ai ‫ سړی‬saṛay aj ay ai aw aw au close’ lmasəy ‘granddaughter’ ‘man’ ‫ پلو‬palaw ‘side’ aṇ   Table 3. ö e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə ə e. ‫ مور‬mer ‘mother’ IPA Septfonds Lorimer Hallberg i i i.126. ü i e e é.165.6: Comparison among M vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.14  Phonology and Orthography This grammar i e Example ‫ لور‬lir ‘daughter’ ‫ ډېر‬ḍer ‘many’. ê. ī. ʌi . è.

as will be described below. though the difficulties of deducing pronunciation from spelling (and vice versa) are somewhat different.10. The script is cursive.3 15 Stress Word stress in Pashto is assigned lexically. can be found at Appendix A. Like those scripts. as well as additions specific to Pashto. like the Arabic and Persian scripts. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. On a spectrum of depth.1 The script Pashto is written primarily in the Perso-Arabic script.165. For example. which includes modifications made for Persian. which writes both /w/ and /ū/ in Arabic.5. /u/. is also used in Pashto to represent the vowel /ā/. 1996). or /o/ in Pashto. /žə́ba/ ‘tongue’. or the spelling from the pronunciation. /e/ and several other sounds. Spanish may be considered fairly shallow. Section A. the Pashto script is written from right to left.1. the letter alif. in which the letters represent only the consonants of the language. However. In our transcription of Pashto. In this grammar we generally only indicate stress in paradigms and on particular lexical items in example sentences where its placement sheds light on meaning. in particular variations in spelling. Pashto would fall somewhere near English on such a scale. 2000: 6). ‫ژبه‬ 3. can be used in Pashto for /y/.2. as with the pronouns /haɣə́/ ‘he/she/it’ vs. or easy to pronounce. and Chinese would be considered especially deep. the Devanagari script in which Hindi is written.4. the Pashto script is in theory an abjad (Daniels & Bright. or continuous versus aorist forms among second and third conjugation verbs (Section 8.5). which writes both /y/ and /ī/ in Arabic. for example. which can be seen in Table 3.Orthography  3.4 and Section 8. the Pashto alphabet deviates from the strict definition of an abjad in that some letters can also be used to indicate vowel sounds. which is used to write both long /ā/ and an initial glottal stop in Arabic.2. Some words differ only by the placement of stress.2 ‫سړی‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Orthography The languages of the world vary along a scale of the ease with which one may deduce pronunciation from orthography. we indicate stressed syllables by putting an acute accent mark over the vowel portion: /saṛáy/ ‘man’. As with other Arabic-based writing systems.5. and letters may have ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ 1 More on issues that arise from a deep orthography. /háɣə/ ‘that’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . /i/. The letter wāw. and even (with modification to the letter).126. or when relevant to the discussion . can be used to represent /w/. and unlike.¹ 3. This is known as orthographic depth (Sproat. and ye.2. but numerals are written left to right.

Pashto employs a diacritic known as a /panḍak/ or /ɣaṛwanday/ ‘ring’ on the letters used for the dentals. Unicode rendering automatically displays the proper positional form. particularly in the Northwest dialects. without affecting the expected pronunciation. To represent the retroflexes /ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ/. Finally.9 are based on and represent the affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/ in some dialects. as expressed in Table 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .2. which have a range of phonetic and morphological values.1. connected only on the left. (See the tables of letters in Section 3.) Some letters do not connect to the letter to their left. connected only on the right.165. connected on both sides. which is unconnected to other letters. the medial form. as discussed in Chapter 4.2. ‫ح‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.) 3.126.16  Phonology and Orthography up to four allographs: the independent form. but other sounds elsewhere. as displayed in Table 3. are discussed in Chapter 4. but in others they have been simplified to the fricatives /s/ and /z/. Pashto has innovated several letters not present in either Arabic or Persian. as are the medial and final forms. These letters represent retroflex sounds in the Kandahar (Southwest) dialect.8.7. Pashto employs a set of five letters based on . (In most word processors.2. the initial form. in these cases the initial and independent forms are the same. ‫پنډک‬ Letter ‫غړوندی‬ Sound ‫ډ‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ټ‬ ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ   Table 3. The two letters in Table 3. Further pronunciations of these letters.1.7: Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak ‫ر‬ ‫س‬ Pashto has innovated two letters employing a dot above and below and .1 Letters unique to Pashto Due to its particular consonant and vowel inventory. or may be used in place of the other forms.10. as shown in Table 3. and the final form. Note that in much text encountered on the internet and elsewhere.

y ‫ې‬ e ‫ۍ‬ əy word-finally in feminine nouns and adjectives əy word-finally in verbal forms not pronounced or ʔ word-medially in some Perso-Arabic borrowings such as masala ‘problem’ ‫ئ‬   Table 3. Southeast). ‫حتی‬ ‫ي‬ i.165. Northeast) ʣ (Southwest. z (Northwest. This is known as alif maqsura. such as hatā ‘even’. x Eastern   Table 3.9: Pashto affricate letters based on ‫ح‬ Letter Sound Function/comments ‫ی‬ ay word-finally ā word-finally in some words derived from Arabic.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 17 . Southeast).Orthography  Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Sound ẓ Kandahar (Southwest). ž Quetta (Southeast).10: Pashto letters based on ‫مسئله‬ ‫ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.8: Pashto letters with dot below and dot above Letter ‫څ‬ ‫ځ‬ Sound ʦ (Southwest. s (Northwest. Northeast)   Table 3.126. g Peshawar (Northeast) ṣ Kandahar (Southwest). š Quetta (Southeast).

reflecting the fact that its sound. meaning ‘verbal’.126. as in a section of a dictionary. the letters zāl. Sources differ on some of the names for Pashto letters. To aid in letter identification. we list them separately here for ease of reference.1. it would be called simply ye. alif mad and hehamza) are not considered separate letters from their counterparts without diacritics (e.1. or give more than one.g. /e/. and zā are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. zād. The letter wāw-hamza appears word-medially in Perso-Arabic borrowings such as /swāl. alef tanwin appears word-finally ً‫تقریبا‬ ‫و‬ in adverbs derived from Arabic. The letter ye is also commonly used when referring to the letter ye in general. Representing /t/. /i/. Where practical.1. Note that some of the symbols listed here (e. e. was unknown in Arabic. emotional’.2 Tables of letters and numerals The full list of Pashto letters is given in Table 3. is used in native Pashto words. where there is further variation we refer to the relevant sections.18  Phonology and Orthography 3. reflecting the fact that its sound. The halwa he.g. or in loanwords based on Arabic. /taqriban/ ‘approximately’. the letter he may represent a vowel such as /a/ or /ə/. while te is also found in the native component. was known in Arabic. Representing /s/. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫سؤال‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ه‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پرحرارت‬ ‫حرارت‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫س‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ظ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. which is composed of a Persian prefix /pur/ ‘full’ and an Arabic root /harārat/ ‘heat’. while sin is found in the native component as well. and saqila meaning ‘heavy’. Some of the letters are used chiefly in Arabic loanwords. we have listed a variety of possible Romanized names. the letter tā is found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. representing /z/. appears in Arabic loanwords which are spelled with this letter in Arabic. tazkir meaning ‘masculine’. muanasa) and ‘heavy’ (saqila).g.2. such as Shafeev (1964). The letter wāw is also transcribed as /v/ in some sources. he. the letters se and sād are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. The name mārufa ye for the letter means ‘known ye’.11. mārufa ye In this usage. while ze is found in the native component as well. suwāl/ ‘question’. alif and he). The name majhula ye for the letter means ‘unknown ye’. Finally. It thus can be used to encompass . When appearing word-finally.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ‫ص‬ ‫ؤ‬ . The names for the letter include the words for ‘feminine’ (ṣəʣina tānis. Letter names that end in a vowel or diphthong are grammatically feminine. while letter names that end in a consonant are grammatically masculine. The other /h/ sound. and in borrowings from Persian in which one of the morphemes is Arabic: /purharārat/ ‘ardent. for example. as well as in Arabic and Persian loanwords which are spelled with this letter. The names for the letter include kəṛwāla and feli. we have indicated the most common pronunciations of the letters. The pronunciations listed in parentheses are the formal pronunciations described in Section 3.2. These differences are due in part to regional variation in how the letters are pronounced and in part to variation in how the Pashto has been Romanized. ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫ه‬ ً‫ا‬ Following are some remarks on particular letters.

11: Pashto alphabet Unicode U+0627 U+0622 U+0627 | U+064B U+0628 U+067E U+062A U+067C U+062B U+062C U+0686 U+0681 U+0685 U+062D U+062E U+062F U+0689 U+0630 U+0631 U+0693 U+0632 U+0698 U+0696 U+0633 U+0634 Pashto script ‫ا‬ ‫ٓا‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar alif see Section 3.3 alif mad ɑ aa ā ā alif tanwin an an an an be b b b b pe p p p p te t̪ t t t ṭe ʈ tt ṭ ṭ se s s s s jim ʤ ʣh j j če/čim ʧ ʦh ch č ʣe/ʣim/ze ʣ/z ʣ ʣ ʣ/z ʦ/s ʦ ʦ ʦ/s he/halwa he Ø/h/(ħ) Ø/h/(h) Ø/h/(ɦ) Ø/h/(ħ) xe x kh kh x dāl d̪ d d d ḍāl ɖ dd ḍ ḍ zāl z z z z re r r r r ṛe ɻ rr ṛ ṛ ze z z z z že ʒ/ʤ/z zh zh/j/z ž/j/z ẓe/ge ʐ/ʒ/ʝ/g zz g ẓ/ž/ʝ/g sin s s s s šin ʃ sh sh š ʦe/ʦim/se Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.Orthography  Table 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 19 .165.126.2.

165.2 ɣayn ɣ gh gh ɣ fe f f f f qāf/qaf k/(q) q q k/(q) kāf/kaf k k k k gāf g g g g lām l l l l mim m m m m nun n n n n ṇun ɳ nn ṇ ṇ wāw w/o/u w w/u/o w/u/o wāwhamza Ø/w he/hā h zxwāt/zwā U+0637 ‫ط‬ U+0638 ‫ظ‬ U+0639 ‫ع‬ U+063A U+0641 U+0642 U+06A9 U+06AB U+0644 U+0645 U+0646 U+06BC U+0648 U+0624 U+0647 ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ه‬ Ø/w h h Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.11: (continued) Unicode U+069A U+0635 U+0636 Pashto script ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar ṣin/xin ʂ/x ss x ṣ/x sād/swād/ sxwāt/swā s s̤ s s zād/zwād/ z z̤ z z tā/twe/ txwe/ toy/twā t̪ t̤ t t zā/zwe/ zɣwe/ zoy/zwā z z̅ z z ʔayn/ayn (ʔ)/(ʕ) ’ ʔ see Section 3.20  Phonology and Orthography Table 3.3 and Section 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM h .1.2.126.1.

1.165.126.10) saxtə ye (/yā) /klaka ye (/yā) /mārufa ye(/yā) i/y i/y i/y i/y (see Section 3.3) pasta ye (/yā) /majhula ye (/yā) e ee e e ṣəʣina ye (/yā) /saqila/ de tānis saqila ye (/yā) /muanasa saqila ye (/yā) əj ei əy əy kəṛwāla ye (/yā) /ye (/yā)hamza/ feli ye (/yā) /de tazkir saqila ye (/yā/) əj ey əy əy Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.11: (continued) Unicode Pashto script U+06C0 ‫ۀ‬ U+06CC ‫ی‬ U+064A ‫ي‬ U+06D0 ‫ې‬ U+06CD ‫ۍ‬ U+0626 ‫ئ‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar he(/hā)hamza/ zwarakai ə e ə ə (see Section 3.3) ye/yā/ mulayana ye (/yā)/prata ye (/yā) aj ay ay ay (see Table 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 21 .2.Orthography  Table 3.2.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . The Eastern Arabic numerals.126. which are used in Pashto. the initial-position form is on the right. .165.22  Phonology and Orthography Positional variants for each letter are shown in Table 3. ‫لا‬ Table 3. used for the sequence of lām + alif.12. Numeral forms of compound numbers are given along with the word-form number names in Table 6. In addition to the positional variants of individual letters. the script includes an obligatory digraph. are given in Table 3. In keeping with the directionality of the script.12: Positional variants of letters Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ـپ‬ ‫ـپـ‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ـت‬ ‫ـتـ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ـټ‬ ‫ـټـ‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ـث‬ ‫ـثـ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ـج‬ ‫ـجـ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ړ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.38.13.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 23 .12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ـط‬ ‫ـطـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ـظ‬ ‫ـظـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ ـه‬or ‫ـہـ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ـی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Orthography  Table 3.165.126.

U+0668 U+06f9.165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. U+0661 U+06f2.12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ې‬² ‫ۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ـئ‬ Arabic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numeral ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ۵ or ٥ ۶ or ٦ ۷ ۸ ۹ Unicode U+06f0. U+0669   Table 3.24  Phonology and Orthography Table 3.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . U+0660 U+06f1. U+0667 U+06f8. U+0662 U+06f3. U+0663 U+06f4 or U+0664 U+06f5 or U+0665 U+06f6 or U+0666 U+06f7. but may take initial form after a nonjoining letter.13: Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals 2 This letter does not occur word initially.

165. The same symbols are used in Arabic in such contexts as well as in the Koran and some religious texts.3. may occasionally be encountered in native dictionaries or in learning materials.1 Word-initial vowels Words that begin with a vowel sound must begin with either alif.2.1.2. as discussed in Section 3. digraphs may be employed to indicate vowels. In many cases.126. it is often possible to find exceptions.3 Representation of vowels The Arabic script. but these are not used in ordinary writing.1. Such vowels can potentially be indicated with diacritics placed above or below the consonant letters. When an initial alif is followed by wāw. writes long vowels but does not typically indicate short vowels. For this reason. however. the combination is pronounced /e/. they may take on various vowel sounds. ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ Symbol Sound Example Pashto name Arabic name َ◌ a ‫ َبد‬bad ‘bad’ ‫ زبر‬zabar.1. The short vowel diacritics. /ā/. pex ‫ پیش‬peš ‫ ضمة‬zamma mis ‘copper’ zwar   Table 3. or ‫ا‬ ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ayn. ‫زور‬ ‫ فتحة‬fatha ِ◌ i ‫ِمس‬ ‫ زېر‬zer ‫ کسرة‬kasra ُ◌ u. as shown in Table 3. Word-initially.Orthography  25 3. Words with etymologically long vowels are written with their original long vowels. When an initial alif is followed by mārufa ye. Most varieties of Pashto. the combination is pronounced /i/ or sometimes /ay/. and its sound is /ā/. and /i/ and /e/.15. but sometimes it ‫ې‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ٓ‫ ا‬alif mad mostly occurs word-initially. o ‫ ُپل‬pul ‘bridge’ ‫ پېښ‬peṣ.14 with examples from Shafeev (1964). alif mad. upon which the Pashto alphabet is based. the short vowels are not written. but (except for /ā/) usually pronounced with vowels that are not distinctively long. the combination is usually pronounced either /o/ or /u/.) When an initial alif is followed by majhula ye. When ‫ ا‬alif or ‫ ع‬ayn begin a word. (Word initially. as indicated in Table 3. The following statements are general guidelines. mārufa ye is pronounced /y/. the vowel pairs /u/ and /o/.2. are now often represented in Pashto writing with wāw and forms of ye respectively. distinguish only one long vowel.14: Short vowel diacritics 3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .

as shown in Table 3. a vowel.2. as is characteristic of abjads. or a diphthong.126. word-internal majhula ye is pronounced /e/.16: Pashto initial digraphs 3. Initial digraph ‫او‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اې‬ Sound Example ‫ اوبه‬obə. o i e   Table 3. (Word initially wāw is pronounced /w/. or they may (with the exception of /ā/) be un- ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ې‬ written. ubə ‘water’ ‫ ایران‬irān ‘Iran’ ‫ اېغ‬eɣ ‘sticking out’ u. mārufa ye. Word-internal alif is generally pronounced /ā/.16 summarizes the most common pronunciation of these initial digraphs.15: Word-initial vowels ‫و‬ is pronounced /aw/. ‫ې‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ع‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and word-internal ayn generally lengthens a preceding /a/ to /ā/. majhula ye.1. or ayn.3.) Table 3. Word-internal wāw and mārufa ye can each represent either a consonant.26  Phonology and Orthography Sound a e i o ‫ ا‬alif example ‫ ع‬ayn example ‫ ابر‬abr ‘cloud’ ‫ استونیا‬estoniyā ‘Estonia’ ‫ عدس‬adas ‘lentil’ ‫ علاوه‬elāwa ‘addition’ (uncommon) (uncommon) ‫ اداره‬idāra ‘management’ ‫ اتوریته‬otorite ‘authority’ ‫ علاج‬ilāj ‘cure’ ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ ‫ عضوي‬uzwi ‘organic’ (uncommon) u   Table 3.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .17. wāw.2 Word-internal vowels Vowels within words may be spelled with alif.

‫ معروف‬māruf ‘known’   Table 3.Orthography  Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ خال‬xāl ‘birthmark’ ‫ و‬wāw o u w aw ‫ ي‬mārufa ye ( ‫ ـیـ‬in its internal SW i ‫ هیڅ‬hiʦ ‘nothing’ y ‫ پیاز‬piyāz ‘onion’ ay ‫ پیسې‬payse ‘money’ e ‫ تېل‬tel ‘oil’ form) ‫ ې‬majhula ye ( ‫ ـېـ‬in its internal ‫ ډوډۍ‬ḍoḍəy ‘bread’ ‫ موږ‬muẓ ‘we’ ‫ موافق‬muwāfiq ‘favorable’ ‫ پوځ‬pawʣ ‘army’ form) ‫ ع‬ayn lengthens preceding a to ā ‫ معلوم‬mālum.17: Word-internal vowels Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 27 .

or ye. Because the Pashto script possesses several distinct letters for each of several segments. it will be written with a final alif.18 for other final vowels.165. as in the word tain’.3 Word-final vowels If a Pashto word ends in a vowel sound.2. wāw. he. In this grammar.11 for the pronunciation of forms of ye. Accordingly. See Table 3. A strict transliteration would also leave out the vowels that are unwritten in Pashto. its goal is to accurately represent the spelling of the language. although this is rare. 3.2 ‫ کوه‬/kuh/ ‘moun- Rationale for transcription system Pashto text may be rendered into Roman letters through transcription or transliteration.10 and Table 3. except in the case of ayn.126.18: Word-final vowels ‫ه‬ Note that a final he may also indicate a final /h/.3.1. ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ع‬ Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ هوا‬hawā ‘air’ ‫ ه‬he a ‫ ژبه‬žəba ‘tongue’ ə ‫ ته‬tə ‘you’ u ‫ غټو‬ɣaṭu ‘fat [oblique plural]’ o ‫ زانګو‬zāngo ‘cradle’ ‫ و‬wāw   Table 3. the spoken word will end in the consonant with which it is written.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . its goal is to accurately represent how the language is pronounced. we have chosen to use a broad phonemic transcription. all non-M dialects of Pashto are Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. rather than a transliteration. in which case the final sound is that of the previous letter. Transliteration is one-for-one mapping of a language’s characters (or character combinations) into corresponding Roman characters (or combinations). no simple transliteration can preserve Pashto orthography solely through the letters of the Roman alphabet. If a written Pashto word ends in any other letter. Pashto examples are transcribed in this version of traditional Pashto transcription. Transcription maps phones. Several extra diacritics or other non-alphabetic characters would be necessary. slightly modified to adhere more closely to the IPA. and Table 3.2.28  Phonology and Orthography 3. leaving the pronunciation unclear.

2. and the letter he in word-final position may appear as (U+06C1).165.3 Orthographic variation ‫ګ‬ ‫گ‬ The Pashto letter /g/ gāf is sometimes represented as (U+06AF). there are two letters whose forms appear differently word-finally from standard Persian and Afghan Pashto. as it is in Persian and Urdu. we use he for both in the Pashto text. Although in this grammar we do make the /ə/-/a/ distinction in our transcription.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . for example to distinguish the masculine direct singular demonstrative /haɣa/ ‘that’ from the masculine oblique singular /haɣə/. since these dialects do not have independent orthographic representation. Note that these variants may occur in handwriting from various regions. 3. referred to in the Unicode documents as “Heh with yeh above”) instead of the more usual Heh (U+0647) in final position to indicate /ə/ as opposed to /a/. Examples in Waziri and other M dialects may not include Pashto script. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ــہ‬ ‫ے‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغۀ‬ ‫ه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. In Urdu.Orthography  29 written in both the Pashto script and our transcription. and may be encountered in Pashto emanating from Pakistan. The Pashto letter ye in word-final position may appear as (U+06D2) for /ay/ or /e/. Some authors use he-hamza (U+06C0.

165.126.Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .

Here we seek to provide a convenient partition of the data that recognizes salient and reliable distinctions that correlate with geography. there may well be many subdialects. we describe a set of five dialects of Pashto in order to establish certain generalizations as a matter of convenience. Northeast (NE) and Middle (M). we may refer to Middle or M dialects. We also compare our proposal with other approaches that have come up with smaller numbers of dialects. The general locations of these dialect areas are illustrated in Figure 4. Note that Pashto dialects are connected to both geographical facts and tribal identity.165. “geographical classification alone does not— cannot—take enough account of tribal distinctions. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for any given dialect. In this way.. since there may be several speech varieties sharing the general characteristics of Middle Pashto. Southeast (SE). Waziri (WAZ) and Dzadrani (DZA) are two subdivisions of Middle Pashto for which we have the most information.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects The approach we take in this work assumes five dialects: Southwest (SW).classification by tribe alone fails to take into enough account the essential geographical facts. noting that we have not exhausted the description of dialect differences for this language. rather than the Middle or M dialect. in the following sections. According to Elfenbein (1997: 739).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . So. as well as the marking of dialect forms in this text.. We explain the details of these dialects.1. others are discussed below.126.1 Introduction In this chapter.Corey Miller 4 Pashto Dialects 4. Northwest (NW).” 4. whose details we are not yet in a position to describe.

Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. 1989). ‫کړل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ـاست‬ ‫ـئ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1: Pashto dialects Table 4. there is a tendency for final unstressed /e/ to be realized as /i/ in Southwest. for example. the second person singular verbal suffix /e/ contrasts in Southwest with the third person singular /i/.1 summarizes the major differences among the five dialects. as in variable use of two different stems /kṛəl/ and /kawəl/ for the verb do (Septfonds. As an example of variation in the realization of vowels. see Hallberg (1992). which are often accompanied by the distinct spellings shown in Table 4. Note that this process tends not to occur where it would eradicate distinctions.2. We also see dialectal variation in suffixes.4). for example. according to Elfenbein (1997: 747).165. in the second person plural suffixes for verbs: /‑āst/ in certain present tense forms and all past tense forms in Southwest and /‑əy/ elsewhere (see Table 8.32  Pashto Dialects Figure 4. For specific pronunciations of individual words in many cities. from which many of these forms were gathered. We have observed the following examples of this phenomenon in closed-class items.126. Note that these represent characteristic pronunciations rather than the only possible pronunciations for these words in these regions.

me’ ‫ دي‬di ‘you’ ‫ دې‬de ‘you’ ‫ تاسي‬tāsi ‘you’ ‫ تاسې‬tāse ‘you’   Table 4. me’ ‫ مې‬me ‘I.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 33 .1: Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects SW NW.2: Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Characterizing Pashto dialects  Pashto word SW SE NW NE M ‫‘ پښتو‬Pashto’ paṣto pašto paçto paxto pašto ‫‘ شپږ‬six’ špaẓ špəž špəg špag špež ‫‘ څوک‬who’ ʦok ʦok sok sok tsek.126. tsok ‫‘ پنځه‬five’ pɪnʣə pɪnʣə pinzə pinzə pinzə ‫‘ لاس‬hand’ lās lās lās lās los ‫‘ لور‬daughter’ lur lur lur lur lir   Table 4. NE ‫ پوري‬pori ‘to’ ‫ پورې‬pore ‘to’ ‫ باندي‬bāndi ‘on’ ‫ باندې‬bānde ‘on’ ‫ کي‬ki ‘in’ ‫ کې‬ke ‘in’ ‫ لاندي‬lāndi ‘under’ ‫ لاندې‬lānde ‘under’ ‫ مي‬mi ‘I.

Eastern generally refers to both Northwest and Northeast. SE. phonetic transcription. Elfenbein (1997: 750–751) notes that in the Northeast. For example. we have not been able to ascertain a more specific dialect attribution. interlinear examples include Pashto script (except for some M-dialect examples). Note that in some cases. In some cases. 4.5. if a form is known to be acceptable in only DZA or WAZ. as are /u/ and /ū/. or we do not have sufficient information to attribute it to one or the other. or with example forms mentioned in the text. that means either that the form is acceptable in both WAZ and DZA. Hallberg (1992) provides examples of many basic words that differ by region. that means that to the best of our knowledge the form is acceptable in all four dialects. readers will encounter the notation E or W. when no dialect is mentioned. we indicate the dialect of the speaker who provided the example.165.1. In such tables. and in this grammar we represent only /i/ and /u/. standing for Eastern and Western. When we know that a form is only acceptable or natural for a subset of those dialects. NW. Some discussions of Middle dialects use the more specific notation. while Western refers to Southwest and Southeast. we refer to the four dialects SW. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 on the use of these terms).34  Pashto Dialects Another area where variation in vowels has been noted is in the realization of /i/ and /u/. MacKenzie (1987: 551) observes that this distinction has been lost in most dialects. 4.2. When no dialect is mentioned. and Pashtoon (2009) indicates when particular words are Eastern or Western (see Section 4. such as WAZ (for Waziri) and DZA (for Dzadrani) when differences within Middle dialects can be or need to be specified (see Section 4.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples In this book.1. we aim to associate Pashto forms with one of the five dialects—SW.4 for additional dialect abbreviations within M). In the sections covering General Pashto. SE. NE. it is so labeled. SE. With regard to lexis. NW and NE as General Pashto (GP). in contrast to M. This does not necessarily mean that the example is only acceptable or natural for that dialect. ‫غماشه‬ 4. In those sections covering the Middle dialects.126. In such cases. /i/ and /ī/ are separate phonemes. M—as described in Table 4. and NE. and when possible. we have observed numerous differences across Pashto dialects.1 Dialect marking in tables In those sections covering General Pashto.1. These are generally attested examples. the dialects associated with that form are specified.2. morpheme glosses.2. /ɣomāšə/ ‘mosquito’ SW exists alongside /miāšə/ ‘mosquito’ NW . NW.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . and English translations. our tables of morphological forms are restricted to the four non-M dialects SW.1 ‫میاشه‬ Dialect marking in this work Where possible.

3. It is useful to note that Southwest and Northwest appear to be in Afghanistan. which he associates with Quetta. “Central” Ghilzai may refer to the members of the tribe in those provinces. Table 4. while Southeast and Northeast appear to be in Pakistan. Note that Kieffer (1974) associates this characteristic with Ghazni in Afghanistan. Northwest. lays out the principal phonological characteristics of the four dialects comprising this approach. and Northeast di- Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. The Southeast dialect is characterized by a loss of retroflexion in and with respect to the Southwest dialect.165.The four dialects of General Pashto  35 when interlinear examples are derived from written textual material.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 4.3 The four dialects of General Pashto MacKenzie (1959) provided an influential four-dialect analysis using the cardinal points: Southwest. and Northeast. after the name of a tribe mainly found in the vicinity of Ghazni and Zabol provinces (Frye 2010. Quetta. Henderson (1983) similarly presents a ‫ښ‬ ‫ش‬ Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Southwest (SW) Southeast (SE) Northwest (NW) Northeast (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ š ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ ž ʝ g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s s ‫ځ‬ ʣ ʣ z z ‫ژ‬ ž ž ž j   Table 4.3: Four dialects of General Pashto four-dialect approach. using the name for the tribe centered in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly Northwest Frontier) province. resulting in the pronunciations /š/ and /ž/. Pakistan. He calls Southwest Kandahar. based on MacKenzie and its reprise by Skjærvø (1989). we have generally chosen to transcribe them as they might be spoken in the Northeastern dialect.126. Hanifi 2001). Peshawar. Southeast. rather than to those living in the northern provinces of Faryab and Badakhshan. The remaining dialect in MacKenzie’s model is Southeast. and Northeast Yusufzai. Thus they are pronounced identically to the way the letters and are pronounced in the Southeast dialect. MacKenzie calls the Northwest dialect Central Ghilzai. as well as Elfenbein (1997). referring to the Kandahar. respectively. such as may be found on the internet.

Wanetsi NW east and northeast Afghanistan.4 presents the tribal and geographical associations for each of these four dialects according to Elfenbein (1997).36  Pashto Dialects alects. Yusufzai. It is also compatible with the Eastern dialect described in Penzl (1955) and with the Central dialect described in Tegey & Robson (1996). with /ʝ/ restricted to Wardak province. Table 4. Henderson’s Northeast is akin to MacKenzie’s Northwest. Waziri. Achakzai. Therefore. Farah. Skjærvø (1989: 386) notes that in Northeast. some Afridi NE Peshawar.126. the diphthong /ay/ is monophthongized to /ɛː/. a feature mentioned in Penzl. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Dialect  Geography  Tribe SW Kandahar. Baluchistan (includes Quetta) Sherani.1 International differences In her grammar. In the area of word choice.3. Elfenbein (1997: 744) provides a substantial amount of information on the quality of vowels and diphthongs across several dialects. Jalalabad (?) central Ghilzai. Henderson’s Northeast has /g/ for . With respect to vowels and diphthongs.165. As noted in Table 4. Tegey & Robson (1996) have associated /z/ with the Northwest dialect. in addition to the more distinctive Pashto convention for expressing thanks. we may expect to see both /ʝ/ and /g/ for in dialects labeled Northwest in our dialect schema. while Elfenbein (1997: 744) describes some /z/ along with /j/ in the Northeast dialect. Mohmand. Kakari. Orakzay. part of Nangarhar province (Afghanistan). some Afridi   Table 4. northeast Ghilzay.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Bannu. even though the two variants are pronounced similarly. Note that we have seen some variation in the description of the sounds corresponding to the letter . Herat South Ghilzai SE southern NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). northern parts of NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Shinwari. while the diphthong /əy/ is pronounced /ay/. Bangash.4: Tribal and geographical associations by dialect 4.3. For example. Tarin. in Afghanistan the Pashto word for son is spelled . Hazara. Heston (1992) sometimes distinguishes between Afghan and Pakistani Pashto from the perspective of orthography. /mənə́nə/ ‘gratitude’ ‫زوی‬ ‫زوے‬ ‫مننه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. while in Pakistan it can be spelled .

or NWFP). One of these descriptions is Lorimer (1902). a more apt term might be “vowel shift.3.The Middle dialects  37 ‫تشکر‬ (literally compliance. These dialects are primarily noted for differences in the pronunciation of vowels with respect to the GP dialects. In general. it seems to be a bit of a misnomer. submission). Afghan Pashto speakers tend to use /tašakúr/. we describe the main vocalic and consonantal characteristics of M. we use the term metaphony here in order to maintain a link with previous studies. there is another dialect group which Kieffer (1974) refers to as intermediary or central. We refer to this collection of “middle” dialects as M. We distinguish two main variants of M. a dialect spoken in North and South Waziristan in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). while in the cases of GP /o/ and Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. is generally taken to be the modification of one vowel due to the influence of a neighboring vowel (perhaps with intervening consonants). and the Bannu District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly NorthWest Frontier Province.5. Miran Shah (MIR) in North Waziristan. and three sites in adjoining areas of the NWFP: Lakki Marwat (LAK).” along the lines of processes described by Labov (1994) and others.126. The other is Septfonds (1994). Given the absence of neighboring vowels in the monosyllabic examples in Table 4. ‫شکریه‬ 4. the dialects of Afghanistan exhibit more loanwords and cognates from neighboring Persian/Dari and Turkic. This phenomenon involves certain deviations from the vowel qualities attested in the other dialects as described in Table 4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . it raises to /o/. In this section.4 The Middle dialects Apart from the four dialects discussed in Section 4. which describes Dzadrani (which we abbreviate DZA). which describes Waziri (WAZ). In the case of GP /ā/. also using the Pashto term /manʣanəy/ ‘middle’. the Dari/Tajiki and Urdu words share the same Arabic root. He provides fieldwork data for Wana (WAN) in South Waziristan. whereas Pakistani Pashto speakers are more inclined to use /šukríya/. ‫منځنۍ‬ 4. based on available descriptions. In this case. the Dari/Tajiki word for thanks. spoken in the southwestern part of Khost Province (Paktiya at the time of Septfonds’ writing) in Afghanistan.4. succeeding chapters will describe its morphological and syntactic features. Hallberg (1992) discusses a “Central Group” of dialects that correspond to M. There are two phonetic processes that are involved in Waziri metaphony: raising and fronting. However. while the dialects of Pakistan exhibit more loanwords from Urdu.1 Middle dialect vowels The Middle dialects are characterized by a phenomenon known as Waziri metaphony. given that metaphony.5.165. or umlaut. the Urdu word. The term metaphony for this phenomenon has been used at least since Kieffer (1974). Bannu (BAN) and Karak (KAR).

‫میاشت‬ ‫مور‬ ‫شپون‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. As noted in Section 3. so none of these sources indicates that metaphony has occurred in this word.1. He employs the symbol /ā/ in some words.2).4. for this word.5. Lorimer occasionally employs the symbols ü and ö. which we believe correspond to IPA /y/ and /ø/ (see Figure 4. Lorimer (1902) provides two pronunciations.165.38  Pashto Dialects Correspondence GP (NE. such as /mioni.126. /i/ is the metaphony target of GP /u/. while /ø/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /o/ and /e/. /e/ is the metaphony target of GP /o/. while /y/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /u/ and /i/. Along the same lines. SE.5. SW) Waziri metaphony (M) ā∼o ‫ پلار‬plār ‘father’ plor o∼e ‫ مور‬mor ‘mother’ mer u∼i ‫ لور‬lur ‘daughter’ lir   Table 4. Examples include /mer. miāni/ ‘long purse’. such as /myāšt/ ‘month’. Three important observations with regard to metaphony should be made: there may be words where it does not occur. in words that in General Pashto would contain /u/ and /o/. As mentioned in Table 4.5: Waziri metaphony /u/. Indeed. mør/ ‘mother’ and /špyn/ ‘shepherd’. and some speakers or locales may use intermediate vowel realizations between segments identified as GP and the metaphony targets described in Table 4. NW. it may be optional (subject to sociolinguistic variation). For some words. respectively. Kieffer (1974) also describes several intermediate points between the metaphony targets that have been observed in different locations in the Middle dialect area.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. they front to /e/ and /i/. Lorimer (1902) provides good examples of all of these observations. Septfonds (1994) uses /a/ and Hallberg (1992) uses /ɑ/. indicating that metaphony may be optional in particular words. respectively.

Lorimer does not provide Pashto script. In contrast. but we can infer from his vocabulary that words spelled with are pronounced with /š/ in the Waziri dialect. illustrates some other consonantal features of the Middle dialects. in Dzadrani. Where relevant. Kieffer (1974: 25) mentions that other possibilities exist for Middle dialects. based on data from Septfonds (1994) and Lorimer (1902).2: Waziri metaphony 4. while is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/. including /x/ for and /g/ for . So this pattern aligns with the Southeast dialect. For example. thus aligning those dialects with the Northeast dialect.4.126. indicating that these phenomena may not be exclusive to the Middle dialect area. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. a pattern that aligns with the Northwest dialect. Table 4. In some cases.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . we have provided these indications in the table.2 Middle dialect consonants While the two Middle subdialects Waziri and Dzadrani share certain characteristics with each other that are not seen in the other Pashto dialects. Pashtoon (2009) has identified the “standard” or GP terms as Eastern and the “M” terms as Western. while words spelled with are pronounced with /ž/. they pattern differently with respect to the consonantal distinctions that distinguish the other dialects.6.The Middle dialects  39 Figure 4.165. is pronounced as a palatal /ç̣/.

D pbt (Southern)   Table 4. For example the ISO 639–3 standard (Lewis. and pst (Central). pbu (Northern). 2009) recognizes the following codes: pbt (Southern). wegā n∼l ‫ نمر‬nmar ‘sun’ (Eastern) lmar (Western) epenthetic n after m ‫ مده‬moda.5. This book Kieffer ISO 639–3 NE. based on the pronunciation of the letters and ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. C and D.126. Darmesteter (1888) describes two dialects. For example.40  Pashto Dialects Phenomenon GP M b∼w ‫ بېګا‬begā ‘last night’ wega. NW A pbu (Northern) M B pst (Central) SW.165.7.7: Alternative dialect codes 4.6: Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP 4. B. SE C. mudda ‘time’ minda palatalization ‫ لار‬lār ‘road’ lyar. north and south. and Kieffer (1974) uses the letters A.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . These codes are compared to our approach in Table 4.5 Other approaches One will encounter other less granular models of Pashto dialectology and it is useful to be familiar with their terminology and how they are associated with the approach described here. lyār   Table 4.1 Two dialects Earlier approaches recognized only two dialects.

as explained above. The presence of distinct phonemes corresponding to distinct letters in the Southwestern dialect leads to two questions: which is the most prestigious dialect. Note that the name of the language itself reflects one of these distinctive alternations: in the north it is /paxto/ ‘Pashto’. For example.8 summarizes some of the different names used for these two dialects. where southern has /ž/. Waziri (Waziristan)..139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . In and around the city of Ghazni the people speak Persian. and the Ghilzai tribe has /z/. although the two dialects probably overlap to a certain extent. and thence north of the Lowana country to the Kundil-Kundar confluence. while in the south it is /paṣto/ ‘Pashto’. This is the same terminology employed by Raverty (1859: viii). but the Afghan dialect of the neighborhood is the Northeastern Pakhto. and a western dialect centered in Kandahar. Table 4. Ghilzais speak the northeastern dialect.. Grierson (1921: 7) refers to a northeastern and a southwestern dialect. fol- lowing his account. He notes the same contrasts as Darmesteter. Caroe (1958: xvi) says the Ghilzai speak a soft dialect. while Anderson (1975: 576) says they speak a hard dialect.126. For the southern dialect. Darmesteter does not note the distinction between the southeastern palatal and southwestern retroflex pronunciations of and . and Southwestern (Pishin and Kandahar). as subsequent researchers do (see Table 4. and then along the Kundar to the boundary line running in a northeasterly direction up to near Peshawar. so as to give the Waziris and Khataks to Pashto. including C and A. Geiger (1895) also identifies two dialects that he calls northern and southern. respectively.165. again distinguishing on the basis of the pronunciation of the letters and . we may take the southern limit of the great Ghilzai tribe as the line in Afghanistan proper. and the southern with the tribes of the west and south.Other approaches  41 ‫ږ‬. but also adds that for the letter . He notes that the most important nonstandard forms are the varieties of the northeastern dialect spoken by the Ghilzais and the Afridis. and the variety of the southwestern dialect spoken by the Waziris. Waziri is distinct enough from Northeastern and Southwestern that he provides a standard word list for three varieties of Pashto: Northeastern (Peshawar). Most adherents of the two-dialect approach focus primarily on differences in the pronunciation of the letters and . northern has /j/. while in the south. implicit proponents of a two-dialect approach as “hard” and “soft” differ on their characterization of Ghilzai.3). In the north.. while the southwestern one is spoken by all Afghans south of this line and westwards towards Herat. Among more contemporary scholars. and which is the most conservative? Penzl (1955: 9–10) cites a few sources implying that Kanda- ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.. and a rather detailed description of their boundary: ‫ښ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ . Interestingly. He associates the northern dialect with the tribes of Kabul. It is said to run from a stone bridge (Pul-e-Sang) at Asia Hazara. like the Durranis. these are pronounced /x/ and /g/. and Swat. 12 miles south of Kalat-i Ghilzai to just north of Maruf. they are pronounced /š/ and /ž/. Peshawar. In fact. Shafeev (1964) refers to an eastern dialect centered in Peshawar. Grierson provides a colored map with the two dialects—northeastern and southwestern—distinguished.

165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . One of these treats the three dialects as a continuum. However.8: Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto hari (Southwestern) is the most prestigious. The difference between such an approach and the two-dialect approach discussed in Section 4. ‫ ږ‬ẓ ‫ ښ‬x. in contrast to Northeastern where the pronunciations of those letters. particularly and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ (which are in fact only represented by those letters). 1932) that at the time of the creation of the current alphabet in the 16th century. which are distinctive in ways beyond the treatment of individual consonants. /x/ and /g/. and then goes on to call it “the cradle of the Pashto alphabet” due to the correspondence between letters and phonemes. and that the Northeastern tribes were probably the creators of Pashto literature. respectively. Northeastern dialects pronounced and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ as well.1 is that the Eastern dialects of the two-dialect approach have been further subdivided along the Pakistan/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.126. and Kandahar. Penzl (1955: 8) distinguishes the following “main types which approach regional standards:” Peshawar.2 Three dialects ‫ګ‬ There are two principal ways in which the Pashto-speaking regions have been divided into three main dialects. ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ 4.42  Pashto Dialects ‫ ښ‬ṣ. ‫ ږ‬g Southern Northern Western Eastern Southwestern Northeastern Pashto Pakhto soft hard C A   Table 4. MacKenzie (1959: 233) cites Morgenstierne’s hypothesis (Morgenstierne. the Middle dialects. are shared with the letters and . The other maintains the distinction between eastern and western and introduces a third category. Eastern.5. with a central dialect serving as intermediate between eastern and western.

Table 4. they divide the other two slightly differently from Penzl.9. Tegey & Robson (1996) also note a three-way dialect distinction for .8. So where Penzl subdivides the two-dialect approach’s Eastern dialect along the Afghanistan/Pakistan border (a roughly north/south line). For example. Logar. These are shown in Table 4. However.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.1). Kandahar corresponds to our SW dialect. səm/ ‘I am.10 summarizes the three-dialect nomenclature of Penzl and Tegey and Robson. Based on the features associated with these. Ghazni. In some ways. corresponding to our NE and NW. the Eastern dialect can be seen Letter Kandahar (SW) Eastern (NW) Peshawar (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ g g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s ‫ځ‬ ʣ z z   Table 4.9: Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared as an intermediate step in a continuum from Kandahar to Peshawar. they refer to a Kandahar or Western dialect.165. in Wardak. Like Penzl. In Logar. Penzl notes a few additional variants within the Eastern dialect. we can see that Penzl’s Peshawar dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Eastern dialect. is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/. the preservation of /ʦ/ in the Eastern dialect is akin to Kandahar Pashto. which we elaborate in Table 4. and Parwan. and the Eastern pronunciation of as a palatal can be seen as an intermediate step between the retroflex /ṣ/ of Kandahar and the velar /x/ of Peshawar. They refer to a Kabul or Central dialect and a Nangarhar or Eastern dialect. the voiced counterpart to /ç/.2. rather than /š/: /šəm. using our dialect labels: ‫ښ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫شم‬ ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. I can’ (see also Section 8.Other approaches  43 Afghanistan border into Peshawar and Eastern (Afghanistan). as it is in Kandahar. respectively. For example. Tegey and Robson ascribe their Central dialect to the provinces of Kabul. is /s/ as in Peshawar. while Penzl’s Eastern dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Central dialect. and in the verb to be is /s/. Tegey and Robson subdivide it along an east-west line within Afghanistan.11. They note that their Eastern dialect includes both the northeastern sections of Afghanistan and the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan (now called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Tegey & Robson (1996) also posit a three-dialect system. and Peshawar to our NE.

165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .10: Three-dialect approach SW NE NW ž j z   Table 4. Western NE Peshawar Eastern. Nangarhar NW Eastern Central   Table 4.44  Pashto Dialects This book Penzl Tegey and Robson SW Kandahar Kandahar.11: Pronunciation of ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

2). (Regarding case forms. grammatical gender is usually determined by biological sex. Broadly speaking.2.1. grammatical descriptions are in disagreement over the extent to which the organization of a class system should be based on the noun’s plural formation.126. however. So nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are grammatically feminine. however. ‫لور‬ ‫مور‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 Gender Pashto nouns are categorized grammatically as either masculine or feminine.3 and also Chapter 8.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . the gender of a noun may often be distinguished by the ending of the noun in its citation form. while pronouns and verbal agreement markers reflect gender and number. regardless of the noun’s ending. and vocative).1.) For example: Typical masculine noun endings (direct singular)  any consonant ‫ ی‬ay (stressed or unstressed) Typical feminine noun endings (direct singular) ‫ ه‬a or ə ‫ ۍ‬əy ‫ې‬e There are. the direct singular word-form. 5.165. even though they end in consonants. see Section 5. many exceptions to this pattern—some predictable by other criteria. others unpredictable. we present a system of inflectional classes for nouns that largely coincides with that presented for adjectives in Chapter 6. or its case-marking patterns. For animate nouns. Our system differs from previous treatments in that we base it solely on the suffixes each noun takes and treat stem allomorphy separately (see Section 5. Following a review of the basic inflectional categories in the first three sections of this chapter. and case.1 Inflection Pashto nouns are inflected to show gender (masculine and feminine). its phonological shape (especially the stem-final sound). Agreement is found on determiners and modifying adjectives.Alina Twist and Anne Boyle David 5 Nouns 5. oblique. ablative. and case (direct. which agree in gender. number. number (singular and plural). Scholars usually try to categorize Pashto nouns into inflectional classes.

for example. Plural formation is one of the ways to distinguish feminine from masculine nouns.126. /šāgə́rdə/ ‘student (female)’ /ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ vs. where /bizó/ does not change. their plurals. consonant-final masculine nouns that denote types of fruit or trees generally do not take any special plural suffixes. /duxmaní/ ‘enmity’). and in agreement markers on verbs.2. such words may be inflected with a distinct opposite gender form. the word for ‘spider’ in Pashto is often feminine: /ɣəṇá/ (pl.g. /səṛáy/ ‘man’ vs. cited in Khan 2006). ‫سړی‬ ‫شاګرد‬ ‫غواي‬ ‫ښځه‬ ‫شاګرده‬ ‫غوا‬ ‫غڼې‬ ‫ کبان‬/kəbā́n/). ‫پیشی‬ ‫غټ بیزو‬ ‫بیزو‬ ‫قاضي‬ whereas /i/-final nouns denoting abstract concepts and inanimate objects are typically feminine (e. For example.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫ږدن‬ .46  Nouns Predicting grammatical gender based on sex primarily works for nouns that denote humans or animals whose sex is culturally important and readily apparent. as in /ɣaṭ bizó/ ‘big monkey (male)’. masculine nouns ending in /i/ denote professions (e.1. on the other hand. Additional semantic clues may be helpful for a noun whose grammatical gender cannot be predicted by the sex of its denotational class or by its final sound. /ɣəṇé/). although nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ look masculine because they end with consonants. although nouns ending in /i/ can be either masculine or feminine. as a general rule. /ṣə́ʣa/ ‘woman’ /šāgə́rd/ ‘student (male)’ vs. and there is no strong cultural motivation to distinguish between male and female counterparts. /máynde/ ‘moth- ‫مور‬ ‫لور‬ ‫مېندې‬ ‫ لوڼې‬/lúṇe/ ‘daughters’. Similarly. /ɣwā/ ‘cow’ Many small animals and insects.2 Number Pashto has several ways to form regular plurals.g. In rare circumstances. as in /pišay/ ‘cat (male)’. are associated with an invariable grammatical gender assigned more or less arbitrarily (see Rishtin 1994. and the word for ‘fish’ is always masculine: /kəb/ (pl. but the shape of the adjective indicates that the noun has masculine reference. in coreferential pronouns. al- ‫اوبه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫دښمني‬ 5. however. As with gender. or the agreement patterns elsewhere in the utterance may reflect masculine as opposed to feminine gender. /qāzí/ ‘judge’). for example. Certain mass nouns or collective nouns like /obə́/ ‘water’ and /gdən/ ‘millet’ govern plural agreement in verbs.165. So. as may be seen in the tables in Section 5.3 and onwards. number is often reflected in agreement on modifying adjectives. ‫کب‬ ‫پیشو‬ ‫غڼه‬ ‫بیزو‬ Nouns like /pišó/ ‘cat (female)’ and /bizó/ ‘monkey’ are grammatically feminine by default. rather than the ‫ ـان‬/‑ā́n/ or ‫ ـونه‬/‑úna/ suffixes that are characteristic of ers’ and consonant-final masculine nouns. For example. show the ‫ ـې‬/‑e/ suffix that is typical of many feminine plurals.

’ (NW) (5.M.STR.M ‘I ate many mulberries.1.3PL.WK AOR-eat.DIR water-PL.DIR 1SG.F ‘I drank a lot of water.‫ما ږدن وخوړل‬ mā gdən-Ø wə́-xoṛ-əl 1SG.M.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.3PL. These are described individually in the following subsections.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.PST-PST.F ‘I drank water.F.3) .1) .PST-PST.STR. (5.3PL.M.M.4) .OBL much-PL.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3PL.F.M.’ (5.’ (NW) 5.Inflection  47 ‫ـان‬ though the plural suffix /‑ān/ may be added in some cases. Pashto nouns take one of four morphosyntactic cases: direct.126. by stem vowel ablaut.M ‘I ate millet.2) .’ (NW) (5. or vocative.OBL water-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR mulberry-PL.WK AOR-eat. whether or not the noun has a plural suffix.DIR AOR-eat.F.PST-PST. as illustrated in 5. ablative.’ (5.3 Case Case is marked in Pashto by suffixes and.1 and 5.‫ما اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG. in some instances.DIR mulberry-PL.‫ما ډېرې اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ḍer-e ob-ə wə́-čək-əl-e 1SG. Note that the verb is plural in both sentences.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.DIR 1SG. oblique. In most instances.M ‘I ate many mulberries.‫ډېر توتان مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-ān me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.165.STR.3PL.OBL millet-PL.5) .

5. plural forms of nouns. so we do not include examples for ablative and vocative for the Waziri dialect.. originating from’. plus any circumposition consisting of a postposition and one of these two prepositions. 5. pronouns. though the inflectional suffixes for each class differ between General Pashto varieties and Waziri. For masculine nouns.48  Nouns case assignment criteria are identical across dialects.3 Ablative case The ablative case (sometimes also called Oblique II or Prepositional) is used when the noun is an object of the prepositions /pə/ ‘with’ in the instrumental usage.. it is usually identical to both the oblique and vocative forms.. including the postpositions /tə/ ‘to’ and /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’.. ‫له‬ 5. the prepositions /də/ ‘of’ and /pə/ ‘at’. we present separate class information for Waziri corresponding to each class paradigm for General Pashto. Nouns that exist in both General Pashto and Waziri usually belong to analogous inflectional classes. as outlined in Section 9. Marking of case is not always visible or consistent in all domains in Pashto.. on exceptions involving first and second person pronouns. accusative. however.1 Direct case The direct case form is used for noun phrases that fulfill nominative. ‫له‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /lə/ ‘from’ or /tər/ ‘from.1.3. For feminine nouns..3.126.. adjectives. grammatical function is indicated by word order. and verbal agreement markers justifies the identification of the four classes named above. subject noun phrases appear in the oblique case form. Accordingly. or absolutive functions. and Chapter 8.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . and only to the direct and oblique cases.1.2.1. ‫ته‬ ‫سره‬ ‫د‬ ‫په‬ ‫ نه‬. with subjects preceding objects. or any circumposition or complex adposition that contains one of these prepositions. except for the circumposition /lə .3. The oblique case is used for objects of most adpositions. na/ ‘from’. See also Chapter 7.. the circumposition /lə . see Section 5. in present-tense and past-tense sentences. and finally.165.3. but the case assigned by adpositions may differ in the Middle dialects.2 Oblique case In past-tense sentences.1. the combination of inflectional patterns with certain nouns. in accordance with split ergativity. Available data extends only for Waziri. respectively. na/ ‘from’ (see Chapter 9).5. the ablative form is almost always identical to the vocative form. Note that because of this overlapping of forms and because ablative forms are relatively ‫تر‬ ‫په‬ ‫له‬ ‫ نه‬. In the present tense. which assigns oblique case to its object.

7) ‫د زلمي کتاب‬ də zalm-i kitāb-Ø of Zalmay-M.SG ‘Palwasha.8) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫پلوشې‬ palwaš-e wə́-dar-eg-a Palwasha-F. not * /salur uxa/.1.9) ‫د پلوشې کتاب‬ də palwaš-e kitāb-Ø of Palwasha-F. stop!’ (NW) (5. an informant of ours did not have this. for example. /salur uxān/ ‘four camels’ NW . /las kā́la/ ‘ten years’.SG ‘Man. With some exceptions (mainly kinship terms). however.DIR ‘Zalmay's book’ (NW) (5. ‫و‬ (5. ‫څومره ميله‬ ‫لس کاله‬ ‫دوه هلکه‬ ‫څلور اوښه‬ ‫څلور اوښان‬ 5.OBL book-M.165. the ablative case can also be used for consonant-final masculine nouns when they are modified by a cardinal number greater than one.3. some grammatical descriptions—Tegey and Robson’s. except for those ending in /u/.DIR ‘Palwasha's book’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflection  49 infrequent.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.OBL book-M. or /ā/ in the direct case form: in those nouns. The vocative plural form is always identical to the other non-direct plural forms. According to Lorenz (1982) and Heston (1992).6) ‫ي‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ا‬ !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫سړیه‬ saṛ-aya wə́-dar-eg-a man-M. or by some other quantifier: /somra míla/ ‘how many miles?’ NE .VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP. stop!’ (NW) (5. giving.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . /dwa halə́ka/ ‘two boys’. the vocative singular form is identical to the direct singular form. the vocative singular form of feminine nouns is identical to the oblique and ablative singular forms.4 Vocative case For masculine nouns. the vocative singular suffix in all noun classes is /a/ or /ə/. for example—do not recognize the ablative as a separate case in Pashto. /i/.

STR.13 shows oblique case-marking of the subject and verbal agreement with the direct object.12) .DIR ‘sister's book’ (NW) 5. 5. stop!’ (NW) (5.3PL.OBL many-PL.PRS-1SG ‘I am eating a lot of tasty mulberries.12 shows direct case-marking of and verbal agreement with the nominative argument.11) ‫د خور کتاب‬ də xor-Ø kitāb-Ø of sister-F.3.M. This distinction mostly affects which plural suffixes a noun takes.OBL book-M.126.M.’ (NW) 5.DIR many-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Most humans and some animals are represented by animate nouns.‫ما ډېر خونده ور توتان وخوړل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG.10) Nouns !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫خورې‬ xor-e wə́-dar-eg-a sister-F.PST-PST.STR.M. and most other things are not.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.SG ‘Sister.DIR wə́-xoṛ-əl AOR-eat.12 and 5. Sentences 5. consonant-final masculine nouns (Class I) that denote living beings typically take the plural suffix ‫ـګان‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR tasty-PL.’ (NW) (5.13 illustrate this split.4 Animacy Another category involved in noun inflection is animacy.M.M.50  (5.M. for example.1.‫زه ډېر خوندور توتان خورم‬ za ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG.DIR tasty-PL.DIR mulberry-PL. (5.DIR Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.1.5 Split ergativity Pashto exhibits nominative-accusative alignment in the non-past tenses and ergativeabsolutive in the past tenses.13) .DIR mulberry-PL.M ‘I ate a lot of tasty mulberries.165. while 5.

and.Inflectional affixation  51 ‫ـونه‬ /‑gān/. Although the above-mentioned plural suffix /‑gān/ occurs only in Class I. In many instances. whose plural forms show greater uniformity (see Chapter 6). A striking feature of Pashto morphology is the fluidity of noun class membership. Due to considerable gaps and overlap among inflectional patterns. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. which come from Lorimer.1. however. ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ان‬ 5. category. there is no obvious solution nor clear consensus for classifying Pashto nouns and adjectives.1 Introduction The properties listed in the previous section are marked in the inflected forms of nouns by a single suffix. The basis for these class groups is more apparent for adjectives. which may be zero. as mentioned in Section 5. were confirmed through elicitation. the same word can be inflected with different suffixes and hence grouped by grammatical descriptions under different noun classes.126. Our information on the Middle dialects is of variable reliability: the Waziri forms. still others on apparent connections between male and female counterparts and parallels between noun and adjective inflection. the sequence /ān/ (with or without additional sounds such as initial /g/ as above) appears to be strongly associated with living (especially human) denotata: several nouns denoting living beings in other inflectional classes have variant plural forms containing the sequence /ān/ in their suffix. the Dzadrani forms have been extracted from Septfonds and have not been confirmed. This grammar. others on the plural forms. for example. actual animacy of the denotational class is not a sure predictor of grammatical animacy in Pashto. may not reflect the actual biological status of the noun’s denotatum. /plār/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’ are both inflected as inanimates.165.4.2. rather than semantic. Some resources focus on the endings of nouns. depending on the speaker and the dialect. Whether a noun takes animate or inanimate markers can also vary with the dialect. This section describes the forms of affixes by class. The classification of Pashto inflectional classes presented in this grammar focuses on the last two items in that it aims to build a unified inflectional class system for nouns and adjectives and to provide a clearer understanding of the association between formally related masculine and feminine classes. However. therefore. This approach is in contrast to most other descriptions of Pashto.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2 Inflectional affixation 5. whereas those that denote inanimate objects are more likely to take /‑úna/. treats animacy as a grammatical.

We depart from most other descriptions in that we do not consider stem allomorphy when classifying Pashto nouns.126.165. 5.3.52  5.5. Nouns of this class can be masculine or feminine.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . their occurrence can be erratic in other cases. however. as can be seen in Table 5. or from other information about the form or meaning of the noun.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 and Table 5. These differences are specified in Table 5. Most of them end in a consonant. In some instances.3. as well as patterns involving both the stem and suffix.3 Class I 5. but instead describe stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic patterns for each class in the following sections.2.1 Overview Class I includes the majority of nouns in both General Pashto and Waziri. They are predictable in some cases from the last sound of the stem. These alternations include stem allomorphy. which give a broad overview of the inflectional suffixes that distinguish this class. which suffix a Class I noun takes is determined by whether the stem ends in a vowel or a consonant.2. animate or inanimate.2 Nouns Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations Many Pashto nouns undergo morphophonemic alternations when they inflect.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 53 .165. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1: GP Class I Masc.Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct -Ø Inanimate ‫ــګان‬ ‫ـونه‬ ‫ـګانو‬ ‫ـونو‬ -gā́n Oblique -úna -gā́no -úno E ‫ـو‬ -ó W Ablative -Ø (vowel-stems) ‫ـه‬ -a (consonant-stems) Vocative   Table 5. noun suffixes Singular Plural Animate Direct Oblique Inanimate -Ø ‑ún WAZ -ā́ WAZ ‑yún WAZ ‑ina -ə́ DZA -ón DZA -í DZA -yón DZA -í DZA ‑úne WAZ ‑ine WAZ ‑yúne WAZ -a WAZ -óne DZA -ə DZA -yóne DZA   Table 5.2: Middle dialect Class I Masc.126.

noun suffixes Direct ‫ـوو‬ Singular Plural -a WAZ -e -e WAZ -we DZA -Ǿ WAZ -o DZA Oblique   Table 5. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.4: Middle dialect Class I Fem.3: GP Class I Fem.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .54  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Plural Inanimate Animate ‫ـګانې‬ -Ø -gā́ne Inanimate ‫ـوې‬ -we W (after /ā́/ or /ó/) ‫ـې‬ -e (elsewhere) Oblique -Ø -Ø (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـې‬ ‫ـګانو‬ -gā́no -wo W (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـو‬ -e (elsewhere) -o (elsewhere) Ablative Vocative   Table 5.

and a few in /é/. However. or /í/. whereas /‑úna/ and /‑úno/ are used for inanimate masculine nouns. ‫ بنګي‬/bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ).2. /ə́/.12.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings. or /ú/ .5 outlines these rules for Class I masculine animate nouns. /xārejí/ ‘foreigner’ ‫ډولچي‬ . /ḍolčí/ ‘drummer’ .126. and to some of those ending ‫ګـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ in /á/. is mostly composed of words that denote professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the denoted class (e. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.g.22. /ḍākú/ ‘bandit’+ /-gān/> /ḍākugā́n/or /ḍākwā́n/ ‘bandits’). if any. for example: ‫ـې‬ ‫ غواي‬/ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ < ‫ غوا‬/ɣwā/ ‘cow’ ‫ پیشې‬/pišé/ ‘cat [male]’. These morphophonemic alternations apply to all nouns whose citation form ends in /i/ or in a consonant.2. those ending in /u/—are extremely fluid in the application of this /g/-deletion: for many. In some cases the stem undergoes changes as well.g. The subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/.13 for the plural of this item that /plandár/ ‘stepfather’ can also be inflected as a Class IIb noun (Section 5. as shown in Table 5. /ā́/.2. • GP plural suffix ‫ ـګان‬/‑gā́n/ ‫ـګان‬ The plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑gā́n/.3. Table 5.19 through Table 5. described in Section 5.2. although there are also many ending in /ə́/ or /á/.2 Class I masculine nouns Most masculine nouns in this class end in a consonant.14 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun. suffix-initial /g/ frequently undergoes lenition. as can be seen in Table 5. in the top left cell of each table. ‫ـونه‬ (‫ـګان)و‬ ‫ونو‬- 5.3.4).Inflectional affixation  55 5.165. ‫ډاکوان‬ ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ډاکوګان‬ • Sample paradigms Table 5. the derivation of masculine nouns from feminine ones is much rarer than the reverse process. either becoming a glide or deleting.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫پلندر‬ .3. ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـې‬ the latter derived from feminine nouns in /ā́/ or • • ‫ـي‬ ‫ و‬/ó/. Certain nouns—for example.2. shown in Table 5.6 through Table 5. either possible form is allowed (e. but for others only one or the other occurs. the latter when the second part of a consonant cluster. indicating stem allomorphy. /ā́/.14.6 through Table 5. or /yé/. /yí/. a rare variant form < ‫ پیشو‬/pišó/ ‘cat [female]’. ‫خارجي‬ Note from the variant forms shown in Table 5. /ú/. However.3. The plural of Class I masculine animate nouns is formed with the suffix /‑gā́n(o)/.

5: GP Class I Masc.165. animate—morphophonemic alternations ‫ ه‬ə or a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫وېښته‬ ‫وېښتان‬ wextə́ wext-ā́n ‫وېښتانو‬ Oblique wext-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.6: GP Class I Masc.56  Nouns Final stem sound(s) Suffix/Stem change Forms affected C Cg→ CØ all plurals Example ‫پیل ـګان ← پیلان‬ pil-gā́n → pilā́n elephants ‫ ه‬ə or a 1. some plurals ‫ه‬ ə or a → Ø/ [-stress] ‫وېښته ـګان ← وېښتان‬ wextə-gā́n → wextā́n hairs 2. animate: ‫ وېښته‬/wextə́/ ‘hair’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Cg→ CØ ‫و‬u ug → w some plurals ‫ډاکو ـګان ← ډاکوان‬ ḍāku-gā́n → ḍākwā́n bandits ‫ا‬ā g → y/ā_ā some plurals ‫میرزاګان ← میرزایان‬ mirzā́-gān → mirzāyā́n clerks ‫ي‬i ig → y ‫درزي ـګان ← درزیان‬ all plurals darzí-gān → darzyā́n tailors   Table 5.

animate: ‫ ډاکو‬/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.7: GP Class I Masc.126.Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بنده‬ ‫بندهګان‬ bandá banda-gā́n ‫بندهګانو‬ Oblique banda-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.8: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ بنده‬/bandá/ ‘slave’ ‫ و‬u∼w Singular Plural Direct ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ډاکوان‬ ḍākú ḍākw-ā́n ‫ډاکوګان‬ ḍāku-gā́n ‫ډاکوانو‬ Oblique ḍākw-ā́no ‫ډاکوګانو‬ ḍāku-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 57 .

165. animate: ‫ بازو‬/bāzú/ ‘arm’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫میرزا‬ ‫میرزایان‬ mirzā́ mirzā-yā́n ‫میرزایانو‬ Oblique mirzā-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.58  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بازو‬ ‫بازوګان‬ bāzú bāzu-gā́n ‫بازوګانو‬ Oblique bāzu-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .10: GP Class I Masc.126. animate: ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.9: GP Class I Masc.

animate: ‫ ماما‬/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’ ‫ ي‬i∼y Singular Plural Direct ‫درزي‬ ‫درزیان‬ darzí darzy-ā́n ‫درزیانو‬ Oblique darzy-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. animate: ‫ درزي‬/darzí/ ‘tailor’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫ماما‬ ‫ماماګان‬ māmā́ māmā-gā́n ‫ماماګانو‬ Oblique māmā-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.11: GP Class I Masc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 59 .126.12: GP Class I Masc.165.

animate: ‫ پلندر‬/plandár/ ‘stepfather’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پیل‬ ‫پیلان‬ pil pil-ā́n ‫پیلانو‬ Oblique pil-ā́no Ablative ‫پیله‬ píl-a Vocative   Table 5.14: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ پیل‬/pil/ ‘elephant’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .13: GP Class I Masc.165.60  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫پلندر‬ ‫پلندران‬ plandár plandər-ā́n ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r Oblique ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r ‫پلندرانو‬ plandar-ā́no ‫پلندرو‬ plandə́r-o Ablative ‫پلندره‬ plandár-a Vocative   Table 5.

/-yún/ The direct plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑ún/ for nouns that end in a consonant or /‑yún/ for those that end in a vowel. is mostly composed of words that express professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the referent (e.126.16 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun in Waziri.15: Waziri Class I Masc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . • Waziri plural suffix /‑ún/.16: Waziri Class I Masc. • Sample paradigms Table 5.2. no stem change Singular Plural Direct šāgə́rd šāgərd-ún šāgərd-úne Oblique   Table 5.165. These nouns exhibit a stem allomorphy between the final /í/ of the uninflected form and /y/ in the inflected form. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ As in General Pashto.g.17.3.Inflectional affixation  61 5. respectively. /kazí/ ‘judge’ . the subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings. shown in Table 5. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct mirzā́ mirzā-yún mirzā-yúne Oblique   Table 5.2. /bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ). Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. The corresponding oblique plural suffixes are /-úne/ and /‑yúne/.15 through Table 5. /xorejí/ ‘foreigner’ .

18. multisyllabic nouns are included as well (as in /ṭaɣár/ ‘rug’).62  Nouns i∼y Singular Plural Direct kazi kazy-ún kazy-úne Oblique   Table 5. • Sample paradigms for GP Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5. indicating stem allomorphy.19 through Table 5. In General Pashto. For instance..139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .19.2. /nikəgā́no/. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’ can alternatively be inflected like a Class I animate noun with no stem allomorphy. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’. /meṛúno/.22 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun.. where the stem vowel /a/ is dropped. this subset of Class I comprises a greater number of nouns with inanimate denotation. included within this group are kinship terms /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’. if any. although it does also include a few nouns that denote living beings. similarly to the pattern in Table 5. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’ 5. in General Pashto.19 are monosyllabic (as in /war/ ‘door’). this form can similarly be inflected as a Class I animate noun. ‫ور‬ The majority of nouns represented by Table 5. For example.e. with the plural suffix /-ā́n/. and /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’and (distinctive to Waziri) /plúr/ ‘father’. In Waziri. however.e. Class membership for Pashto nouns varies widely across dialects.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri As stated above. as shown in Table 5. in the top left cell of each table. and the last one illustrates vowel-final nouns. ‫ټغر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. the word /meṛə́/ ‘husband’ can be inflected by some speakers with a stem change. i. In Waziri. giving plurals /meṛúna/.2. inanimate masculine nouns can also undergo stem allomorphy before suffixes are added.3. with the plural suffix /-ū́n/. giving plural forms /nikəgā́n/. /meṛə́/ ‘husband’. ‫نیکه‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫نیکهګان‬ ‫وراره‬ ‫تره‬ ‫نیکهګانو‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫میړونه‬ ‫میړونو‬ • Stem allomorphy Like animate masculine nouns of Class I. giving the plural form /nikún/. the word /nik/ ‘fingernail’ can be inflected like either a Class I animate noun with a plural form of /nikún/ or as a Class I inanimate noun. i. yielding a plural form of /nikína/.17: Waziri Class I Masc.165.126. The first three tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns.

18: Class I Masc.126. inanimate: ‫ غر‬/ɣar/ ‘mountain’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 63 . inanimate—stem allomorphy a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غر‬ ‫غرونه‬ ɣar ɣr-úna ‫غرونو‬ Oblique ɣr-úno Ablative ‫غره‬ ɣár-a ɣr-ə Vocative   Table 5.165. all plurals V→Ø Example daftar-úna → daftərúna office ‫پسه ← پسونه‬ ‫ـونه‬ all plurals psə–úna → psúna sheep   Table 5.Inflectional affixation  Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Comment VC a→Ø all plurals mostly monosyllabic words a→ə ‫ ه‬ə́ or a ‫غرـونه ← غرونه‬ ɣar-úna → ɣrúna mountains ‫← دفترونه‬ ‫دفترـونه‬ oblique singular.19: GP Class I Masc.

and the last two illustrate vowel-final nouns.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . the oblique form of /ɣar/ ‘mountain’ (Table 5. Patterns of stem allomorphy are described in Section 5.2. For example.64  Nouns Some of the nouns in this set can also be inflected as Class II nouns (Section 5.165. if any.126.23 through Table 5. ‫غره‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫غر‬ a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ daftár daftər-úna ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r Oblique ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r ‫دفترونو‬ daftər-úno ‫دفترو‬ daftə́r-o Ablative ‫دفتره‬ daftár-a Vocative   Table 5.20: GP Class I Masc.3.26 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun. indicating stem allomorphy.19) can also be heard as /ɣr-ə/.3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. inanimate: ‫ دفتر‬/daftár/ ‘office’ • Sample paradigms for Waziri Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5. The first two tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns.20) has variant forms that would put it in Class IIb. Likewise. in the top left cell of each table. /daftár/ ‘office’ (Table 5.4).

Inflectional affixation 

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫غوږ‬

‫غوږونه‬

ɣwəg

ɣwəg-úna

‫غوږونو‬

Oblique

ɣwəg-úno

Ablative

‫غوږه‬

ɣwə́g-a

Vocative

 
Table 5.21: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

‫ غوږ‬/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫پسه‬

‫پسونه‬

psə

ps-úna

‫پسونو‬

Oblique

ps-úno

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.22: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

Direct

‫ پسه‬/psə/ ‘sheep’
Singular

Plural

taɣə́r

taɣər-ína
taɣə́r-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.23: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

65

66

Nouns

a∼ə

Singular

Plural

Direct

daftár

daftər-ína,
daftər-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.24: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

pəsə́

pəs-ína
pəs-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.25: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’

a∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

ɣar

ɣr-ína
ɣr-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.26: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

Inflectional affixation 

67

5.2.3.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri
Most Class l feminine nouns end in (unstressed) /a/ or /ə/, although some also end
in /á/, /e/, /ó/, /ā́/, or a consonant. Some of those ending in /a/ or /ə/ are formed by
adding this sound to the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart, in which
case it reflects biological sex; for example:
/soy/ ‘hare [male]’ >
/sóya/ ‘hare [female]’
/mal/ ‘friend [male]’ >
/mla/ ‘friend [female]’
/špun/ ‘shepherd’ >
/španá/ ‘shepherdess’
As can be seen in the second and third examples, sometimes there is a stem change
as well.

‫ه‬

‫سوي‬
‫مل‬
‫شپون‬

‫سویه‬
‫مله‬
‫شپنه‬

5.2.3.3.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns
Animate feminine nouns of Class I have the same form for all case forms in the singular,
as can be seen in the list of suffixes in Table 5.3, as well as in the paradigms in Table
5.28 through Table 5.30.
• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.27 describes the changes that take place for plural animate feminine nouns
of Class I.

Final stem
sound(s)

Suffix/Stem change

e

Forms affected

all plurals
1. g → Ø
2. e → y/_ā

Example

‫خواښې ← خواښیانې‬
‫ـګانې‬
xwāxe-gā́ne →
xwāxyā́ne
‘mothers-in-law’

 
Table 5.27: GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.28 through Table 5.30 show examples of animate Class I feminine nouns.
Class I feminine nouns that end in /ó/ or /á/ show some variability in plural suffixes,
as can be seen in Table 5.29 and Table 5.30. Penzl (1955) reports that the /w/ forms
are more common in Kandahari Pashto, although not exclusive to that dialect. Note

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

68

Nouns

e∼y

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫خواښې‬

‫خواښیانې‬

xwāxe

xwāxy-ā́ne

‫خواښیانو‬

Oblique

xwāxy-ā́no

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.28: GP Class I Fem. animate:

‫ـوې‬

‫ خواښې‬/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’

‫ـوو‬

that in taking the
/‑we/ or
/‑wo/ suffixes, the nouns are switching categories,
from animate to inanimate, and would decline exactly like the feminine inanimate
noun
/raṇā́/ ‘light’ in Table 5.34.

‫رڼا‬

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫بیزو‬

‫بیزوګانې‬

bizó

bizo-gā́ne

‫بیزووې‬

bizo-we

‫بیزوګانو‬

Oblique

bizo-gā́no

‫بیزوو‬

bizo-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.29: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ بیزو‬/bizó/ ‘monkey’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫برېښنا‬

‫برېښناګانې‬

brexnā́

69

brexnā-gā́ne

‫برېښناوې‬

brexnā́-we

‫برېښناګانو‬

Oblique

brexnā-gā́no

‫برېښناوو‬

brexnā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.30: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ برېښنا‬/brexnā/ ‘lightning’

5.2.3.3.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns
Inanimate feminine nouns in Class I behave similarly to animate ones in the singular
when they end in /ā́/ or /ó/; that is, all singular forms are identical (see Table
5.3). Those that end in any other sounds have one form for the singular direct form
and another for the singular oblique, ablative, and vocative forms, as in Table 5.32 and
Table 5.33.

‫ا‬

‫و‬

• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.31 describes stem allomorphy for inanimate feminine nouns of Class I.

Final stem sound(s)

Stem change

Forms affected

‫ ه‬ə́ or a

V→Ø

oblique singular, all
plurals

Example

‫اسپه ـې ← اسپې‬
áspa-e → áspe
‘mares’

 
Table 5.31: GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

70 

Nouns

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.32 through Table 5.34 show examples of inanimate Class I feminine nouns.

ə́ or a ∼ Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫اسپه‬

‫اسپې‬

áspa

Oblique

‫اسپې‬
ásp-e

ásp-e

‫اسپو‬

ásp-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.32: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ اسپه‬/áspa/ ‘mare’

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫میاشت‬

‫میاشتې‬

miāšt

Oblique

‫میاشتې‬
miā́št-e

miā́št-e

‫میاشتو‬

miā́št-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.33: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ میاشت‬/miāšt/ ‘mouth’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫رڼا‬

‫رڼاوې‬

raṇā́

71

raṇā́-we

‫رڼاوو‬

Oblique

raṇā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.34: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ رڼا‬/raṇā́/ ‘light’

5.2.3.3.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns
Most Waziri Class I feminine nouns end in /a/, although some also end in /á/, /e/,
or a consonant. Some of those ending in /á/ or /ə/ are derived by adding this sound to
the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart; for example:
/šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ > /šāgərdá/ ‘student [female)]’
Regular inanimate and animate feminine nouns of Class I behave similarly. However, many animate feminine nouns, particularly those that are kinship terms, are irregular, as they are in General Pashto. These are addressed in Section 5.2.6.1. Stem allomorphy applies in Waziri as it does in General Pashto (see Table 5.31), that is, nouns
ending in an unstressed vowel lose the vowel when the inflected suffix is added. If the
final vowel carries stress in the uninflected form, the stress will remain with the suffix
in the inflected form, as shown in Table 5.37.

‫ه‬

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.35 through Table 5.37 show examples of Class I feminine nouns.

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

72 

Nouns

stem = wradz-

Singular

Plural

Direct

wradz

wradz-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.35: Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’

stem = jə́rga

Singular

Plural

Direct

jə́rga

jə́rg-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.36: Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’

stem = žanḍā́

Singular

Plural

Direct

žanḍā́

žanḍ-é

Oblique

 
Table 5.37: Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

Inflectional affixation 

5.2.4

73

Class II

5.2.4.1 Overview
General Pashto’s Class II has no feminine nouns. It consists of two declension patterns,
subdivided according to these two patterns into Classes IIa and IIb. There is no animacy distinction in Class IIb, or, viewed another way, all Class IIb nouns are animate.
A comparison of the animate suffixes of IIa with IIb suffixes shows that they differ in
only two respects: first, in their oblique singular/direct plural suffixes (/-ə/ versus -Ø),
and second, in the presence or absence of stress in the vocative singular suffixes.
Nouns in Class IIa can end in either a consonant or a stressed /a/. Most of those
that end in /á/ appear to be nouns derived from the suffix
/‑bá/ ‘master, keeper’, as
in
/uxbá/ ‘camel driver’, from
/ux/ ‘camel’. These /-bá/ derived nouns, as
well as the noun
/melmá/ ‘guest’ (Table 5.45), have alternate /-ānə́/ and /-anó/
suffixes in the plural. Suffixes for this class are given in Table 5.38.
Class IIb nouns all end in consonants. Most, perhaps all, of the nouns in this class
can also be declined according to other noun classes. Suffixes for this class are given
in Table 5.39.
We have not identified a distinct set of Class II nouns in Waziri. Most of the masculine nouns whose General Pashto forms are Class IIa nouns behave like Class I nouns,
like /pālíz/ ‘kitchen garden’, plural /pāliz-ína/, and /tanúr/ ‘oven’, plural /tanurína/. At least one masculine noun that belongs to Class IIb in General Pashto may be
inflected in Waziri like a Class IIb noun, namely /žənawár/ ‘animal’, plural /žənawə́r/.
Another noun expected to belong to the same class, /mənžəwár/ ‘shrinekeeper’ is inflected in Waziri as a Class I animate noun, plural /mənžəwar-ún/. Feminine nouns
that belong to Class II in General Pashto typically behave like Class III nouns in Waziri,
e.g. /koranə́y/ ‘family’, plural /koran-ej/. The data are too sparse to determine whether
Class II nouns simply do not exist in Waziri, or if an inflection pattern similar to that
of GP Class II may be an option for some nouns.

‫وښبه‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫وښ‬

‫ـبه‬

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

74  Nouns

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate

‫ـه‬

‫ـونه‬

‑ə́

‑úna

‫ـانه‬

‑ānə́

(variant for
á-stem only)
Oblique

‫ـه‬

‑ə́

‫ـو‬

‫ـونو‬

‑ó

‑úno

‫انو‬

‑ānó

(variant for
á-stem only)
Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑á

Vocative

 
Table 5.38: GP Class IIa noun suffixes

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate
―—

‫ـو‬

Oblique

‑o

Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑a

Vocative

 
Table 5.39: GP Class IIb noun suffixes

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM

Inflectional affixation  75 5.40: GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5.4. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Noun type Example ‫ و‬o/u + C V→ā oblique singular and direct plural animates ‫پښتون ـه ← پښتانه‬ V→a ə/a + C á ‫پښتون ـو ← پښتنو‬ oblique. and vocative plurals V → ə or no change all plurals V→Ø all plurals a→Ø pəxtún-ə́ → pəxtānə́ ‘Pashtuns’ pəxtún-ó → pəxtanó ‘Pashtuns’ inanimates ‫تنور ـونه ← تنرونه‬ tanur-úna → tanərúna ‘ovens’ all monosyllables everywhere but direct singular mostly -bá derived nouns ‫غل ـونه ← غلونه‬ ɣal-úna → ɣlúna ‘thieves’ ‫مېلمه ـه ← مېلمه‬ melmá-ə → melmə́ ‘guests’   Table 5.45.2. Some IIa nouns with the o/u ∼ ā alternation (Table 5.41 through Table 5. ablative.42) can also be declined as Class I nouns.2 General Pashto Class IIa • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5.126.40. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.

42: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پښتون‬/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.76  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پالېز‬ ‫پالېزونه‬ ‫پالېزه‬ ‫پالېزونو‬ pāléz Oblique pālez-ə́ Ablative pālez-úna pālez-úno ‫پالېزه‬ pālez-á Vocative   Table 5.41: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پالېز‬/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’ o/u ∼ ā/a Singular Plural Direct ‫پښتون‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتنو‬ pəxtún Oblique pəxtān-ə́ Ablative pəxtān-ə́ pəxtan-o ‫پښتونه‬ pəxtún-a Vocative   Table 5.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

126.Inflectional affixation  o/u ∼ ə Singular Plural Direct ‫تنور‬ ‫تنرونه‬ tanúr tanər-úna ‫تنورونه‬ tanur-úna Oblique ‫تنوره‬ ‫تنرونو‬ tanur-ə́ tanər-úno ‫تنورونو‬ tanur-úno Ablative ‫تنوره‬ tanúr-a Vocative   Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 77 .165.44 have monosyllabic stems.43: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ تنور‬/tanúr/ ‘oven’ All nouns of the type illustrated in Table 5.

78  Nouns ə/a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غل‬ ‫غله‬ ɣal ɣl-ə ‫غلونه‬ ɣl-úna Oblique ‫غله‬ ‫غلو‬ ɣl-ə ɣl-o ‫غلونو‬ ɣl-úno Ablative ‫غله‬ ɣál-a Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .45: GP Class IIa animate: ‫ مېلمه‬/melmá/ ‘guest’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.126.44: GP Class IIa animate/inanimate: ‫ غل‬/ɣal/ ‘thief’ a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫مېلمه‬ ‫مېلمه‬ melmá melm-ə́ ‫مېلمانه‬ melm-ānə́ Oblique ‫مېلمه‬ melm-ə́ ‫مېلمو‬ melm-ó ‫مېلمانو‬ melm-anó Ablative ‫مېلمه‬ melm-á Vocative   Table 5.

Adjectives whose final syllables are /‑gar/.165. of its members belong to Class I for some speakers.46.4. The words in this class all end in /aC/. the consonant is most often /n/ or /r/. Some authors treat these nouns as irregular. it can also be either masculine or feminine.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. but in our view there are enough to form a declension class: /xaṭgár/ ‘plasterer’ (also Class I masculine animate) /bazgár/ ‘peasant’ (also Class I masculine animate) /sxar/ ‘stone’ /naxtár/ ‘pine tree’ /moṭár/ ‘car’ (also Class I masculine or feminine inanimate) /dardmán/ ‘sensitive one’ (also Class I masculine animate) /wākmán/ ‘ruler’ (also Class I masculine animate) /mayán/ ‘lover’ /topák/ ‘gun’ (also Class I masculine inanimate) /xaʣunák/ ‘hermaphrodite’ /mlax/ ‘locust’ (also Class I masculine animate) The loanword /moṭár/ ‘car’ was probably put into this class by some speakers on the analogy of the other Class IIb nouns that end in /ár/. in that as a Class I noun.Inflectional affixation  79 5. ‫ـګر‬ ‫خټګر‬ ‫بذګر‬ ‫سخر‬ ‫نښتر‬ ‫موټر‬ ‫دردمن‬ ‫واکمن‬ ‫مین‬ ‫توپک‬ ‫ښځونک‬ ‫ملخ‬ ‫ور‬- ‫ن‬- ‫ـزن‬ ‫موټر‬ • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIb nouns are given in Table 5. /‑an/. if not all.3 General Pashto Class IIb This class is different from the others: it contains only a few nouns. all plurals Example ‫دښمن ـ ← دښمن‬ duxmán-Ø → duxmə́n ‘enemies’   Table 5. Class IIb has no animate/inanimate distinction and includes the nouns in the list below. and most.47. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected a+C a→ə oblique singular. /‑war/.46: GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms The paradigm of a Class IIb noun is given in Table 5.126. or /‑zan/ decline according to this class when used with nominal function. It is particularly indeterminate.

47: GP Class IIb: 5. depending on whether the primary stress falls on the ultimate or the penultimate syllable. and Table 5. for masculines.4 summarizes the situation for Waziri. Another distinguishing feature of GP Class III nouns is that their direct singular forms take a suffix. Table 5. ‫ی‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ې‬ 5. while Section 5.5. IIIa and IIIb.2.5 ‫ دښمن‬/duxmán/ ‘enemy’ Class III 5. Section 5. Class III nouns exhibit no stem allomorphy. and in fact.1 Overview In both General Pashto and Waziri. and for feminines. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Hence the class is divided into two subgroups.51.165. /o/.3 detail the facts for Class III in General Pashto. unlike other Pashto nouns. for masculines.80  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمنو‬ duxmán Oblique duxmə́n duxmə́n duxmə́n-o ‫دښمنه‬ Ablative duxmán-a Vocative   Table 5.1 through Section 5.5.1 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto The inflectional patterns of Class III nouns differ noticeably. this sound is /ay/. it is either /əy/ or /e/. The suffixes for GP Class III nouns are shown in Table 5.5.5.1.2.50. this sound is /ay/. In Waziri.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . which means that the stem is not identical to the direct singular form. /i/.1. or /yé/. Table 5.2.5. described in the following sections.2. the stem can look rather odd.2. it is either /áy/.2.48. They are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: In General Pashto.49.52 and Table 5.54). and for feminines. as with the words for both male dog and female dog (see Table 5.

Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct ‫ـی‬ ‑áy Inanimate ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‑í ‫ـیان‬ ‑iā́n Oblique ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‑ó ‑ío ‑ó ‑ío ‫ـیانو‬ ‑iā́no Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑áya Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 81 .165. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.48: GP Class IIIa Masc.

82  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑ə́y ‑í Plural Animate Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑ə́y ‑ə́y ‫ـۍګانې‬ ‑əygā́ne ‫ـۍ‬ Oblique ‑ə́y ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no ‫ـۍګانو‬ ‑əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no .165.126. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.49: GP Class IIIa Fem.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 83 . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. noun suffixes Direct Singular  Plural ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‑e Oblique ‑e ‫ـو‬ ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5. noun suffixes 1 Penzl (1955) has the ending /-e/ for the Class IIIb masculine vocative singular in Kandahari (see Table 5.165.50: GP Class IIIb Masc.126.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑ay Oblique ‑i ‑i ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑ya Vocative ¹   Table 5. This is the only source to suggest an alternative to the /-ya/ ending above.51: GP Class IIIb Fem.57).

it occurs among inanimate nouns as well as animate. ‫ـان‬ ‫اپریدی‬ 5.53.2. Among Class IIIa feminine nouns. primarily with nouns denoting animate objects.126.48 and Table 5. as seen in Table 5.52 and Table 5.5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .49. As with other noun classes described earlier. animate: ‫ سپی‬/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2 Class IIIa Nouns of Class IIIa are inflected for case-marking as noted in Table 5.56. Animate denotations in this class include ethnic or tribal denominations such as /apridáy/ ‘Afridi’.2. stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپی‬ ‫سپي‬ sp-áy sp-í ‫سپیان‬ sp-iā́n Oblique ‫سپي‬ sp-í ‫سپو‬ sp-ó ‫سپیو‬ sp-ío ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative ‫سپیه‬ sp-áya Vocative   Table 5.165.1 Masculine Class IIIa nouns • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical masculine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5.52: GP Class IIIa Masc.84  Nouns 5.2. the sequence /ā́n/ is optionally used in plural formation.5.

yet there is no clear rule for which form is preferred.5. inanimate: ‫ ګډی‬/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’ 5. The various plural alternatives mentioned here are not always freely interchangeable. • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical feminine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5.2.2.Inflectional affixation  stem = stor- Singular Plural Direct ‫ګډی‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګيو‬ gaḍ-áy Oblique gaḍ-í gaḍ-í Ablative 85 gaḍ-ó ‫ګډیه‬ gaḍ-áya Vocative   Table 5.2 Feminine Class IIIa nouns Note the wide variance in possible plural forms for Class IIIa feminine nouns.52 and Table 5.53.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.53: GP Class IIIa Masc. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.

126. animate: ‫ سپۍ‬/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’ stem = koran- Singular Plural Direct ‫کورنۍ‬ ‫کورنۍ‬ koran-ə́y koran-ə́y ‫کورنیانې‬ koran-yā́ne ‫کورنۍګانې‬ koran-əygā́ne ‫کورنیو‬ Oblique koran-ə́yo ‫کورنیانو‬ koran-yā́no ‫کورنۍګانو‬ koran-əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.55: GP Class IIIa Fem.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . animate: ‫ کورنۍ‬/koranə́y/ ‘family’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.86  Nouns stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپۍ‬ ‫سپۍ‬ sp-ə́y sp-ə́y ‫سپیانې‬ sp-iā́ne ‫سپیو‬ Oblique sp-ə́yo ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.54: GP Class IIIa Fem.

inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’ 5.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  stem = čālāk- Singular Plural Direct ‫څالاکي‬ ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-í 87 čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیانې‬ čālāk-yā́ne Oblique ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیو‬ čālāk-ə́yo ‫څالاکیانو‬ čālāk-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. as reflected in Table 5.5.3 Class IIIb Compared to Class IIIa nouns.126.50 and Table 5.165.51. There is also no animacy distinction among Class IIIb nouns.3.2.1 Masculine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5.56: GP Class IIIa Fem. 5. there is little variation among plural Class IIIb nouns.57 gives a sample paradigm for a masculine Class IIIb noun.5.

88  Nouns stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګری‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګرو‬ malgə́r-ay Oblique malgə́r-i malgə́r-i malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative ‫ملګریه‬ malgə́r-ya Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2 Feminine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5.5.2.58 gives a sample paradigm for a feminine Class IIIb noun.126.165.3.57: GP Class IIIb Masc.: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’ 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

regardless of number. or /ye/. so we are unable to support Lorimer’s subdivision.68.59 through Table 5. Direct singular forms ending in /í/ take the /-áy/ suffix in direct plural and oblique singular and plural. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.63. Nouns of this class ending in /o/ or /yé/ take the same ending throughout the direct and plural cases. • Sample paradigms Abbreviated paradigms of some typical Class III nouns are given in Table 5. /i/. depending on the form of the plural suffixes. Lorimer (1902) divides masculine nouns in this class into two subgroups.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’ 5.126. and for feminines.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Waziri Class III nouns are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: for masculines. The suffixes for Class III nouns as described by Lorimer (1902) are shown in Table 5. this sound is /ay/.4 Class III in Waziri As in General Pashto.5.2.64 through Table 5. We include only the direct case for the masculine nouns. as these are the only forms we have been able to verify with native speakers. We have found only one form of the direct plural suffix and do not have any examples of Class III nouns in the oblique plural. it is either /áy/. We call Lorimer’s subgroups Class IIIa and Class IIIb. Feminine Class III nouns distinguish themselves by being mostly invariable.Inflectional affixation  stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګرې‬ ‫ملګرې‬ malgə́r-e 89 malgə́r-e ‫ملګرو‬ Oblique malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5.58: GP Class IIIb Fem. following the pattern of /-áy/-final nouns.165. but the subdivisions do not seem to be related to stress patterns as they are in General Pashto. /o/.

59: Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc.90  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑í -ína DZA Oblique ‑í ‑áy WAZ ‑yé WAZ -ə́y DZA   Table 5.165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . noun suffixes Direct Oblique Singular  Plural ‑áy WAZ ‑ay WAZ -í -əy DZA -ay WAZ -əy DZA   Table 5.60: Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑íon WAZ -i DZA Oblique ‑í ‑ioné WAZ -ye DZA   Table 5. noun suffixes: /-áy/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.61: Middle dialect Class III Fem.

noun suffixes: /-o/ Singular Direct Plural ‑yé Oblique   Table 5.62: Middle dialect Class III Fem.126. animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’ stem = pat- Singular Plural Direct pat-áy pat-í   Table 5.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.64: Waziri Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes: /-yé/ stem = xus- Singular Plural Direct xus-áy xus-í   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 91 . inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’ stem = šaṛ- Singular Direct šaṛ-ay Plural Oblique   Table 5.165.66: Waziri Class III Fem.65: Waziri Class III Masc.63: Middle dialect Class III Fem.Inflectional affixation  Singular  Direct Plural ‑o Oblique   Table 5.

As mentioned in Section 5. and the acceptability of one alternative over another is not always predictable.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . presented in the following subsections. from which it was borrowed).165. The class membership of certain nouns is also not fixed. In addition to such variation in the use of plural and oblique forms. many nouns that follow the patterns of one particular declension class can also have alternative plural forms. or Class IIb. A large number of these come from kinship terms and Arabic borrowing.2. Other nouns in Pashto follow entirely irregular patterns.1. with plural form /moṭə́re/ ‘automobiles’ (presumably by association with the gender of the same noun in Urdu.3. with plural form /moṭə́r/.68: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. For example. Class I feminine inanimate.126. as mentioned in Section 5. with some nouns optionally following the full inflectional paradigm of more than one class.67: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’ 5. especially loanwords.92  Nouns stem = xamt- Singular Direct xamt-o Plural Oblique   Table 5. vary in gender assignment. the noun /moṭə́r/ ‘automobile’ can follow three different inflectional patterns. depending on the speaker: Class I masculine inanimate. ‫موټر‬ ‫موټرونه‬ ‫موټرې‬ ‫موټر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’ stem = gut- Singular Direct gut-yé Plural Oblique   Table 5.2.6 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto Pashto has many irregular morphological patterns among its nouns. with plural form /moṭərúna/ ‘automobiles’ (by virtue of the consonant-final form).4. some nouns.

kinship noun: ‫وراره‬ ‫ مور‬/mor/ ‘mother’ ‫زوی‬ ‫لور‬ The nouns /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . plural stem /xwáynd-/ /tror/ ‘paternal aunt’. plural stem /máynd-/ /xor/ ‘sister’. The following feminine kinship terms have different stems in the singular and plural and follow the pattern illustrated in Table 5. Table 5. and Table 5.71.72.2.126. plural stem /ngáynd-/ ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫مور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫ترور‬ ‫نګور‬ Direct Singular Plural ‫مور‬ ‫مېندې‬ mor máynd-e ‫مېندو‬ Oblique máynd-o Ablative ‫مورې‬ mór-e Vocative   Table 5.Inflectional affixation  93 5. While several kinship terms do fit within the regular noun class paradigms—for example. /zoy/ ‘son’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are also all irregular.69: /mor/ ‘mother’.70. tend to retain morphological or phonological patterns that have been lost elsewhere in the language.69: Irregular Fem. as shown in Table 5. Class I nouns /plā́r/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’— even these exhibit some oddity in that they represent a fairly exceptional set of nouns that denote humans but that take inanimate suffixes.6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. This section describes the more irregular Pashto kinship terms. many kinship terms in Pashto have irregular forms. plural stem /tráynd-/ /ngor/ ‘daughter-in-law’. One explanation for this phenomenon is that words used most often. especially culturally significant ones.165.1 Kinship terms Perhaps due to their frequent use and cultural importance.

70: Irregular Masc.71: Irregular Masc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . kinship noun: ‫ زوی‬/zoy/ ‘son’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.94  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫وراره‬ ‫ورېرونه‬ wrārə́ wrer-úna ‫ورېرو‬ Oblique wrer-ó ‫ورېرونو‬ wrer-úno Ablative Vocative   Table 5.165. kinship noun: Direct ‫ وراره‬/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’ Singular Plural ‫زوی‬ ‫زامن‬ zoy zāmə́n ‫زامنو‬ Oblique zāmə́n-o Ablative ‫زویه‬ zoy-a Vocative   Table 5.

/‑ā́t/. can also occur with the Arabic broken plural form /dafā́tar/ ‘offices’.73 and Table 5. as illustrated in Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫دفتر‬ .2. kinship noun: ‫ لور‬/lur/ ‘daughter’ 5.2. the word /daftár/ ‘office’.126.2 Arabic borrowings Another common source of irregular inflectional forms comes from Arabic borrowings (or nouns perceived by speakers as Arabic).72: Irregular Fem. Three major plural patterns are associated with such Arabic loanwords: /‑ín/. whose paradigm as Class I noun appears earlier in Table 5.165.74.20 (with plural form /daftər-úna/.5.6. Although the suffix /-ā́t/ is a feminine inflectional form in Arabic. For example. the class of abstract nouns to which it applies is treated as masculine in Pashto. ‫ـین‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ ‫دفاتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /daftə́r/). In many cases.2. in which the Arabic plural form is borrowed as well. the inflectional patterns may either employ the Arabic plural forms or may be adapted to one of the regular Pashto noun classes described in Section 5.3 through Section 5. and the Arabic broken plural.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫لور‬ ‫لوڼې‬ lur 95 lúṇ-e ‫لوڼو‬ Oblique lúṇ-o ‫لورې‬ Ablative lúr-e Vocative   Table 5.

Arabic loanword: ‫ موضوع‬/mawzó'/ ‘topic’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.74: Masc.96  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫مجاهد‬ ‫مجاهدین‬ mujāhíd mujāhid-ín ‫مجاهدینو‬ Oblique mujāhid-ín-o ‫مجاهدو‬ mujāhíd-o Ablative ‫مجاهده‬ mujāhíd-a Vocative   Table 5.165. Arabic loanword: Direct ‫ مجاهد‬/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’ Singular Plural ‫موضوع‬ ‫موضوعات‬ mawzó' mawzo'-w-ā́t ‫موضوعاتو‬ Oblique mawzo'-w-ā́t-o Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.73: Masc.

165. then the adjective must be repeated and inflected to agree with the gender of each noun individually.DIR and black-F.’ However.DIR kitābča-Ø w-ā́xist-a notebook-F.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.STR.DIR and Mahmoud-M.DIR dance-PST-PST. when a verb agrees with two conjoined nouns. if the conjoined nouns are of different genders. (5.’ However. but may be declined to agree in gender and number with the last item in the list when in past tense.126. (5.F ‘I bought a black book and a black notebook. the verb agrees in gender. (5.’ Similarly.3PL.‫سنا او مدینه لېونیانې دي‬ sanā-Ø aw madin-a lewan-iāne Sana-F.ANIM. then an adjective which modifies (or is predicated of) the conjoined nouns will be in the same gender.DIR AOR-buy.DIR crazy-PL.CONT.3PL.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud danced.3SG.DIR and Madina-F.16) . then the corresponding verb is usually masculine and plural when in non-past tense.3PL.14) .PST-PST.OBL CONT-laugh-PST.OBL black-M.‫احمد او محمود ګډېدل‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø gəd-̣ed-ə́l Ahmad-M. In example 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .F.OBL and Abaseen-M.DIR di be.3 97 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns When nouns are conjoined.Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  5.‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F.17.‫ما تور کتاب او توره کتابچه واخیسته‬ mā tor-Ø kitāb-Ø aw tor-a 1SG. but is plural: (5.M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing. then if the nouns are of the same gender.F ‘Sana and Madina are crazy.PRS. if the conjoined nouns are of different genders.17) . the verb is conjugated to agree in gender with the last of the objects mentioned. but in the plural.15) .DIR book-M. if they are both of the same gender.15 and 5.

They instead highlight the relationship between derivational affixes and their stems. adjectives.126. Table 5. temple’ ‫ ماشومتوب‬māšumtob ‘childhood’ ‫ هوندیتوب‬xwanditob ‘safety’ ‫پوخنتون‬ poxantun ‘university’ ‫وړکتون‬ woṛəktun ‘kindergarten’ ‫ وړکي‬woṛəki ‘boy’ ‫ـتیا‬ ‑tiyā abstract noun native Pashto adjectives ‫ پراخ‬prāx ‘vast’ ‫پراختیا‬ prāxtyā ‘development’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. including verbal nouns and adjectives xowun(a) ‘teaching’ ‑ʣāy (‫ښوون)ه‬ ‫عبادت‬ ibādat ‘worship’ ‫ـتوب‬ state of being ‑tob nouns and adjectives ‫ ماشوم‬māšum ‘child’ ‫خوندي‬ xwandi ‘safe’ ‫ـتون‬ place of ‑tun nouns and adjectives ‫پوه‬ poh ‘expert’ ‫ وړکی‬woṛəkay ‘small’ Derived form ‫ ښوونځای‬xowunʣāy ‘school’ ‫عبادتځای‬ ibādatʣā́y ‘place of worship.1.165. Pashto has both more productive and less productive derivational affixes. 5. or other nouns. mosque.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .4 Derivational morphology and loanwords 5.4.1 Derivational morphology of nouns This section discusses some derivational affixes in Pashto and a few of the nouns derived from them.4. church.1 Nouns derived with suffixes The examples in this section do not necessarily contain nouns of note. which may be verbs.75: Derived noun suffixes Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫ـڅای‬ place of nouns.98  Nouns 5.

abstract noun Dari adjectives agent nouns ‫ـوال‬ ‑wāl owner or occupant nouns ‫جوړښت‬ joṛəxt ‘construction’ ‫اورښت‬ orəxt ‘precipitation’ ‫شرمنده‬ šrəmandə ‘ashamed person’ ‫ هنرمند‬honarmand ‘artist’ ‫ تجربهکار‬tajrabakār ‫ادا‬ ‫ اداکار‬adākār ‘actor’ ‫اسوده‬ awsoda ‘peaceful’ ‫ګنده‬ ‑gar ‫ کمښت‬kaməxt ‘lack’ ‘expert’ ganda ‘rotten’ ‫ـګر‬ ‫نيمګړینیا‬ nimgəṛitiyā ‘insufficiency’ tajraba ‘experience’ adā ‘performance’ ‫‑ ـګي‬gi Derived form ‫ ژرنده‬žranda ‫ اسوده ګي‬awsoda gi ‘peace’ ‫ ګندهګي‬gandagi ‘trash’ ‫ ژرندګر‬žrandagar ‘mill’ ‘miller’ ‫ خټه‬xaṭa ‘mud’ ‫ خټکر‬xaṭgar ‘mason’ ‫ هټي‬haṭi ‘shop’ ‫هیواد‬ haywād ‘country’ ‫هټیوال‬ haṭiwāl ‘shopkeeper’ ‫ هیوادوال‬haywādwāl ‘citizen’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 99 .126. including verbal adjectives ‫ کم‬kam ‘less’ ‫ جوړه‬joṛa ‘built’ ‫ اورېدل‬oredəl ‘to fall’ ‫ـمند‬ ‑mand experiencer /possessor Dari nouns ‫شرم‬ šrəm ‘shame’ ‫ هنر‬honar ‘art’ ‫ـکار‬ agent nouns ‑kār ‫تجربه‬ -ness.Derivational morphology and loanwords  Table 5.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫نیمګړی‬ nimgəṛay ‘insufficient’ ‫ـښت‬ state of being ‑əxt adjectives.

165.100  Nouns Table 5.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to ‫ـوالی‬ scope. volume nouns and adjectives ‑wālay Stem ‫ ډیر‬ḍer ‘big’ Derived form ‫ډیروالی‬ ḍerwālay ‘increase’ ‫ کم‬kam ‘short.126. ‫ کموالی‬kamwālay small’ ‫‑ یه‬ya abstract noun Arabic nouns ‫نظر‬ nazar ‘perspective’ ‫عمل‬ amal ‘action’ ‫یت‬ ‑iyat abstract or plural noun nouns and adjectives ‫مامور‬ māmur ‘official’ ‫ مصون‬masun ‘safe’ ‫‑ ي‬i abstract noun nouns ‫مشر‬ mašər ‘leader’ ‫دښمن‬ duxman ‘enemy’ ‫خپلواک‬ state of being verbs verbs ‫ مصونیت‬masuniyat ‘security’ ‫مشري‬ mašri ‘leadership’ ‫ دښمني‬duxmani ‘animosity’ ‫ خپلواکي‬xpəlwāki ‫ ګراني‬grāni ‘inflation’ ‫لارښوول‬ lārxowəl ‘to direct’ agent ‫ ماموریت‬māmuriyat ‘duty’ ‫ګران‬ look’ ‑unkay ‫عملیه‬ amalya ‘implementation’ ‘independence’ ‫ کتل‬katəl ‘to ‫ـونکی‬ ‫نظریه‬ nazarya ‘opinion’ xpəlwāk ‘independent’ grān ‘expensive’ ‫‑ ـنه‬na ‘reduction’ ‫ښوول‬ xowəl ‘to teach’ ‫چلول‬ čəlawəl ‘to manage’ ‫لارښوونه‬ lārxowəna ‘direction’ ‫ کتنه‬katəna ‘sight’ ‫ ښوونکی‬xowunkay ‘teacher’ ‫چاوونکی‬ čəlawunkay ‘manager. driver’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

126.AOR.19) or a circumstantial (5. (5.OBL dead-M. mostly from Persian.1.) 5.3SG.M ‘He was beaten to death.’ (NW) (5. 5.DIR 1 from tér-Ø šu-Ø passed-M.2 Reduplication of nouns Pashto nouns denoting events can undergo reduplication to express duration or intensity of the event.M.4.‫په وهلو وهلو مړ شو‬ pə wəh-əl-o wəh-əl-o məṛ-Ø INSTR beat-INF-PL.DIR šu-Ø become.M.PST-PST.OBL beat-INF-PL.AOR.OBL write-INF-PL.20) relationship to that denoted by the finite verb.OBL time-M.4. These reduplicated nominals denote an event in either a causative (5.3.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem Derived form ‫کمېدل‬ ‫کمېدونکی‬ kamedəl ‘to lessen’ kamedunkay ‘decline’ (n.M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .Derivational morphology and loanwords  101 Table 5.165. 5.8.‫په لیکلو لیکلو وخت را نه تېرشو‬ pə lik-əl-o lik-əl-o waxt-Ø rā na INSTR write-INF-PL.3SG.18. Some examples of compound nouns built from Pashto words are: • • • ‫ ورلړونی‬/orlaṛunay/ ‘poker’ ( ‫ ور‬/or/ ‘fire’ + ‫ لړل‬/laṛəl/ ‘to stir’) ‫ سپینږیری‬/spinžiray/ ‘old man’ ( ‫ سپن‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫ ږره‬/žira/ ‘beard’) ‫ لمرخاته‬/lmarxātə/ ‘east’ ( ‫ لمر‬/lmar/ ‘sun’ + ‫ خاته‬/xātə/ ‘rising’) More examples of compounds can be found in Section 6.PST-PST.M ‘I was so busy writing that I lost track of time.18) .M.2 Compounds Many of Pashto’s noun compounds originate from loanwords.’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.19) .DIR become.

PL.OBL .20) . which are borrowed directly into Pashto and treated as if they were native Pashto words in terms of inflection.DIR be.M ‘In our school there are all kinds of people [our school is very diverse].OBL to NEG ʣ-a go..OBL laugh-F.SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me. or Urdu.‫زموږ په مکتب کي رنګ رنګ خلک دي‬ zmuẓ pə maktab-Ø ki rang-Ø rang-Ø 1PL..PRS.PRS-IMP. pl.21) . pl.4. and others from Russian or English. ‫ اینجنیران‬/injinirān/ ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā/ ‘clerk’ (Persian).DIR INSTR laugh-F.165.OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell.M COMP cinema-F.'’ Nouns not derived from or related to verbs can also be repeated to indicate plurality or variety: (5.3 Loanwords In addition to the irregular inflectional forms described in Section 5.POSS in.CONT.M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځه‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M. ‫ میرزایان‬/mirzāyān/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. pl. 'Don't go to the movies.102  Nouns (5. For example: • • • ‫ سماوار‬/samāvār/ ‘samovar’ (Russian).CONT. Persian.2. ‫ سماوارونه‬/samāvāruna/ ‫ اینجنیر‬/injinir/ ‘engineer’ (English)..2.PST-PST-3PL.6.in color-M. school-M.126.DIR color-M.DIR xalək-Ø di people-PL.STR.’ (SW) 5.. Pashto has many words originating in Arabic.

see Chapter 11. and interrogative adjectives—covering both casemarking and derivation. (For phrasal modifiers of nouns such as relative clauses. 6. determiners. 6. although some adjectives and other noun modifiers are never inflected.) It ends with a section on usage—attribution and predication.2). Demonstrative determiners can represent two or three degrees of proximity. Previous descriptions of inflectional classes (for both nouns and adjectives) have usually included stem allomorphy among their diagnostic features. Pashto adjectives precede the nouns they modify and are generally inflected to agree with those nouns in gender. We group the adjectives into four classes.2.165. the use of adjectives as nouns. Class II also includes those that end in /‑ə́/. the inflectional patterns of Pashto adjectives have received widely varying descriptive treatment. we consider it separately and classify nouns and adjectives based solely on their inflectional suffixes. case. Other authors group the adjectives in four to seven categories.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri As with nouns (Section 5.1.1 Introduction This chapter describes the morphology of Pashto lexical noun modifiers—that is. and the adverbial use of adjectives—including a discussion of the typologically unusual feature of adverbial concord with nouns.5). comparison.Melissa Fox and Alina Twist 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. All such adjectives are stressed on the final syllable in this citation form. depending on the dialect: proximal/distal or proximal/medial/distal. adjectives.2. Classes III and IV comprise ‫ـه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. based on the ending of the masculine direct singular form and the alternation between the masculine direct singular and the masculine oblique singular (which usually resembles the masculine direct plural form).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126. The ablative case (sometimes called oblique II or prepositional) seldom has a unique form: when it differs from the oblique form. number terms. depending on the features considered to be diagnostic.1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives Classes I and II include all adjectives that end in consonants in their citation form (masculine direct singular). Pashto adjective paradigms generally have fewer forms than noun paradigms. and number. Our analysis has four inflectional classes of adjectives and largely corresponds with that presented for nouns in Chapter 5. A few Class I adjectives take animate suffixes when modifying animate nouns (see Section 6.1. it is usually identical with the vocative form.

Adjectives in Classes II-IV are frequently regularized toward Class I by many speakers.2.1.2. Class I adjectives with certain stem shapes will undergo one of two processes of vowel mutation: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 General Pashto Class I 6.1.1.1. They are declined using the suffixes in Table 6. This regularization is a major source of dialectal variation. ‫تش‬ ‫نېغ‬ Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular ‫ـه‬ -Ø -a Plural ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـي‬ -i W ‫ـو‬ Oblique -o ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـو‬ -o ‫ـي‬ -i W Ablative ‫ـه‬ -a Vocative   Table 6.126. direct’. 6. which includes diphthongs. as in /təš/ ‘empty’ or /neɣ/ ‘straight.2.1 Case-marking suffixes Class I adjectives are consonant-final in their citation form.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.1.1: GP Class I adjective suffixes This is the most populous adjective class. and keep the stress on the final syllable of the stem.2 Stem allomorphy In the Western dialects.1.104  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers adjectives ending in stressed and unstressed vowels other than /ə́/. 6.

126. 6. illustrating the centralization rule for the Western dialect. irrespective of gender. so those speakers’ dialect lacks the alternation.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy The paradigm for the adjective /spək/ ‘light’ in Table 6.3 and Table 6. as well as ordinal numbers ending in /‑ám/.2 shows the Western dialect’s Vowel Harmony rule.165.4. /‑ján/. (To compare this stem allomorphy to that of Class IIb nouns.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  105 1.4. Table 6. Penzl (1955: 69. ‫سپک‬ ‫زړهور‬ ‫غمجن‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3 and Table 6. see Section 5.2.1. undergo a different vowel alternation: the vowel /á/ of the final syllable centralizes to /ə́/ in feminine non-direct singulars and in all plural forms. or /‑mán/.2. Centralization á → ə́/_C# Class I adjectives for which the last syllable in the masculine direct singular form is /‑wár/.3.1.4) reports that some Kandahari speakers have the /ə/ vowel in all case forms.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .4 show paradigms for the adjectives /zṛawár/ ‘brave’ and /ɣamján/ ‘sad’. undergo regressive harmony in the feminine direct plural and in both oblique plural forms—when the suffix vowel is /o/—as shown in Table 6.2. ‫دنګ‬ 2. /‑gár/. as shown in Table 6. Vowel Harmony ə → o/_Co ‫پلن‬ Class I adjectives with the stressed stem vowel /ə́/ (W).) ‫ـور‬ ‫ـګر‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـجن‬ ‫ـمن‬ In other dialects these vowels do not mutate. such as /plən/ ‘broad’ or /dəng/ ‘tall’.

‫ ـور‬/wár/ alternation: ‫ زړهور‬/zṛawár/ ‘brave’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.3: GP Class I.2: GP Class I.106  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ə∼o Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫زړهورو‬ zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W . stem alternation: a∼ə spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W Masculine ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Singular Direct ‫سپکې‬ Feminine Plural ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár E zṛawə́r W Singular ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Plural ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W ‫زړهورو‬ Oblique zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W Ablative ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Vocative   Table 6.

1. ‫ ـجن‬/ján/ alternation: ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ 6.1.5.2.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .4: GP Class I.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  a∼ə Masculine Singular Direct ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján 107 Feminine Plural ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján E ɣamjə́n W Singular ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Plural ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ɣamjə́n-i W ‫غمجنو‬ Oblique ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ‫غمجنو‬ ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ɣamjə́n-i W Ablative ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Vocative   Table 6.165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy The paradigm for Class I adjectives lacking stem allomorphy is shown in Table 6.

1. /‑āne/ (fem.165.2.2.M.5: GP Class I.M. as in examples 6. consonant-final adjective. ‫ـانې‬ ‫ـان‬ ‫ـانو‬ (6.1) ‫مشران وروڼه‬ məšr-ān oruṇa elder-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .dir.DIR ‘older brothers’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5 Animacy in Class I adjectives When modifying animate nouns.1 and 6. that is: g → Ø/C_ Therefore the animate plural suffix on adjectives is realized as /‑ān/ (masc.2. no alternation: ‫ پلونډ‬/palwánḍ/ ‘fat’ 6. some Class I adjectives may take the animate plural suffixes of Class I nouns.).108  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Feminine Plural Singular ‫پلونډ‬ Direct Plural ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډو‬ Oblique palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډو‬ palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډه‬ Ablative palwánḍ-a Vocative   Table 6.3.1 for stems ending in a consonant (which all adjectives have).).2.dir.).DIR brothers.126.1. or /‑āno/ (obl. subject to the changes described in Section 5.

2.2 General Pashto Class II Class II adjectives can end in either a consonant or a stressed schwa ( /‑ə́/). both young and old!’¹ See Section 6. Masculine Singular Direct -Ø Plural ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Ablative Singular ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Oblique Feminine -á ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ -ó -é Plural ‫ـې‬ -é ‫ـو‬ -ó ‫ـه‬ - Vocative   Table 6.6.1. Adjectives as Nouns.165.2.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  (6.VOC friend-PL. for further discussion of animate suffixes on adjectives. although there are a few differences in suffix shape as well.M.9.M. Except for the masculine singular ablative and vocative suffixes. Whether a consonant-final adjective belongs to Class I (stem-stressed) or Class II (suffix-stressed) is a property of the lexeme and is not predictable.126. ‫ـه‬ 6. These stressed suffixes are the chief difference between Class I and Class II.1.2: !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملګرو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M.M.VOC younger-PL.2) 109 !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملکرو‬ paxtan-o məšr-āno kəšr-āno malgər-o Pashtoon-PL.VOC ‘Pashtoon friends.1 Case-marking suffixes The Class II suffixes are shown in Table 6. the suffixes of Class II are inherently stressed.2.6: GP Class II adjective suffixes 1 Standardized version of 6.VOC elder-PL.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 6.

according to rule 4.126. 3. the unstressed vowel deletes.8 and Table 6. Syncope I • V2 → Ø/ V́1 _ • V́1 → Ø/ _V́2 If suffixation results in two adjacent vowels and only one is stressed. The first.2.2 Stem allomorphy Some GP Class II adjectives undergo stem allomorphy processes upon inflection.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Monophthongization • a[+stress] w → V-high] [+back.11.11. applies to a given consonant-final adjective. Back Vowel Lowering V-stress] [+back. Lowering affects only back vowels. as seen in Table 6. but not all of them. In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in the stem.2.9. → V[-high] / #C_ ‫ـو‬ In most Class II consonant-final adjectives with non-initial back vowels.7. This rule affects those adjectives that undergo Back Vowel Lowering.9. 2.165. 4.10 and Table 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. The rules are: 1. This rule is illustrated in Table 6. /o/. those sequences simplify to /o/ when stressed. If both are stressed. Syncope I. It is not possible to predict which rule. • wa[+stress] → V-high] [+back. the rest affect the stem vowels of consonant-final Class II adjectives (which either lower or delete when unstressed). affects the final vowels of /ə́/-final Class II adjectives. Note that rules (2)—(4) must be ordered as stated above in order to account for the resulting allomorphy.110  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6.1.8 and Table 6. as in Table 6. as well as those that undergo Monophthongization. Following application of this rule. An example of each can be seen in Table 6. the first vowel deletes. /u/ lowers to /a/ when unstressed. Lengthening a → ā /_(C)Cə́ Short /a/ lengthens to long /ā/ when the syllable following it contains /ə́/. all of them stress-conditioned. as in Table 6. any remaining /a/ is lengthened when the following syllable contains /ə́/.10 and Table 6. This rule applies to vowel-final adjectives. Back Vowel Lowering or Syncope II.

‫ـه‬ ‫سپېره‬ ‫تېره‬ Masculine Singular Direct ‫تېره‬ terə́ Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫تېره‬ ‫تېره‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ter-ə́ ter-á ter-ó ter-é ter-é ter-ó Ablative Vocative   Table 6. 6. 6. while Rule 3 bleeds it. no other class has adjectives ending in /-ə́/.2. Note that ordering matters with these rules. it will undergo vowel lowering in unstressed position.126.3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy Vowel-final adjectives that end in stressed /‑ə́/ in their citation form include /sperə́/ ‘light grey. The final stem-vowel of these adjectives undergoes one or other of the morphophonemic rules of Syncope I in Section 6. /o/.2. These can be reliably identified from this citation form as belonging to Class II.13. Syncope II V[-stress] → Ø In a few consonant-final adjectives the stem vowel is deleted when not stressed.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  111 5. Rule 2 feeds Rule 4. /u/.12.165. -ə́-final adjective: ‫ تېره‬/terə́/ ‘sharp’ ‫ـو‬ In most consonant-final adjectives where the stem vowel is a back vowel. dusty’.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. as in Table 6. Epenthesis Ø → a/C_CC If syncope results in a triple consonant cluster. an /a/ is inserted after the first consonant. followed by lengthening Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. as shown in Table 6.7 for /terə́/ ‘sharp’.2.1.7: GP Class II. see also Table 6.2.

8: GP Class II. ripe’ ṛand-ó ṛand-á ṛand-é ‫ړونده‬ ṛúnd-a Vocative   Table 6.126.9: GP Class II.112  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫پوخ‬ ‫پاخه‬ pox Oblique pāx-ə́ ‫پاخه‬ ‫پخو‬ pāx-ə́ Ablative Feminine pax-ó Singular ‫پخه‬ Plural ‫پخې‬ pax-á pax-é ‫پخې‬ ‫پخو‬ pax-ó pax-é ‫پوخه‬ póx-a Vocative   Table 6. back vowel lowering: ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. back vowel lowering: u∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Singular Plural ‫ړوند‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړنده‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړندو‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړندو‬ ṛānd-ə́ ṛānd-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural ṛund Oblique ‫ پوخ‬/pox/ ‘cooked.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ṛand-é ṛand-ó .165.

8 and Table 6. Table 6. as in Table 6. some consonant-final adjectives unpredictably undergo rule 5. rather than lowering.11. bent’. The Eastern /sor/ ‘astride’ and /xor/ ‘scattered’ both follow this pattern.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .13. respectively).126. also. Syncope II in unstressed position. stem = /tawd/ Finally. The patterns of stem allomorphy discussed above are lexical properties of particular adjectives. the vowel-glide combination simplifies to /o/ in stressed position.11 also reflects the East—West dialectal correspondence g∼ẓ. ripe’ ‫سور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫سپور‬ ‫خپور‬ ‫پوخ‬ and Table 6.9 for the adjectives /pox/ ‘cooked. more Eastern. traditionally represented in both dialects by the letter (see also Table 3.11. In both /koẓ/ and /xoẓ/. For example. as expressed in Rule 4 and exemplified in Table 6.than Western-dialect adjectives undergo the monophthongization in Table 6. On the other hand. back vowel breaking: ‫ تود‬/tod/ ‘hot’.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  113 when the next syllable contains /ə́/ (as shown in Table 6. but in the Western dialects these words (spelled and pronounced /spor/ and /xpor/) decline according to the pattern shown in Table 6. ‫ کوږ‬/koẓ/ ‘crooked. ‫کوږ‬ ‫خوږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. epenthesis of /a/ applies.10 and Table 6. the Eastern realization of the consonant as [g] is so entrenched that the words may be spelled with instead of the standard . declines in both dialects according to the example shown in Table 6. underlying stems vary from dialect to dialect.12.165.11. Where this results in a three-consonant cluster. indicating that their underlying stems contain /aw/ or /wa/ rather than /o/. In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in their stem. as in Table 6. like ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’.8 for /pox/ ‘cooked. ripe’ and /ṛund/ ‘blind’. ‫پوخ‬ ‫ړوند‬ o∼āw∼aw Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫تود‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫توده‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫تودو‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تودو‬ tod Oblique Feminine tāwd-ə́ tāwd-ə́ tawd-á tawd-ó tawd-é tawd-é tawd-ó ‫توده‬ Ablative tód-a Vocative   Table 6.8 and Chapter 4).10: GP Class II.9 for ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’.

12: GP Class II. back vowel breaking: u∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرو‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سرو‬ sr-ə Ablative Feminine ‫سور‬ sur Oblique ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM sr-e sr-o . Syncope II: ‫ سور‬/sur/ ‘red’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. stem = /xwag/ or /xwaẓ/ sr-ə sr-o sr-a sr-e ‫سوره‬ súr-a Vocative   Table 6.114  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼wā∼wa Masculine Singular Direct Plural Plural ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږه‬ ‫خوږې‬ xoẓ W xwāẓ-ə́ W xwaẓ-á W xwaẓ-é W ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږو‬ ‫خوږې‬ ‫خوږو‬ xwāẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwaẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwāg-ə́ E xwāg-ə́ E Ablative Singular ‫خوږ‬ xog E Oblique Feminine xwag-ó E xwag-á E xwag-é E xwag-é E xwag-ó E ‫خوږه‬ xóg-a E xóẓ-a W Vocative   Table 6.126.11: GP Class II.

2.165.126. Syncope II and epenthesis: ‫ تریخ‬/trix/ ‘bitter’ 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  i∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct ‫تریخ‬ trix Oblique ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ Ablative 115 Feminine Plural ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó Singular ‫ترخه‬ tarx-á ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é Plural ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó ‫تریخه‬ tríx-a Vocative   Table 6.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy Class II forms that do not have stem allomorphy are declined according to the pattern illustrated in Table 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.13: GP Class II.14.2.

according to stress position. /‑ay/.3 General Pashto Class III Class III adjectives in General Pashto end in what is etymologically a participial suffix. such as ‫ګړندی‬ ‫زړغی‬ /zəṛɣáy/ ‘vacillating’. and the stress does not shift in inflected forms. and /gaṛandáy/ ‘quick’. consonant-final adjective.2.2.116  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct ‫اوم‬ um Oblique ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural Singular ‫اومه‬ ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ um-á ‫اومو‬ ‫اومې‬ um-ó um-é Plural ‫اومې‬ um-é ‫اومو‬ um-ó ‫اومه‬ úm-a Vocative   Table 6.16 for /zalmáy/ ‘young’.2.1.9). little’. thus these adjectives can be divided into two subclasses. in their citation form. ‫ـی‬ 6.165.15.1.14: GP Class II. the masculine direct singular (see Section 8.126. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6.² ‫زلمی‬ 2 The word ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ also occurs in Pashto as a masculine first name. no stem allomorphy: ‫ اوم‬/um/ ‘raw. green’ 6. /kamkáy/ ‘small.1 Class IIIa Class IIIa contains adjectives in which the suffix ‫کمکی‬ ‫ـی‬ /‑ay/ is stressed.3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. This suffix may be stressed or unstressed. and the declension is exemplified in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ -áy Oblique Singular Plural ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ -ə́y -í ‫ـي‬ Feminine -ə́y ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ -ío W -ío W -ó E.W -ə́yo E -ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -áya   Table 6.15: GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes Masculine Singular Direct ‫زلمی‬ zalm-áy Oblique ‫زلمي‬ zalm-í Feminine Plural ‫زلمي‬ Singular ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-í zalm-ə́y Plural ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-ə́y ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ zalm-ío W zalm-ío W zalm-ó E.W zalm-ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫زلمیه‬ zalm-áya   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 117 .W -í -ó E.W zalm-ə́yo E zalm-ó E.165.16: GP Class IIIa: ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ ‘young’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

or /šúnay/ ‘possible’. The latter form may be more ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیه‬ frequent. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6.165.1.3. able. it is easy to see that /sə́way/ ‘burnt’. While all Class III adjectives have this historically participial suffix.126. presented in Table 6. well-bred.2 Class IIIb Class IIIb contains adjectives in which the suffix /‑ay/ is not stressed. most Class IIIb adjectives are more transparently related to verbs than those in Class IIIa. /stə́ṛay/ ‘tired’.2.3).17: GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes The masculine vocative singular form in GP Class IIIb varies by region: Heston (1992: 1568).118  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. writing about Kandahari (Western).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . writing about Eastern dialects. gives it as /‑e/.17. while Penzl (1955: 72.18. strong’. ‫ـی‬ ‫ستړی‬ ‫شونی‬ Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫ـی‬ -ay ‫پیاوړی‬ Singular Plural ‫ـي‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ -e -i -əy SW -e NE Oblique ‫ـي‬ -yo E -i -ye E -o W -e W -yo E -o W Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -ya E -o -e -o ‫ـې‬ -e W   Table 6. such as /piyāwə́ṛay/ ‘courteous. even in the east. but both occur and both are understood. is related to /swəl/ ‘burn’. gives it as /‑ya/. ‫سوی‬ ‫سول‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for example.

such as /balbalí/ ‘glamorous. but some speakers use the oblique plural suffixes /‑o/.21. in which event it is never stressed. and Table 6. are members of this class.2. spiritual’.4 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives) Class IV adjectives end in simple vowels. Table 6. Examples are shown in Table 6. as adjectives ending in stressed /ə́/ are Class II).18: GP Class IIIb: ‫ سوی‬/sə́way/ ‘burnt’ 6. This is likely a result of regularization of the oblique /‑o/ suffix by these speakers. These adjectives generally do not decline. Many adjectives borrowed from Arabic and Persian. sparkling’. /‑wo/ on these adjectives as they do in the other classes. and may be stressed on the final vowel or earlier in the word (unless the final vowel is /ə/.126.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫سوی‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سوې‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سویو‬ ‫سویې‬ sə́w-ay sə́w-i 119 sə́w-i Plural sə́w-e sə́w-yo E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o W ‫سویو‬ sə́w-ye E sə́w-yo E ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ sə́w-e W sə́w-o W ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ Ablative ‫سویه‬ Vocative sə́w-ya E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o sə́w-e sə́w-o ‫سوې‬ sə́w-e W   Table 6. ‫ـو‬ ‫ـوو‬ ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1.20. and ‫ معنوي‬/ma'nawí/ ‘moral. /buālā́/ ‘obvious’.165.19. ‫بلبلي‬ ‫بوالا‬ ‫ مصنوعي‬/masnu'í/ ‘artificial’.

20: GP Class IV: Plural ‫ یوازي‬/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.W ‫ښایستو‬ ‫ښایستو‬ xāyistó W xāyistó W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.19: GP Class IV: ‫ ښایسنه‬/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.120  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایستوو‬ ‫ښایستوو‬ xāyistáwo E.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W .W xāyistáwo E.

2.1 Waziri Class I Class I includes the majority of Waziri adjectives.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique 121 Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساو‬ ‫هوساو‬ hosā́wo E. The inflection patterns for Class I are shown inTable 6.126. 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . but these classes do not align well with their GP counterparts.21: GP Class IV: 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.W hosā́o W Ablative Vocative   Table 6. Most of the information below comes from Lorimer (1902). or an /a/ in their citation form.W hosā́o W hosā́wo E.2. an /e/ .22. These adjectives end in a consonant. but we make no claim that the classes should be viewed as analogous.2 ‫ هوسا‬/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’ Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives Waziri adjectives can be divided into classes based on the ending of their citation form.165. This section presents Waziri adjectives in four classes based on their similarity to the GP adjective classes.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2.24 shows the typical suffixes for adjectives of this type. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.122  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Plural Feminine Singular Direct -Ø -Ø -a -a Oblique -Ø -a -e -e Plural -e   Table 6. as shown in Table 6.2 Waziri Class II Class II adjectives end in /í/ in the masculine direct singular.126.2.22: Waziri Class I adjective suffixes 6. Class III feminine adjectives may also follow one of two alternative patterns.165. They may retain the /-ay/ suffix invariably.2.23: Waziri Class II adjective suffixes 6. or they may exhibit an invariable form that adds the /-yé/ suffix directly to the /-ay/ suffix. Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular Plural -i Oblique -e -i -e   Table 6.3 Waziri Class III Class III adjectives end in /ay/ in the masculine direct singular. as shown in Table 6. They retain this ending in all cases except the plural oblique.25.2. in which they take the suffix /-e/ for both genders.26. Table 6.

165.26: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem.126. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’ Masculine stem = meran- Singular Feminine Plural Direct meran-ay meran-i Oblique meran-i meran-ye Singular Plural meran-ay-ye   Table 6.25: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Plural Direct -ay -i Oblique -i -ye Feminine Singular Plural -ye   Table 6.24: Waziri Class III adjective suffixes Masculine stem = lewan- Singular Feminine Plural Direct lewan-ay lewan-i Oblique lewan-i lewan-ye Singular Plural lewan-ay   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 123 . suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

as in Table 6. it remains unclear whether demonstrative determiners decline differently than demonstrative pronouns. one based on /dā/. ‫یو‬ 6.165. Determination of Pashto nouns is optional. number.27. Penzl (1955: 80. ‫دغه‬ ‫دا‬ ‫دا‬ Direct ‫ دا‬dā Oblique/Ablative ‫ دې‬de   Table 6. and the other based on /dáɣa/. alone or in combination.126. the use of the number term /yaw/ ‘one’. and distal.3  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Determiners and definiteness In this section we treat only the lexical determiners. singular. may convey indefinite specificity or nonspecificity. Demonstrative determiners are used to convey definiteness as well as relative proximity. his examples include /hamdáɣa/ ‘this [very]’ and /hamáɣa/ ‘that [very]’. to different degrees.1 Demonstrative determiners This section covers demonstratives acting as determiners. Demonstratives are inflected for gender. The two inventories consist of segmentally identical items that differ in stress placement: disyllabic Pashto demonstrative determiners usually have initial stress.27: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دا‬/dā/ ‫دا‬ The following examples of /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner with masculine. and case.3. as they do in General Pashto. It appears that they are used either anaphorically or exophorically.5) remarks on a set of compound demonstratives which are found in both Eastern and Western dialects (the latter only in writing) in which the emphatic morpheme /ham/ is prefixed or procliticized to the demonstrative determiners. medial.5. so we do not describe them separately here. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number but does inflect for case.1. Some Pashto dialects differentiate three levels of proximity: proximal. feminine. Two forms are used to express the proximal demonstrative. For the Middle dialects. demonstrative pronouns are discussed in Section 7. and plural nouns illustrate the direct case form: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. the possessive determiner phrase is discussed in Section 9.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .124 6. whereas final stress can indicate either contrastive or anaphoric function.3.

5) ‫دا خلک‬ dā xalk-Ø these.126.M.....6) ‫دا نجوني‬ dā njun-i these. /de/: (6..139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR ‘these girls’ (SW) The following examples of oblique case form.in ‘in this book’ (SW) (6.DIR ‘this boy’ (SW) (6.DIR people-PL.OBL ..OBL garden-PL.. these.Determiners and definiteness  (6..OBL notebook-F.OBL .DIR girl-PL. this.M.DIR girl-F..9) ‫په دې باغونو کي‬ pə de bāɣ-uno ki in..165.DIR ‘these people’ (SW) (6.in ‘in these gardens’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR ‘this girl’ (SW) (6.7) ‫دې‬ ‫په دې کتاب کي‬ ‫دا‬ /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner illustrate the pə de kitāb-Ø ki in.DIR boy-M.in ‘in this notebook’ (SW) (6.OBL .OBL book-M.4) ‫دا نجلۍ‬ dā njəl-əy this.8) ‫په دې کتابچې کي‬ pə de kitābč-e ki in.3) 125 ‫دا هلک‬ dā halək-Ø this..F. this..

‫دغه‬ ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ dáɣa dáɣə də́ɣə ‫دغې‬ Oblique ‫دغو‬ dáɣe E dáɣo də́ɣe E də́ɣo ‫دغي‬ dóɣo də́ɣi W ‫توغو‬ dúɣu W   Table 6.DIR ‘this pen’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.28. Note that the proximal demonstrative /dáɣa/ and the medial demonstrative /háɣa/ in Table 6.165..DIR pen-M.in ‘in these rooms’ The other proximal demonstrative. there is a difference between masculine and feminine in the singular. as shown in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case form.28: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ These phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner forms: (6.126  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers (6. as described in Section 7. but not in the plural.2. /dáɣa/.OBL room-PL. these. They contrast with similar forms having final stress that serve as alternative strong pronouns.126. In the oblique case form.10) ‫په دې کوټو کي‬ pə de kot-̣o ki in..29 have initial stress..F..OBL .11) ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ in its direct case ‫دغه قلم‬ dáɣə kalam-Ø this.

DIR cup-PL.OBL ‘of this man’ (6.126.DIR cup-F.Determiners and definiteness  (6.13) ‫دغه قلمونه‬ dáɣə kalam-una these.15) ‫دغه‬ /dáɣa/ in its ‫د دغه سړي‬ də dáɣa saṛ-i of this.ANIM.OBL man-M.F.M.OBL ‘of this woman’ (6.OBL woman-F.DIR ‘this cup’ (SW) (6.18) ‫د دغو نجونو‬ də dáɣo njun-o of this.OBL ‘of these boys’ (6.OBL boy-PL.165.14) ‫دغه پیالې‬ dáɣə piyāl-e these.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR ‘these cups’ (SW) The following phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner oblique case forms: (6.OBL girl-PL.17) ‫د دغو هلکانو‬ də dáɣo halək-āno of this.16) ‫د دغې ښځي‬ də dáɣe ṣəʣ-e of this.OBL ‘of these girls’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR ‘these pens’ (SW) (6.F.M.12) 127 ‫دغه پیاله‬ dáɣə piyāla-Ø this.DIR pen-PL.

‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .29).30. see Section 3.29: Medial demonstratives ‫هوغه‬ ‫هاغه‬ The distal demonstrative has two variants. and between /a/ and /ə/.1.1. as shown in Table 6. /húɣə/ and /hā́ɣə/. as has the /i/ ending characteristic of Western dialects. The multiple forms represent the considerable variation found in descriptions of these demonstratives in the literature. The variation between /o/ and /u/. Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ háɣə háɣa áɣa áɣə hə́ɣə Oblique ‫هغه‬ ‫هغو‬ áɣe E áɣo ‫هغي‬ hə́ɣo háɣə háɣo ‫هوغو‬ hə́ɣi W húɣu W háɣi W   Table 6. number. has been noted throughout this grammar.128  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دغه‬ The medial and distal demonstratives exhibit the same patterning as /dáɣa/ with respect to gender. The presence or absence of /h/ in some forms may reflect the variation noted by Elfenbein 1997. and case (Table 6.126. Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /dáɣa/ and /háɣa/.165.2.

126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 129 .30: Distal demonstratives Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Determiners and definiteness  Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هوغه‬ húɣə úɣa hóɣə ‫هاغه‬ hā́ɣə hā́ɣa Oblique ‫هوغې‬ ‫هوغو‬ húɣe húɣo úɣe úɣo ‫هاغې‬ hā́ɣe ‫هاغو‬ hā́ɣo ‫هوغي‬ húɣi W   Table 6.165.

PRS-PRS.3[SG..M.126.4. it triggers verb agreement and can function as the complete object of an adposition.4 Non-numerical noun quantifiers Noun quantifiers equivalent to English all.F] ‘A family can open up an account at the bank. Khost-M .. these quantifiers may also exist in construction with items other than nouns.DIR do. bank-M . its holonym may precede it.19) ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ serves as an indefinite determiner.DIR all-PL.M..3.DIR AOR\open.M.M.‫یوه کورنۍ کولای شي په بانک کې حساب پرانیزي‬ yaw-a koran-əy kaw-ə́l-ay one-F.DIR family-F. as we see in example 6.. When functioning as a noun.165. Babrakzai (1999: 27–28) asserts that /yaw/ ‘one’ may compose with an indefinite quantifier to render a quantified indefinite noun phrase.5.in account-M.3[SG.F] pə bank-Ø ke hisāb-Ø prā́niz-i in. every.1 The quantifier ‫ ټولـ‬/ṭol-/ ‘all’ ‫ټولـ‬ The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’ appears to be multifunctional as both a noun and a determiner.DIR ‘Unknown armed individuals killed all members of a family in Khost. as in the following .130  6.’ ‫یو‬ Note that the determiner may or may not be inflected. and as is the case for other languages.AOR. It appears that under those conditions.in of one koran-əy ṭol-Ø ɣəṛ-i family-F.PL.2 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers The indefinite determiner The number term sentences: (6.CONT-PST-OPT š-i become.’ (6.21.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .PRS-PRS. The morphology of /yaw/ ‘one’ is discussed in Section 6. 6.DIR Ø-waž-ə́l-i CONT-kill-PST-PTCP.‫نا معلومو وسلوالو په خوست کې د یو کورنۍ ټول غړي وژلي‬ nāmālum-o waslawāl-o pə khost-Ø ke də yaw unknown-PL..OBL armed-PL.M.. ‫یو‬ 6.20) . and none exist in Pashto. Its use in our data is predominantly as a Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216...OBL in.DIR member-PL.

3[PL.23) ‫ هر‬/har/.. This can be seen in 6.DIR council-F.OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də .PRS-PRS.PL.126.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.22.3SG.. where it precedes its noun and is the target.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS..165.2 The quantifier As shown in 6. preceding the noun ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ .to some all-PL.AOR-OPT become. every-PL.DIR of all-PL.OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL.AOR.M.DIR WOULD in.to.’ (6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR be..OBL path-F.OBL of development-F.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F. it modifies: (6.CONT-PRS.AOR.PST-PTCP.in meeting-F.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F.4.DIR of sake-M.DIR nation-PL.‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this.M.Non-numerical noun quantifiers  131 determiner.F.M.DIR reader-PL.3[SG.F] and of child-M.OBL 15 day-PL.M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.DIR up.21) .M. (6.DIR do.OBL path-PL.23.22) . of agreement morphology. /ar/ ‘every’ ‫ هر‬/har/. rather than the trigger.M.3 usage-F. /ar/ ‘every’ patterns as an adjective.’ (WAZ) 6.3[SG.F.PRS.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations.M.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become.F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature.CONT.

5 Number names As is typical of many languages in northern South Asia. They include both additive and subtractive forms.PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 3 These forms were elicited by Michael Marlo in 2010 with native speaker informants resident in the US.DIR NEG become.7: (6.³ to our knowledge these data comprise the most complete picture of Pashto number names collected thus far.25) . as shown in 6. The terms in Table 6.24 and further exemplified in Section 7.4.132  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers It can combine with the indefinite pronouns to express the effect of everyone or everything.AOR.DIR gone-M.165. the quantifier /heʦ/ (also pronounced /hits/) can combine with the indefinite pronouns.DIR WOULD 3SG. as shown in examples 7.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG.56 and following. as well as two systems of formation.38 are based on original fieldwork. one based on 10 and one based on 20.’ (NW) It can also quantify other nominals.DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon. 6.PST-PST.25: (6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.24) .126. 6.’ Notice the concordant negative in the main clauses of both examples.M ‘No one was gone.3 The quantifier ‫ هیڅ‬/heʦ/ ‘none’ ‫هیڅ‬ Similarly.STR. Pashto number names show great complexity and variation in formation of the number names over ten.3SG.STR.‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who. as shown in 6.

while Table 6.28.5. uses.1 Morphology Number names all end in either stressed /ə́/ or a consonant and are difficult to sort into the regular nominal and adjectival classes.31: GP ―— ―— ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ Inflectional suffixes. while our data show this to be erroneous. while common. are optional on number names. as can be seen in sentences 6. where four takes a feminine plural direct suffix in the first example but is uninflected in the second. Table 6.32 and Table 6. some sources report that only /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’ encode gender and case.33.36 show the optional inflectional suffixes for numbers one through four in General Pashto.) The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ takes singular suffixes and all other number names take plural ones. ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫یو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 133 Cardinal numbers in Pashto 6. Previous descriptions of number name inflection are not comprehensive and contradict each other in places.1. where both tokens of four are uninflected while one is inflected. Inflection tends to be more frequent with /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’: compare the forms for four and one in sentence 6. not adjectival.34 contrast the Waziri suffixation forms with those of General Pashto.126.26 and 6.35 . Table 6. and Table 6. ‫یو‬ Direct ‫دوه‬ Masculine Feminine ‫یو‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یوه‬ ‫یوه‬ yaw yaw yawə́ yawá ‫یو‬ Oblique yaw ‫یوه‬ yawá ‫یوې‬ yawé Ablative Vocative   Table 6.165.27. (Note these are nominal. The tables and statements in this section are a summary of what our data reveal.Number names  6.5. For example.31. they hold for both adjectival and nominal uses of number names.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Table 6.

165.33: GP ―— ―— Masculine Feminine Direct dwa dwé Oblique dwé dwé ‫ دوه‬/dwa/ ‘two’   Table 6.126.34: Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .32: Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’ Direct dwa du dwa dwe ‫دو‬ du Oblique ‫دوه‬ dwa ‫دو‬ du ‫دوو‬ dwo Ablative Vocative   Table 6.134  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Feminine Direct yo yawá Oblique yawá yawé Masculine Feminine ‫دوه‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫دوې‬   Table 6.

35: GP ―— ―— ‫ درې‬/dre/ ‘three’ Direct Masculine Feminine ‫څلور‬ ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ʦalor ‫څلورې‬ ʦalore Oblique ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ‫څلورو‬ ʦaloro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 135 .Number names  Masculine Feminine ‫درې‬ Direct dre ‫درې‬ Oblique dre ‫درو‬ dro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.36: GP ―— ―— ‫ څلور‬/ʦalor/ ‘four’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

28: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.PRS.F.PRS-PRS..WK in. four were in Kandahar...3[SG.165.DIR registration become.‫ څلور په کندهار او یوه په فراه کي ده‬،‫چې څلور یې په هلمند‬ 4 Standardized version of 6.126.M] ‘The brain performs four tasks.26) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers .F COMP four 3.F..‫ څلور په كندهار او یوه په فراه ولایت كي ده‬، ‫یي په هلمند‬ pə rawān-Ø kāl ki pə ṭul-a hawza-Ø ki nəha də in.OBL year .AOR. and one was in Farah. Waziri number names are difficult to categorize into regular nominal or adjectival classes.M] COMP lānde ʦalor-e bansaṭiz-e dand-e sar ta below four-PL.28) ‫په روان كال كي په ټوله حوزه كي نهه د پولیو پیښي ثبت سوي دي چي څلور‬ .in da be.M] ‘A computer can perform the four basic tasks below.’ (6.. Other declinable cardinal number names are /šǝl/ ‘twenty’.DIR task-PL.CONT-PST-OPT become..3[SG.F. nine cases of polio have been recorded in the region. while /dwa/ ‘two’ is inflected only for gender.DIR in..136  (6.F.DIR di če ʦalor ye pə helmand-Ø ʦalor pə be.DIR basic-PL. and /zǝr/ ‘thousand’.PST-PTCP.DIR area-F.DIR head to CONT-deliver-PRS. kandahār-Ø aw yaw-a pə farāh-Ø walāyat-Ø ki Kandahar-M and one-F.DIR .3PL. ‫په روان کالو کي په ټوله حوزه کي نهه د پولیو پېښې ثبت شوي دي‬ .37.CONT.PRS. current-M...in in. Helmand-M four in..CONT. of which four were in Helmand.DIR four task-PL.’ (6. The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ is inflected for both gender and case...DIR head to wə́-rasaw-i AOR-deliver-PRS.‫کمپیوټر کولای شي چې لاندې څلورې بنسټیزې دندې سرته ورسوي‬ kompyuṭar-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay š-i če computer-M. /sǝl/ ‘hundred’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ...’⁴ As in General Pashto.3SG.F ‘So far this year..F. all-F.CONT.DIR do.3[SG.F.‫ذهن څلور دندې سرته رسوي‬ zahən-Ø ʦalor dand-e sar ta Ø-rasaw-í brain-M. Farah-F province-M .in nine of poliyo pex-e sabt šúw-e Polio event-PL..PL.27) . which are declined as masculine nouns as shown in Table 6.

such as /špəg nemi šəli/ ‘six and a half score’ (130). /špag/ ‘six’ undergoes a vowel change in compounds. /špəg awyā́/ ‘seventy-six’. etc. 30. ‫ویشت‬ ‫لس‬ ‫ شل‬/šəl/ • for numbers 31 and above. instead of (or as an alternative to) /ʦalwext/ ‘forty’. some speakers also have half-score forms for multiples of 10. must simply be learned. above one hundred. number names are combined without further irregularity. /dwa/ ‘two’ but /du derš/ ‘thirty-two’ or /dwa derš/ ‘thirtytwo’. The word /səl/ ‘hundred’ has an irregular plural /séwa/ ‘hundreds’.2 Inventory The words for two through ten. alternate forms of two and three may be used (so.5. • for numbers 21—29.Number names  Direct šǝl ‘twenty’ sǝl ‘hundred’ zǝr ‘thousand’ šǝl-ina saw-a zǝr-gina saw-e zǝr-gine 137 sǝl-gina Oblique šǝl-ine sǝl-gine   Table 6. but other “ones” do not change. a different form.37: Waziri plural forms of declinable number names 6.). a form of the relevant single number combined phrasally with /derš/ ‘thirty’.1.126. Compound number names are usually constructed as follows: • for numbers 11—19. rather than ‘twenty’. either ‫ این څلور نیمي شلي‬/en ʦalor nimi šəli/ ‘four and a half score’ or ‫لس‬ ‫ کم سل‬/ləs kəm səl/ ‘ten less [than a] hundred’. /dre/ ‘three’ but /dri derš/ ‘thirty-three’). may use /dwa šəle/ ‘two score’ NE ( ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫دو دېرش‬ ‫دري دیرش‬ ‫شپږ‬ ‫شپږ اویا‬ ‫سوه‬ ‫دوه دېرش‬ ‫سل‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ or ‫ دوې شلي‬/dwe šəli/ ‘two score’ ‫دوه شلې‬ SE ). and all the tens afterward (20. Between 31 and 69. multiples of 20 may have this alternate ‫شپږ‬ -score form. for example. the “ones” part of the compound often undergoes some change. /wišt/ ‘twenty’. /ʦalwéxt/ ‘forty’. and one or another special form ‫نېمي شلي‬ for ninety. Variants on this basic system exist. between 71 and 99. Many speakers of Pashto. a form of the relevant single number plus. and so on. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Above 20.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 40. ‫دېرش‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫پنځوس‬ Between 11 and 19 and between 21 and 29. /panʣós/ ‘fifty’. a form of the relevant single number name plus a form of /las/ ‘ten’.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ۱۷ . going from /špəg ‫شپږ دېرش‬ ‫درې کم څلوښت‬ derš/ ‘thirty-six’ to /dre kam ʦalwəxt/ ‘three less [than] forty’. Some speakers have this subtractive form as far back as numbers that end in -seven. as in /naha də pāsa səl/ ‘nine above a hundred’ for 109 (or even /atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi səli/ ‘eight above four and ‫نهه د پاسه سل‬ ‫انه د پاسه ځلور نیمی شلي‬ a half score’— that is. It also includes the numerals in Pashto script. Table 6.2.138  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers In further variations of the basic counting system.13.126. some large number names can be given in terms of which large round number they exceed. previously shown in Table 3.1.5.38: GP numerals and number names Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫څلور‬ 5 ۵ or ٥ ‫پنځه‬ 6 ۶ or ٦ ‫شپږ‬ ۷ ۸ ۹ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نهه‬ ‫لس‬ ‫یوولس‬ 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 ۱۰ ۱۱ Subtractive and 20-based forms yaw ‘one’ dwa ‘two’ dre ‘three’ ʦəlór ‘four’ W səlór E pinzə́ ‘five’ pinʣə́ SW špəẓ ‘six’ W špəg E uwə́ ‘seven’ atə́ ‘eight’ nə́ ‘nine’ W nə́hə E las ‘ten’ yəwə́las ‘eleven’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for example. ۷۱ Table 6.38 shows the number names through 20 and some of the variation in larger number names for General Pashto. so ‘71’ and ‘17’. Further research will be required to identify which groups of Pashto speakers use which counting systems and under what circumstances.165. /yo kəm panʣos/ ‘one less [than] fifty’ ‫نه څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم پنځوس‬ rather than as /nə ʦalwext/ ‘forty-nine’. larger numbers ending in -nine are often given as. Finally. 98). notice that although Pashto words are written right to left. numbers with more than one digit are written from left to right. Some forms of Waziri that contrast with those of General Pashto are given in Section 6.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 139 .38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 12 ۱۲ ‫دولس‬ 13 ۱۳ ‫دیارلس‬ 14 ۱۴ ‫څورلس‬ 15 ۱۵ ‫پنځلس‬ ۱۶ ۱۷ ‫شپاړس‬ ‫اوولس‬ 18 ۱۸ ‫اتلس‬ 19 ۱۹ ‫نونس‬ ۲۰ ۲۱ ‫نولس‬ ‫شل‬ ‫یوویشت‬ ۲۹ ‫نههویشت‬ 16 17 20 21 29 Additive and 10-based forms ‫نه ویشت‬ ‫نویشت‬ 30 31 ۳۰ ۳۱ ‫دېرش‬ ‫دېرس‬ ‫یودېرش‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms dwə́las ‘twelve’ W dólas E duolas SW dəwolas SE dyā́rlas ‘thirteen’ ʦwárlas ‘fourteen’ pinzə́las ‘fifteen’ pinʣə́las SW špā́ṛas ‘sixteen’ owə́las ‘seventeen’ atə́las ‘eighteen’ núnas ‘nineteen’ W núlas E šəl ‘twenty’ ‘[one] score’ yə́-wišt ‘one [and] twenty’ W yə́wiš E nəhə-wišt ‘nine [and] twenty’ nə́-wišt SE.NW ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرش‬ ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرس‬ yo kəm derš ‘one less [than] thirty’ yo kəm ders ‘one less [than] thirty’ SE derš ‘thirty’ ders SE yaw-derš ‘one [and] thirty’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.Number names  Table 6.126.

140  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 37 ۳۷ ‫اوهدېرش‬ 38 ۳۸ ‫اتهدېرش‬ 39 ۳۹ ‫نههدېرش‬ 40 ۴۰ ‫څلوېښت‬ 49 ۴۹ ‫نههڅلوېښت‬ ۵۰ ۶۰ ‫پنځوس‬ ‫شپېته‬ ۷۰ ۸۰ ‫اویا‬ ‫اتیا‬ 88 ۸۸ ‫اته اتیا‬ 89 ۸۹ ‫نهه اتیا‬ 50 60 70 80 Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms wə-derš ‘seven [and] thirty’ ‫درې کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ atə-derš ‘eight [and] thirty’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ nəhə-derš ‘nine [and] thirty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ʦalwext ‘forty’ ‫دوه شلي‬ nəhə-ʦalwext ‘nine [and] forty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫پنځوش‬ ۹۰ ‫نوي‬ dwa kəm ʦalwext ‘two less [than] forty’ yo kəm ʦalwext ‘one less [than] forty’ dwa šəli ‘two score’ yo kəm panʣos ‘one less [than] fifty’ panʣos ‘fifty’ špetə ‘sixty’ ‫درې شلي‬ dre šəli ‘three score’ awyā ‘seventy’ atyā ‘eighty’ atə-atyā ‘eight [and] eighty’ nəhə-atyā ‘nine [and] eighty’ ‫څلور شلي‬ nəwi ‘ninety’ ʦalor šəli ‘four score’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلې‬ dwa kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘two less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yo kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘one less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یوولس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 90 dre kəm ʦalwext ‘three less [than] forty’ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yəwoləs kəm səl ‘eleven less [than a] hundred’ ʦalor nimi šəli ‘four and a half score’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.

38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫لس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 98 ۹۸ ‫اته نوي‬ atə-nəwi ‘eight [and] ninety’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫سل‬ ‫اته د پاسه‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ 99 ۹۹ ‫نهه نوي‬ 100 ۱۰۰ ‫سل‬ 101 ۱۰۱ ‫یو سلو یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 110 ۱۱۰ ‫یو سلو لس‬ ‫لس د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 120 ۱۲۰ ‫یو سلو شل‬ 121 ۱۲۱ ‫یو سلو‬ ‫یوویشت‬ 129 ۱۲۹ ‫یو سلو نهه‬ ‫ویشت‬ nəhə-nəwi ‘nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم سل‬ las kəm səl ‘ten less [than a] hundred’ dwa kəm səl ‘two less [than a] hundred’ atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi šəli ‘eight above four and a half score’ yo kəm səl ‘one less [than a] hundred’ səl ‘[a] hundred’ yo səlu yo ‘one hundred one’ yo də pāsa səl ‘one above a hundred’ yo səlu las ‘one hundred ten’ las də pāsa səl ‘ten above a hundred’ yo səlu šəl ‘one hundred twenty’ yo səlu yaw-wišt ‘one hundred one [and] twenty’ yo səlu nəhə-wišt ‘one hundred nine [and] twenty’ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫سلو دېرش‬ špəg šəli ‘six score’ yo də pāsa špəg šəli ‘one above six score’ yo kəm yo səlu derš ‘one less [than] thirty and a hundred’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.Number names  141 Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .000 ۱۰۰۰۰ ‫لس زره‬ ۱۰۰۰۰۰ ‫سل زره‬ 100.165.000 yo səl nəhə-nəwi ‘one hundred nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم دوه‬ ‫سوه‬ yo kəm špəg nimi šəli ‘one less [than] six and a half score’ špəg nimi šəli ‘six and a half score’ yo kəm yo səlu ʦalwext ‘one hundred [and] one less [than] forty’ yo kəm uwə šəli ‘one less [than] seven score’ yo kəm dwa səwa ‘one less [than] two hundred’ dwa səwa ‘two hundred’ (yo) zər ‘(one) thousand’ yo zər yo ‘one thousand one’ yo də pāsa zər ‘one above a thousand’ dwa zəra ‘two thousand’ las zəra ‘ten thousand’ səl zəra ‘[a] hundred thousand’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.142  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫یو کم شپږ‬ ‫نیمي شلي‬ 130 ۱۳۰ ‫یو سل‬ ‫دېرش‬ 139 ۱۳۹ ‫یو سل‬ ‫نههدېرش‬ yo səl derš ‘one hundred thirty’ yo səl nəhə-derš ‘one hundred nine [and] thirty’ ‫شپږ نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫شلو‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم اووه‬ ‫شلي‬ 199 ۱۹۹ ‫یو سل نهه‬ ‫نوي‬ 200 ۲۰۰ ‫دوه سوه‬ 1000 ۱۰۰۰ ‫)یو( زر‬ 1001 ۱۰۰۱ ‫یو زر یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫زر‬ 2000 ۲۰۰۰ ‫دوه زره‬ 10.126.

000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫لس لکه‬ 10.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ‫یو لک‬ 1.5. as in /dre kam owa šǝla/ ‘three less than seven score [137]’ or /špəz bondi owa šǝlạ/ ‘six over seven score [146]’.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . the number /šǝl/ ‘twenty’ can be used to count by scores. meaning ‘hundred thousand’ in General Pashto. it denotes some unspecified large number. The word /šǝl/.2.39. In Middle dialects as in General Pashto. rather.126.000.165. Forms that differ are listed in Table 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.000. is not used to express an exact number.000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫یو کرور‬ ‫سل لکه‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms yo lak ‘one hundredthousand’ las laka ‘ten hundredthousand’ yo kror ‘one ten-million’ səl laka ‘[a] hundred hundredthousand’ The inventory of Waziri cardinal number names is very close to that of GP dialects described in Section 6.Number names  143 Table 6.

126. (Penzl 1955: 76. an epenthetic glide or sometimes an /h/ is added: /dwa/ ‘two’: /dwayám. there is no conventional way to express ordinal numbers using numerals.2. If the cardinal number name ends in a vowel.2 and shown in Table 6. /nəhám/ ‘ninth’ ‫لسم‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتم‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دویم‬ ‫درې‬ ‫درېیم‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نههم‬ ‫ اویا‬/awyā/ ‘seventy’: ‫ اویایم‬/awyāyám/ ‘seventieth’ ‫ نوي‬/nə́wi/ ‘ninety’: ‫ نویم‬/nəwiyám/ ‘ninetieth’ ‫نهه‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ The ordinal first is entirely irregular. instead. otan atə́las ‘eighteen’ wotalas núnas ‘nineteen’ W ninas ʦalwext ‘forty’ ʦalwešt awyā ‘seventy’ avia   Table 6.1.5.2creports in addition the allomorphs /yəm/ and /həm/ f. it may appear as /wṛumbáy/. are formed by adding the suffix /-ám/ ( /-ə́m/ in the Western dialect) to the cardinal number name.165. however.39: Waziri number names that differ from GP forms 6. Ordinal number names.1.2 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 83).40 for /lasám/ ‘tenth’. Each of these declines as a regular member of Class IIIa (in the case of /wṛumbáy/ and /lumṛáy/) or Class I (in the case of /awál/). ordinals inflect for number and gender. dwahám/ ‘second’ /dre/ ‘three’: /dreyám.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫اول‬ .) Unlike most cardinals. ‫اول‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /nə́həm/ ‘ninth’ (but /nə́hə/ ‘nine’) /nəm/. drehám/ ‘third’ /nə/ ‘nine’: /nəm/ ‘ninth’. as ‫څلور‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫څلورم‬ in /ʦalór/ ‘four’: /ʦalorám/ ‘fourth’. /lumṛáy/. They decline according to the special vowel-stem alternation paradigm in Class I. or the Arabic /awál/. as well as case. this vowel is dropped before the suffix is added— /atə́/ ‘eight’: /atám/ ‘eighth’—but the vowels on a few number names are not dropped.144  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Number  General Pashto ‫یو‬ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتلس‬ ‫نونس‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫اویا‬ 1 7 8 18 19 40 70 Waziri yaw ‘one’ yo uwə́ ‘seven’ owa atə́ ‘eight’ wota. as discussed in Section 6.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 145 .Number names  Masculine Singular Direct ‫لسم‬ lasám Feminine Plural ‫لسم‬ lasám E Singular ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Plural ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ lasə́m W lasə́mi W ‫لسمو‬ Oblique lasámo E lasə́mo W ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ ‫لسمو‬ lasámo E lasə́mo W lasə́mi W Ablative ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Vocative   Table 6.165.40: GP Class I: ‫ لسم‬/lasám/ ‘tenth’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

second. the Waziri ordinals for first.PST-PST.30) .M ‘The students came in threes.‫شاګردان درې درې راغل‬ šāgərd-ān dre dre rā́ɣ-əl student-PL.126.M. (6. Masculine Feminine awwal awwala dwayam dwayama dweyam dweyama dwawam dwawama third dreyam dreyama ninth nem nemma first second   Table 6. with a few exceptions.41. these are shown in Table 6. and third show irregular forms.DIR Ø-gərzaw-ə́m CONT-carry-1SG ‘I always carry five pens.146  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Ordinal numbers in Waziri are formed as in General Pashto.STR.3 Reduplication of number names The full reduplication of number names denotes iteration of individuals or groups (see Babrakzai 1999: 48).165.41: Waziri irregular ordinal number names 6.M. as does ninth.5.’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR every time five five pen-PL. As in Pashto.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .’ (NW) (6.ANIM.3PL.ANIM.29) .AOR.‫زه هر وخت پنځه پنځه کلمان ګرزوم‬ za har waxt pinʣə pinʣə kalam-ān 1SG.DIR three three come.

while the answer to a /ʦowəm/. kim or kima (feminine) ‘which?’ ʦowəm. sowəm (masculine) ʦowəmə.43: Waziri interrogative adjectives ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ and /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’. and /kum/ ‘which?’ does so optionally.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . sura ‘how much?’   Table 6. the fifth one).42: GP interrogative adjectives Waziri Translation kim (masculine). /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ question would include an ordinal num- ‫څووم‬ ber (e.g.g.126. Only the first two forms show gender concord.. ‫کوم‬ GP Translation ‫ کوم‬kum (masculine).Interrogative adjectives  6.42.165. ʦomra ‘which?’ ‘which [number]?’ ‘what?’ ‘how many?’ ‘how much?’ ʦona   Table 6. They do not inflect for case or number. The answer to a ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ Pashto has two words corresponding to English which?: ‫څووم‬ /ʦowəm/. question would focus on some attribute (e.43. The interrogative ‫کوم‬ /kum/ ‘which?’ is optionally invariant Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.6 147 Interrogative adjectives The interrogative adjectives that occur in Pashto are shown in Table 6. sowəmə (feminine) ‘which [number]?’ tso. the brown one). so ‘how many?’ ʦura. ‫ کوم‬kum or ‫ کومه‬kumə (feminine) ‫ څووم‬ʦowəm (masculine) ‫ څوومه‬ʦowəmə (feminine) ‫ څه‬ʦə ‫ څو‬tso ‫ څومره‬ʦumra. Interrogative adjectives of Waziri are described in Table 6..

WK AOR-see.31) ‫څوومه‬ ‫کوم سپی دې ولید؟‬ kum-Ø sp-ay de wə́-lid-Ø which-M.3PL.M ‘Which [number] person do you need?’ (NW) (6.34) ‫څومره‬ ‫څو سپي دې ولیدل؟‬ so sp-i de wə́-lid-əl how.DIR 2.DIR 2. ‫څو‬ (6.M ‘Which dog did you see?’ (NW) (6.F ‘How much rice did you eat?’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.35) ‫څومره وریجې دې وخوړې؟‬ sumra wrij-e de wə́-xwaṛ-e how. /sumra/ ‘how much?’.32) ‫څووم کس دې پکار دی؟‬ sowəm-Ø kas-Ø de pəkār day which-M.PST-PST.PRS.3SG.PST-PST.CONT.31 through 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ has the feminine form /ʦowəmə/.35.WK AOR-eat.OBL affected become.33) ‫په څه بلا اخته شوی؟‬ pə ʦə balā-Ø axtə šə́w-i INSTR what catastrophe-F.M ‘How many dogs did you see?’ (NW) (6. Some examples of their use are shown in sentences 6.DIR 2.many dog-PL.148  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫کومه‬ with respect to gender or may take the feminine form /kumə/ ‘which?’ (feminine).3PL. The latter is /tsumra/.DIR [number] person-M.AOR.3SG. ‫څووم‬ (6.F.PST-2SG ‘What catastrophe happened to you?’ (SW) Pashto interrogative adjectives distinguish between count nouns and mass nouns.DIR dog-M. The former is /tso/.WK AOR-see.DIR 2.PST-PST.WK need be. /sowəmə/ ‘which [number]?’ (feminine). while /ʦowəm/.M.much rice-PL.165. /so/ ‘how many?’.126.

DIR do-INF-PL.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .36. as seen in example 6.37.AOR.126.DIR CONT-tell.PRS-PRS.3[PL.PST-PTCP.M.F.‫وروڼو ته خوندي ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوې برابر کړي‬ 5 Standardized version of 6.M] ‘Officials say that Kunar officials will provide the reunited offended brothers with a safe life and facilities for working.‫خوندی ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوی برابر کړي‬ čārwāk-i Ø-wāy-í če də kunaṛ-Ø official-PL. (6.Inflection of conjoined adjectives  6.M.DIR do.M.OBL WOULD together šúw-io marawər-o oruṇo tə become.’⁵ ‫چارواکی وایی چې د کنړ ولایت چارواکی به یوځای شویو مرورو‬ .7 149 Inflection of conjoined adjectives In the present aorist form of denominal verbs based on an adjectival root.OBL official-PL.OBL to xwandi žwand-Ø aw də kār-Ø kaw-ə́l-o safe life-M.3[PL. or it may be declined to agree with only the last item of the set. The adjective may be declined to reflect the default value of masculine plural.M.DIR and of work-M.M.OBL offended-PL.165.M] COMP of Kunar-M.DIR prepared-PL. as in example 6.OBL walāyat-Ø čārwāk-i bə yawdzāy province-M.36: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL āsāntiyā-we barābár-Ø kṛ-i facility-PL.M.36) ‫چارواګي وایی چې دکنړ ولایت چارواګي به یوځای شویو مرورو وروڼو ته‬ .PL. the adjectival portion may be inflected in various ways when it governs conjoined objects of different genders.M.AOR-PRS.OBL brothers.

AOR-PRS.DIR of drink-INF-PL.. haɣwi tə de talim-Ø də astogən-e COMP ..3SG. They can affix to either native or borrowed words...1 Derivational suffixes Adjectives formed by the addition of suffixes vary as to which declension class they belong to. a place of residence.PRS. ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته پکاردي چې‬ .OBL to necessary be. usually with nouns.165.OBL ʣāy-Ø də ʦək-əl-o lə pār-a sahi place-M.1 Some Class I derivational suffixes • /‑man/ ‫ـمن‬ ‫ ستونځه‬/stundza/ ‘problem’ → ‫ ستونځمن‬/stundzman/ ‘troublesome.M.150  (6.OBL facility-PL. ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته په کار دی چې‬ . and health facilities..‫د څـښلو لپاره صحي اوبه او د صحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫هستوګنې ځاې‬ 6 Standardized version of 6.‫دڅـښلولپاره صحي اوبه اودصحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫ځاې‬ ɣarb-o hewād-uno tə pəkār day west-PL. problematic.M. to derive a new adjective.. as seen in the examples below.8.STR. Adjectives can also form compounds.M.OBL from sake-M.1.8.OBL to NEC education-M.37: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Descriptions and examples of all of these derived forms follow.M] ‘Western nations need to provide them with education.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 6.DIR and of health-M..CONT. clean drinking water. difficult’ ‫ واک‬/wāk/ ‘power’ → ‫ واکمن‬/wākmán/ ‘powerful’ ‫د‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.OBL country-PL.126. 3PL. The examples below are arranged by class.’⁶ 6.ABL healthy oba-Ø aw də sahət-Ø āsāntiyā-we water-F.M če . 6.F.DIR of residence-F.8 Derivation of adjectives Pashto has several derivational suffixes and two prefixes that can be used to derive adjectives from nouns or verbs..F.37) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دهستوګنې‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.DIR do.3[PL.DIR barābár-e kṛ-i prepared-PL.

force’ → ‫ زورور‬/zorawár/ ‘strong’ ‫ خوند‬/xwand/ ‘taste’ → ‫ خوندور‬/xwandawár/ ‘tasty’ ‫ خوله‬/xwulá/ ‘mouth.Derivation of adjectives  • • 151 ‫ قدر‬/qádar/ ‘quantity. • ‫ پشم‬/pašm/ ‘wool’ → ‫ پشمين‬/pašmín/ ‘woolen’ ‫ زر‬/zar/ ‘precious metal. • • • • ‫ پنځه‬/pinzə́/ ‘five’ → ‫ پنځم‬/pinzə́m/ ‘fifth’ ‫ ـجن‬/‑ján/ ‫ زهر‬/zahr/ ‘poison’ → ‫ زهرجن‬/zahrján/ ‘poisonous’ ‫ غم‬/ɣam/ ‘sorrow’ → ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ ‫ ـدار‬/‑dā́r/ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘water’ → ‫ آبدار‬/ābdā́r/ ‘watery’ ‫ سرمایه‬/sarmāyá/ ‘capital’ → ‫ سرمایه دار‬/sarmāyadā́r/ ‘wealthy’ ‫ ـور‬/‑(a)war/ ‫ زور‬/zor/ ‘strength. See Section 6.5. education’ → ‫ پوهنیز‬/pohə́niz/ ‘academic’ ‫ ـین‬/‑in/ This suffix applies most often to nouns denoting a material.126. sharp-tongued’ ‫ ـناک‬/‑nāk/ ‫ خطر‬/xatár/ ‘[Arabic] danger.2 for more detail. honor. mercy’ → ‫ همتناک‬/himmatnā́k/ ‘magnanimous. gilded’ ‫ ـم‬/‑ám/ ‫ ـم‬/‑ə́m/ E W This suffix forms ordinal number names from cardinals.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . lips’ → ‫ خوله ور‬/xwulawár/ ‘eloquent. risk’ → ‫ خطرناک‬/xatarnā́k/ ‘dangerous’ ‫ همت‬/himmat/ ‘[Arabic] magnanimity.165. noble’ • ‫ ـوال‬/‑wāl/ ‫ وسله‬/waslá/ ‘weapon’ → ‫ وسله وال‬/waslawā́l/ ‘armed’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. merit’ → ‫ قدرمن‬/qadarmán/ ‘esteemed’ ‫ ـیز‬/‑iz/ ‫ سوله‬/sóla/ ‘peace’ → ‫ سوله ييز‬/sólayiz/ ‘peaceful’ ‫ پوهنه‬/pohə́na/ ‘knowledge. gold’ → ‫ زرين‬/zarín/ ‘golden.

from Persian.1).1.3.4. however.3 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes • /‑í/ ‫ـي‬ This suffix is added to nouns—often loanwords. ‫بېـ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘honor’ → ‫ بې آب‬/beā́b/ ‘shameless.165. Adjectives formed in this way can fall in either Class I or Class IV.2 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes • /‑(a)náy/ ‫ـنی‬ This suffix is usually affixed to words having to do with time or location.1. urgency’ → ‫ بیړبی‬/biṛnáy/ ‘urgent. • ‫ بیړه‬/bíṛa/ ‘haste.2 Negators The first of these negators are prefixes.3 for a description and some examples of this usage). • ‫ بېـ‬/be‑/ ‘without. as in the first example below—or names of countries. these derived adjectives can further form Class IIIa nouns (see Section 5. written as a separate word. /be‑/ is generally.8. • ‫ دایم‬/dāím/ ‘permanence [Arabic]’ → ‫ دایمي‬/dāimí/ ‘permanent’ ‫ نېشه‬/nešá/ ‘intoxication’ → ‫ نېسه یي‬/nešayí/ ‘addictive’ ‫ امریکا‬/amrikā/ ‘America’→ ‫ امريکاي‬/amrikāí/ ‘American’ ‫ ـوالا‬/‑wālā/ ‫ پانګه‬/pānga/ ‘wealth’ → ‫ پانګوالا‬/pāngwālā/ ‘wealthy’ 6. ‫ جاپان‬/jāpān/ ‘Japan’ → ‫ جاپانی‬/jāpānáy/ ‘Japanese’ 6. is affixed to nouns. the two morphemes function as a single word. dishonored’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .8.8.152  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. With the addition of the /‑i/ suffix. reflecting its origins as an adposition (see Section 9. emergency [ADJ]’ ‫ کال‬/kāl/ ‘year’→ ‫ کالنی‬/kālanáy/ ‘annual’ ‫ ـی‬/‑áy/ This suffix is usually affixed to place names to describe a denizen of that place. but not always. the resultant form is an adjective often translatable into a phrase governed by without or into an English adjective with the suffix -less.126. -less’ This prefix.

acceptable’ → ‫ ناروا‬/nārawā́/ ‘not allowed.CONT.‫دا دواړه اسلامي ضدی پديدي دي‬ dā dwār-a islāmi zidi padid-e this. adjectives thus derived remain in the same declension class.8. un-’ This prefix attaches to adjectives and negates them.4 Reduplication of adjectives Full reduplication of adjectives in Pashto may quantify over events rather than (or in addition to. which uses the negative prefix /be‑/. /beplā́ra/ ‘fatherless’. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR both-PL.126. orphaned’ (Cf.DIR di be.Derivation of adjectives  153 ‫ اولاد‬/awlā́d/ ‘[Arabic] child’ → ‫ بې اولاده‬/beawlā́da/ ‘childless’ ‫ کور‬/kor/ ‘house’ → ‫ بې کوره‬/bekóra/ ‘homeless’ ‫ شک‬/šak/ ‘doubt’ → ‫ بې شکه‬/bešaka/ ‘irrefutable’ • ‫ ناـ‬/nā‑/ ‘not.3 Compound adjectives Adjective and noun pairs can combine into a single compound adjective.3. /plār/ ‘father’ + /məṛ/ ‘dead’ → /plārmə́ṛay/ ‘fatherless.2. the resulting form usually inflects as a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6.3PL.8.F ‘These events are both contrary to Islam.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . and they may be written separately.) ‫پلار‬ ‫مړ‬ ‫بې پلاره‬ ‫ سپين‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫مخ‬ ‫پلارمړی‬ /məx/ ‘face’ → honest.4) can govern an adpositional phrase that can be used attributively or predicatively to modify nouns: (6.1.PRS.F. see Babrakzai 1999: 48) intensifying the quality denoted. ‫ روا‬/rawā/ ‘permitted. 6. improper’ ‫ دوستانه‬/dostāná/ ‘friendly’ → ‫ نادوستانه‬/nādostāná/ ‘unfriendly’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against.DIR Islamic against phenomenon-PL. anti-’ (see Section 9.38) .2).165. The order of the elements in the compound can be either noun—adjective or adjective—noun.’ 6. innocent’ ‫سپين مخی‬ ‫بېـ‬ /spinmə́xay/ ‘white-faced.4.

M.1 Attributive and predicative adjectives Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively.DIR 1SG.‫ما ډېر خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.DIR brothers.AOR.M ‘My older brothers arrived.M ‘I had very good friends.DIR sweet-PL.DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST.3PL.165. but they do agree in gender and number with the subject of the intransitive construction in which they appear.M.PRS.3PL.CONT.STR.M.154  (6.M ‘The university is nearby.DIR sweet-PL.PST-PST.WK come.39) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers .‫مشران وروڼه مې راغلل‬ məšr-ān wruṇa me rā́ɣl-əl older-PL.3PL.’ (W) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.40) ‫ ډېر‬/ḍer/ ‘much’.ANIM.STR.DIR near be. (6.42) .DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST.DIR friend-PL. so they always appear in the direct case form.OBL sweet-PL.ANIM.M.M.OBL much-PL.‫ما خواږه خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā xwāg-ə xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.M.’ (6.’ (NW) 6.9 Usage 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . usually with a form of the verb to be.M.M. Predicative adjectives are always used in intransitive constructions.3SG.41) . Pashto also uses (6.9. .‫پوهنتون نژدې دئ‬ pohantun-Ø nəžde dəy university-M.M ‘I had many good friends.DIR friend-PL.126.’ (NW) To intensify an adjective.

For example.). Class I adjectives used nominally may take the animate plural suffixes /‑ān/ (masc.F./abl.3PL.’ (6.M ‘The bull is big.DIR be. or.OBL cart-F.‫غوا غټه ده‬ ɣwā-Ø ɣaṭ-a da cow-F.3SG.‫غویی غټ دی‬ ɣway-ay ɣaṭ-Ø day bull-M.DIR pulled do.OBL cart-F.F big-F.2 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives Pashto adjectives may be used as if they were nouns.46) . when they denote animates: (6.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.‫کوم غواوي دې واخیستلې؟ غټه مې واخیستله‬ ‫ـانې‬ kum ɣwā-we de w-ā́xist-əl-e ɣaṭ-a which cow-PL.3SG.AOR-PST.DIR me w-ā́xist-əl-a 1SG.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart.DIR be.dir.DIR pulled do.DIR big-F.’ (6. ‫ـان‬ ‫ ـانو‬/‑āno/ (obl.3SG.45) .PST-PST-PST.F ‘The cow is big. When this occurs the adjective may be declined normally.WK AOR-buy. it may be declined as if it were a noun.CONT.43) 155 .OBL big-F.DIR big-M.F ‘This big [one] pulled the cart.CONT.WK AOR-buy.F ‘Which cows did you buy? I bought a big [one].Usage  (6.DIR 2.9.PRS.’ 6.PRS.PST-PST-PST.OBL bull-M.3SG. /‑āne/ (fem.’ (6.47) .165.).’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3SG. in which event it will take the suffixes of the noun class most closely resembling the adjective class to which it originally belonged.126.dir.44) . reflecting a gradual nominalization of such an adjective by speakers.AOR-PST.‫هغه غټې کراچي کشه کړه‬ háɣa ɣaṭ-e karāč-i kašá kṛ-a this.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ./voc. as if there were a noun present.).

Both are used with the ordinary predicative form of the adjective..2. The superlative uses the phrase from/of all..from more-M. ‫بهتر‬ ‫بتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.⁷ Comparison is accomplished with the use of adpositional phrases such as /lə .DIR rā́ɣl-o come.M ‘The guest more tired than him arrived. See Section 10..7 for more discussion and some examples. ʦexa/.DIR guest-M.PST-PST....165. ‫ده‬ ‫ څخه‬.3SG.3 !‫ړوند سړیه‬ Comparatives and superlatives Adjectives in Pashto do not have derived comparative or superlative forms.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . 7 There are two special comparative adjectives in Pashto. /də .1 for more discussion of comparative and superlative adpositional phrases.. than’..’ (6. or /tər/ ‘up to. ‫له‬ ‫ټول‬ .from more-M. from..DIR guest-M.’ 6.‫له هغه نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə haɣə́ na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from..3SG..OBL .5 and Section 9.3. both of which are Persian borrowings. ‫ نه‬.AOR.M..AOR. all-PL.. /də .9. formed by using one of the comparative phrases and adding /ṭolo/ ‘all’ or /ṭol/ ‘whole’.PST-PST..48) ‫تر‬ ‫ نه‬..49) .. that. vocative adjectives are uninflected. When used adverbially.OBL . na/. na/. however. they still show concord with the absolutive argument.‫له ټولو نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə ṭol-o na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from. as noted above: /ṛúnda/ ‘blind [one]!’ When used in a noun phrase.. See Section 9. and the nouns take the vocative form: /ṛund saṛáya/ ‘blind man!’ !‫ړونده‬ 6.DIR tired-M.M ‘The most tired guest of all arrived.2.156  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Adjectives in the vocative case form can be used on their own. without nouns.DIR rā́ɣl-o come.4 Adjectives as adverbs Sometimes adjectives are used verbal or sentential modifiers..126. These are /behtar/ ‘better’ and /batar/ ‘worse’. ‫ده‬ ‫ټولو‬ (6..DIR tired-M..9.

Pashto pronouns generally inflect for person.).3 for more details.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . Only the third person singular forms distinguish gender. but differ somewhat in form. Unless otherwise indicated in the table title or next to the form itself. but not in the plural. It is related to the medial demonstratives described in Section 7. and these singular forms are also the same in the masculine singular oblique. which we term strong and weak. /haɣá/ does not inflect in either gender in the singular direct. In the singular first and second persons. Pashto has two sets of personal pronouns. number.165.1 Overview In all varieties. the plural second person forms are also used for formal second-person address. where they are known. the forms below can be assumed to be common to both Waziri and Dzadrani.) 7. the strong personal pronouns appear in the oblique case in the direct object of present tense sentences. only the direct and oblique cases are distinguished. following Tegey & Robson (1996: 65ff.126. with the function of third person personal pronouns being filled by a subset of the demonstratives. (See Section 7. unlike nouns.1 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects Called simply personal pronouns by Penzl (1955). plural direct.Anne Boyle David 7 Pronouns 7. Feminine singular oblique. and plural oblique each have their own forms. which appear in the direct case in this position.2 Strong personal pronouns 7. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and case.2.5. Strong pronouns are not restricted in their occurrence. can be used with distal third person reference. Shafeev (1964). An additional pronoun. /haɣá/. strong personal pronouns¹ distinguish between direct and oblique case in the singular. ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ 1 Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) analyze personal pronouns as only occurring in the first and second persons. As in many languages. The cases are used slightly differently in pronouns than in nouns and adjectives: unlike nouns. gender. follow the corresponding GP tables. and Heston (1992). while weak pronouns may only occur in functions where they do not agree with the verb. Tables of Middle dialect forms. but unlike them it has final stress. pronominal direct objects take the oblique. not the direct case form. The pronouns of the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of General Pashto.

126. 1st and 2nd person 1st Singular Direct zə Oblique mo 2nd Plural Singular miž miž(a) DZA tə tós(e) E to   Table 7.165.158  Pronouns 1st 2nd Singular Plural ‫مونږ‬ ‫زه‬ Direct tā́se E ‫تاسي‬ tā́si W mug E muẓ W ‫تاسو‬ ‫تا‬ ‫مونږه‬ mā ‫تاسې‬ tə ‫موږ‬ ‫ما‬ Plural ‫ته‬ mung E munẓ W zə Oblique Singular tā́su tā́so tā mungə E munẓə W   Table 7.1: GP strong pronouns. 1st and 2nd person Singular Masculine Direct ‫دا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫دې‬ day Oblique də Plural Feminine ‫دی‬ dā Plural ‫دوی‬ duy ‫دیو‬ dío de   Table 7. 3rd person Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2: Middle dialect strong pronouns.3: GP strong pronouns.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .

4: Middle dialect strong pronouns.165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 159 .Strong personal pronouns  Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Direct day do Oblique də di de dəy derde WAZ doy DZA   Table 7. 3rd person Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣə́ haɣá həɣə́ aɣá aɣə́ Plural ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغې‬ haɣé aɣé ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغو‬ haɣó aɣó   Table 7.5: Distal 3rd person pronoun ‫ هغه‬/haɣá/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Forms with final stress can be said to be anaphoric.WK CONT-tell.. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) provide an additional perspective on this stress alternation. which show initial-stress indexical usage: they introduce something new.3) ‫پس له هغه‬ pas lə haɣ-ə́ after from that-M. while the demonstratives are stressed on the first syllable. as in 7. for example. or wishes to conceal it.160  Pronouns ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Another pronoun.DIR 1SG. In contrast..OBL place-M.‫هغه مي ویل‬ haɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l that.3 and 7. forms with initial stress can be said to be anticipatory. Forms with /daɣá/ may also serve as discourse-anaphoric elements.. the speaker is not really focusing on what he was going to say. For forms that are segmentally identical we have said that the strong pronouns are stressed on the last syllable.40 and 7.126. emphatic.2) .4) ‫و هغه ځای ته‬ wə haɣ-ə́ ʣāy-Ø tə to.PST-PST.OBL . perhaps the speaker cannot remember the name of the person or thing intended.1 and 7. or exophoric.PL.‫دغه مي ویل‬ daɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l this..2: ‫دغه‬ (7. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M ‘That is what I was going to say. in 7. inflects just like /haɣá/. It appears to connote something about information status.4 illustrate final-stressed anaphoric pronouns: (7.PST-PST. Examples 7. demonstratives and strong pronouns have many overlapping forms.165. /daɣá/. consider 7.WK CONT-tell.’ As mentioned.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .1) ..’ In 7.to ‘to that place’ In contrast..2.DIR 1SG.PL.OBL ‘after that’ (7. the speaker is communicating specifically about what he was going to say: (7. In contrast. that-M.M ‘I was saying..41..1.

DIR thirsty-F. but he is hungry and she is thirsty.1SG but day wəẓ-ay dəy aw 3SG.2 Usage Pashto is known as a pro-drop language. either 7.3SG.3.5.PRS.PST-1SG ‘I was getting up from the chair.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .1. and for direct objects in past tense sentences: (7. Since Pashto verbs show person agreement.8) . As with nouns. or for emphasis. direct case forms are used for subjects in present tense sentences.CONT. see Section 5.5 and Chapter 8.DIR be.STR. strong pronouns can carry redundant information.’ (7.165. and may therefore be omitted when they agree with the verb.CONT. For example.STR.F.6.Strong personal pronouns  161 7.‫زه امريکاي یم‬ zə amrikāyi yəm 1SG American be.STR.DIR NEG be. or 7. the Pashto verb agrees with the subject in the present tense.PRS.PRS.CONT.CONT. and with the direct object or intransitive subject in past tense sentences.‫زه وږی نه یم خو دی وږی دئ او دا تږی ده‬ zə wəẓ-ay ná yəm xu 1SG.‫زه له څوکی جګېدم‬ zə lə ʦawk-əy jəg-éd-əm 1SG.M and dā təẓ-əy də 3SG.OBL tall-become.6) .DIR be. Strong pronouns distinguish direct and oblique case forms.5) .‫امريکاي یم‬ amrikāyi yəm American be.126.2. with an explicit pronoun.DIR hungry-M. is correct.DIR hungry-M.M.7: (7.PRS.’ (7.3SG.DIR from chair-F. as in 7.STR.1SG ‘I'm American.PRS. as shown in 7.1SG ‘I'm American.’ (SW) In accordance with split ergativity. without one.CONT.F ‘I'm not hungry.7) . Including the pronoun might be done when starting a conversation or otherwise introducing new information. context will usually determine whether or not to omit the pronoun.CONT.5.

PST-1SG ‘You saw me.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.STR.10) .OBL 1SG.165.OBL AOR-see. Note that this use of the oblique case for a direct object is particular to these strong personal pronouns and does not occur in nouns or adjectives.STR.STR.10: (7.’ (SW) The third person strong personal pronouns take the direct case form when serving as accusative arguments in present tense sentences. which is the trigger of agreement.OBL CONT-see. the subject takes the oblique case form and the direct object takes the direct case form: (7.11: (7.11) .PST-1SG ‘You saw me.DIR AOR-see.12) .9) .13) .‫تا ولیدم‬ tā wə́-lid-əm 2SG.‫* زه ولیدم‬ zə wə́-lid-əm 1SG.‫تا وینم‬ tā Ø-win-ə́m 2SG. This reflects the normal behavior of the direct case in Pashto: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.STR.DIR AOR-see.’ (SW) (7.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .’ Note that the direct object pronoun.’ The oblique case form of the first and second persons in the singular is also used for the direct object in present tense sentences.‫تا زه ولیدم‬ tā zə wə́-lid-əm 2SG.’ But the subject argument cannot. as shown by the ungrammatical example 7.‫ما ځوروې‬ mā Ø-ʣəwraw-é 1SG.STR. can be omitted from sentence 7. where direct objects take direct case suffixes: (7.162  Pronouns In past tense transitive sentences.OBL CONT-distress-2SG ‘You disturb me.STR.

DIR CONT-see.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . In the Eastern dialects (or. the strong form can be used for emphasis while the weak form cannot.15) ‫د‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ .PRS.DIR 3SG.M. See Section 9. strong possessive pronouns do not distinguish gender.14) 163 .’ 7.1 for more discussion. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ (7.STR. according to Tegey & Robson 1996: 70.165.3 Strong possessive pronouns There is a paradigm of strong personal pronouns that serve genitive functions.17) .PRS.POSS house-M.STR.3SG.DIR outside standing-M.STR. ‫د‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫ته دی وینې‬ tə day Ø-win-é 2SG.POSS car-M. so that /s/ appears before /t/ and /z/ appears before /m/.STR.DIR where be.M ‘Where is your home?’ (SW) Compare 7.Strong personal pronouns  (7. 1999: 30). including as the object of what otherwise would be a circumposition containing /də/ (see 8. In most dialects.2.CONT. Since there is no third person form.126. (7.22 for an example).‫دا زما کتاب دئ‬ dā zmā kitāb-Ø dəy this.M ‘My car is standing outside.’ (SW) (7.3SG.16) ‫ستا کور چېرته دئ؟‬ stā kor-Ø čerta dəy 2SG.’ (SW) An alternative way of expressing possession with strong pronouns (and the only way. These forms may appear in any position that would admit the corresponding phrase with /də/. These forms exist only for the first and second person and appear to derive historically from the preposition /də/ followed by the oblique forms of the pronouns (Babrakzai.28. these forms may appear unreduced with a /di/ or /də/.17 with the weak pronoun in 7.STR. all dialects but their Central or Kabul group).PRS-2SG ‘You see him.1.CONT.POSS book-M.DIR 1SG.18.PRS. as in 7.‫زما موټر بیرون ولاړ دئ‬ zmā moṭər-Ø birun wəlāṛ-Ø dəy 1SG. in some dialects) is to use the construction /də/ + Strong Pronoun.3. the /də/ is lenited to a fricative and assimilated in the first and second persons.DIR be. although either a weak or a strong pronoun is possible.M ‘This is my book.3SG.DIR be.CONT.

164

Pronouns

1st

Singular

Plural

‫زما‬

‫زمونږ‬

zmā

zmung E
zmunẓ W

‫زموږ‬

zmug E
zmuẓ W

‫زمونږ‬

zmungə E

‫ستا‬

2nd

stā

‫ستاسې‬
stāse E

‫ستاسي‬

stāsi W

‫ستاسو‬

stāsu E
stāso W

 
Table 7.6: Possessive pronouns

(7.18)

‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬
də de
num-Ø
ʦə
dəy
of 3SG.F.STR.OBL name-M.OBL what be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘What is her name?’ (SW)

7.3 Weak personal pronouns
7.3.1 Forms
The weak personal pronouns are also called uninflected pronominal particles (Penzl,
1955: 87) and enclitic pronominal particles (Heston, 1992: 1574). They are unstressed
pronouns that do not inflect for case and cannot govern agreement with the verb, a
constraint that restricts where they may occur (see Section 7.3.2 for more discussion
and examples). Note that the third person uses the same form for singular and plural,
and the first and second person plural each use a single form.

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

Weak personal pronouns 

1st

Singular

Plural

‫مې‬

‫مو‬

‫مي‬

‫مو‬

me E

mo E
mu W

mi W

‫ام‬

am W

2nd

‫دې‬

de E

‫دي‬

di W

3rd

‫یې‬

ye

 
Table 7.7: GP weak pronouns

Singular

Plural

1st

me DZA
be DZA
mi WAZ

(ə)m DZA

2nd

de DZA
di WAZ

3rd

(y)e

 
Table 7.8: Middle dialect weak pronouns

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

165

166

 Pronouns

7.3.2 Usage
Weak pronouns may not appear in positions in which they would agree with the verb.
From this fact it follows that (1) they never occur with intransitive verbs, and (2) with
transitive verbs, they only occur in an accusative role in the present tense and an ergative role in the past. Thus they do not occur in either the nominative or absolutive slot.
Table 7.9 summarizes the positions in which weak personal pronouns may occur or
not; this pattern parallels the case-marking pattern exhibited by strong pronouns, as
outlined by Table 11.6. Sentences in Section 7.3.2.1 (some of which come from Tegey &
Robson 1996) illustrate these restrictions.²

Non-past tenses

Transitive Subject

DOES NOT OCCUR

Intransitive Subject
Direct Object

Past tenses

MAY OCCUR

DOES NOT OCCUR
MAY OCCUR

 
Table 7.9: Distribution pattern for weak pronouns

With the above occurrence restrictions, weak pronouns are used for subjects, direct objects, and (without further marking) possessive determiners, but not as objects
of adpositions, and they do not inflect for case. In contrast with nouns, which will be
in the direct case when the object of a present tense sentence and in the oblique case
when the subject of a past tense transitive sentence, the weak pronouns will have the
same form in these two positions.
Weak pronouns are second-position clitics - see Section 11.2.3.2 and Section 11.3.5.1
for discussion. Section 11.3.5.1 also gives examples of various positions of weak pronouns in a clause.

7.3.2.1 Occurrence restrictions
The example in 7.19 shows that a weak personal pronoun may express an accusative
argument in the present tense, but the unacceptable sentences in 7.20 and 7.21 shows
that it may not be in the nominative slot.

2 Roberts (2001a: 127–153) offers a different analysis.

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

Weak personal pronouns 

(7.19)

167

‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬
wali me
mač-aw-í
why 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW)

(7.20)

.‫* مچولم یې‬
ye
mač-aw-í
mi
3.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M] 1SG.WK
‘He is kissing me.’

(7.21)

.‫* نن یې ګډیږي‬
nən
ye
Ø-gəḍ-íg-i
today 3.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Today he is dancing.’ (NW)

The sentence in 7.22 shows the acceptability of a weak pronoun as a subject in the
past tense:
(7.22)

.‫مچولم یې‬
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘He was kissing me.’

On the other hand, the unacceptable sentences in 7.23 and 7.24 show that a weak
personal pronoun may not express an intransitive subject or a direct object:
(7.23)

.‫* پرون مي مچولم یې‬
parun
mi
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
yesterday 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘Yesterday he was kissing me.’ (SW)

(7.24)

.‫* پرون یې ګډېده‬
parun
ye
Ø-gəḍ-éd-ə
yesterday 3.WK CONT-dance-PST-PST.3SG.M
‘Yesterday he was dancing.’ (SW)

Published sources (Tegey & Robson, 1996: 156) and our research indicate that
weak pronouns cannot be the objects of adpositions. Example 7.25 shows a phrase
where the weak pronoun is simply omitted. Example 7.26, which is unacceptable, and

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

168

 Pronouns

7.27, which is acceptable, show that the weak pronoun cannot appear as the object of
an adposition.
(7.25)

.‫تر پوري ولاړم‬
tər
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (SW)

(7.26)

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬
pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

(7.27)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬
pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR.OBL CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

7.3.2.2 Possessive constructions
Weak pronouns are also used in possessive constructions (except in conditions of coreference; see Section 7.9), so long as the weak pronouns do not occur in sentence-initial
position:
(7.28)

.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬

mi
kitāb-Ø
dəy
this.DIR 1SG.WK book-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘That is my book.’ (SW)

(7.29)

.‫زوی مي ګډېږي‬
zuy-Ø
mi
Ø-gəḍ-éẓ-i
son-M.DIR 1SG.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘My son is dancing.’ (SW)

In possessive constructions with weak pronouns, the pronouns are sometimes
written attached to the word they follow, and the /y/ in
/ye/ may be elided in pro-

‫یې‬

nunciation (Tegey & Robson, 1996):

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

Deictoids:

(7.30)

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

169

‫کتابې‬
kitāb-Ø
e
book-M.DIR 3.WK

‘his book’³
This pronunciation is in fact standard in the spoken dialects of the Northeast, and
before recent reforms in orthography, the pronoun was regularly spelled with a hamza
instead of a ye; in fact, it still is by some speakers. Furthermore, many speakers when
asked for the pronoun in isolation will offer a spelling pronunciation based on the
hamza, pronouncing it with a glottal stop: [ʔe].
Possessive constructions are also formed with strong personal pronouns, as discussed in Section 7.2.3.

7.4 Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Pashto has three sets of deictic morphemes that closely resemble each other formally
and semantically, to the extent that most authors classify these forms under one rubric.
They are variously called pronominal prefixes (Penzl, 1955: 87–88), directive pronouns
(Shafeev 1964: 33 and Babrakzai 1999: 33), directional particles (Lorenz 1982: 66 —
Richtungspartikels—and Skjærvø 1989: 393), independent pronominal particles (Heston,
1992: 1574) and verbal clitics (Roberts, 2000: 105ff). In addition to being homophones
or near-homophones, these sets of forms share two other qualities: first, they encode
either personal or directional deixis; and second, they are bound to some extent, either as clitics or as prefixes. Some authors specifically refer to at least some of them as
“proclitics” (Roberts 2000: 106; Pate 2012: 17, 19); however, more research is required
before definitive statements of their morphological status can be made.
In recognition of the fact that these morphemes are so frequently and so easily
conflated (and also of their probable diachronic relationship), we refer to them with
the umbrella term deictoids, which we use to signify that these forms can be either
person-deictic or spatial-deictic. Then adapting two different, binary distinctions from
Tegey (1977) and Pate (2012) respectively, we divide them into three types, which we
describe in the following sections.
Both Tegey (1977: 105ff.) and Penzl (1955: 87) report two forms for the second and
third person:
/dər, dar/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər, war/ ‘him/her/it/them’. Tegey
specifies that the forms in ə are what he calls deictic preverbs (corresponding to, we
believe, both our oblique pronominal clitics and our directional verbal clitics). Those
in a are what he (and we) call the deictic prefixes. Because the ə/a distinction only
holds for stressed vowels (and two of the three types of deictoids never bear stress),

‫در‬

3 Standardized version of 7.30:

‫ور‬

‫کتاب ې‬

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

170

 Pronouns

and because most descriptions do not mention these different forms for the deictoids,
we cannot be sure how real or how general this vowel variation is.

7.4.1 Oblique pronominal clitics

‫را‬

‫در‬

‫ور‬

As oblique pronominal clitics, the forms /rā/ ‘me/us’,
/dər/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər/ ‘him/her/it/them’ occur as objects of postpositions in place of strong pronouns
or noun phrases. They distinguish person, but not number or gender (and thus are
glossed only by a person numeral—1, 2, or 3). In this role, Tegey (1977) considers them
to be a type of weak personal pronoun and sometimes refers to them as weak oblique
pronouns or (see also Pate 2012) oblique clitic pronouns. They cannot take stress, and
they occur only with postpositions—not with prepositions or circumpositions:
(7.31)

.‫اسد پېښور ته را سره ځي‬
asad-Ø
peṣawar-Ø
tə rā səra
ʣ-í
Asad-M.DIR Peshawar-M.OBL to 1 COMIT go.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Asad is going to Peshawar with me.’ (SW)

(7.32)

.‫کتاب مي در نه واخیست‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
dər na
w-ā́xist-Ø
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 2
from AOR-take.PST-PST.3SG.M
‘I took the book from you.’ (SW)

(7.33)

.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
wər bāndi iṣ-áy
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 3
on
CONT\put.PST-PTCP.M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘I put the book on it.’ (SW)

These sorts of adpositional phrases almost always directly cliticize to the verb. If
the postposition is monosyllabic, the adpositional phrase bears no stress, but if it is
disyllabic and the phrase is in construction with unstressed forms of the copula, the
second syllable of the postposition will be stressed:
(7.34)

.‫را سره ده‬
rā sará da
1 with be.CONT.PRS.3SG.F
‘It's with me [lit. I have it].’

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Person

Form

1st

‫را‬

171

2nd

‫در‬

dər

3rd

‫ور‬

wər
wur E

 
Table 7.10: Oblique pronominal clitics

7.4.2 Directional verbal clitics
Directional verbal clitics can occur with a variety of verbs, although usually ones that
indicate movement (see Section 8.2.4.3) or transport/transfer of an object, often with
a locative goal of here (near me), there (near you), or there (yonder; near him, her, or
them). They never receive stress: if the verb they are in construction with expresses the
aorist aspect, the aorist is encoded with the /wə́‑/ prefix. This is the chief difference
between directional verbal clitics and deictic prefixes.

‫وـ‬

(7.35)

.‫زه یې راغواړم‬

ye

Ø-ɣwāṛ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3.WK 1DVC CONT-want.PRS-1SG
‘I send for him.’

(7.36)

.‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬
kə rā́š-e
za

album-Ø
dər-ṣkārá
if come.AOR.PRS-2SG 1SG.STR.DIR WOULD album-M.DIR 2DVC-clear
kṛ-əm
do.AOR-1SG
‘If you come I will show you the album.’ (SW)

The following sentence, from Tegey (1977: 46), illustrates the functional difference
between oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics. In it,
/wər/ is in

‫ور‬

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

172

 Pronouns

‫را‬
‫را‬
.‫خوشل یو توپک ور ته راولېګه‬

‫ور‬

the role of the former, and /rā/ the latter. Note that /wər/ unambiguously denotes
a person, and /rā/ denotes a location that is indexed deictically to a person.
(7.37)

xušal-Ø
yaw topak
wər ta rā-wə́-leg-ə
Khoshal-M.DIR one gun-M.DIR 3
to 1DVC-AOR-send.PST-PST.3SG
‘Khoshal sent him a gun where I am [lit. here/to me].’

7.4.3 Deictic prefixes
Deictic prefixes also occur with verbs, but only the four verbs or verb stems in the list
below. Furthermore, they behave like bound morphemes with respect to their verbs,
rather than like clitics: they take the stress that encodes aorist forms, and only clitics
and negative particles may intervene between them and the verb stem.

‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’
‫ تلل‬/tləl/ ‘to go’;
for example, ‫ درـتلل‬/dar-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make; to do’;
for example, ‫ ورکول‬/war-kawə́l/ ‘to give to him’
‫ ـوست‬/-wast/;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wastə́l/ ‘to transport here/to me’
These forms usually express a deictic goal. See Section 8.2.4.3 for more about them.

7.5 Demonstratives
As described in Section 6.3.1, there is significant formal overlap between demonstrative
pronouns and demonstrative determiners in Pashto, with the only difference being
in stress placement: demonstrative pronouns have final stress. They are covered in
this section; Section 6.3.1 contains examples of demonstrative determiners. To express
the proximal demonstrative, there are two forms, one based on /dā/, and the other
based on
/daɣá/. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number, but does differ by
case, as illustrated in Table 7.11, reproduced from Table 6.27 in Section 6.3.1.
The following examples show the use of these forms as a demonstrative pronoun
in the direct and oblique cases, respectively:

‫دغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

Demonstratives 

173

‫دا‬

Direct

‫دې‬

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.11: GP proximal demonstrative

‫ دا‬/dā/

Direct

(d)ā

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.12: Middle dialect proximal demonstrative

(7.38)

‫ دا‬/dā/

.‫دا ښه دئ‬

ṣə
dəy
this.DIR nice be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘This is nice.’

(7.39)

‫پس له دې‬
pas lə
de
after from this.OBL

‘after this’
The other proximal demonstrative,
/daɣá/, does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case. In the oblique case, there is a difference
between the masculine and feminine forms in the singular, but not in the plural, as
shown in Table 7.13.
Note that the proximal demonstrative pronouns
/daɣá/ and the medial demonstrative
/haɣá/ in Table 7.16 have final stress. They contrast with similar forms with
initial stress that serve as demonstrative determiners as described in Section 6.3.1.
The medial and distal demonstratives illustrate the same patterning with respect
to gender, number, and case as
/daɣá/; this is shown in Table 7.16.

‫دغه‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫دغه‬

Brought to you by | New York University
Authenticated | 216.165.126.139
Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .165.126.174  Pronouns Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ daɣ-á daɣ-ə́ dəɣ-ə́ ‫دغې‬ daɣ-é E dəɣ-é E ‫دغي‬ ‫دغو‬ daɣ-ó dəɣ-ó doɣ-ó dəɣ-í W   Table 7.13: GP proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/daɣá/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ(-a) Oblique daɣ(-a) Plural Feminine daɣ-e daɣ-e   Table 7.14: Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ-a Oblique daɣ-e deɣ(-e) daɣ-ə Plural Feminine daɣ-e deɣ-e daɣ-e deɣ-e   Table 7.15: Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

18: Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Demonstratives  Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣ-ə́ haɣ-á aɣ-á aɣ-ə́ həɣ-ə́ ‫هغې‬ haɣ-é E aɣ-é E ‫هغي‬ ‫هغو‬ haɣ-ó aɣ-ó həɣ-ó həɣ-í W haɣ-í W   Table 7.165.16: GP medial demonstrative ‫ هغه‬/haɣ-ə́/ Singular Masculine Direct (h)aɣ-a Oblique (y)aɣ-a haɣ Plural Feminine (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e   Table 7.17: Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Singular Masculine Direct aɣ-a aɣ-ə Oblique aɣ-ə Plural Feminine yeɣ-e yeɣ-e   Table 7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 175 .126.

/huɣə́/ and /hāɣə́/. Note that the gender of the understood yet absent noun affects the gender of the pronoun: (7.SG ‘Look at that! [referring to feminine thing. an insect.OBL AOR-step-IMP. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. bridge. etc.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /daɣá/ and /haɣá/.6 Interrogative pronouns The set of Pashto interrogative pronouns reflects the usual human vs.41) !‫پر هغې وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-é wə́-xej-a on that-F.40) !‫پر هغه وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-ə́ wə́-xej-a on that-M.SG ‘Step on that! [referring to masculine item.OBL AOR-step-IMP.126.]’ ‫هوغه‬ The General Pashto distal demonstrative has two variants.176  Pronouns The following (from Tegey & Robson 1996) are illustrations of the General Pashto demonstrative pronoun in its various word forms. ‫دغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct ‫هوغه‬ Oblique ‫هاغه‬ Plural huɣ-ə́ uɣ-á hoɣ-ə́ hāɣ-ə́ E hāɣ-á E ‫هوغې‬ huɣ-é uɣ-é hāɣ-é   ‫هاغه‬ Feminine ‫هاغې‬ Table 7. etc.165.]’ (7. like a rug. like a rock. non-human attribute of the potential referent.19: GP distal demonstrative ‫هغه‬ ‫هوغو‬ huɣ-ó uɣ-ó ‫هاغو‬ hāɣ-ó ‫ هوغه‬/huɣ-ə́/ 7.

but not for number or gender.PST-PTCP.20 and Table 7.126.DIR ‘Who came?’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.21: Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/ The direct case form is used for nominatives and accusatives of present tense sentences.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . Questions in Pashto do not use a different word order than statements.21 show the forms for the human interrogative and indefinite pronoun.DIR come.20: GP human interrogative pronoun ‫ څوک‬/ʦok/ Case Form Direct ʦok WAZ ʦik DZA ʦek MIR Oblique čā   Table 7.AOR.M. for General Pashto and for the Middle dialects respectively. (7. Case Form Direct ‫څوک‬ ʦok Oblique ‫چا‬ čā   Table 7.42) ‫څوک راغی؟‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who.165.Interrogative pronouns  177 Table 7. This pronoun inflects for case. and for direct objects in past tense sentences.

DIR come.3SG.CONT.PST-1SG ‘Who saw me?’ (SW) The possessive interrogative whose? is expressed by using the oblique form /čā/ ‘who’ with the preposition /də/ ‘of’ (example from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7.PRS-PRS.2. It is invariant: it has the same form regardless of case.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) (7.M ‘Whose book is that?’ For nonhuman referents.45) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M. /ʦə/ can act pronominally.DIR be.46) or the object (as in the past tense example at 7.DIR AOR-hit-PST. or number. whether it be the subject (as in the present tense example at 7. As noted in Section 7.PRS.OBL book-M.165.OBL to CONT-talk.PRS-2SG ‘Whom are you talking to?’ (SW) (7.OBL AOR-see.DIR of who.47): (7.OBL who.3[SG. gender. the personal pronoun that agrees with the verb is generally dropped. appearing ‫څه‬ ‫څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.46) ‫چا ته وایې؟‬ čā tə Ø-wāy-é who.48) ‫د‬ ‫هغه د چا کتاب دی؟‬ ‫چا‬ aɣá də čā kitāb-Ø day that.3.DIR CONT-see.43) ‫څوک راځی؟‬ ʦok rāz-í who.126.3SG.CONT.44) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who. /ʦə/ ‘what’ is used.M] ‘Who is coming?’ (NW) (7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ The oblique case form is used for objects of adpositions and subjects of transitive verbs.47) ‫چا ولیدم؟‬ čā wə́-lid-əm who.178  Pronouns (7.

PRS.3PL.DIR ‘Someone came.M.50 the word order reflects the requirement that weak pronouns appear in second position.AOR-IMP.PRS.165. (7.STR.AOR.‫کتاب چا ته ورکه‬ kitāb-Ø čā tə wárk-a book-M.DIR who. indefinite pronouns are identical in form to interrogative pronouns (examples 7.33 of Section 6.51) ‫تا څه اروېدلي دی؟‬ tā ʦə Ø-arw-ed-ə́l-i di 2SG.49.49) ‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬ də de num-Ø ʦə dəy of 3SG.53) .52) ‫یو څه‬ . appearing with a noun as in 6.M ‘What [things] have you heard?’ (SW) 7.7 Indefinite pronouns In Pashto.52 and following from Tegey & Robson 1996).M ‘What is her name?’ (SW) (7.3SG.CONT.PST-PTCP.AOR-PST. In 7.F.3SG.6. (7.M ‘What did I do?’ (SW) While /ʦə/ does not inflect for number.OBL what CONT-hear-PST-PTCP. it tends to be interpreted as plural.WK AOR-do.STR.PL.OBL to give.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL name-M.126.CONT.‫څوک راغی‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یو څوک‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who.DIR what be. or adjectivally.DIR be.50) ‫څه مې وکړه؟‬ ʦə mi wə́-kṛ-ə what 1SG. In order to distinguish sentences with indefinites from questions. so a verb agreeing with it will often be in the plural: ‫څه‬ (7.M.DIR come.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .Indefinite pronouns  179 alone as in 7.’ (7. /yaw/ ‘one’ may be added. to yield /yaw ʦok/ ‘someone’ and /yaw ʦə/ ‘something’.SG ‘Give the book to someone.

STR. everything.‫یو څوک د ملګري کورته د ډوډۍ خوړلو پر وخت ورغی‬ yaw tsok də malgər-i kor-Ø ta də ḍoḍ-əy one who.PRS.180  Pronouns (7.M ‘Everyone came.OBL to of food-F. ‫هر یو‬ (7.PL.DIR AOR-see.DIR ‘I haven't done anything.DIR ‘Someone showed up at my friend's house during mealtime.DIR one-M.’ (SW) (7.M ‘I have done everything.PST-PST. the combination can mean everyone.AOR-PTCP.56 and 7.WK NEG be.55) .M.54) .DIR come.165.DIR di be.M. /ar/ ‘every’ precedes the indefinite pronouns.‫هر څه مې کړي دي‬ har-Ø ʦə me kə́ṛ-i every-PL.58) .AOR.56) .‫څه مې نه دي کړي‬ ʦə me ná di kə́ṛ-i what 1SG.57) .3PL.’ (7.126.OBL house-M.M do.M.OBL on time-M come.3SG.DIR what 1SG.CONT.3PL.M.PST-PST. A similar meaning can also be conveyed by /har yaw/ ‘each one’.OBL every-M.DIR who.CONT.WK do.3PL.‫هر څوک راغلل‬ har-Ø ʦok rā́ɣl-əl every-PL.’ ‫هر‬ When /har/.’ (NW) The phrase /har ʦə/ can also express an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘whatever.PST-PTCP.M.57 (after Tegey & Robson 1996).AOR.‫ما هر یو ولیده‬ mā har-Ø yaw-Ø wə́-lid-ə 1SG.’ (SW) (7.AOR-PTCP.PL. anything and everything’: ‫هر څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M.M ‘I saw each one.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .DIR of friend-M. as in 7.DIR xoṛ-ə́l-o pər waxt-Ø wə́rɣ-ay eat-INF-PL.PRS.

8 Relative pronouns ‫څوک‬ ‫څه‬ The interrogative/indefinite pronouns /ʦok/ and /ʦə/ can be employed with the complementizer /čə/ to form relative clauses (as in 11.M ‘I didn't see anyone.1. The verb is also negated.60) .DIR what 3.WK correct-do. they just don't straighten!’ The negative indefinites (analogous to no one/anyone.3[PL.AOR.STR. ‫چه‬ 7.‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who.1).4.3SG.DIR NEG become.’ (NW) (7.9 Expressions of coreference Pashto uses two kinds of items for expressing coreference: the emphatic adjective (Tegey. /xpələ/ ‘own’ (feminine).59) 181 !‫هر څه یې سمومه نه سمېږي‬ har-Ø ʦə ye sam-aw-ǝ́ma ná every-M.2.DIR gone-M.PRS-PRS.PST-PST.126.OBL none-M.CONT-1SG NEG sam-ég-i correct-become.’ (NW) (7.’ (NW) 7. This is discussed at greater length in Section 11.Expressions of coreference  (7. /xpəl/ inflects as a Class I adjective (Section 6.‫ما هیڅ څه و نه لیده‬ mā heʦ-Ø sə wə́ ná lid-ə 1SG.DIR 1SG.165.PST-PST. 1979) /xpəl/ ‘own’ (masculine).M] ‘However much I [try and] straighten them out. ‫هیڅ‬ (7.M ‘I didn't see anything. ‫خپل‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپله‬ ‫ځانه‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپل‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3SG.WK AOR NEG see.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . while /ʣān/ inflects for case only.M ‘No one was gone.DIR what AOR NEG see.CONT.61) .‫هیڅوک مې و نه لیده‬ hets tsok-Ø me wə́ ná lid-ə none who.PST-PST. and the reflexive pronoun /ʣān/ ‘self’ (oblique form /ʣāna/).1.78).62) . nothing/anything) are formed using /heʦ/ ‘any’ with the indefinite pronoun.3SG.

PST-PST.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .DIR AOR\bring.PL.DIR own-PL. in complementary distribution with the weak pronouns (see Section 7.DIR notebook-F.DIR AOR\bring. .70) signals coreference with another nuclear term.DIR AOR\bring.F ‘Ahmad brought his [own] notebook. not with the possessor: (7.63) .M. mosque-M.3SG.DIR rāwəṛ-i wə bring.DIR place-M.126.DIR AOR\bring.PST-PTCP.‫احمد خپل کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M.‫احمد یې کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø ye kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M. be expressed Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫مریم خپل کتاب راووړ‬ maryam-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Maryam-F.CONT.DIR book-M. As shown in the examples that follow.M ‘Yesterday each person in the mosque brought his own prayer rug.OBL own-M.’ ‫ خپل‬/xpəl/ expresses distributed possession.66) .OBL xpəl-Ø xpəl-Ø jāy-Ø namāz-una own-PL.WK book-M.182  Pronouns The emphatic adjectives function as possessives in conditions of coreference.67) parun pə jumāt-Ø ki har-Ø čā yesterday in..PST-PST.3.M.OBL own-M.’ (7.DIR prayer-PL.PST-PST.M ‘Ahmad brought his [own] book [here].M ‘Ahmad brought his [another's] book [here].OBL . but need not.‫احمد خپله کتابچه راووړه‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-ə kitābča-Ø rā́wṛ-a Ahmad-M.M ‘Maryam brought her [own] book. and may appear in direct object and adpositional object positions..CONT. the gender of the emphatic possessive agrees with the object possessed...3SG.3SG.3PL.OBL who.in every-M.’ In keeping with the item’s grammatical category of adjective.64) .PST-PST.OBL own-F. these examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7.M.‫پرون په جومات کي هر چا خپل خپل جای نمازونه راوړي وه‬ When reduplicated.165.’ (7.’ (SW) ‫ځان‬ The item /ʣān/ (/ʣon/ in Waziri: see 7. the adjective (7.65) .3SG.PST.M.DIR book-M.DIR be.OBL 3. person information may.

AOR.DIR also AOR-take.WK changed-M.’ The emphatic and reflexive may appear in combination: (7.DIR from sake-M.165.’ (7.M ‘He disguised himself.WK NEG become.Expressions of coreference  183 in the form of a weak pronoun (see also examples 8.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .to Shiranai-M.PRS-IMP.OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.’ (WAZ-L) (7.CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together.DIR self-M.12 and 8.DIR do.‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M.M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this.STR.DIR self-M.DIR 3.OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.AOR.PRS-IMP.M. (7.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself.70) dzon-Ø ye badál-Ø k-ə self-M.DIR 1SG.DIR rupee-F.OBL INSTR haste-F.’ (7.PST-PST.ABL ‘for oneself’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3SG.71) .3SG.69) .126.‫هغه په بیړه ځان تر شیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.DIR up.DIR AOR-take. but all of the examples we have found show the order emphatic > weak pronoun.SG. Tegey (1979) suggests that the weak pronoun precedes the emphatic.PST-PST.42).SG self-M.68) .72) ‫د خپل ځان دپاره‬ də xpəl-Ø ʣān-Ø də pār-a of own-M.

These reciprocal expressions do not inflect for person or gender.6 for a description of some other pro-forms in Pashto.PRS-PRS.74) . ‫یو بل‬ ‫بله‬ (7.DIR one other-M.DIR one from other-M.CONT. the reciprocal can also be expressed by /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’.ABL angry di be. or by the shorter /yaw bəl/ ‘one other’.3. Case inflection does occur. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud are angry at each other.M] ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud see each other.DIR and Mahmoud-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .3. Another way of expressing reciprocal relationships can be found in Section 10.‫احمد او محمود یو بل ته سره ګوري‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw bəl-Ø tə səra Ahmad-M. Depending on context.‫احمد او محمود یو له بله خفه دي‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw lə bəl-ə xafa Ahmad-M.OBL to COMIT Ø-gur-í CONT-look.DIR and Mahmoud-M. 7.’ (SW) Pashto has at least one other strategy for conveying reciprocal reference—see Section 10.2.11 Other pro-forms See Section 9.73) ‫یو له بله‬ ‫یو له بله‬ . as the word /bələ/ ‘other’ in /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’ is in the ablative case.3PL.1.2. the reciprocal relationship can be expressed by /yaw aw bəl/ ‘one and other’.1.PRS.184  Pronouns 7.3[PL.’ (SW) (7.10 Reciprocal pronouns ‫یو او بل‬ In Pashto.165.

2. Verb constructions in Pashto encode the following categories morphologically: • tense (present. infinitives are not marked for any of the above features. feminine): but only in: (1) third person past tense forms of all verbs and (2) third person singular (past and present) forms of the verb to be These features are encoded in verb forms by means of affixes or stress placement.1.2.1 Properties of verbs As Grjunberg (1987: 111) observes. See Section 8.Anne Boyle David and Sarah Goodman 8 Verbs 8. as do the verb to be and the verbalizers. the way Pashto verbs have been presented previously. Pashto verbal morphology is uncharacteristically complex compared to the verbs of other Iranian languages.177. ‫به‬ • aspect (continuous. For example. In doing so. and participles for only some of them. • mood (indicative.8.8.1. Section 8. but a modal one. We agree with Penzl (1955: 93) that the clitic /bə/ is not strictly a future clitic.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .8. imperative.2. taking from each approach the aspects that we believe have the strongest empirical foundation. third) • number (singular. however.2.1 Overview 8. to some degree. In this chapter we try to reconcile the data and information in those descriptions. The differences are covered in Section 8.1 for an explanation of our change in terminology. The morphology of verbs in the Middle dialects does not differ significantly from that of General Pashto verbs. plural) • gender (masculine.1. second.1 for more discussion of what it conveys. among others. Section 8.3. not all verb constructions are marked for all properties. optative) • person (first.2. we have also reorganized. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.2.2.5. See Section 10. supplementing it with advice from Pashto language experts and data obtained from native speakers we have interviewed. Probably for this reason. descriptions of Pashto verbs vary widely both in the way they analyze and explain verbal forms and also in the data they present.228. aorist) What we call continuous and aorist are usually called imperfective and perfective in other descriptions of Pashto. past) Pashto has no morphological future tense. Some suffixes show variant forms. and Section 8.

2 Classifying verbs Based on its morphological and syntactic behavior.2. • present continuous (= present imperfective or present I/1 in some grammars) • present aorist (= present perfective or present II/2 in some grammars) • past continuous (= past imperfective or past I/1 in some grammars) • past aorist (= past perfective or past II/2 in some grammars) These four base types are described and exemplified below in Section 8.3.. what they call derivative verbs are a subset of what we call complex verbs.228.186  Verbs Person. this group also includes verbs with separable prefixes.1). expression of future events. some of these light verb constructions have become partly lexicalized.2.1. As will be described below.e. because in our description.2. and expressions of ability.4 and Section 11. new verbs enter the language via light verb constructions of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb. how it forms the aorist (i. Pashto verbs are all built on one of four possible building blocks. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Which noun governs this agreement is determined in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . morphological structure. see Section 8. conjugation class.3.e.1. whether the stem is simplex or complex (i.7.2.5 and Section 11. As is common in the South Asian linguistic area. stem class-class—weak or strong. which is discussed in more detail in Section 5. see Section 8..177. a passive-like construction.6. according to 1.2. 8. which vary in shape according to two parameters: tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). a Pashto verb can be classified in three ways.4.6) 3. with the use of particles or auxiliary verbs. Tegey & Robson (1996). and Pashtoon (2009) refer to derivative verbs. There are also several functions or modalities encoded periphrastically.. We use the broader term complex verb. (see Section 8. and gender (which we abbreviate to PNG in this grammar) are features that mark agreement with noun phrases in the clause. see Section 8.2. Pashto verbs are a closed class.1. called bases in this grammar. whether it has stem allomorphy (i.e. These include negation.5) 2.4)¹ 1 The standard descriptions of Pashto verbs set out by Shafeev (1964). number.

according to a combination of our (1) and (3)—aorist formation ( /wə́‑/ prefixation versus stress shift) plus one element of morphological structure (prefixed versus denominal verbs). 3 With complications introduced by morphologically complex verbs such as denominal verbs. 8. but also make reference to stem allomorphy and morphological structure where relevant. as well as one we do not take into account (the /‑ég-/ and /‑ed/ tense markers of intransitive first conjugation verbs) but differs from ours in a number of ways.1 Structure of the verb Pashto verbs are largely agglutinative. The analysis of Grjunberg (1987: 111–193) is the most detailed: his carefully thought-out system incorporates all three of the above criteria.³ as can be seen in Table 8. and whether a verb is simplex or complex—and if complex. The difference between weak and strong verbs lies in whether they exhibit stem allomorphy (Section 8.2 Verb components This section describes the structure of Pashto verbs and all the building blocks for forming Pashto verb constructions.2. 2 Although they are not explicit about it. These tables cover both inflectional and derivational morphology. or 3. Tegey & Robson (1996) classify verbs into three groups. However. 8. what type of complex verb it is—determines its syntactic behavior. The following sections of the grammar describe the parts of the various Pashto verbal constructions and how these constructions are formed. paradigms of inflected verbs.177. ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .² Conjugation class and stem class membership both reflect morphological behavior.228.1 and Table 8. chiefly in that he gives primacy to morphological structure of the stem rather than to conjugation class. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) arrive at their five-way classification of verbs using our (2) and (3)—allomorphy and morphological structure.6). 2. We follow Tegey & Robson (1996) (as well as grammatical tradition) in focusing primarily on conjugation class as a way of classifying verbs.2. but a thorough analysis of Pashto verbs requires that we take all three into account. the three ways of categorizing Pashto verbs. the only component that is part of every construction is the stem. every verb also has to have at least one suffix from among suffixes 1. Parentheses around column heads indicate that morphemes in that column may or may not appear on a given verb construction. which illustrate Pashto verb structure for weak and strong verbs respectively.Verb components  187 Previous descriptions of Pashto do not clearly distinguish among the above verb groupings. and some aspects of verbal usage. no verb form can consist of only a stem.2.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM   CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ ―— (See Table 8.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- PRESENT: -Ø Transitive (often optional—see Section 8.+ Class IIIb adjectival suffixes (see Table 6.2.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal base ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l INFINITIVE: ‫‑ ـېدل‬ed-ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3 for possible stem shapes.) ‫ـوـ‬ (Suffix 1) Stem Table 8.2.1: Structure of weak (one stem) verbs ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.) (Suffix 3) 188  Verbs .17) ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.177.6.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـېدـ‬ed(-ə́l-) ‫ـېږـ‬ PRESENT: ‑ég- Intransitive (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫ـونکـ‬ PRESENT PARTICIPLE: -unk. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers) ‑āy SW.4. SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.228.6.

17) ‫‑ ـونک‬unk + Class IIIb PRESENT PARTICIPLE: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM Stem ―— (See Table 8.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal Base ‫ـوـ‬ CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ (Suffix 1) ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.2.228. SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.2: Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs   ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.4) (Suffix 3) Verb components  189 .Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.6.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes adjectival suffixes (see Table 6. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers): ‑āy SW.3 for possible stem shapes) Table 8.

3) is the citation form of the verb. Note that Pashto verb stems cannot be vowel-final. The infinitive (Section 8.2.3.190  Verbs Verb stem shapes and examples are given in Table 8.1 and Table 8.228. VCCVC ‫ الوت‬alwut ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ climb over’   Table 8.3: Stem shapes Note in Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Stem shape Examples Stem Infinitive C ‫ک‬k ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ CC ‫ تل‬tl ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ CVC ‫ تړ‬taṛ ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ VC ‫ اود‬ud ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave.177.2 that the suffixes for past and infinitive are identical. knit’ VCC ‫ ایست‬ist ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull (out)’ VCVC ‫ ایښود‬ixod ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to put’ CVCC ‫ غوښت‬ɣuṣt ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l to ‘want’ CCVC ‫ درومېد‬drum ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ CCVCC ‫ نغښت‬nɣəṣt ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ CVCVC ‫ رانیو‬rāniw ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy (up)’ CVCVCC ‫ پېژند‬pežand ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ VCVCC ‫ اوښت‬awuxt ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn.

some Pashto verbs are separable into two parts: certain particles may occur between the prefixed components (of Column 1 in Table 8.2). as described below. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6.1 and Table 8.1 and Table 8. in contrast with GP dialects. PNG suffixes can be attached to the bases described in Section 8.) reports the Waziri second person plural suffix as /-ay/ (/-ai/ in his Romanization).4 are those that reflect the categories of person. The third person present suffix /-o/. Certain instances of this phenomenon are the reason for the claim that Pashto is one of the few languages that has endoclisis (Kaisse 1981. as the past tense third person suffixes encode gender and person. 3. which predate phonological theory. Lorimer (1902: 18ff. the masculine being /ə/ and the feminine being /a/.177.’ It is frequent because /kawə́l/ forms part of so many third conjugation verbs. but can carry stress in the past tense. but Septfonds (1994: 81) speculates that even in non-poetic speech. 8. Waziri. PNG suffixes differ between the tenses only in the third person.Verb components  191 Under some conditions. but it does not occur in any of our field data. David 2011). with some exceptions to be described below. The derivational prefixes mentioned in column 1 of Table 8. and Dzadrani.4 through Table 8. and gender (PNG suffixes).2. PNG suffixes are not inherently stressed. to do. number.5 and Table 8. but it is not uncommon in spoken General Pashto. while present tense ones do not. The Waziri and Dzadrani first person singular suffixes /‑əm/ and /‑əma/ are in free variation. As in GP. They occur in both poetic and non-poetic contexts. the root /k-/ of the verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make. that is. the stem and any suffixes (see Section 11. the realizations differ.3. With the exception of the irregular verb to be.6 to form finite verbs. Kopris & Davis 2005.9. 2. as can be seen in Table 8.4 through Table 8.2. Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2. Kopris 2009.228. “the melody of discourse” can play a role in which form is used. This discrepancy could be due to the vowel /a/ having changed to /ə/ over the past hundred years or to Lorimer’s transcription methods.2 Personal suffixes The suffixes in Table 8. only occurs on one verb.2) and the rest of the verb. where meter determines which whether the monosyllabic or bisyllabic allomorph is used. where the suffix /‑əma/ occurs more often in poetry. The first person singular suffix /‑əma/ is heard most often in poetry.6: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـمه‬ 1. Note also that despite the orthographic similarity of the past singular suffixes for masculine and feminine forms ( ). meter determines which form is used in the poetic contexts. while heard frequently in both Waziri and Dzadrani.2 can be seen in Table 8.6 give the personal suffixes for verbs in General Pashto.8 and Table 8. Notes on Table 8.

228.177.4: GP verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.192  Verbs 1st Singular Plural  ‫ـم‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑əm ‑u ‫ـمه‬ ‑əm(a) SW ‫ـې‬ 2nd present ‑e ‫ـئ‬ ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst (verb bases ending in y SW ) ‫ی‬ ‫ـئ‬ 2nd past ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst SW 3rd present M ‫ـي‬ ‑i F 3rd past M ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ØE ‑ə ‑ə ‑əy SW ‫ـو‬ -o NE ØE F ‫ـه‬ ‑a ‫ـې‬ ‑e   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .Verb components  193 1st Singular Plural ‑ã ‑i ‑əm(a) 2nd ‑e ‑əy (-ay) 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑ə ‑əl -Ø F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e Singular Plural 1st ‑əm(a) ‑i 2nd ‑e ‑əy   Table 8.6: Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5: Waziri verbs: personal suffixes ‑oy 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑Ø ‑ə(l) ‑ə ‑ay F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e   Table 8.

5. use the present continuous base as the citation form.7. The third person past masculine suffix /-ay/ of Dzadrani only occurs on a few verbs: for example.177. and because this is the form used as headword in dictionaries. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 4 Some grammars.⁴ It can be used as a noun and takes masculine plural agreement on the verb. such as Tegey & Robson (1996). we use the infinitive. certain second conjugation verbs containing the roots /tləl/ ‘to go’ and /çwəl/ ‘to place’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . However. As in General Pashto. Formation: past continuous stem + /‑ə́l-/ The stress is always on the final syllable. the third person suffixes encode tense. arguing that because of stem allomorphy.3 The infinitive The infinitive in Pashto is the citation form of the verb and formally equivalent to the verb’s past continuous base (see Section 8.2.194  Verbs 4.228. the present base is not always obvious. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2. both because it is traditional Pashto grammatical practice.6). with /‑ə́l-/. Examples of infinitives from all three conjugation classes are in Table 8. 8.

228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .Verb components  195 Conjugation First Second Third Contracted Uncontracted Past continuous stem Infinitive ‫ خوړـ‬xwaṛ‑ ‘eat’ ‫ درېدـ‬dar-éd‑ ‘stop’ ‫ ګرځېدـ‬gərʣ-éd‑ ‘walk’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‘pour. throw’ ‫ خوړل‬xwaṛə́l ‘to eat’ ‫ درېدل‬daredə́l ‘to stop’ ‫ ګرځېدل‬gərʣedə́l ‘to walk’ ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour.7: Infinitives Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to ‫ ننوت‬nəna-wat‑ ‘enter’ ‫ راتل‬rā-tl‑ ‘come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ازادېد‬azād-éd‑ ‘go free’ ‫ ازادو‬azād-aw‑ ‘set free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go free’ ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ښایسته کېد‬ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ xāyista k-ed‑ ‘become pretty’ throw’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’   Table 8.

2.3 and Section 8.1 Overview Pashto verbs may be either simplex or complex. Simplex verbs are all those verbs whose base consists of a single morpheme. The only difference is that a-initial verbs form only a small part of the first conjugation. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3..177.⁵ The chief difference between simplex and complex verbs is a morphosyntactic one: unlike simplex verbs.2 a-initial verbs Most verbs that begin with /a/ fall into the class of complex verbs known as a-initial verbs.2.3) ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’ = ‫ راـ‬/rā‑/ ‘here. Cheung 2007) • prefixed verbs (Section 8. There are three kinds: ‫وهل‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ل‬- • a-initial verbs (Section 8.196  Verbs 8. 8. under some conditions.2) ‫ استوـ‬/astawə́l/ ‘to send’ (not synchronically bi-morphemic.2. this distinction is not to be confused with the distinction between simple and compound verb constructions (Section 8.5): prefixed verbs comprise the second conjugation. that is. while complex verbs have a base with two morphemes (or what were once two morphemes). but probably < Proto-Iranian *ā-staH. All three types of complex verb will be discussed in the following sections.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .4. to do’ These three groups correspond closely—but not entirely—to the three conjugation classes (Section 8. with certain restricted classes of words intervening between them (see Section 11. There are only about a dozen or so members of this class.2. it does not include 5 Note that simplex is used to mean the opposite of complex.4).4. but in another way based on their morphosyntactic behavior. and denominal verbs the third.2).2.4.2. to me’ + ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ • denominal verbs (Section 8.4. complex verbs are separable.4) ‫ ازادول‬/azād-awə́l/ ‘to set free’ = ‫ ازاد‬/azād/ ‘free’ + ‫ کول‬/(k)awə́l/ ‘to make.2. with base /wah‑/+ infinitive suffix /‑ə́l/.4 Simplex and complex verbs 8.4. This crucial difference illustrates why it is important to recognize this second way of classifying verbs: Pashto verbs may cluster in one way based on their inflectional behavior. the greater part of it consists of simplex verbs.2.228. such as: /wahə́l/ ‘to hit’. they resolve into two parts.

in that—unlike most other Pashto verbs—their stress is variable in the continuous aspect: it can be either initial or non-initial.1) . nevertheless do not fall into this special class.WK ‘I was buying them.PST-PST.Verb components  197 denominal verbs (Section 8. a-initial verbs differ in that they take the prefix /wə́‑/ for aorist forms. for example. which otherwise comprises only simplex verbs. even though /a/ is not a morpheme in the usual sense of the word.3PL.M ‘I bought them.PST-PST-3PL. although they have initial /a/.2.14 as part of our discussion of the first conjugation. The following sentences illustrate the separability of a-initial verbs.M ‘I was buying them. With initial stress.228. they can separate either when the initial /a/ is optionally stressed in the continuous or in the aorist aspect. 2011). 7 Examples taken from Kopris (2009). and for this reason it still behaves like one (David. and there are a few other verbs that.4. We consider these a-initial verbs complex because their syntactic behavior resembles that of prefixed verbs: the initial /a/ can separate from the rest of the verb as though it were a prefix.2.2).WK buy.⁶ These verbs are also unusual. /aṇawə́l/ ‘to gather’. where initial stress is obligatory. Most verbs cannot have initial stress in continuous forms.’ versus non-initial stress.‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG. since it is not meaningful by itself.2. In each instance this separation occurs only in the presence of certain clitics or the negative morphemes (Section 11.3. presented in Table 8. This inflectional feature places them in the morphological class of first conjugation (Section 8.5.‫ا مې خیستله‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG. While morphosyntactically similar to prefixed verbs.‫ا خیستله مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy.2) .3) . separated:⁷ ‫اڼول‬ ‫وـ‬ (8.4) whose complement happens to have an initial /a/.M 1SG.PST-PST-3PL. as can be seen in what we believe to be a comprehensive list of a-initial verbs.2).WK buy.’ In the aorist: (8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ 6 Most likely the initial /a/ was once a prefix historically.177. not separated: (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

this separating behavior of a-initial verbs has led some linguists to assert that Pashto is among a handful of languages in the world that undergo endoclisis.. into the verb of which they are a part. hence we class them all as what we call deictoids. to group them all under the same category.8 and Table 8. The prefixes /rā‑/.228. called doubly irregular verbs by Tegey & Robson (1996: 114).198  Verbs As mentioned earlier.8: Deictic verb prefixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. as with the a-initial verbs. for example. to him/her/it/them'   Table 8.4.2.) 8. although in a few instances. war- war- wer- 'there (yonder). because these pseudo-prefixed verbs behave like other prefixed verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . as elements of complex verbs.8 correspond historically and semantically to the oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics described in Section 7. However. The derivational prefixes are shown in Table 8.4. and /wər‑/ of Table 8. They take the form of a derivational prefix plus a verb base. to you' 3 ‫ ورـ‬wər‑. etc. to me' 2 ‫ درـ‬dər‑. and David 2011 for attempts to account for it.3) and frequently incorporate meanings of to me/to him. Kopris 2009. /dər‑/. the first person deictic prefix is reduced to /r/ in the continuous aspect (i.e. ‫راـ‬ ‫درـ‬ ‫ورـ‬ Person GP prefix Waziri prefix Dzadrani prefix Gloss 1 ‫ راـ‬rā‑ rā- r(o)- 'here. when it is unstressed) and appears in its full form. coincide with our second conjugation (Section 8. dar- dar- der- 'there.3 Prefixed verbs Prefixed verbs. They occur with only four verb stems (see Section 7.5. in the aorist (when it is stressed).177. and we therefore refer to them in this context as deictic prefixes. /ro/.4). /déra-ɣləm(a)/ ‘I joined you’. Past aorist forms of /der-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’ and /wer-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to him/her/it/them’ have an epenthetic a between the prefix and the stem in Dzadrani. here/there. Kopris & Davis 2005. either the first or the second of these does not appear in any other context in the language.9. both synchronically and diachronically. we have chosen. In the Dzadrani forms.4. their role is not pronominal. However. (See Kaisse 1981. with Tegey & Robson (1996) and Grjunberg (1987).2.

3).give. Prefix Gloss of etymon ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ E 'in. The glosses given should therefore be thought of as the glosses of their etymons. 3.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.2.9 exist in the same position class as the deictic prefixes.9: Non-productive verb prefixes Some examples of prefixed verbs can be seen in Table 8. away' ‫ تېرـ‬ter‑ 'past'   Table 8. and in the sentences 8. In sentence 8.‫ور یې کړه‬ wə́r ye kṛ-á give.177. and are subject to the same rules of stress movement to encode aorist aspect.. they do not necessarily have meanings that are synchronically separable from the verbal lexeme of which they are a part. as well as to separation from the rest of the verb by negative morphemes and second position clitics...228.4 the prefix is separated from the verb stem by a second position clitic. (8. over..4) . not as synchronic glosses.Verb components  199 Although the prefixes in Table 8.W ‫ کښيـ‬kxi‫ کېـ‬ke‫ کيـ‬ki- W E W ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ 'into' ‫ پوریـ‬pori‑ 'across. on' ‫ پراـ‬prā‑ ‫ پرېـ‬pre‑ 'off.SG ‘Give it to her/him/them.4 and 8.AOR-IMP. on' kši.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .10 in their infinitival forms (see Section 8.WK .

denominal verb encodes a single event.⁹ (See Section 11. In the uncontracted one.3.1 for more on light verb constructions in Pashto.5) .OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you.DIR after from 2SG.STR.2. depart’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave.‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG. on’ ‫̄ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave. where the verb is either /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ (to form intransitives) or /kawə́l/ ‘to make. the verbal construction is always a two-word phrase.) There are two versions of this construction. the difference between them has to do with the degree to which the verb fuses phonologically with its noun or adjective complement in the continuous aspect.10: Examples of prefixed verbs (8. We refer to the adjective or noun as the complement and to the verb as the verbalizer. compound. complex. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ 8 These forms are variously referred to in other grammars of Pashto as derivative.2. with the verb occurring in its full form as a separate word from the substantive that gives the overall construction its meaning. and so on. As a light verb. while the verbalizer carries categories such as PNG.4 Denominal verb constructions Denominal verbs are light verb constructions⁸ of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb.177. depart’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ کښېوتل‬kxewatə́l ‘to fall or drop into. deriving its semantics from the complement.STR.228.200  Verbs Prefix Verb Prefixed verb ‫ راـ‬rā‑ ‘here’ ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ ‘into’ ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ ‘in. 9 Most other Pashto grammars use the term auxiliary.’ 8. but see Butt (2003) for a clear differentiation between light verbs and auxiliary verbs. tense. to slip or slide’   Table 8. or denominative verbs.4. to do’ (to form transitives). We can therefore speak of contracted and uncontracted denominal verb constructions.

both the contracted and the uncontracted constructions behave like single words: • Continuous forms do not allow other words—such as negatives or weak pronouns— between the adjective and verbalizer. but remains two separate words throughout the paradigm. color’) ‫ حسابول‬/hisābawə́l/ ‘to account. for example: ‫ـېدل‬ • • ‫ـول‬ ‫ رنګول‬/rangawə́l/ ‘to paint’ (from the noun ‫ رنګ‬/rang/ ‘paint. while those with a vowel-final noun complement (column 4). because the adjectival and verbal components of the construction together behave as one word. count’) Note that both these nouns are consonant-final. In written Pashto. Among denominal verbs with adjective complements. So we see a spectrum of behavior among third conjugation verbs. from word-like. or /‑awə́l/ (transitive). to phrase-like. Generally speaking.7. the k is deleted in continuous forms. However.177.Verb components  201 In a contracted denominal verb. but this is a tendency only. the verbal construction usually does not contract. since it applies to C-final adjectives and some C-final nouns. there are a few contracted verb forms with nouns as the first element. • Adjective complements are uninflected in the continuous aspect (whereas adjective complements in the aorist aspect. This is described and exemplified in Section 6. The forms with a consonantfinal adjective complement (column 2) are the most lexicalized. as well as all aorist forms (column 5). it cannot occur between the complement and verb. and all noun complements—in both aorist and continuous—may inflect for case). they allow a separate direct object. If the first element is a vowel-final adjective or if it is a noun of any sort. leaving the verb in a shortened form: /‑edə́l/ (intransitive). contracted verbal constructions are represented as single words. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. • Also unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. as summed up in Table 8. this contraction only occurs when the complement is a consonant-final adjective. The small number of contracted verb forms that have noun complements fall in between the contracted adjectival and the uncontracted nominal third conjugation verbs in their morphological and syntactic behavior: • Unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements.11.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . It therefore appears that /k/-deletion reflects a tendency against the sequence /Ck/.228. are the least so. while the majority of Pashto nouns are vowel-final. or lexicalized. when negated they must be preceded by the negative marker. calculate’ (from the noun ‫ حساب‬/hisāb/ ‘calculation.

11: Behavior of denominal verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.11 summarizes the morphosyntactic behavior of the different types of denominal verbs.Table 8. for example. the adjective agrees with the undergoer of the action. that light verbs do not “enter the grammaticalization cline. unless they end in /ay/.” at all. the adjective complement /stәṛay/ ‘tired’ in /stәṛay kawә́l/ ‘to tire. like uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. in both present and past tenses. it is optional. however.” These Pashto forms instead provide additional evidence for the argument in Bowern (2008) that complex predicates “aren’t necessarily stable” but can in fact lenite phonologically and are subject to reanalysis.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . exhaust’. David & Goodman (2012) discusses these points at length. which behaves like a Class III adjective. Adjective complements that inflect for case usually do so as Class I adjectives. The contracted denominal verbs contradict the claim by Butt & Lahiri (2002) and Butt (2003) about light verbs and grammaticalization. they can take morphological material on the end of the complement. namely. ‫ستړی‬ ‫ستړی کول‬ CONTINUOUS AORIST C-final adjective complement V-final adjective complement Noun complement Verb in full form? N Y Y Y Intervening lexical material permitted? N N Y Y Inflected complement permitted? N N Y Y   Table 8.228. all third conjugation verbs are fully separate from their noun or adjective complement.177. but rather remain “form-identical to a main verb. In denominal verbs formed from adjectives. if there is one. With all types of denominal verbs. and with the subject if there is none. The situation is complex and suggests that what we are seeing is a change in progress. this contracted/uncontracted distinction only holds in the continuous aspect: among aorist forms.202  Verbs • However.

plus use of the irregular aorist form of the verbalizer. there is a phonologically conditioned rule that changes /wə́‑/ to /ó‑/ when followed by a bilabial consonant. rather than a noun or adjective.1).177. But in the continuous aspect.7).12 gives some examples of denominal verbs.2.2. first conjugation verbs form the aorist through the addition of the prefix /wə́‑/.5. unlike transitive denominals. but a few—the a-initial verbs—are complex. an explanation is called for as to why we use the term aorist rather than the more common perfective.2. as in: /ó-be-gərʣi/ ‘we will walk’ Most first conjugation verbs are simplex. In Dzadrani.2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . causatives form aorists according to first conjugation rules. and. Contracted transitive denominals (those in /‑awə́l/—column 3) formally resemble historical causatives (Section 8.2.2). to beautify’ ‫ ازاد‬azād ‘free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ ژوبل‬žobəl ‘wound’ ‫ ژوبلېدل‬žobledə́l ‘to be ‫ ژوبلول‬žoblawə́l ‘to injure’ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ free’ injured’ Verb (transitive) ‫ښایسته کول‬   Table 8. Likewise.5 Conjugation classes 8. Most descriptions of ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. For General Pashto as well as the Middle dialects. with a /wə́‑/ prefix (Section 8. and third conjugation verbs— denominal constructions all—through stress shift to the complement. The one in the first row is uncontracted. ‫ـول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېدل‬ Substantive base Verb (intransitive) ‫ ښایسته‬xāyista ‘pretty’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’ xāyista kawə́l ‘to make pretty.5. while all second and third conjugation verbs are complex (Section 8. transitive contracted denominals do conjugate identically with causatives. those in the second and third rows are contracted. as their first element. second conjugation verbs through stress shift to the first syllable.5. there are two differences: causatives have a verb stem. however. intransitive contracted denominal verbs (those in /‑edə́l/ ‘to become’—column 2) conjugate identically with intransitive first conjugation verbs (Section 8.228.Verb components  203 Table 8.12: Examples of denominal verbs 8.1 Overview of conjugation classes Pashto verbs can be classified into three conjugation classes according to how they inflect for the aorist aspect. Before describing these classes in detail.2.4).

/mutláq/ or /mujarad/ as they are reported in Penzl (1951). plus the ainitial verbs (see Section 8.4). appropriately. Aorist. We have decided the following facts justify a change in terminology: 1. 8. subsequent syllables are unstressed General Pashto first conjugation verbs consist of all simplex verbs.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto Aorist formation: add stressed prefix /wə́‑/. In addition to following Khan (2002)’s terminology. with its sense of indeterminate. which most descriptions of Pashto. As independent verbs. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) both substitute the Roman numerals I and II respectively. as can be seen in their General Pashto ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫واـ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. however. etc.4.177. but our use of the term aorist follows the twentieth-century Pashto grammarian Khan (2002)’s usage as cited by Penzl (1951).13. without specifying whether it was completed. Most.5.2).204  Verbs Pashto recognize an aspectual dichotomy reflected in both the morphology and the semantics of Pashto verbs.4. we are not the first to have misgivings over the aptness of those words. is a more accurate term for the Pashto verbal category under discussion than perfective. We have instead decided on the terms continuous and aorist. the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ coalesces with the /a/ to form a prefix /wā́‑/. first conjugation verbs with initial /a/ are of this type. without reference to internal structure. 2. aorist is also a better gloss of traditional Pashto grammarians’ Pashto terms for this category.228.2. We believe aorist. Use of the terms imperfective and perfective could lead. As for our term for the aspect contrasting with continuous. In a-initial verbs. The reason for using continuous is probably clear enough: both imperfective and continuous suggest the verb’s action is unfinished or ongoing. as in Table 8. which carries an inherent stress. ‫مطلق‬ ‫مجرد‬ 3. one possible substitute for perfective might have been non-continuous. that is. The usual terms in those descriptions for the two categories are imperfective and perfective. to do’ have two sets of aorist forms. as shown in Table 8. which connotes completion. comes.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Note that denominal verbs beginning with /a/ do not belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8. they belong to the first conjugation. but not all. use for another verbal category. is continuing. but we reject their terminology as liable to confusion and not descriptive enough. because they form the aorist with the prefix /wə́‑/. to confusion with the different term perfect. The verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. from a Greek word meaning without boundaries or indeterminate. and Septfonds (1994) uses the numerals 1 and 2. They can be recognized by their aorist forms. as it often does in other linguistic descriptions. which begin with the prefix /wə́‑/.2.2. from the Indo-European grammatical tradition and refers to a simple event.14. including our own.

8. they form the aorist irregularly. as discussed in Section 8.177.2 and Section 8. However. to twist’ ‫ ګډېدل‬gaḍedə́l ‘to dance’ ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to consider’ ‫ ښودل‬xodə́l ‘to show’ ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. for example.2.3.Verb components  Verb (Present) stem Aorist base ‫ لېږل‬legə́l ‘to send’ ‫ پېچل‬pečə́l ‘to wind. in the sentence /zə bā́yad dā wə́k(ṛ)əm/ ‘I must do this’.8. to do’ ‫ لېږـ‬leg‑ ‫ پېچـ‬peč‑ ‫ ګډـ‬gaḍ‑ ‫ بولـ‬bol‑ ‫ ښیـ‬xəy‑ ‫ ګورـ‬gor‑ ‫ شـ‬š‑ ‫ ک)ړ(ـ‬k(ṛ)‑ ‫ ولېږـ‬wə́leg‑ ‫ وپېچـ‬wə́peč‑ ‫ وګډېږـ‬wə́gaḍég‑ ‫ وبولـ‬wə́bol‑ ‫ وښیـ‬wə́xəy‑ ‫ وګورـ‬wə́gor‑ ‫ وشـ‬wə́š‑ ‫ وک)ړ(ـ‬wə́k(ṛ)‑ 205   Table 8.13 and.228. ‫وکړم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. when acting as verbalizers in denominal verbs (see Section 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .13: GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases ‫زه باید دا‬ forms in the last two rows of Table 8.8).2.2.

seize’ ‫ ارتل‬aratə́l ‘to break wind’ ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ اړول‬aṛawə́l ‘to move. turn over’ ‫ ازمیل‬azmeyə́l ‘to test’ ‫ استول‬astawə́l ‘to send’ ‫ اخښل‬axxə́l ‘to knead’ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to put on (clothing)’ ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuzawə́l ‘to make fly. climb over’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‫ اخلـ‬axl‑ ‫ ارتـ‬arat‑ ‫ اور)ېږ(ـ‬awr(eg)‑ ‫ اړاوـ‬aṛāw‑ ‫ ازميـ‬azmey‑ ‫ استاوـ‬astāw‑ ‫ اخږـ‬axg‫ اغوندـ‬aɣwand‑ ‫ الوزـ‬alwaz‑ ‫ الوزوـ‬alwuz-āw‑ ‫ الوویـ‬alwoy‑ ‫ اناوـ‬anāw‑ ‫ اوړـ‬awṛ‑ ‫ واچوـ‬wā́čaw‑ ‑‫ واخیست‬wā́xist‑ ‫ وارتـ‬wā́rat‑ ‫ واروېدـ‬wā́rwed‑ ‫ واړاوـ‬wā́ṛāw‑ ‫ وازميـ‬wā́zmey‑ ‫ واستاوـ‬wā́stāw‑ ‫ واخښـ‬wāxx‫ واغوستـ‬wā́ɣust‑ ‫ والوتـ‬wā́lwut‑ ‫ والوزوـ‬wā́lwuzaw‑ ‫ والوویـ‬wā́lwoy‑ ‫ واناوـ‬wā́nāw‑ ‫ واوښتـ‬wā́wuxt‑   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to throw’ ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to buy. take.14: GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.206  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour. blow up’ ‫ الوویل‬alwoyə́l ‘to burn’ ‫ انول‬anawə́l ‘to compel (someone).228. to pacify’ ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn.177.

so we cannot offer a full description. A dash in the cell indicates that we do not have an attested form. We find four initial syllables among these verbs: /a/. and /wo/. as reported by Hallberg. /ā/. appears to be due to his misinterpreting some aorist forms as continuous. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.16. The forms for which we have data are in Table 8.5.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects The morphology of the first conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects is similar to that of first conjugation verbs in the General Pashto dialects.177. In one instance —Waziri ‘to hear’—we provide forms from the Miran Shah dialect (MIR) of northern Waziri and the Wana dialect (WAA) of southern Waziri. The Waziri and Dzadrani counterparts of the so-called a-initial verbs differ from those of General Pashto.Verb components  207 8. and the Dzadrani forms are from Septfonds (1994). What we are able to say is that the initial syllables in the forms we do have differ from General Pashto forms. nor can we supply a full list of corresponding forms.228. Other than those.15 and Table 8. The two verbs whose citation forms begin with /wo/ are perhaps examples of metaphony (/ā/ ∼ /o/) plus typical Waziri insertion of a /w/ glide before an initial /o/. with a few exceptions. /o/. our data are sparse. thus leading to the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ being taken as part of the verb stem. The latter comes from Lorimer and with two exceptions ( /woxestə́l/ ‘to take. While it is clear that both dialects do have verbs that correspond to the a-initial verbs of the General Pashto dialects. These are noted below. the Waziri forms are from Lorimer (1902) and/or our native speaker. to buy’ and /woɣestə́l/ ‘to put on (clothing)’).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

catch’ (o)x(wə)l‑ óxwəst‑ (o)r(w)edə́l ‘to hear’ (o)r(w)‑ órwed‑ (a)ṛawə́l ‘to reverse. go to’ (o)wəṛ‑ ówəxt- woṛaw-   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to buy’ wəx(ə)l‑ wóxest‑ arwedə́l ‘to hear’ arwed‑ wórwed‑ owred‑ MIR warwed‑ WAA āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (intrans)’ wovṛ- wuṛew- owaṛ‑ woṛawwiweššt- āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (trans)’ woɣestəl ‘to put on (clothing)’ āṛaw- wu-āṛaw- woṛāw- woṛaw- woɣund- wóɣest‑   Table 8.15: Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base čawə́l ‘to throw’ ―— o-čowwə-čowwə-čaw- (o)xostə́l ‘to take.208  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base āčawə́l ‘to throw’ ačaw‑ wočaw‑ woxestə́l ‘to take.177.16: Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. overturn (trans)’ aṛaw- wu-āṛaw- (o)ɣwəstə́l ‘to dress’ (o)ɣwənd‑ (ó)ɣwest‑ (o)wəxtə́l ‘to cross.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Verb ‫پورې وهل‬ ‫پرېمینځل‬ ‫درکول‬ Stem pore-wahə́l ‘to push’ pre-mindzə́l ‘to wash’ dər-kawə́l ‘to give to you’ Present aorist base ‫پورې وه‬ ‫پرېمینځ‬ ‫درکړ‬ pore-wah pre-mindz ‫پورې وهـ‬ ‫پرېمینځـ‬ ‫درکړ‬ dər-kṛ póre-wah‑ prémindz‑ də́r-kṛ‑   Table 8.4) /rā/ ‘here. They are sometimes written as one word and sometimes as two. to me’. to do’ with the prefixed verbs under one conjugation class.¹⁰ Although the forms may differ.2.Verb components  209 8. and /wər/ ‘there.2). Pashto second conjugation verbs form the aorist by shifting the stress to their prefix. they do not fit into any conjugation class because they form the aorist irregularly.177.228. /dər/ ‘there.17: Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense) There are two kinds of prefixed verbs: those formed with one of the three deictic prefixes (see Section 7.2. second conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of the GP dialects. the stress goes on the first syllable. We call them all prefixes because they all behave the same way morphosyntactically: they undergo stress shift to form the aorist. their aorist formation puts them with first conjugation verbs. ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ ‫کېدل‬ 10 We differ from both Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) in not grouping /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. and those with other types of prefixes. to you’.4).4 Second conjugation Aorist formation: shift stress to prefix Second conjugation verbs in Pashto are complex verbs (Section 8. when they occur as verbalizers (see Section 8.2.5.2.2). as in Table 8.17. Our reason is that they do not fit our criteria: when they occur as independent verbs (see Section 8.2.3.5. to him/her/them’.8). they are all of the form prefix + stem. If the prefix has more than one syllable. although not all of those so-called prefixes have a recognizable meaning. ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2. and they can be separated from the stem by a second-position clitic or the negative morpheme (Section 11.

4.4)—all of those with adjective complements and most of those with noun complements. They consist of the majority of denominal verbs (Section 8.8.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs Aorist formation: shift stress from verb to complement and use irregular aorist forms of /kawə́l/ or /kedə́l/ (All forms are uncontracted in the aorist aspect. the complement is always separate from the verbalizer. (See Section 8. Among the denominal verbs whose complement is a noun.8.2. they therefore belong to the first conjugation.5 Third conjugation 8.5.5.2. there are some that are less lexicalized and form the aorist with /wə́‑/.3 for these aorist forms.) Third conjugation verbs are the most common and the most complicated of Pashto verb types.2.) The forms in Table 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Third conjugation verbs form the aorist by: ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ • shifting stress from the second element (the verbalizer) to the first element (the noun or adjective complement).228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . according to the lexical stress of that complement • using the irregular aorist forms of the verbalizer (rather than the forms with ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/) Although many third conjugation verbs are contracted in the continuous aspect.18 illustrate some separated aorist forms of contracted denominal verbs.2 and Section 8.210  Verbs 8.5. however.2.177.2. in aorist constructions.

to drink in gulps’ payl-awə́l ‘to begin’ palwánḍ š‑ ihsā́s š‑ ɣuṛáp š‑ palwánḍ k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑ ihsā́s k(ṛ)‑ ɣuṛáp k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑   Table 8. drink’ payl ‘beginning’ tawd-edə́l ‘to become warm’ ihsās-edәl ‘to be felt. gulped down’ payl-edə́l ‘to be begun’ tawd-awə́l ‘to make warm’ ihsās-awə́l ‘to feel.) Present aorist (trans.177. be experienced’ ɣuṛap-edə́l ‘to be swallowed.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 211 .Verb components  Noun or adjective Intransitive verb Transitive verb Present aorist (intrans.18: Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.) ‫ جوړ‬joṛ ‘whole’ ‫جوړېدل‬ ‫جوړول‬ ‫ جوړ شـ‬jóṛ š‑ ‫ جوړ کړـ‬jóṛ ‫ پلونډ‬palwánḍ ‫پالونډېدل‬ joṛ-edə́l ‘to be made/built’ joṛ-awə́l ‘to build’ k(ṛ)‑ ‘fat’ palwand-̣edə́l ‘to become fat’ ‫پلونډول‬ palwanḍ-awə́l ‘to fatten’ ‫پلونډ شـ‬ ‫پلونډ کړـ‬ ‫تود‬ ‫تودېدل‬ ‫تودول‬ ‫ تود شـ‬táwd š‑ ‫ تود کړـ‬táwd ‫احساس‬ ‫احساسېدل‬ ‫احساسول‬ ‫احساس شـ‬ ‫احساس کړـ‬ ‫غوړپ‬ ‫غوړپېدل‬ ‫غوړپول‬ ‫غوړپ شـ‬ ‫غوړپ کړـ‬ ‫پیل‬ ‫پيلیدل‬ ‫پيلول‬ ‫ پیل شـ‬páyl š‑ ‫ پیل کړـ‬páyl tawd ‘warm’ ihsās ‘feeling. sensation’ ɣuṛap ‘mouthful.228. to sense’ ɣuṛap-awə́l ‘to swallow.

6 Stem classes and the four bases Pashto verbs fall into two stem classes depending on how many stem allomorphs they have. As can be seen in Table 8. as irregular also implies. as many of them share somewhat regular patterns in their formation. strike’ ‫ وهل کېدل‬/wahə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ وهلی کېدل‬/wahə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ لیکل‬/likə́l/ ‘to write’ ‫ لیکل کیدل‬/likə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیکلی کیدل‬/likə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیدل‬/lidə́l/ ‘to see’ ‫ لیدل کیدل‬/lidə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ ‫ لیدلی کیدل‬/lidə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ However. and those with stem allomorphy of any degree.177. strong verbs. because these constructions parallel the structure of other third conjugation verbs and because there are many other Pashto intransitive verbs—both simplex and complex—that can be translated by the English passive. For these reasons.¹¹ we see no reason to place infinitive + /kedə́l/ constructions in a special category. ‫پزېدل‬ ‫غلېدل‬ 11 For example: the simplex verbs /pәzedə́l/ ‘to be wounded’. and furthermore.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫جوړېدل‬ . strong Pashto verbs can have as many as four stems.3.5.5.5. because it is best translated with an English passive construction: ‫کېدل‬ • • • ‫ وهل‬/wahə́l/ ‘to beat. see Section 11. Some descriptions have referred to all Pashto verbs with stem allomorphy as irregular.1. This construction is often referred to by other grammars of Pashto as the Pashto passive. we classify them as denominal verbs. and /ɣuledə́l/ ‘to be deceived’. their number is too large to consider them out of the ordinary.228.2.2. Drawing on Indo-European grammatical tradition.5. See Section 8.2 for discussion and examples.5. For example sentences using this construction.212  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8. we call verbs with no stem allomorphy weak verbs. ‫ازادېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.19. and the complex (denominal) verbs /azādedə́l/ ‘to be freed’ and /joṛedə́l/ ‘to be made/built’.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/ Sometimes the complement of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ is an infinitive or a past participle. we feel this term is inaccurate. however. ‫کېدل‬ 8.

Verb components  213 Stem class  Verb Present aorist stem Present continuous stem  Past continuous stem Past aorist stem Strong ‫بېول‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بیای‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بوت‬ bóz- biwə́l ‘to lead away’ ‫وړل‬ wṛəl ‘to carry’ ‫ختل‬ xatə́l ‘to rise’ Weak biw- bót- byā́y- ‫یوس‬ ‫وړ‬ yós- ‫یووړ‬ wr-̣ yówṛ- ‫خېژ‬ ‫خت‬ xež- xat- ‫تړل‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫رسېدل‬ ‫رس‬ taṛə́l ‘to tie’ taṛ- ras- rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫اچول‬ ‫اچو‬ ačaw- ačawəl ‘to throw’   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.19: Verbs and their stems: strong and weak Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.

while the building blocks also contain inflectional material—for tense and aspect—we prefer to avoid this looser terminology and instead refer to the latter as bases. We do so in order to distinguish in our descriptions the more elemental stems from the partially inflected building blocks.1. present aorist 3. strictly speaking. The result of these two binary choices.6.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Second. 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.3. while the past tense of strong verbs is indicated by stem allomorphy.228.1 and Section 8. We confine our use of stem to forms that include only (1) a plain verbal form or one with derivational affixes.3).2. however. or by the suffix /‑ég-/ (intransitives). First. and the present tense either by the absence of this suffix (transitives).6. one could probably speak theoretically of Pashto verb roots in addition to stems and bases—and certainly so in a historicalcomparative discussion—but the concept is not necessary to a synchronic description. the past tense of weak verbs is indicated by either the suffix /‑ə́l-/ (for transitive verbs)¹² or /‑ed(-ə́l-)/ (for intransitives).) Most Pashto grammars extend the term stem to include these building blocks. Two comments are pertinent here. and the continuous aspect by the absence of /wə́‑/ or stress on the verb itself rather than the prefix or complement. as for example prefixed verbs (Section 8.1 The four verb bases Pashto verb bases are formed according to the two parameters of tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). past aorist To these bases can be added either: • a PNG suffix 12 Although see Section 8. is the following four-way contrast of bases: ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ 1. in the case of contracted denominal verbs (Section 8.1. present continuous 2. the stem of a verb includes only derivational material.2.2. past continuous 4. there is no loss to the accurate description of Pashto in doing so. (See Section 8. The aorist aspect is indicated by the stressed prefix /wə́‑/ or (in the case of complex verbs) by stress on the prefix or complement.4).4. or (2) a nominal complement-verb construction. we therefore acknowledge we are co-opting it for this new sense.4. In Pashto.2. but since. the term base is frequently used as a synonym for root. present/past and continuous/aorist.3 for a more complete discussion of how past tense is encoded in the morphology.214  Verbs These stems are the basis for the four morphological building blocks upon which all Pashto verbs are formed.

though predictable. shape: the bases of intransitive verbs have an extra affix after the stem.2. The /‑ə́l-/ suffix of the past base is sometimes optional or even disallowed: it is required only in weak transitive verbs (see Section 8.2 Weak verbs (one stem) Weak verbs have a single stem from which all four bases are predictable.9). the stems and bases may coincide. optative. Because they share an identical suffix. Conversely. or • an adjectival suffix (to form a participle) The result is a fully inflected Pashto verb. whose past continuous base would otherwise be identical to the present continuous base.20 through Table 8. whose past and present stems differ . one for present and one for past tense. optional • present continuous base: stem + • • elsewhere) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Three of the four bases are also used as the base of participles (see Section 8. Formation of bases for weak verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and infinitive forms are formed on past bases. the /‑ə́l-/ suffix is optional in first and second person forms and is prohibited in third masculine singular forms. intransitives and transitives have different.20): • present continuous base = stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑əl-/(suffix obligatory) • present aorist base: • • Intransitive (see Table 8.2 for a schematization of verb formation. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 8.228.2. In a few cases of strong verbs with four stem allomorphs. Examples are given in Table 8.2). For all other verbs.6.1 and Table 8.21): ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ present aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـېد‬/‑ed/ (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.22. Both present and imperative forms are formed on present bases. /‑ə́l-/ is usually present. first conjugation: Transitive (see Table 8. See Table 8.2. the past continuous base of any Pashto verb is formally identical to its infinitive. and the PNG suffix is encoded therein. past. The way the four bases are formed from the stems of the verb is described in the following sections.Verb components  215 • an imperative or optative suffix.177.6. Among weak verbs. in third plural masculine forms.

20: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasédəl ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫رس‬ ‫رسېږ‬ ‫ورسېږ‬ (‫رسېد)ل‬ (‫ورسېد)ل‬ arrive’ ras Past ras-eg‑ ras-ed(-ə́l)‑ wə́-ras-eg‑ wə́-ras-ed(-əl)‑   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .21: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.216  Verbs ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫تړ‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫وتړ‬ ‫تړل‬ ‫وتړل‬ taṛ Past taṛ‑ taṛ-ə́l‑ wə́-taṛ‑ wə́-taṛ-əl‑   Table 8.228.

Verb components  ‫وـ‬ • past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + stem + optional elsewhere) ‫ـېد‬ /‑ed/( + ‫ـلـ‬ 217 /‑əl-/— prohibited in 3SGM. ‫ختل‬ ‫وخوت‬ ‫وخت‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.27.177. has /wə́xat-/ for a base in NE Pashto. which has a strong aorist masculine singular base in most dialects ( /wə́xot-/).228.6.3 Strong verbs (more than one stem) It is not feasible at this time to provide an exhaustive list of the Pashto strong verbs. Note that /wṛ-ə́l/ ‘to carry’ is weak when it is the stem of a prefixed verb and strong when it occurs alone.22: Weak verb bases: second conjugation 8. for example.2. ‫وـ‬ ‫وړل‬ ‫ راوړل‬rāwṛə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړل‬ ‫راوړ‬ bring (to me)’ rā́-wṛ Past rā́-wṛ rā́-wṛ rā-wṛ-ə́l rā́-wṛ-əl   Table 8. what is strong in one area may be weak in another. the verb /xatə́l/ ‘to rise’. aorists are formed by a shift of stress to the existing prefix.22): • present continuous base = stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + stem ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: stressed prefix + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) • past continuous base: prefix + stem + • In the second conjugation. Forms vary tremendously across dialects. See Table 8. rather than the addition of the /wə́‑/ prefix. second conjugation (see Table 8. Formation of bases for weak verbs. furthermore.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

23): • present continuous base = present stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present stem past continuous base: past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM. present bases are predictable from one stem.218  Verbs 8.23 through Table 8.1 Strong verbs with two stems¹³ These verbs have two different stems.25): • present continuous base = present stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + present stem • past continuous base: prefix + past stem (+ tional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.177.6. The two stems have no predictable similarity to each other.3.2. Examples are given in Table 8. Formation of bases for strong verbs. others are simply suppletive (see Table 8. optional else- • present aorist base: • where) • past aorist base: elsewhere) ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.37). although many can be grouped loosely together according to shared initial sound or sounds (see Table 8.24). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.23: Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems) Formation of bases for strong verbs. first conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8.228. and past bases from the other.25.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . op- 13 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class II (excluding the intransitives with -eg. optional ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to rise’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫خېژ‬ ‫خېژـ‬ ‫وخېژـ‬ ‫خوت‬ ‫خوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫وخوت)ل(ـ‬ xéž Past xot xéž‑ wə́-xež‑ xot(-ə́l)‑ wə́-xot(-əl)‑   Table 8.and -ed-) and Class III and to Heston’s second conjugation/irregular verbs. second conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8.

‫ پرېوتل‬pre-wat-ə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوت‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ fall’ pre-wə́z‑ Past wat pre-wə́z‑ pre-wat(-ə́l)‑ pré-wəz‑ pré-wat-(-əl)‑   Table 8.Verb components  ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫وین‬ ‫وینـ‬ ‫ووینـ‬ ‫لید‬ ‫لید)ل(ـ‬ ‫ولید)ل(ـ‬ win Past lid win‑ 219 wə́-win‑ lid(-ə́l)‑ wə́-lid(-əl)‑   Table 8.3.228.2.6.24: Strong suppletive verb.2 Strong verbs with three or four stems¹⁴ In verbs with three or four stems.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . The last table therefore gives the a paradigm of the combining forms for /tlə́l/ ‘to go’ when it forms the base of a prefixed verb with the deictic prefixes.177. There are six simplex multi-stem verbs. the four bases are not predictable from each other.25: Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems) 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. note that three of them form the base for deictic prefixed verbs. first conjugation (two stems) • past aorist base: stressed prefix + past stem (+ optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM. The prefixed verbs based on /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ use its irregular forms (listed elsewhere ‫تلل‬ ‫کول‬ 14 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class IV and Heston’s fourth conjugation/double verbs.

are also used as verbalizers (Section 8.8.8.36.26 through Table 8.220  Verbs ‫وړل‬ in Section 8.26: Strong verb bases: Stem k(ṛ) kṛ wə́-k(ṛ)‑ wə́-kṛ-əl‑ ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to do’ The verb bases of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the Middle dialects are in Table 8. Notice that in both Waziri and Dzadrani. and when they are.2.228. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫کول‬ ‫کېول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ Continuous Stem Present ‫کو‬ kaw Past Aorist Base   Base ‫کوـ‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړل‬ kaw. • Present aorist base: • optional elsewhere) ‫وـ‬ • Past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + past aorist stem + ( optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.2. the remaining three are intransitive.32.́ kaw-ə́l Table 8.33 through Table 8. /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .32): • Present continuous base = (present) continuous stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present aorist stem Past continuous base: (past continuous) stem + ( ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.26 through Table 8. but are irregular.3). their aorist forms are not formed with the first conjugation prefix /wə́‑/. use its weak stem (as illustrated by Table 8. and those based on the otherwise multi-stem verb /wṛəl/ ‘to carry’. The first four verbs in these tables are transitive. The paradigms for these verbs in their verbalizer role are in Section 8. Note that two of these seven verbs. The bases and stems for the six simplex members and one complex member of this class of multi-stem strong verbs are listed in Table 8. the stem of the past tense reduces when taking /-ə/ as a suffix: /kṛ-/ → /k-/ and /šw-/ → /š-/.22).4).4.2.177. The parenthetical /ṛ/ in the present aorist base of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ indicates that it is frequently elided in speech. Formation of bases for strong verbs (three or four stems) (see Table 8.

Verb components  ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to carry’ Continuous Stem Present Aorist Base ‫وړ‬ wṛ ‫یوس‬ ‫یوسـ‬ ‫وړلـ‬ ‫یووړ‬ ‫یووړلـ‬ yós wṛ-ə́l‑   Table 8.27: Strong verb bases: Continuous away’ Stem Base ‫بیایـ‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بوزـ‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بېول‬ (‫بوت)ل‬ ‫بوت)ل(لـ‬   Table 8.28: Strong verb bases: byā́y‑ biw-ə́l‑ bóz bót(l) bóz‑ bót(l)-əl‑ ‫ بېول‬/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’ ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to Continuous put’ Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫)اي(ږد‬ ‫)اي(ږدـ‬ ‫کښېږد‬ ‫کښېږدـ‬ / ‫ایښود‬ ‫کښېښود‬ / ‫ایښودل‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ ‫کښېښود‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ (i)gd Past Stem ‫بیای‬ biw Present yówṛ-əl‑ Aorist Base byā́y Past yówṛ yós‑ ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead Present Base ‫وړـ‬ wṛ.177.́ Past Stem ixod/kxéxod   Table 8.29: Strong verb bases: (i)gd.́ kxégd kxéxod kxégd‑ kxexod-ə́l‑ ixodə́l/kxéxod-əl ‫ ایښودل‬/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 221 .

177.́ rātl-(ə́l-) rāš rā́ɣ ‫ راتلل‬/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.32: Strong verb bases: rāʣ.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM rā́š‑ rā́ɣ-(əl-) .228.30: Strong verb bases: kég‑ ked-ə́l‑ šw wə́-šw-əl‑ Aorist Base Stem Base ‫ځ‬ ‫ځـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړشـ‬ (‫ت)ل‬ ‫ت)ل(لـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړلـ‬ ʣ ʣ‑ tl   Table 8.31: Strong verb bases: (w)lā́ṛ tl-(ə́l‑) (w)lā́ṛ š‑ (w)lā́ṛ (w)lā́ṛ-əl‑ ‫ تلل‬/tlə́l/ ‘to go’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ Continuous Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫راځ‬ ‫راځـ‬ ‫راش‬ ‫راشـ‬ ‫راتل‬ (‫راتل)ل‬ ‫راغ‬ (‫راغ)ل‬ rāʣ Past wə́-š‑ Continuous Stem Present š ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ Past Base ‫کېږـ‬ ked Present Stem ‫کېږ‬ kég Past Aorist rātl   Table 8.222  Verbs ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to Continuous become’ Stem Present Base ‫ش‬ ‫وشـ‬ ‫کېد‬ ‫کېدلـ‬ ‫شو‬ ‫)و(شولـ‬   Table 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 223 .33: Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present k- k- k- wə́-k‑ Past kr-̣ kṛ(-əl)- kṛ wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.228.177.Verb components  Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kaw- kaw- k- k- kaw- kaw-ə́l- kṛ- kṛ(-əl)- Root Base k- wə́-k‑ kṛ- wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.35: Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.34: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kež- kež- š- š- ked- ked(-ə́l)- šw- šw(-əl)- Root Base š- wə́-š‑ šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8.

2.37 shows some strong Pashto verbs.37: Strong verbs Infinitive 3rd sg. 3rd sg.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6. ‫ کنل‬kinə́l ‘to dig’ ‫ کني‬kíni ‫ وکنده‬wə́kində ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull [out]’ ‫ باسي‬bā́si ‫ وایست‬wə́ist.3 List of strong verbs Table 8.3.¹⁵ Table 8.36: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ 8.224  Verbs Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present š- š- š- wə́-š‑ Past šw- šw(-əl)- šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8. pack’ ‫ پرېباسي‬prebā́si ‫ پرې ایست‬préist ‫ ننه ایستل‬nənaistə́l ‘to introduce’ ‫ ننه باسي‬nənabā́si ‫ ننه یوست‬nə́naist. masc. nə́nayust 15 Adapted from Shafeev (1964). past aorist ‫ الوتل‬alwotə́l ‘to fly [away]’ ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پوري وتل‬poriwatə́l ‘to cross’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to go out’ ‫ الوزي‬álwozi ‫ پرېوزي‬prewúzi ‫ پوري وزي‬poriwúzi ‫ ننوزي‬nənawúzi ‫ وزي‬wúzi ‫ والوت‬wā́lwot ‫ پرېووت‬préwot ‫ پوري ووت‬póriwot ‫ ننوت‬nə́nawot ‫ ووت‬wə́wot ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ ‫ پېژني‬péžani ‫ وپېژاند‬wə́pežānd ‫ کیندل‬kində́l. pres.228. wúyust ‫ پرېیستل‬preistə́l ‘to throw.177. grouped according to similarity of morphological patterns.

count’ ‫ بولي‬bóli ‫ وباله‬wə́bālə appear’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg. pres. get’ ‫ اخلي‬áxli ‫ واخیست‬wā́xist ‫ راوستل‬rāwustə́l ‘to bring’ ‫ راولي‬rā́wəli ‫ راوست‬rā́wust ‫ لوستل‬lwastə́l ‘to read’ ‫ لولي‬lwáli ‫ ولوست‬wə́lwast ‫ ځغستل‬ʣɣastə́l ‘to run’ ‫ ځغلي‬ʣɣalí ‫ وځغاست‬wə́ʣɣāst ‫ راکښل‬rākṣə́l ‘to extract’ ‫ کښل‬kṣəl ‘to pull’ ‫ راکاږي‬rākā́ẓ̌i ‫ کاږي‬kā́ẓ̌i ‫ راوکیښ‬rāwúkiṣ ‫ وکیښ‬wə́kiṣ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to dress’ ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave. past aorist ‫ اوښتل‬awuṣtə́l ‘to turn over’ ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l ‘to want’ ‫ غښتل‬ɣəṣtə́l ‘to twist’ ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ ‫ اوړي‬awoṛi ‫ غواړي‬ɣwā́ṛi ‫ غړي‬ɣaṛí ‫ نغاړي‬nɣā́ṛi ‫ واوښت‬wáwuṣt ‫ وغوښت‬wə́ɣuṣt ‫ وغښت‬wə́ɣəṣt ‫ ونغښت‬wə́nɣəṣt ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ ایشېدل‬išedə́l ‘to boil’ ‫ اروي‬árwi ‫ ایشي‬íši ‫ وروېده‬wā́rwedə ‫ وایشېده‬wə́išedə ‫ برېښېدل‬breṣedə́l ‘to shine.228. masc.177. ‫ برېښي‬bréṣi ‫ وبرېښېده‬wə́breṣedə ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ ‫ درومي‬drúmi ‫ ودرومېده‬wə́drumedə ‫ زېږېدل‬zeẓ̌edə́l ‘to be born’ ‫ زېږي‬zíẓ̌i ‫ وزېږېده‬wə́zeẓ̌edə ‫ اخښل‬axṣə́l ‘to mix up’ ‫ مښل‬muṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ اخږي‬axẓ̌í ‫ مږي‬muẓ̌í ‫ واخښه‬wə́axṣə ‫ ومښه‬wə́muṣə ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy [up]’ ‫ رانیسي‬rā́nisi ‫ رانیو‬rā́niw ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to take. knit’ ‫ اغوندي‬aɣundí ‫ اویې‬úwi. úyi ‫ واغوست‬wā́gust ‫ واوده‬wə́udə ‫ ایښودل‬iṣodə́l ‘to lay down’ ‫ ایږدي‬íẓ̌di ‫ کښې ښود‬kṣéṣod ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to call.Verb components  225 Table 8. seize’ ‫ نیسي‬nísi ‫ ونیو‬wə́niw ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to take.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . 3rd sg.

steal’ ‫ بیایي‬biā́í ‫ بوت‬bot ‫ پرانیتل‬prānitə́l ‘to open’ ‫ پرانیځي‬prā́niʣi ‫ پرانیت‬prā́nit ‫ پرېښودل‬preṣodə́l ‘to leave. pres.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.228. masc. allow’ ‫ پیرودل‬perodə́l ‘to buy’ ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ ‫ پرېږدي‬préẓ̌di ‫ پیري‬píri ‫ ځي‬ʣi ‫ پرې ښود‬préṣod ‫ وپېرود‬wə́perod ‫ ولاړ‬wlāṛ ‫ چاودل‬čāudə́l ‘to split’ ‫ چول‬čawə́l ‘to blow up’ ‫ څکل‬ʦkəl ‘to smoke’ ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ څکي‬ʦki ‫ وچاود‬wə́čāud ‫ وچاوه‬wə́čāwə ‫ وڅکاوه‬wə́ʦkāwə ‫ څکل‬ʦakə́l ‘to drink. ‫ سوځل‬swaʣə́l ‘to burn ‫ سوځي‬swaʣí ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ ښوول‬ṣowə́l ‘to show’ ‫ ښیي‬ṣáyi ‫ وښووئ‬wə́ṣow ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to look’ ‫ کښېکښل‬kṣekṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ کښېنستل‬kṣenastə́l ‘to sit [down]’ ‫ کوري‬góri ‫ کښېکاږي‬kṣekā́ẓ̌i ‫ کښېني‬kṣéni ‫ وکوت‬wə́kot ‫ کښېکښود‬kṣekṣod ‫ کښېنوست‬kṣénost ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ لرل‬larə́l ‘to have’ ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کوي‬kawí ‫ کېږي‬kéẓ̌i ‫ لري‬larí ‫ ویني‬wíni ‫ وکړ‬wə́kəṛ ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ درلود‬darlod ‫ ولید‬wə́lid ‫ میندل‬mində́l ‘to find’ ‫ مومي‬múmi ‫ ومینده‬wə́mində ‫ نښتل‬nṣtə́l ‘to stick to’ ‫ نښلي‬nṣə́li ‫ ونښت‬wə́nṣət [down]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. taste’ ‫ څکي‬ʦakí ‫ وڅکه‬wə́ʦakə ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to ascend’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ خېژي‬xéži ‫ راځي‬rā́ʣi ‫ وخوت‬wə́xot ‫ راغئ‬rā́ɣəy ‫ رودل‬rudə́l ‘to suck [out]’ ‫ سکښتل‬skəštə́l ‘to cut [off]’ ‫ روي‬rə́wi ‫ سکڼي‬skəṇí ‫ وروده‬wə́rudə ‫ وسکښت‬wə́skəṣt ‫ سول‬swəl.226  Verbs Table 8. past aorist ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177. 3rd sg.

Causative verbs belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8. The causative suffix is no longer productive. execute’ ‫ وړي‬wṛi ‫ وژني‬wā́žni ‫ یووړ‬yuwúṛ ‫ وواژه‬wə́wāžə ‫ ویشتل‬wištə́l ‘to shoot’ ‫ ولي‬wə́li ‫ وویشت‬wə́wišt ‫ ویل‬wayə́l ‘to speak’ ‫ وایي‬wā́i ‫ ووایه‬wə́wāyə 8. The result is a verb with the meaning to make (someone/something) do X. Our data do not suggest a rule for which stem is used.177.2).2.7 The causative morpheme As shown in Table 8. pres.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.Verb components  227 Table 8. masc. both forms exist.2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . with a phrase that consists of a verb meaning ‘to force. to compel’ plus either an infinitive or present aorist form of the verb that represents the event being caused. and in some cases. a caused event can be expressed periphrastically rather than derivationally.) Since the outcomes of causative affixation are lexicalized. In modern Pashto. (See Section 11.5. causative verbs consist of verb stem plus an affix /‑aw‑/. some causative forms use the present and some the past stem. depending on the verb. In the case of verbs with more than one stem. 3rd sg.228. we do not gloss it in our interlinear examples.38.5. as can be seen in the fourth example in Table 8.2. past aorist ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to take [away]’ ‫ وژل‬wažə́l ‘to kill. where do X is the original verb. ‫ـوـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.1 and Table 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177. This grammar therefore adopts the term verbalizer for /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ when used as light verbs in denominal constructions.2.228  Verbs Present stem Past stem Causative ‫ لولـ‬lwal‑ ‘read’ ‑‫ لوست‬lwast‑ ‘read’ ‫ لولول‬lwal-aw-ə́l ‘to teach’ ‑‫ الوز‬alwuz‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوتـ‬alwut‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuz-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ خېژـ‬xež‑ ‘climb’ ‫ ختـ‬xat‑ ‘climb’ ‫ خېژول‬xež-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‑‫ اغوند‬aɣund‑ ‘dress’ ‑‫ اغوست‬aɣust‑ ‘dress’ ‫ اغوندول‬aɣund-aw-ə́l ‘to [lit. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. to explode’ climb’ make dress’ ‫ اغوستول‬aɣust-aw-ə́l ‘to make dress’ ‫ خاندـ‬xānd‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندـ‬xand‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندول‬xand-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ زانګـ‬zāng‑ ‘rock. those without /wə́‑/.4). in a cradle]’   Table 8. they have regular aorist forms that take /wə́‑/. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. the stems remain identical.4. only to be is an auxiliary. swing’ ‫ زنګـ‬zang‑ ‘rock..2. while /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used to form denominal verbs (Section 8. that is. to cause to read] fly.4).) The uses of these three verbs will be described later. (See the second footnote of Section 8.2. When /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used as main verbs.g. but properly speaking. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as they are irregular and are among the building blocks necessary to form verb constructions. Most Pashto grammars refer to all three as auxiliary verbs. The verbalizers have double sets of aorist forms: one with the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ and one without. to do’ are all used with other verbs to form morphologically complicated verb constructions.4. for now we are only providing tables of their inflected forms. The verb to be is used in compound verb constructions (Section 8.38: Causative verbs 8. because they are the forms used as verbalizers. swing’ ‫ زنګول‬zang-aw-ə́l ‘to rock laugh’ [e. The tables in this section list the irregular forms.8 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ The three Pashto verbs to be.4.228.

Indeed. or sometimes by its first person singular present continuous form.1 Forms of to be As is typical of Indo-European languages. to do’ in the same way as the General Pashto dialects do. the verb to be in Pashto is irregular.2. for example.e. /ša/ ‘be!’. In Pashto to be may act as the copula and also as an auxiliary verb in a compound tense construction (see Section 8.1. ‫شته‬ 8. /y‑/ for first and second person present continuous forms.177.39 through Table 8. The singular uses a special form.5. but some of the forms differ. We treat it as a sentence-level operator: see Section 10. There is no aspectual distinction in the past tense of to be of any of the dialects.8.43 below.48. to be. alone among Pashto verbs. but /d‑/ for third person present continuous. while the plural uses the second person plural form.. In addition. /yəm/. The forms of to be are shown in Table 8. the verb to be does not even have a standard infinitive or citation form. It also has suppletive stems. with the exception in General Pashto of the third person present form /wi/ ‘he/she/it is. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. so in English it is commonly referred to by the infinitive of its English gloss. they are’. Tables of their respective paradigms are in the following sections.3). as in 8. Imperative forms of the verb to be are built from the present aorist base /š-/. in General Pashto and Waziri. i. speakers will use either present continuous forms of to be or present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ where one might expect present aorist forms. there are no past aorist forms for to be. Dzadrani does have distinct forms of to be for the present continuous and present aorist.228.1. In the first and second person. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.Verb components  229 The Middle dialects use the three Pashto verbs to be.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . /šəy/ ‘be!’: ‫یم‬ ‫ی‬ ‫د‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫شئ‬ ‫شـ‬ ‫شه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to be does not have separate aorist forms. Some authors describe the existential particle /šta/ as an alternative form of to be.

177.39: GP present continuous of to be to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi yã 2nd 3rd ye yā́stəy M day di F do   Table 8. də(W)   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .40: Waziri present continuous of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.230  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st ‫یم‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یې‬ ‫یاستئ‬ yəm 2nd ye yu yā́stəy ‫یئ‬ yəy (E) ‫یاست‬ yāst (S) 3rd ‫دی‬ M day (E) ‫دي‬ di ‫ده‬ da (E) ‫دئ‬ dəy (W) ‫ده‬ F da.228.

or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st ‫کېدل‬ 2nd 3rd Plural M ‫وي‬ wi F   Table 8.41: Dzadrani present continuous of to be to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be.228.177.42: GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be. or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st 2nd 3rd Plural M wi F   Table 8.43: Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 231 .Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi 2nd ye yəy M day di F do 3rd   Table 8.

44: Dzadrani present aorist of to be wəm 2nd we wu wastəy ‫وئ‬ wəy E ‫واست‬ wāst SW 3rd M ‫ؤ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وې‬ wə ‫ول‬ wəl wə F wa we wə SW   Table 8.232  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy wi ? (Septfonds is unclear on this form.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.45: GP past of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.) to be Singular Plural 1st ‫وم‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وې‬ ‫وستئ‬ 3rd M F   Table 8.

228.Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi wã 2nd we wāstəy M wə wi F wa we to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy M wə wi F wa we 3rd   Table 8.48: Imperative of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.46: Waziri past of to be 3rd   Table 8.47: Dzadrani past of to be to be Singular Plural 2nd ‫شه‬ ‫شئ‬ ša šəy   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 233 .177.

‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېږم‬ ‫کېږو‬ ‫کېږې‬ ‫کېږئ‬ kégəm 2nd kége 3rd kégu kégəy ‫کېږی‬ M kégi F   Table 8.8. and Table 8. and Table 8.54. They are often pronounced with an initial /s/ in ordinary speech in the Southwest dialect.234  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8.2 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ The present continuous forms of the intransitive verbalizer are shown in Table 8.53.52. Table 8.49: GP present continuous of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kéžəm(a) kéži kežã 2nd 3rd kéže M kéžəy kéži F   Table 8.50: Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کېدل‬ The present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8.2.51.50.228.49.177. Table 8. although speakers may have /š/ in reading and careful Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

51: Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شم‬ ‫شو‬ ‫شې‬ ‫شئ‬ šəm 2nd še 3rd M šu šəy ‫شي‬ ši F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 235 .228.53: Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.52: GP present aorist of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši šã 2nd 3rd še M šəy ši F   Table 8.Verb components  kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kégəm(a) kégi 2nd kége kégəy 3rd M kégi F   Table 8.

the first and second person forms are identical to those of the present aorist forms of to be (Table 8.42).55 and Table 8.56). The past continuous forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. Our reading of Lorimer is that Waziri does not distinguish aspect for /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the past tense. In General Pashto and Waziri.54: Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ speech.177.236  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši 2nd še šəy 3rd M ši F   Table 8. The past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8.57.59. 1994: 141). in his discussion of Dzadrani verbs in general. Although Septfonds does not list any past forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ with the past tense affix /-əl-/. we have no data to confirm this supposition. as can be seen elsewhere in this grammar.58 and Table 8.56 for past forms of Waziri /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. which may not distinguish aspect. which implies that it may also appear in forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. /-əl-/ is used in both General Pashto and Waziri forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. he does say that it “serves only to relieve ambiguities” (Septfonds.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . However. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. so we have only past forms for that dialect (Table 8. Moreover. so we are not listing forms with /-əl-/ for Dzadrani.228. See Table 8.

56: Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  237 ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېد)ل(م‬ ‫کېد)ل(و‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ‫کېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫کېده‬ (‫کېدل)ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ked(ə́l)ə́m 2nd ked(ə́l)é 3rd M kedə́ F ked(ə́l)á   Table 8.177.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .55: GP past continuous of ked(ə́l)ú ked(ə́l)ə́y kedə́l(ə́) ked(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šw(ə́l)əm(a) šw(ə́l)i sw(ə́l)ã 2nd 3rd šw(ə́l)e šw(ə́l)əy M šə šwəl F šw(ə́l)a šw(ə́l)e   Table 8.

238  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kedə́m(a) kedi 2nd kede kedə́y M kedə́ kedə́(l) F keda kedé 3rd   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .57: Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شو)ل(م‬ ‫شو)ل(و‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ ‫شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫شه‬ (‫شول)ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ šw(ə́l)əm 2nd šw(ə́l)e 3rd M šə F šw(ə́l)á   Table 8.58: GP past aorist of šw(ə́l)u šw(ə́l)əy šwə́l(ə́) šw(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.

Table 8.2.60 .3 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Table 8.8. to do’.60: GP present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.228.177. ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.61. and Table 8.59: Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کول‬ 8. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 8.Verb components  239 kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šwəm(a) šwi 2nd šwe šwəy M šə šwə(l) F šwa šwe 3rd   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.62 illustrate the formation of the present continuous of the transitive verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make.

177.240  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí kawã 2nd 3rd kawé M kawə́y kawí F   Table 8.61: Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí 2nd kawé kawə́y 3rd M kawí F   Table 8.62: Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.

and are therefore best analyzed as fully inflected forms. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. Table 8.63. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki kã 2nd 3rd ke M kəy ki ko F   Table 8.63: GP present aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 illustrate them. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.64: Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.Verb components  241 The aorist forms of the transitive verbalizer (used with denominal verbs) are irregular. and Table 8. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ kṛəm kṛu ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ kṛe kṛəy kəm 2nd ke 3rd M ku kəy ‫کړي‬ ki kṛi F   Table 8. Table 8.64.

to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کولم‬ ‫کولو‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کولئ‬ kawə́ləm 2nd 3rd M kawə́lu kawə́le kawə́ləy ‫کوه‬ (‫کول)ه‬ kawə́ kawə́l(ə) ‫کاوه‬ kāwə́ F ‫کوله‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کوه‬ ‫کوې‬ kawə́la kawá   Table 8. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ ‫ړ‬ The /ṛ/ in present aorist forms is usually written.66: GP past continuous of kawə́le kawé ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. and Table 8.66.228. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki 2nd ke kəy 3rd M ko F   Table 8.68 illustrate the formation of the past continuous of the transitive verbalizer. but is unpronounced in ordinary speech in many dialects. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.67. and is always pronounced in careful speech.242  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make.65: Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Table 8. Table 8.

the fact that in the present aorist the /ṛ/ is often not pronounced means that in speech the bases are often not identical—so the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix is not always required to differentiate the tense. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. and Table 8. Table 8. In past third person forms.70. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 243 kawə́lã 2nd 3rd M kawə́le kawə́ləy kawə́ kawə́l kowə́ F kawə́la kawə́le kawá kawé   Table 8.67: Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.Verb components  kawə́l ‘to make. even the /ṛ/ can be dropped. In Waziri and Dzadrani.177. thus encoding tense without need of either ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l‑/ or ‫ ړ‬/ṛ/. to do’ Table 8. -a/ versus present /- ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـي‬ i/.69. since the personal suffixes differ from those in the present: past /-ə.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.68: Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.71 illustrate the formation of the past aorist of the transitive verbalizer. Although the past aorist forms of the General Pashto transitive verbalizer without the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix are orthographically identical to the present aorist forms. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 2nd kawə́le kawə́ləy M kowə́ kawə́(l) F kawə́la kawə́le 3rd   Table 8.

69: GP past aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ ‫کړلم‬ ‫کړلو‬ ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ ‫کړلې‬ ‫کړلئ‬ kṛəm kṛə́ləm 2nd kṛe 3rd M kṛə́lu kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy ‫کړ‬ ‫کړل‬ ‫که‬ ‫کړله‬ ‫کړه‬ ‫کړلې‬ kṛ kə F kṛu kṛa ‫که‬ ka ‫کړله‬ kṛəl kṛə́lə kṛə́le ‫کړې‬ kṛe kṛə́la   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.244  Verbs ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.

71: Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm(a) kṛi kṛə́ləm(a) kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛə(l) F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8.177. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm kṛi kṛə́ləm kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛəl F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8. kawə́l ‘to make.71 are rarer than the short forms.70: Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.Verb components  245 the longer forms that show /-əl-/ in Table 8. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.70 and Table 8.

177.9 Participles There are two kinds of participles in Pashto. 8.9.2.3.72. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـونک‬ Verb class Verb Present participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهونکی‬wah-unk-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوونکی‬bow-unk-ay Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ ‫خلاصېدل‬ xalās-edə́l ‘to become free’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to liberate’ ‫خلاصېدونکی‬ xalās-ed-unk-ay ‫خلاصوونکی‬ xalās-aw-unk-ay   Table 8. They are described in more detail in the sub-sections below.2.2. These participles are both formed on past bases and declined as Class IIIb adjectives (Section 6.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .73.1 Present participle Formation: past continuous base (without /‑əl‑/) + /‑unk/ + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes The present participle is declined like a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6. Some examples are given in Table 8. present and past.72: Present participles An example of a declined present participle is given in Table 8.1.2).246  Verbs 8.3.2).228.2.1.

75. They are used to form the perfect constructions for first and second conjugation verbs (see Section 8. and an example of a declined past participle is given in Table 8. Some examples are given in Table 8.1.4.) Noun/Adj.228.3. the suffix /‑ə́l-/ may be dropped.2 Past participle Formation: • (First and Second conj. + past aorist base of Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫کېدل‬ /kedə́l/ or ‫کول‬ /kawə́l/ + ‫ـلـ‬ In these forms.9.2.1).2).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .73: Present participle: declension 8.74.Verb components  ‫ ډارول‬ḍārawəl ‘to Masculine 247 Feminine threaten’ Singular Direct ‫ډارونکی‬ ḍārawúnkay Oblique ‫ډارونکي‬ ḍārawúnki Plural Singular Plural ‫ډارونکي‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ḍārawúnki ḍārawúnke ḍārawúnke ‫ډارونکو‬ ‫ډارونکو‬ ḍārawúnko ḍārawúnko Ablative Vocative ‫ډارونکیه‬ ḍārawúnkaya   Table 8.) past continuous base + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes • (Third conj. Past participles are then declined using the Class IIIb adjective suffixes (Section 6.2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.

228.177.75: Past participle: declension Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM tlə́lo tlo .74: Past participles Masculine ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ Singular Direct Plural Singular ‫تللی‬ ‫تللې‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلی‬ tlə́le tlə́le ‫تلې‬ ‫تلې‬ tle tle tlə́li ‫تللې‬ tlay tli ‫تللی‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلو‬ ‫تلو‬ tlə́li tli tlə́lo tlo Ablative Vocative Plural ‫تللی‬ tlə́lay Oblique Feminine ‫تللیه‬ tlə́lya ‫تلیه‬ tlya   Table 8.248  Verbs Verb class Verb Past participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهلی‬wah-əl-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوولی‬bow-əl-ay ‫خلاصېدل‬ ‫ خلاص شوی‬xalās Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ xalās-edə́l ‘to be liberated’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to set free’ šə́way ‫ خلاص کړی‬xalās kə́ṛay   Table 8.

and these participles are used to form the perfect constructions for third conjugation (denominal) verbs.76: Past participles built on aorist bases 8.9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and /wərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to him)’—also form their past participles from their past aorist base. All of these atypical forms are shown in Table 8.177.1 Present continuous Formation: present continuous base + present PNG Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ورتلل‬ ‫تلل‬ ‫راتلل‬ ‫درتلل‬ Infinitive Aorist participle ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ شوی‬šə́way ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.76. The prefixed verbs built from /tlə́l/ ‘to go’— /rātlə́l/ ‘to come’. 8.Simple verb constructions  249 8.2.2.3.2.3 Irregularities among past participles The verbs /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ (Section 8. /dərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to you)’. to do’ ‫ کړی‬kə́ṛay ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ راغلی‬rā́ɣəlay ‫ درتلل‬dərtlə́l ‘to go (to you)’ ‫ درغلی‬də́raɣəlay ‫ ورتلل‬wərtlə́l ‘to go (to him)’ ‫ ورغلی‬wə́raɣəlay   Table 8. rather than the past continuous.3 Simple verb constructions Formation rules for each type of verb construction are given in terms of the verb components described above in Section 8.228.8) form their past participles from the past aorist base.

first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیسم‬ ‫نیسو‬ ‫نیسې‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisə́m 2nd nisé 3rd M nisú nisə́y ‫نیسي‬ nisí F   Table 8. first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.77: Present continuous.78: Present continuous.177.228.250  Verbs ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېږم‬ ‫رسېږو‬ ‫رسېږې‬ ‫رسېږئ‬ raségəm 2nd rasége 3rd M raségu raségəy ‫رسېږي‬ raségi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 251 . third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ prewə́zəm 2nd prewə́ze 3rd M prewə́zu prewə́zəy ‫پرېوزي‬ prewə́zi F   Table 8.177. second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawə́m 2nd roxānawé 3rd M roxānawú roxānawə́y ‫روښانوي‬ roxānawí F   Table 8.228.80: Present continuous.79: Present continuous.

2 Present aorist Formation: present aorist base + present PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېږم‬ ‫ورسېږو‬ ‫ورسېږې‬ ‫ورسېږئ‬ wə́rasegəm 2nd wə́rasege 3rd M wə́rasegu wə́rasegəy ‫ورسېږي‬ wə́rasegi F   Table 8.228.81: Present aorist.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3.252  Verbs 8. first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.82: Present aorist. first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ 1st Singular Plural ‫ونیسم‬ ‫ونیسو‬ ‫ونیسې‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisəm 2nd wə́nise 3rd M wə́nisu wə́nisəy ‫ونیسي‬ wə́nisi F   Table 8.177.

177. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.84: Present aorist.83: Present aorist.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ préwəzəm 2nd préwəze 3rd M préwəzu préwəzəy ‫پرېوزي‬ préwəzi F   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 253 . second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان ک)ړ(م‬ ‫روښان ک)ړ(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ئ‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)ǝm 2nd roxā́n k(ṛ)e 3rd M roxā́n k(ṛ)u roxā́n k(ṛ)əy ‫روښان ک)ړ(ي‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)i F   Table 8.

These groups would include first and second person forms of first conjugation intransitive verbs. The past tense affix is prohibited in the third person masculine singular for all of the above classes.177. because both types redundantly encode tense with the affixes /-eg-/ and /-ed-/. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېد)ل(م‬ ‫رسېد)ل(و‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫رسېده‬ (‫رسېدل)ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ rased(ə́l)ə́m 2nd rased(ə́l)é 3rd M rasedə́ F rased(ə́l)á rased(ə́l)ú rased(ə́l)ə́y rasedə́l(ə) rased(ə́l)é   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and gender. These constraints prevent homophony between the singular and plural forms of masculine verbs. as the PNG suffix is the same for both: /-ə/.85: Past continuous. and likewise any strong verbs.3 Past continuous Formation: Past continuous base + past PNG As mentioned earlier. The PNG suffix /-ə/ can thus be omitted in plural masculine forms. and obligatory in third plural masculine forms. first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the past tense affix /-əl-/ does not occur uniformly throughout the paradigm: it is optional in any verbs with other morphological markers of tense. number.228.3. as they encode tense through allomorphic stems. resulting in the tense affix becoming a portmanteau morpheme that encodes tense as well as person.254  Verbs 8. as well as those of third conjugation verbs.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 255 . first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ prewat(ə́l)ə́m 2nd prewat(ə́l)é 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ prewót prewatə́ NE prewat(ə́l)ú prewat(ə́l)ə́y prewatə́l (‫پرېوت)و‬ prewát(ó) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ prewatə́la ‫پرېوتلې‬ prewatə́le   Table 8.228.177.87: Past continuous.86: Past continuous. second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیو)ل(م‬ ‫نیو)ل(و‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ ‫نیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫نیوه‬ (‫نیول)ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ niw(ə́l)ə́m 2nd niw(ə́l)é 3rd M niwə́ F niw(ə́l)ú niw(ə́l)ə́y niwə́l(ə́) niw(ə́l)á niw(ə́l)é   Table 8.

256  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روبلوی‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوې‬ roxānawə́ləm 2nd roxānawə́le 3rd M roxānawə́ F roxānaw(ə́l)á roxānawəlu roxānawə́ləy roxānawə́l roxānaw(ə́l)é   Table 8.88: Past continuous.4 Past aorist Formation: Past aorist base + past PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېد)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(و‬ wə́rased(əl)u wə́rased(əl)əm 2nd ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېده‬ (‫ورسېدل)ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ wə́rased(əl)e 3rd M wə́rasedə F wə́rased(əl)a wə́rased(əl)əy wə́rasedəl(ə) wə́rased(əl)e   Table 8.89: Past aorist.3. first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.228. third conjugation 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ونیو)ل(م‬ ‫ونیو)ل(و‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ونیوه‬ (‫ونیول)ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ wə́niw(əl)əm 2nd wə́niw(əl)e 3rd M wə́niwə F wə́niw(əl)a wə́niw(əl)u wə́niw(əl)əy wə́niwəl(ə) wə́niw(əl)e   Table 8.177.90: Past aorist.228. second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 257 . first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ préwat(əl)əm 2nd préwat(əl)e 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ préwot préwatə NE préwat(əl)u préwat(əl)əy préwatəl (‫پرېوت)و‬ préwat(o) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ préwatəla ‫پرېوتلې‬ préwatəle   Table 8.91: Past aorist.

2.258  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان کړ)ل(م‬ ‫روښان کړ)ل(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ئ‬ ‫روښان کړ‬ ‫روښان کړل‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ه‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ې‬ roxā́n kṛ(əl)ǝm 2nd roxā́n kṛ(əl)e 3rd M roxā́n kəṛ F roxā́n kṛ(əl)u roxā́n kṛ(əl)əy roxā́n kṛəl roxā́n kṛ(əl)a roxā́n kṛ(əl)e   Table 8. which takes the primary stress for the verbal construction.5 Continuous imperative Formation: Present continuous base + -a (sg. they do have both continuous and aorist forms. The difference is illustrated below in Section 8.5.) Imperative verbs do not encode the categories of person or tense. Only the continuous imperative is used in negation.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .96). Imperatives are negated with the particle /má/. Note that NE Pashto treats negative forms differently for prefixed verbs.98. whereas other dialects place it between the prefix and the stem (Table 8. placing the negative particle before the entire verb (Heston 1992: 1589). however.177. stress is located according to the lexical stress of the verb.228. In continuous imperatives. ‫مه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.)/-əy (pl.96. as illustrated in Table 8.94. and Table 8.3. Table 8. third conjugation 8.5.92: Past aorist.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 259 .Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫نیسه‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisá nisə́y   Table 8. first conjugation ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه نیسه‬ ‫مه نیسئ‬ má nisa má nisəy   Table 8.93: Continuous imperative.94: Continuous imperative.96: Continuous imperative. second conjugation (negative) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.95: Continuous imperative. second conjugation ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ ‫مه پرېکوه‬ ‫مه پرېکوئ‬ pre má kawa má prekawa NE pre má kawəy má prekawəy NE   Table 8.228. first conjugation (negative) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ prekawá prekawə́y   Table 8.

negative 8. third conjugation ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه روښانوه‬ ‫مه روښانوئ‬ má roxānawa má roxānawəy   Table 8.97: Continuous imperative.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3.)/-əy (pl.260  Verbs ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښانوه‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawá roxānawə́y   Table 8.228.) Aorist imperative forms are used only in the affirmative. the continuous form is used. first conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. To negate an imperative.99: Aorist imperative. third conjugation.6 Aorist imperative Formation: Present aorist base + -a (sg. ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫ونیسه‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisa wə́nisəy   Table 8.177.98: Continuous imperative.

8.177.102.5. Continuous ‫که‬ ‫کاشکې‬ ‫کېدل‬ optative forms can also be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning can X. Optative verb forms do not show agreement.2.4 for examples).100: Aorist imperative. or /‑e/ (NE) Some examples of continuous optative verbs are shown in Table 8. able to X (see Section 8.2 for the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ and Section 8. Optative forms occur after the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’ and the counterfactual particle /kāške/ ‘if only’.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to Singular Plural 2nd ‫پرېکړه‬ ‫پرېکړئ‬ 261 cut’ prékṛa prékṛəy   Table 8.101: Aorist imperative.4 for an example.2. see Section 10.1. second conjugation ‫روښانول‬ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښان کړه‬ ‫روښان کړئ‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ roxā́n kṛa roxā́n kṛəy   Table 8.228. ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. third conjugation 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3.7 Continuous optative ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ Formation: past continuous base + /‑āy/ (SW.SE). /‑ay/ (NW).

SE NW NE Second (transitive) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکو)ل(ای‬prekaw(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېکو)ل(ی‬prekaw(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېکو)ل(ے‬prekaw(ə́l)e SW.SE ‫ روښانو)ل(ی‬roxānaw(ə́l)ay ‫ روښانو)ل(ے‬roxānaw(ə́l)e   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM NW NE .262  Verbs Conjugation Verb Continuous optative First (intransitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ رسېد)ل(ای‬rased(ə́l)āy ‫ رسېد)ل(ی‬rased(ə́l)ay ‫ رسېد)ل(ے‬rased(ə́l)e SW.SE NW NE Third (intransitive) ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.SE NW NE Third (transitive) ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫روښانو)ل(ای‬ roxānaw(ə́l)āy SW.228.177. to mature’ ‫ پخېد)ل(ای‬paxed(ə́l)āy ‫ پخېد)ل(ی‬paxed(ə́l)ay ‫ پخېد)ل(ے‬paxed(ə́l)e SW.102: Continuous optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SE NW NE First (transitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ بیسو)ل(ای‬niw(ə́l)āy ‫ بیسو)ل(ی‬niw(ə́l)ay ‫ بیسو)ل(ے‬niw(ə́l)e SW.SE NW NE Second (intransitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬prewat(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬prewat(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬prewat(ə́l)e SW.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. or /-e/ (NE) Some examples of aorist optative verbs are shown in Table 8.103. in the case of third conjugation intransitive verbs. however. /-ay/ (NW).177. the light verb /šw-/ is omitted.8 Aorist optative Formation: past aorist base + /-āy/ (SW.4).8.Simple verb constructions  263 8. we would see ‫ پوخ شي‬/pox ši/ ‘could ripen.3.SE).2. Therefore instead of the incorrect * ‫کېدل‬ ‫شي‬ ‫پوخ شوی‬ ‫ شي‬/pox šway ši/. was able to X (see Section 8.2 and Section 8. Aorist optative forms can be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning could X.5.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. could mature’.

SE NW NE Second conjugation.264  Verbs Verb type First conjugation.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . transitive ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫ پوخ کړای‬roxā́n kə́ṛāy ‫ پوخ کړی‬roxā́n kə́ṛay ‫ پوخ کړے‬roxā́n kə́ṛe SW.228.SE NW NE First conjugation.SE NW NE Third conjugation.103: Aorist optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to mature’ (‫ پوخ )شوای‬pox (šwāy) (‫ پوخ )شوی‬pox (šway) (‫ پوخ )شوے‬pox (šwe) SW. transitive ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ وبیوای‬wə́niwāy ‫ وبیوی‬wə́niway ‫ وبیوے‬wə́niwe SW. intransitive ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen. transitive ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکوای‬prékawāy ‫ پرېکوی‬prékaway ‫ پرېکوے‬prékawe SW. intransitive ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬préwat(əl)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬préwat(əl)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬préwat(əl)e NW NE SW.SE NW NE Third conjugation.SE ‫ ورسېد)ل(ی‬wə́rased(əl)ay ‫ ورسېد)ل(ے‬wə́rased(əl)e Second conjugation.177. intransitive Verb Aorist optative ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ورسېد)ل(ای‬ wə́rased(əl)āy SW.SE NW NE   Table 8.

105 illustrate the forms of the present perfect.228.39). the construction expresses future perfect. 8. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی یم‬ ‫رسېدلي یو‬ rasedə́lay yəm F 2nd M F 3rd M ‫رسېدلې یم‬ ‫رسېدلې یو‬ rasedə́le yəm rasedə́le yu ‫رسېدلی یې‬ ‫رسېدلي یئ‬ rasedə́lay ye rasedə́li yəy ‫رسېدلې یې‬ ‫رسېدلې یئ‬ rasedə́le ye rasedə́le yəy ‫رسېدلی دی‬ ‫رسېدلي دي‬ rasedə́lay day F rasedə́li yu rasedə́li di ‫رسېدلې ده‬ ‫رسېدلې دي‬ rasedə́le da rasedə́le di   Table 8. as in: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. so they are not provided here.4 Compound verb constructions There are two kinds of compound verb construction: those that convey the perfect and those that convey a sense of potential or ability. it therefore appears to be governed by the matrix verb.1 Present perfect Formation: past participle + present continuous of to be Table 8. first and second conjugations ‫به‬ With the addition of the modal clitic /bə/ and present aorist.104: Present perfect. Alignment is usually ergative in both present and past perfect constructions. which is built on a past stem. forms of to be. seen in (Table 8.4.4.104 and Table 8.Compound verb constructions  265 8. Dialectal variants can be inferred from the various dialectal forms of to be.1 Perfect constructions 8. rather than present continuous.177.1.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.105: Present perfect.177.266  Verbs ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.228. to mature’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫پوخ شوی یم‬ ‫پاخه شوي یو‬ ‫پخه شوې یم‬ ‫پخې شوې یو‬ pox šə́way yəm F paxa šə́we yəm 2nd ‫پوخ شوی یې‬ M F 3rd M paxe šə́we yu ‫پاخه شوي یئ‬ pox šə́way ye pāxə šə́wi yəy ‫پخه شوې یې‬ ‫پخې شوې یئ‬ paxa šə́we ye paxe šə́we yəy ‫پوخ شوی دی‬ ‫پاخه شوي دي‬ ‫پخه شوې ده‬ ‫پخې شوې دي‬ pox šə́way day F pāxə šə́wi yu paxa šə́we da pāxə šə́wi di paxe šə́we di   Table 8.

4.106: Past perfect 8.228.177.] will have arrived’ ‫ به رسېدلې وي‬/bə rasedə́le wi/ ‘she/they will have arrived’ 8.’ and the past potential. translatable as ‘could X. be able to X.’ Future potential is expressed by means of the modal clitic /bə/ in construction with the present potential.106 illustrates the forms of the past perfect.2 Past perfect Formation: past participle + past continuous of to be Table 8.2 Potential constructions These constructions express ability: the present potential.1.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .4. translatable as ‘can X.Compound verb constructions  • • 267 ‫ به رسېدلی یم‬/bə rasedə́lay yəm/ ‘I [m. was able to X. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی وم‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wəm F 2nd M ‫رسېدلې وم‬ ‫رسېدلې وو‬ rasedə́le wəm rasedə́le wu ‫رسېدلی وې‬ ‫رسېدلي وئ‬ rasedə́lay we F 3rd M rasedə́li wəy ‫رسېدلې وې‬ ‫رسېدلې وئ‬ rasedə́le we rasedə́le wəy ‫رسېدلی وه‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wə F rasedə́li wu rasedə́li wə ‫رسېدلې وه‬ ‫رسېدلې وې‬ rasedə́le wa rasedə́le we   Table 8.

1 Present potential Formation: continuous optative + present aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st Singular Plural ‫رسېد)ل(ی شم‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شو‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شئ‬ rased(ə́l)áy šəm 2nd 3rd ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ rased(ə́l)áy šu rased(ə́l)áy še rased(ə́l)áy šəy ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ rased(ə́l)ay ši rased(ə́l)ay ši   Table 8.2 Past potential Formation: aorist optative + past aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Singular Plural ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(و‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ه‬ (‫ورسېد)ل(ی شول)ه‬ wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əm 2nd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)e 3rd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)ə wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)u wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əy wə́rased(əl)ay šwəl(ə)   Table 8.108: Past potential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4.2.268  Verbs 8.2.228.107: Present potential 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .4.177.

and Septfonds (1994). and also from data in Lorimer (1902).3SG.DIR this.‫نسیمه پرون په کور کي وه‬ nasima-Ø parun pə kor-Ø ki wa Nasima-F.9) ‫تاسي دباندي واست؟‬ tāsi dabāndi wāst 2PL.DIR be..CONT.in be.STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR yesterday in.PRS.F če paxtún-Ø yəm COMP Pashtoon-M.M ‘Asad is a pilot.’ (SW) (8.7) . 8.’ It is likewise used in copular constructions in the past tense to express past states: (8. house-M .PST.‫اسد پیلوټ دئ‬ asad-Ø piloṭ-Ø dəy Asad-M.CONT. the Internet.3SG.CONT.3SG.PRS.1 to be as a copula The verb to be is used in copular constructions in the present tense to represent a present and continuing state: (8.PST.CONT.‫زما لویه ګنا دا ده چې پښتون یم‬ zmā loy-a ganā-Ø dā da 1SG.’ (SW) (8.5.228.F ‘Nasima was home yesterday.DIR be..DIR pilot-M.8) .2PL ‘Were you outside?’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5 Verb usage Example sentences in this section come from our native speaker informants.CONT.1SG ‘A great sin of mine is that I am Pashtoon.5.STR.1.PRS.DIR sin-F.. Lorenz (1982).DIR outside be..Verb usage  269 8.1 Uses of the verb to be 8.177.6) .POSS large-F.DIR be.

F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that.in of P R T team-M.PRS. (8.2 Simple verb constructions 8.1): (8.1 Present continuous The present continuous form expresses the present tense.on much-F..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SG COMP other-F.2 to be as an auxiliary verb The verb to be is used as an auxiliary verb with participles to form compound verb constructions we characterize as perfect (Section 8.OBL to mo a pə xeb-Ø dzon-Ø Ø-čaw-ə́l-ay 1SG.DIR be.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP.177.OBL on.PRS.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.4..13) .5.OBL also on sleep-M self-M..DIR ná wi NEG be.PST-PTCP.3SG.M.M.STR.‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د )پي آر ټي ( ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də pi ar ṭi ṭim-Ø Australia-F.DIR fee-F..5. this.STR. It covers states and conditions as well as ongoing actions.3PL.F] ‘Australia is establishing a P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam] team in Afghanistan.CONT. both in progress and habitual.5..OBL day-F.PST.CONT-PRS.M ‘We've thrown the trash away/left the goods behind.DIR CONT-take.’ (WAZ) (8..AOR..DIR wi be.F.M.3SG.1.DIR goods-PL.12) pə wə́-ye man-a če bəl-a wredz-Ø ta on AOR-3..’ (DZA) 8.AOR.11) dzəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL.WK accept-IMP.270  Verbs 8.10) miž šāy-ina Ø-ačaw-ə́l-i 1PL.3[SG.’ (WAZ) (8. that I won't have thrown myself into sleep].DIR in.DIR . Afghanistan-M .PL.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP.DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F.2.M.M ‘You can bet that tomorrow I won't pretend to sleep [lit.228.

DIR čanel-una ye zə Ø-gor-ə́m channel-PL.PRS-PRS.M...M.14) 271 .F.3[PL.M] ‘Are these goods sold here or are they sent outside?’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.15) .3[SG.‫ ډرامې او خبري چینلونه یې زه ګورم‬،‫پاکستاني سندرې‬ pākistāni sander-e ḍrām-e aw xabar-e Pakistani song-PL.OBL on.OBL paṛa-Ø pə mā Ø-ačaw-é blame-F.DIR here near xarts-íž-i ka bahar ta sold-become.Verb usage  (8.DIR now NEG CONT\take.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.3[PL.DIR on 1SG.PRS-1SG ‘I'm not using the gun now. and discussion channels.F.STR. TV. gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde numerous-M number-M language-PL.CONT-PRS.OBL CONT-throw-2SG ‘But you're blaming me for the misdeeds.on xadmāt-Ø kaw-í services-PL.STR.DIR goods-PL.M.’ (WAZ) (8.M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages.PRS-1SG ‘I watch their Pakistani music.DIR CONT-see..OBL .WK 1SG..18) da mol-ina ile nəžde this.DIR machine-M.F.DIR do.M.‫مګر د خپلو ناوړه او غلطو کارونو پړه په ما اچوې‬ magar də nāwaṛa aw ɣalat-o kār-uno but of improper and mistaken-PL.DIR drama-PL.STR.16) .DIR of world-F.’ (8.DIR gun-M.F.PRS-PRS.‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M.M] if outside to drim-i go.DIR and word-PL.M.DIR 3.’ (8.17) zə ṭipak-Ø wis ná wəxəl-ã́ 1SG.OBL work-PL.’ (8.228.CONT.CONT.

DIR be.3[PL.M.M] ‘Why isn't a Dari school being built in Khost?’ (8.19) de nor-e məlk-e áɣa šay-ina ce of other-PL.21) ‫ولې په خوست کې دری ښوونځى نه جوړېږی؟‬ wali pə xost-Ø ke dari-Ø xuwunʣ-ay ná why in.OBL country-PL.OBL for need-F.DIR NEG kaw-e do.OBL this.2.3[SG. ens to /ā/.PRS.POSS with such word-PL.M.PRS-PRS.177.’ (WAZ) 8.PRS.DIR COMP wole arzón-Ø wi ile grón-Ø there cheap-PL.DIR NEG CONT-have-1SG ‘Don't I need a wedding?’ (8.1 Negation of present tense verbs The present tense is negated by placing /ná/ before the verb. For example: ‫نه‬ (8.M 1-bring.AOR.228.M] and xarts-aw-í ye sold-do.1.STR.WK ‘They bring and sell things that are cheap in other countries and expensive here..272  Verbs (8.3PL. Note that the negative particle bears the stress of the verb phrase..M here expensive-PL. ‫ ن‬/n/ is prefixed to the verb and the /a/ length- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3[PL.CONT-2SG ‘Why don't you talk about such things with me?’ When an a-initial verb is negated.PRS-PRS.STR.M] 3.DIR NEG joṛ-eg-i built-become.in Dari-M.CONT-PRS.22) ‫ته ولې زما سره داسې خبرې نه کوې؟‬ ta wali zmā sərə dāse xabar-e ná 2SG.CONT.AOR.M.5.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M.DIR school-M.CONT.DIR why 1SG..F.20) ‫واده ته اړتیا نه لرم؟‬ wād-ə tə aṛtiyā-Ø ná Ø-lar-əm wedding-M..3PL.M.DIR thing-PL. Khost-M .DIR wi ro-oṛ-í aw be.

‫موټر نه اخلم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’¹⁶ 8. However.PRS-1SG ‘I'm not buying a car.DIR NEG-CONT-buy. the sorrow of these people is with me.228.2 Present continuous for expressing future events The present continuous may be used to express a future event: (8. the modal clitic /bə/ may accompany the present continuous form to express a future event.DIR WOULD 3.23: . and I will eat [their] sorrow.2.‫درې بجې به درځم‬ dre badje bə dərdz-əm three o'clock WOULD arrive.1.Verb usage  273 (8.2.]’ 16 Standardized version of 8.25) .‫موټر ناخلم‬ moṭər-Ø n-Ø-ā́xl-əm car-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .WK Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.M.3SG.PRS.5.DIR 1-COMIT day aw ɣam-Ø bə ye be.5.’ ‫به‬ In addition.PRS-1SG ‘I feel these people’s sorrow.24) . particularly in the NE dialect. (8.1 for a more common way to express the future.2. see Section 8.M and sorrow-M.CONT.23) . and especially if words like tomorrow or next week are present or when the speaker is contrasting future actions.177.PRS-1SG ‘I'll come to you at 3 o'clock.‫د دې خلکو غم راسره دى او غم به یې خورم‬ də de xalk-o ɣam-Ø rā-sərə of this. and I am going to take care of it. [lit.OBL sorrow-M.OBL people-PL.CONT.

present aorist forms express future events that are expected to occur.DIR spin-aw-éma white-do.DIR WOULD in.5. doubted.” This is true.2 Present aorist According to Penzl (1955: 114).PRS-2SG what WOULD NEG Ø-k-é CONT-do.28) tsə be Ø-k-é tsə be ná what WOULD CONT-do. although we believe the term irrealis to be more apt.OBL .DIR do. “in many of their occurrences present [aorist] forms express a subjunctive mood rather than a perfective aspect..OBL 15 day-PL.26) Verbs ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ . [lit. requested.OBL of development-F.CONT.in meeting-F.‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this.F] and of child-M.2. but is desired. and so on.F. These uses for perfect aorist forms are described in the following two sections. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. In construction with the modal clitic /bə/.DIR council-F.27) yes ye deɣe sra be sar-Ø now COMIT..3[SG. I will whiten my hair with him. required..’ (8.COMIT WOULD head-M.M.274  (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . every-PL.CONT-PRS.]’ (DZA) (8. they express a variety of other events whose realization is not established in fact..F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature. him...228.177.OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də .M. what you will do! What you will not do!’ (DZA) 8..F.PRS-1SG ‘I will grow old with him.OBL path-PL.OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL.3[SG.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS.. by themselves or in construction with other modal particles.PRS-2SG ‘Oh.

expressions of necessity. curses.8.36 and 8. probable. (8. For more examples of expressing the future.3[SG. customary.47 are from Shafeev 1964: 46. ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ ‘must.29.) ‫چه‬ ‫که‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ (8.29) ‫به‬ .CONT-1SG COMP 2SG. (Examples 8.STR.F] ‘She will become a teacher. Otherwise speakers either default to present continuous forms or else use present aorist forms of /kedə́l/.2.30) .228. When used with the modal clitic /bə/. see Section 10.1).2.STR. Most frequently of all. ‫دې‬ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’.DIR WOULD teacher-F.DIR š-e become.’ (SW) 8.1.DIR become.1.5.31 and 8. the present aorist form of the verb expresses an unrealized event that is expected to happen. as in 8.2.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. gentle commands. which does not encode gender or number.1 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/ Pashto does not have a morphological future tense.2 Other uses of the present aorist Present aorist forms are also used for wishes. some of these uses will be in construction with modals such as /de/. As mentioned earlier (Section 8. should’ and so on.‫اوس هیله کوم چې ته غلی شې‬ os hila-Ø kaw-ə́m če ta ɣə́l-ay now hope-F. conjectures.AOR.2.PRS-PRS. or usual events.AOR.177.‫دا به ښوونکې شي‬ dā bə xowúnk-e s-i 3SG. there is only one unique present aorist form of to be: the third person form /wi/.PRS-2SG ‘I hope you'll be quiet now. as in sentence 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and questions expressing doubt.43 below. The sentences below give examples of some of these uses of present aorist forms.5.Verb usage  275 ‫به‬ 8. the present aorist is used in subordinate clauses beginning with the complementizer /čə/ (when that clause expresses an event with irrealis semantics) or the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’.DIR do.F.DIR quiet-M.2.2.

M.OBL to 3.3PL.F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3SG.PRS.DIR of national front-F.OBL and sadness-PL.DIR wi be.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL.AOR.3PL.32) .M miserable-M. Musab!'’ (8.DIR on.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.DIR Abdullah-M. he said to him.AOR.‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله دملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ xāyi ḍāktar-Ø abdəla-Ø də mili jubhay-e maybe doctor-M.ANIM.PRS.177.’¹⁷ (8.276  Verbs (8.PST-PST.AOR.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL.32: ‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله د ملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ 17 Standardized version of 8.228.OBL one-F. 'May you be miserable.OBL kāndid-Ø wi candidate-M.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.WK AOR-tell.VOC ‘As he looked directly at Musab.M musab-Ø ta ye wə́-way-əl xwā́r-Ø Musab-M.M.3 AOR-hit-PST-PST.DIR be.OBL bite-INF-PL.ANIM.M.33) ‫د نوکانو ژوول ښايي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابديو د څرګندولو یوه لار‬ .M.PRS-2SG Musab-M.3[PL.31) !‫ خوار شې مصعبه‬: ‫چی کله مخامخ سترګي پرې ولګیدې مصعب ته یې وویل‬ če kala muxāmux sterg-e pre wé-lag-ed-e COMP when direct eye-PL.M ‘Maybe Doctor Abdullah will be a candidate for the United National Front.DIR path-F.DIR š-e musab-a become.M.F.OBL for of concern-PL.

‫نه پوهیږم په کوم لفظ دی موري یاد کړم‬ ná poh-ég-əm pə kum-Ø lafaz-Ø de NEG learned-beome.38) .PRS-1SG INSTR which-M word-M NEC mor-e yā́d kṛ-əm mother-F.DIR NEC work-M.ABL serious attention-F.F] ‘Maybe they will take a serious look at rebuilding [our social] foundations.AOR.AOR-1SG ‘I don't know which words I should use to remember you.M.’ (8.CONT.’ (WAZ) (8.39) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become.OBL of then building-F.Verb usage  (8.AOR-PRS. ‘We must work.STR. and sometimes we use the reaper.’ (8.DIR AOR-gather.’ (8.M] ‘Why do they have to learn it?’ (8.PRS-2SG ‘Have some food with me.37) ‫ولی یی باید زده کړي؟‬ wali ye bāyad zda kṛ-i why 3.PRS-1PL.WK NEC learned do.3[PL.OBL from work-M.VOC memory do.36) muẓ̌ bāyád kār-Ø wú-k-u 1PL.harvest(?)-F.OBL manual.228.35) māṛ-əy ro-səra wə́-k-e food-F.DIR 1-COMIT AOR-do.OBL AOR-do.PRS-PRS.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M.34) 277 .DIR from pār-a jədi pāmlarəna-Ø sake-M.3[SG.‫ښایی د دې بنسټونو د بیارغاونې لپاره جدی پاملرنه وشی‬ xāye də bansaṭ-uno də biyā raɣawən-e lə maybe of foundation-PL.’ (WAZ)¹⁸ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. mother.DIR AOR\take.

...INSTR paṭ kšéʣ-i hidden AOR\place.DIR Ø-wāy-o CONT-say.STR.in tear-PL.F] ‘Sometimes we argue.OBL oral dispute-F.STR.]’ (8.F.DIR INSTR.PRS-PRS. too.40) .‫کله کله زموږ په سترګو کې اوښکې وي چې موږ دا سندره وایو‬ kala kala zmung pə sterg-o ke uxk-e when when 1PL.STR.43) ‫زه په خندا شم؟‬ zə pə xandā́-Ø s-əm 1SG.OBL .’ The customary usage of the present aorist can also be expressed with the present continuous: (8. Sometimes verbal disputes are created between us.DIR ham mandz ta rādz-í also center to come.‫کله کله زموږ ترمنځ لفظي شخړه هم منځ ته راځي‬ kala kala zmung tər mandz-Ø lahfzi šxəra-Ø when when 1PL.177.F.42) čars-Ø liyā afin-Ø e dzon-Ø səra marijuana-M.41) .228.PRS.DIR song-F...harvest’ is uncertain..PRS-1SG ‘Should I laugh?’ (SW) 18 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual.POSS in.OBL become.STR. [lit.OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . eye-PL.AOR.AOR..DIR wi če mung dā sandera-Ø be.to center-M.F COMP 1PL. too.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we get teary-eyed when we sing this song.PRS-1PL ‘They [often] hide marijuana or opium on themselves’ (WAZ) (8.POSS up.CONT.DIR this.278  Verbs (8.3PL.3[PL.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. self-M.DIR or opium-M.DIR INSTR laugh-F.

DIR 2 after wə́-čaw-i ne če AOR-throw-PRS.M.STR.’ (DZA) (8.STR.Verb usage  279 (8.3[PL.PRS-PRS. problem-PL.OBL wə́-ɣuxt-əl če də stunz-o sərə AOR-want.DIR š-i biyā kšén-i arām-Ø become.3 Past continuous The past continuous is used for continuous or habitual events in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ 8.M] then 1..3[PL.. police-M..STR.47) ka háɣa ná rā́s-i no zə if 3SG.F.DIR AOR-do. we sit down and rest.M] then COMP der-bež-iž-i 2-near-become.3[PL.2.DIR NEG come..DIR fire-M..DIR wé-k-i AOR-do.AOR.COMIT muqābala-Ø wə́-kṛ-i resistance-M.PST-PST.from free-PL.PRS-3[SG..SG.OBL .46) .M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .44) če e polis-Ø na xlos-Ø COMP from.CONT.M.M.DIR bə wlā́ṛ-s-əm WOULD AOR\go-go-1SG ‘If he does not come.3PL.228.OBL country-PL.PRS-1PL ‘After getting rid of the police.PRS-1PL then AOR\sit.45) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se when COMP 3PL.AOR.‫ښاغلي ويسا له ټولو هيوادوالو وغوښتل چي د ستونزو سره مقابله وكړي‬ xāɣl-i wisā-Ø lə ṭol-o hewād-uno mister-M. Wesa wanted all nations to battle [these] issues..OBL from all-PL. then I will go...M COMP COMIT.M] ‘[Governor] Mr.OBL ..5.177.PRS-1PL peace-M.AOR-PRS.OBL Wisa-M.’ (WAZ) (8.’ (8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR step-M.3SG.F.’ (8.M.PST-PST-PST.PST-PST.OBL .51) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .F.. picnic-F.48) . laughing.COMIT voice-PST-PST.3PL.M ‘He was talking with himself.M xand-éd-ə aw gaḍ-éd-ə laugh.M ‘He was sleeping with his eyes open.M and dance-PST-PST.‫په خلاصو سترګو یې خوبونه لیدل‬ pə xlās-o sterg-o ye xob-una INSTR open-PL.F.3SG.3SG.’ (8...DIR .‫سړي ټول په مېله کې ګډېده‬ sar-̣i ṭol-Ø pə mela-Ø ke man-PL.‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.OBL world-F.3SG..DIR all-M.177.OBL eye-PL.50) .OBL WOULD shout-PL.M.DIR above do.F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.228.280  Verbs (8..WK sleep-PL..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ (8. self-M.in Ø-gaḍ-éd-ə CONT-dance-PST-PST.CONT-PST.49) . the entire world would cry out.F.OBL 3.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F..M.3SG.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M.M ‘All the men were dancing at the picnic OR.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST.3PL. and dancing.‫ خندېده او ګډېده‬،‫له ځانه سره غږېده‬ lə dzān-a sərə ɣag-éd-ə COMIT.OBL of woman-PL. all the men used to dance at picnics.DIR in..DIR Ø-lid-ə́l CONT-see.

OBL government-M.M.M.DIR wealth-F. that. when she threw her mouth upon me].228.WK NEG mər-kaw-ə́l-e killed-do..in 3.2.much day-F.CONT-PST-PST..M ‘Yesterday the British government placed new sanctions on Iran in response to their nuclear program.5..4 Past aorist The past aorist verb form expresses actions with focus on completion.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR sanction-PL.DIR yesterday of Iran-M.DIR .Verb usage  281 (8.STR.OBL from sake-M.F ‘When she was taking me in her mouth [lit.’ (WAZ) (8. or on the event per se rather than its duration or multiple instances of the event.WK joṛ-aw-ə́l-a built-do.54) če di xwl-ə r Ø-čaw-ə́l-a COMP 3SG.‫ولګول‬ də britānyā-Ø hakumat-Ø parun də irān-Ø də of Britain-F.CONT-PST-2SG ‘All day long.OBL of atomi progrām-Ø lə amal-a pər dáɣa hewād-Ø atomic program-M.ABL on this country-M nuw-i bandiz-una wə́-lagaw-əl new-PL. he did not [want to] kill you..177.OBL mouth-F.55) ‫دبريتانيا حکومت پرون دايران داتومې پروګرام له امله پردغه هيواد نوى بنديزونه‬ ..3SG.3SG.’ (DZA) (8.F.53) pə da domra wredz-Ø ke ye ná in. (8.DIR 1 CONT-throw-PST-PST..DIR so.F ‘I was making great gains in that business.in much-F. this.3PL.52) pə háɣa čār-Ø ke ḍer-a binga-Ø mi in.DIR affair-F .DIR AOR-hit-PST..DIR 1SG.’ (DZA) 8..

DIR what damage-M.3SG.M.’ (8.DIR on own-M place-M AOR\sit-PST.on the 3-to AOR\sit.M ‘Afghans living in Bayern [Germany] protested for the release of Afghan prisoners.F ‘I hid my affection.PST-PST.DIR 1SG.PST-PST.58) .M this.OBL from pār-a bayrān mešt-o afɣān-āno lāryun-Ø sake-M.M ‘He has left the town to go wait at the top of the hill.OBL Afghan-PL.year-M.DIR wə́-kəṛ-Ø AOR-do.M.OBL of release-M.‫مينه مې پټه کړله‬ mina-Ø me páṭ-a kəṛ-l-a love-M.M ‘The gentleman took his seat but was angry.WK hidden-F.3SG.56) Verbs . sitting near it.AOR-PST-PST.. city-M..3SG.M ‘Did the flooding cause any damage this year?’ (WAZ) (8.PST-PST. head-M .OBL flood-M.3SG.282  (8.AOR-PST.M.’ (8.from AOR-leave.228.OBL protest-M.’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.’ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .ANIM.57) .‫د افغان زندانیانو دخلاصون لپاره بایرن مېستو افغانانو لاریون وکړ‬ də afɣān zindān-iāno də xlāsun-Ø lə of Afghan prisoner-PL.59) e sažkol-Ø silab-Ø tsə naqsān-Ø of this.PST-PST.3SG.DIR do.AOR..DIR of ṭop-i pə sar-Ø nə bya wer-ta kénost-Ø hill-F.3SG..60) ye šār-Ø na ó-wet-Ø dā ye from.177..AOR..OBL .OBL on.‫سړی په خپل ځای کښېناست او نور هم غصه شو‬ saṛ-ay pə xpəl-Ø dzāy-Ø kxénāst-Ø aw nor ham man-M...ABL Bayern settled-PL.DIR də́rk-ə give.M aw other also ɣósa šo-Ø angry become.

3SG. (8.M. He penetrated the interior.DIR repeated-do-INF-PL.PRS-IMP.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PST-PST.3SG.M.DIR ear-M nénawet-a AOR\enter.DIR ham w-ā́čaw-a also AOR-throw-IMP.SG big-M.64) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.61) če yenənə pə daṛa-Ø ke wə́-lg-ed-ə COMP inside in.OBL on this.177.’ (8.6).STR.3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PST-PST.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ (8.PRS-IMP.AOR.65) .228.‫ نورې ویډیوګانې هم واچوه‬.DIR other-PL.M čə yenənə wer-nə́nawet-Ø when inside 3-AOR\enter.3.5 Imperative Imperative forms convey commands (Section 8.2.Verb usage  283 (8.DIR of 1SG.63) .M ‘He landed on the inside.62) a kisa-Ø ye mo pə da ɣwaž-Ø this story-F. at the entrance.SG ‘Step outside your comfort zone and get to know the wide world out there.PRS-IMP.DIR many-F. Section 8.’ (DZA) 8.’ (DZA) (8. Please post more videos.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want.SG ‘Thanks a lot.AOR..DIR thanks-F.F..STR.5.DIR abuse-PL.CONT.F.DIR .DIR then this.ABL come.OBL jahān-Ø sərə ašnā́ š-a universe-M..DIR video-PL. threshold-F.3.‫له واړه کوره راوځه لوى جهان سره اشنا شه‬ lə wār-ə kor-a rādz-á loy-Ø from small-M.‫ډېره ډېره مننه‬ ḍer-a ḍer-a manana-Ø nor-e vidio-gāne many-F..5.OBL house-M.in AOR-hit-PST-PST.F ‘This story fell into my ear.OBL COMIT friend become.DIR become.PRS-2SG healthy-M.

70) šə waxt-Ø kam-Ø day mo ta good time-M.69) dāse nim-a genṭa-Ø rā-səra kšén-əy such half-F.DIR little-M.M 1SG.228.WK calm-M.’ (WAZ) (8.AOR-PST.DIR 3.OBL to 2.CONT.SG ‘If he does anything stupid.’ (8.DIR appearance-M.DIR 1SG.66) . calm him with a single shot.DIR bullet-F.WK complete attention-M.STR.SG COMP good wə́-žār-əma AOR-cry-1SG ‘Leave me alone for a little bit so I can have a good cry.PL ‘Sit with me.WK AOR\abandon-IMP.WK AOR-do.AOR. continuation.3SG.’ (WAZ) (8.F.’ (8.DIR wə́-kṛ-a AOR-do. or repetition: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR-IMP.3SG.‫ په يوه مرمۍ يې آرام کړه‬،‫که بې بې عقلي يې وکړه‬ ka be be aql-i ye wə́-kṛ-a if without without intelligence-F. thus intensifying them. Let me leave now.PRS-IMP.67) .‫خپل ظاهر ته دې پوره پام وکړه‬ xpəl-Ø zāher-Ø ta de pura pām-Ø own-M.OBL for popcorn-PL.284  Verbs (8.SG ‘Pay full attention to how you look.68) .PRS-2SG ‘Make me some popcorn!’ (DZA) Present continuous stems may be used to form commands as well.SG ‘Okay. Time is short.PRS-IMP.AOR-IMP. [i.DIR be.DIR AOR-do.e.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR do. for half an hour.DIR 3. like so.DIR hour-F.DIR give..F.DIR 1-with AOR\sit. imparting a sense of urgency.‫شېبې مې پرېږده چې ښه وژاړمه‬ šeb-e me prégd-a če xə moment-PL.177. kill him]’ (8.F pə yaw-a marm-əy ye arā́m-Ø kṛ-a COMIT one-F.71) mo ta nan-e wə́-k-e 1SG.STR.OBL to ijaza-Ø rók-a permission-M.PRS.

CONT-IMP.’ (8.in.. reading Pashto.in CONT-throw-IMP.’ (8.‫ د خدای کور دی‬،‫پام کوه! دا جومات دی‬ pām-Ø kaw-á dā jumāt-Ø attention-M.CONT..DIR few few of mother.DIR mosque-M.74) .PRS-IMP.M ‘Behave yourself! This is a mosque.72) . it's a holy place.DIR CONT-tell.PRS.‫هره ورځ لږ لږ د خواښې په ډوډۍ کې اچوه‬ har-a oradz-Ø ləg ləg də xwāx-e pə ḍoḍ-əy every-F.M.177.SG ‘Add a little bit [of poison] to your mother-in-law's food every day..SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.SG ‘Keep speaking Pashto.73) .WK freed-do.SG ‘Humbly submit to the government!’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR CONT-kill.WK CONT-eat.3SG.76) .OBL in.3SG.PRS-IMP.OBL to helpless-NMLZ do.PRS-IMP.CONT.DIR do.DIR be.M of God house-M.SG Pashto-F.228.SG this.law-F 2.Verb usage  285 (8.’ (8.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.SG ‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].OBL people-M.CONT-IMP.DIR day-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL.DIR Ø-lwal-á paxto-Ø Ø-lik-á CONT-read.PRS-IMP.‫ پښتو ليکه‬، ‫ پښتو لوله‬، ‫پښتو وايه‬ paxto-Ø Ø-wāy-á paxto-Ø Pashto-F..law-F. food-F ke Ø-ačaw-á .in.ABL 3.’ (8.77) sarkor-Ø ta ajiz-i kaw-a government-M.CONT-IMP.DIR CONT-write-IMP.75) . and writing Pashto.’ (8.PRS.SG Pashto-F.‫په خواښي دې خوره‬ pə xwāx-e de Ø-xor-á INSTR mother.DIR day də xudāy kor-Ø day be.

DIR NEG AOR\recognize.SG ‘Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today.79) !‫زویه د بل د پاره ځان مه وژنه‬ zoy-a də bel-Ø də pār-a dzān-Ø má son-M.DIR má kaw-á NEG do.SG ‘Don't be naive!’ (8.from of thanks-F.CONT-IMP.286  Verbs All types of commands.OBL hope-F.VOC of other-M.‫د نن کار سبا ته مه پرېږده‬ də nən kār-Ø sabā-Ø ta má of today work-M.CONT. are negated by /má/.228..STR.80) .M] NEG sad kég-a become.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. other-M..82) .SG ‘Son.SG ‘Don't get upset if he doesn't recognize you.AOR-IMP.OBL who.OBL from sake-M.‫ مه خپه کیږه‬، ‫که تا نه پیژني‬ ka tā ná péžən-i má xapa if 2SG.3[SG. except in certain stock phrases like 8.. don't kill yourself for the sake of another!’ (8. whether using continuous or aorist forms.PRS.78) !‫ساده مه شه‬ sāda mə́ s-a naive NEG become.DIR tomorrow-M.78.81) !‫د بل چا څخه د مننې هيله مه كوه‬ də bel-Ø čā tsəxə də manan-e hila-Ø from.PRS-PRS.177.PRS-IMP.DIR to NEG pregd-á CONT\abandon.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL .PRS-IMP.DIR NEG Ø-wažn-á CONT-kill.. ‫مه‬ (8.PRS-IMP.SG ‘Don't expect thanks from someone else!’ (8. Negative commands almost always use continuous forms.ABL self-M. which usually occurs before the verb but can also be after it.’ (8.

CONT.DIR Ø-axist-áy day CONT-take[PST]-PTCP.in of political office-M.177.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.OBL in.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .‫دونیا منلی یې‬ dunyā-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-ay ye world-F.’ (8.M ‘Winter has taken hold in Afghanistan.F.3 Compound constructions: perfect Agreement in present and past perfect constructions is governed by the main verb.DIR be.3.1.’ (8.3SG.DIR CONT-accept-PST-PTCP.M. and are generally best translated using the respective English present and past perfect forms.2SG ‘The world has accepted you.5.1 Present perfect First and second conjugation verbs form this tense with the past continuous participle and the present continuous of to be.DIR be.PRS. This means that in transitive constructions the main verb. as illustrated above in Section 8.CONT.85) . Perfect constructions in Pashto encode relative tense. Third conjugation verbs use the aorist participle and the present continuous forms of to be. and—in the case of third conjugation verbs—the adjectival complement agree with the undergoer of the action.4.OBL force-M. (8...228. the auxiliary.83) .PRS.Verb usage  287 8.‫افغانستان کی ژمی زور اخیستی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø ke žim-i zor-Ø Afghanistan-M in winter-M.F ‘The Taliban have confirmed that they will be opening a political office in Qatar.PRS.84) .3SG.M.M. as can be seen in the example sentences in the following two sections. 8.1.M.OBL word-F.CONT.OBL of prānist-əl-o xabara-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-e open-INF-PL.‫طالبانو په قطر کې د سياسي دفتر پرانيستلو خبره منلې ده‬ tālibān-o pə qatar-Ø ke də siyāsi daftar-Ø də Taliban-PL. as can be seen in the sentences below..DIR da be. Qatar-M .OBL CONT-accept-PST-PTCP..

M.M.AOR-PTCP.M ‘I've finally come to the conclusion that doing translations isn't so bad.DIR in.AOR-PTCP.F COMP marriage-M.DIR do.CONT.DIR NEG be..CONT.87) !‫زه په یو خالي کور کي ننوتلې یم او اوس دا زما کور دي نه ستا‬ zə pə yaw xāli kor-Ø ki 1SG.STR.ANIM.PRS.M. one empty house-M ..CONT.in of force-M.1SG and now this.F.DIR be.’ (8..3SG.PRS.‫دواړو د دفاع وزيرانو په افغانستان کښې د پوځ ستړيا احساس کړې ده‬ dwāṛ-o də difah-Ø wazir-āno pə both-PL.3SG.DIR feeling kə́ṛ-e da do.86) Verbs . afɣānistān-Ø kxe də paudz-Ø stəṛyā-Ø ihsās Afghanistan-M .DIR be.STR.OBL decision-F.OBL of defense-F.in nənəwat-ə́l-e yəm aw os dā CONT\enter-PST-PTCP.’ (8.POSS house-M.DIR be.‫اوس دې فیصلې ته رسېدلی یم چې ترجمه کول عیب نه دی‬ os de faysal-e ta ras-ed-ə́l-ay now this.OBL minister-PL..M.POSS ‘I've entered an empty house.DIR do-INF-PL.M NEG 2SG.F.OBL to arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.CONT.F.DIR da če wād-ə wə́-kṛ-i be.CONT.DIR AOR-do.3[SG..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS.228.OBL in.DIR zmā kor-Ø day ná stā 1SG. and now it's mine and not yours!’ (8.288  (8.1SG COMP translation-F.3SG.PRS..AOR-PRS.DIR ayb-Ø ná day defect-M.CONT.3SG.88) ..DIR yəm če tarjuma-Ø kaw-əl-Ø be.OBL exhaustion-F.89) .PRS.177.F] ‘Now he's forced Zarghuna to get married.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .‫زرغونه يې اوس مجبوره کړې ده چي واده وکړي‬ zarɣona-Ø ye os majbur-a kə́r-e Zarghoona-F.PRS.WK now forced-F.STR..F ‘Both Defense Ministers have seen how exhausted troops in Afghanistan are.DIR 3.

8.M.M..AOR-PTCP.DIR tərbur-Ø Ø-waž-ə́l-ay wi cousin-M.DIR be.3PL. Because of the irrealis semantics of this construction.WK own-M.OBL .DIR hál kə́ṛ-e wi solution do.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3SG.94. (8.‫هم به يې ګټه کړې وي ځکه چې هم به يې خپل تربور وژلی وي‬ ham bə ye gaṭa-Ø kə́ṛ-e also WOULD 3.PRS.STR.ABL border-M.228.PRS.M.DIR kə́ṛ-ay day do.’ (8. the present aorist form /wi/ is used as the third person auxiliary.F.PRS. 1SG..’ ‫به‬ ‫دې‬ The modal particles /bə/ or /de/ in combination with the present perfect construction express a supposition about a future event.PL.177.OBL bə də tālibān-o noɣ-i WOULD of Taliban-PL. and 8. as in 8.WK benefit-F.F.’ (8.OBL on. as in 8.F ‘We will have more or less resolved the issue. or doubt or uncertainty about one.DIR do.M ‘Those heathen Pashtoons in Swat will have eradicated any trace of the Taliban.M.91.OBL mark-PL.M.93.AOR-PTCP.CONT.PRS.‫تا پر ما باندی غلط فکر کړی دی‬ tā pər mā bānde ɣalat fikər-Ø 2SG.DIR CONT-kill-PST-PTCP.PRS.92.M ‘You've got me all wrong.to very-M.M.on mistaken thought-M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL Pashtoon-PL..AOR.‫د سوات غيرتمندو پښتنو به د تالبانو نوغی ايستلی وی‬ də swat-Ø ɣayr tamadun-o paxtan-o of Swat-M.Verb usage  (8.M.ABL WOULD 1PL.WK problem-F.STR..‫ترډيره حده به موستونزه حل کړي وي‬ tər ḍer-a had-a bə mo stunza-Ø up.93) .M ‘He will also have benefited because he will have killed his cousin.91) ‫وی‬ .OBL without civilization-PL.AOR.90) 289 .3SG.DIR Ø-ist-ə́l-i wi CONT-remove.DIR be.AOR-PTCP.3SG.DIR wi dzəkə če ham bə ye xpəl-Ø be.AOR.F because COMP also WOULD 3.PST-PST-PTCP.DIR be.DIR be.92) .3SG.AOR.

95) .97) .OBL Ø-bal-ə́l-ay wəm CONT-invite-PST-PTCP.DIR .PST-PTCP.PST.1.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PST.5.ABL in.CONT.WK of help-F. yaw-a mujala-Ø ke Ø-lwúst-e one-F.’ (8. first and second conjugation verbs employ the past continuous participle.. Facebook-M .‫په فيس بوک کې يې د مرستې يو پيغام پرېښودلی و‬ pə fesbuk-Ø ke ye də mərast-e yaw peɣām-Ø in.DIR magazine-F.1SG ‘I came because you had invited me.DIR EMPH 1SG.DIR we be.M.CONT.DIR CONT-see.94) .WK from face-M.PST.290  Verbs (8.F ‘I had previously read two stories of his in a magazine.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR come.in CONT-read.DIR prexud-ə́l-ay wə CONT\leave-PST-PTCP.) (8.DIR be. and third conjugation verbs employ the aorist participle. (See Section 8.in 3..OBL WOULD 1SG.DIR be.M.‫دوه کيسې خو مې يې د مخه په يوه مجله کې لوستې وې‬ dwa kis-e xo me ye də məx-a pə two story-PL.WK 3.CONT.STR.AOR-1SG because COMP 2SG.4. All use the past continuous of to be as the auxiliary.PST..3SG.STR.’ (8.DIR yəm be.2 Past perfect As with the present perfect.. in this construction.OBL one message-M..M ‘She had posted a message on Facebook asking for help.PST-PST-PTCP.STR.228.M.177.F.CONT.’ (SW) 8.‫هغه به ذه ليدلی يم‬ haɣə́ bə zə Ø-lid-ə́l-əy 3SG..2.‫زه راغلم ځه چې تا بللی وم‬ zə rā́ɣl-əm dzəkə če tā 1SG.3PL.F...96) .1SG ‘He may have seen me.3.PRS.PL.STR.

F.F.DIR be.‫ تر منزل له رسیدلی نه یم‬.’ (8.COMIT of attention waṛ mərast-e kə́ṛ-e we worthy help-PL.CONT.100) .‫زموږ ډیموکرات دوستانو دوه کاله پخوا بودیجه تصویب کړی وه‬ (8.CONT.107.1SG ‘I'm in transit. ‫نه‬ (8. Likewise.STR. the light verb construction can occur either before the negated verb phrase.PST.M.OBL on side-F budget-F.M ‘Our friends the Democrats had passed a budget two years ago.PRS.AOR-PTCP.177. as in 8.F.3 Negation of perfect tenses When compound tenses are negated..3PL.PL.PST...M. or after it.AOR-PTCP.5.DIR NEG be.AOR-PTCP..99) zmung ḍimokrāt-āno dost-āno dwa 1PL.CONT.’ 8.3PL.OBL .M.F.’ .PL.CONT.DIR be.DIR kə́ṛ-ay wə do. in perfect constructions with third conjugation verbs. 3PL.PRS.storm-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .103.‫دولت هم د دوی سره د پام وړ مرستې کړي وې‬ dawlat-Ø ham də duy sərə də pām government-M.98) de dzaɣāst-o duṛ-e jóṛ-e this.ANIM.OBL sand.‫مزل کوومه‬ mazal-Ø kaw-əma tər manzil-Ø lā distance-M.Verb usage  291 .OBL two kāl-a pə xwā-Ø bodija-Ø taswíb-Ø year-M.ANIM. the participle can occur before this negated verb phrase.101 and 8.OBL yet Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay ná yəm CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.POSS democrat-PL.F.DIR built-PL. as in 8.OBL run-PL.DIR do.106.CONT-1SG up.228.F ‘Their steps had given rise to sandstorms.OBL friend-PL.102 and 8.STR.DIR do.M.3.DIR approval-M.‫دې ځغاستو دوړې جوړي کړی وې‬ (8. With first and second conjugation verbs. as in 8.to encampment-M. the negative particle /ná/ immediately precedes the auxiliary verb and forms a constituent phrase with it. as in 8.101) .F ‘The government had also helped them significantly.OBL also COMIT.104. I haven't gotten as far as the station. or after it.DIR kə́ṛ-e we do.M.105 and 8.DIR be.

DIR do.M.PRS.PST-PTCP.292  Verbs .F.M ‘Other sources haven't confirmed the Taliban's assertions.DIR oradz-Ø hír-a kə́ṛ-e ná day-F.OBL this.F.’ (8.M.3SG.105) .OBL desire-M.CONT.‫تر اوسه لا دغه لوړ ارمان ته نه یم رسیدلی‬ (8.OBL tā́yid kə́ṛ-e ná di confirmation do.104) .PRS.OBL to NEG yəm Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay be.CONT.DIR other-PL.’ (8.DIR NEG yəm be.177.POSS disaster-M.103) .’ (8.F.OBL high-M.CONT.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .ABL yet this.F.F.M.PRS.’ (8.CONT.1SG ‘He hasn't let me talk today.F.3SG.102) tər os-a lā dáɣa lwaṛ-Ø armān-Ø ta ná up.DIR in own-M condition-M NEG day prexúd-ay be.AOR-PTCP.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫خدای پاک انسان په خپل حال نه دی پرېښودی‬ xudāy pāk insān-Ø pə xpəl-Ø hāl-Ø ná God clean person-M.OBL to CONT\permit.DIR people-M.PRS.F ‘Our war-torn nation hadn't forgotten that day.‫د طالبانو ادعاوې نورو سرچینو تایید کړي نه دي‬ də tālibān-o idā-gāne nor-o sarčin-o of Taliban-PL.M CONT\abandon.DIR forgotten-F.3PL.DIR ‘I still haven't had my dream come true.1SG CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.OBL source-PL.AOR-PTCP.DIR ‘God hasn't left mankind behind.M.STR.DIR NEG wa be.PST.‫نن يې خبرو ته پرېښودى نه يم‬ nən ye xabar-o ta prexúd-ay ná today 3.PST-PTCP.DIR NEG be.‫زمونږ مصيبت ځپلي ولس دا ورځ هيره کړی نه وه‬ zmung masibat-Ø dzəpəl-i walas-Ø dā 1PL.106) .WK word-PL.228.OBL claim-PL.to now-M.DIR torn-PTCP.M.PL.CONT.

. These verbs are sometimes analyzed as participles in these constructions (Tegey & Robson.AOR.228.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-1SG ‘My vision still works and I can still write.4 Compound constructions: potential ‫کېدل‬ Optative verb forms are used in a construction with aorist forms of the verb /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to express potential.107) pəxwā me hits kala pə daɣšān fālāt-Ø ke ná before 1SG.177.3[SG.3.WK none when in..DIR ‘I've never done this type of thing before.CONT..AOR-PTCP.‫نظر مې لا کار کوي او لا هم لیکلای شم‬ nizar-Ø me lā kār-Ø kaw-í aw lā sight-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and should therefore be regarded as optatives. 8.WK still work-M.DIR do.DIR 1SG.1 Expressing potential present events The present tense of the potentiality construction is formed with the present optative form of the matrix verb and the present aorist form of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’: (8. See Section 8.108) ‫کېدل‬ .5.M participation-M.3SG.’ 8. but unlike participles.DIR do.3.8 for the formation of optative verbs. they do not take agreement suffixes. this.M] and still ham Ø-lik-ə́l-ay š-əm also CONT-write-PST-OPT become.PRS.7 and Section 8.in NEG day gaḍun-Ø kə́ṛ-ay be.‫پخوا مې هيڅکله په دغشان فعالت کې نه دی ګډون کړی‬ (8. 1996: 146).5.CONT-PRS.same activity-M ..M.4.Verb usage  293 .

M.OBL to INSTR vocal-F.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson.DIR AOR-arrive-PST-PST-OPT šw-e become.AOR.294  Verbs ‫تاسود خپل ټلیفون شمېره موږ ته په غږیزه توګه او دبرېښنا لیک په ډول هم‬ .PRS-1PL ‘We can proselytize on a large scale.STR.STR.CONT-PST-OPT become.PST-2SG ‘Were you able to get there on time?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction.DIR manner-F.AOR.4.PRS-2PL ‘You can also leave us your telephone number over the phone or by email.‫موږ په غټه پیمانه خلګو ته دین خپرولی شو‬ mung pə ɣaṭ-a pemāna-Ø xalk-o ta 1PL.’ 8.DIR of own-M.‫پرېښودلای شئ‬ (8. The aorist optative is used for an event that was actually carried out: ‫کېدل‬ (8.109) tāso də xpəl-Ø ṭelefun-Ø šmira-Ø 2PL.111) ‫تۀ هلته پر وخت ورسېدلی شوې؟‬ ta həlta pər waxt-Ø wə́-ras-ed-əl-ay 2SG.DIR spread-do. or was carried out over an extended period of time in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR.OBL number-F.OBL INSTR manner-M also CONT\leave-PST-OPT š-əy become.DIR measure-F. 1996: 148).5.DIR people-PL.OBL telephone-M.STR.228.DIR mung ta pə ɣagiz-a toga-Ø aw də brixnā 1PL.DIR there on time-M.DIR and of electricity lik-Ø pə ḍawal-Ø ham prexud-ə́l-ay letter-M.2 Expressing potential past events The past tense of the potentiality construction is formed from the optative forms of the matrix verb and past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.110) .STR.DIR INSTR large-F.OBL to din-Ø xapar-aw-ə́l-ay š-u religion-M.’ (8. the connotation is that the event either did not take place.

DIR do.‫مونږ تېره هفته جوار کرلی شوه‬ mung tera hafta jwār-Ø Ø-kar-ə́l-ay 1PL.F ‘The Afghans were able to help us very little [as they were busy with their own armed conflict].OBL berlin-Ø .114) .DIR CONT-see. televizyoni progrām-una Ø-lid-ə́l-ay Berlin-M.’ (8..‫ تلویژني پروګرامونه لیدلی شول‬. either a continuous or an aorist optative form of the matrix verb.112) .228.CONT-PST-OPT become.ANIM.5.M.M.‫افغانانو له موږ سره ډېره لږه مرسته کولای شوه‬ afɣān-āno lə mung sərə ḍer-a Afghan-PL.AOR.OBL .STR..OBL of west-M..4. 1996: 146)..PST-PST.AOR.’ 8.3SG.OBL last week corn-M CONT-plant-PST-OPT sw-ə become.3PL.M. 1PL.PST-PST..PST-PST. Using the aorist optative implies that the event is expected by the speaker to take place (Tegey & Robson..M ‘We might have been able to plant the corn last week [if you had brought the seeds].3SG.OBL people-PL. ‫به‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb usage  295 (8.DIR ləg-a mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay šw-a little-F. and present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL COMIT.STR.M ‘People in East Germany were able to watch TV shows from West Berlin.177.OBL ... ‫د ختیز جرمني خلکو د لویدیز برلین‬ də xatiz-Ø jermani-Ø xalk-o də lowediz-Ø of east-M.3 Expressing potential future events Potential future events are expressed using the modal clitic /bə/..113) .AOR.’ (8..COMIT very-F. televised program-PL.DIR help-F.PST-PST-OPT šw-əl become.OBL Germany-M.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR war-F.M] ‘People thought that they would be allowed to pass only by talking enough [to convince us].to.M.CONT.296  Verbs (8.DIR CONT-consider-PST-PTCP.AOR-OPT become.DIR da če duy bə yawāze pə be.DIR WOULD only INSTR dumra way-əl-o préxud-əl-ay so.PRS-PRS.PRS.PL.much say-INF-PL.DIR up.115) .DIR reader-PL.AOR.228.OBL las kalən-a jagṛa-Ø pāy-Ø ta wə́-rasaw-əl-ay ten year.F.3 usage-F.OBL WOULD of Afghanistan-M.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.STR.OBL to AOR-arrive-PST-OPT š-i become.M.3SG.F.M] ‘With diplomacy.PRS-PRS.‫د خبرو له لارې به د افغانستان لس کلنه جګړه پای ته ورسولی شي‬ də xabar-o lə lār-e bə də afɣānistān-Ø of word-PL.’ (8. [they]'ll be able to end the 10 year-old war in Afghanistan.177.M.M.117) .AOR.PST-PTCP.to some all-PL.DIR end-M.AOR.M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.‫خلكو دا لې ده چې دوی به یوازې په دومره ویلو پرېښودلای شي‬ xalk-o dā Ø-gaṇ-ə́l-e people-PL.’ (8.OBL from side-F.PRS-PRS.116) .3[PL.OBL AOR\permit-PST-OPT š-i become.AOR.F COMP 3PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.old-F.‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become.3[PL.3[PL.DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.OBL this.

‫ته به په همدې موخه کار کولای شي‬ ta bə pə hamde moxa-Ø kār-Ø 2SG.DIR tomorrow-F.3[SG.AOR.118) ayā walas məšer-Ø karz-ay bə pə dohəm-Ø bon Q people leader-M.in give.119) laylā-Ø bə lik-Ø sabā-Ø ta Layla-F..PRS-2SG ‘You may be able to work on [achieving] this same goal.M.DIR joṛ-aw-ə́l-ay wə́-š-i built-do.DIR on Ø-leg-ə́l-ay s-i CONT-send-PST-OPT become.DIR WOULD letter-M.3[SG.M.DIR NEG EXT COMP such one thing-M.‫لیلا به لیک سبا ته لېږلی شي‬ (8.same goal-F.’ (NW) (8.DIR guarantee-PL.PRS-PRS.DIR Karzai-M.PRS-PRS.Verb usage  297 ‫ایاولس مشرکرزای به په دوهم بون کې ورکړي تضمیونونه عملي کړای شي؟‬ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .121) . 1996: 148)...F ‘Layla might be able to send the letter tomorrow.PL.DIR WOULD on this.AOR. .DIR WOULD in.3SG.AOR. translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson.M] ‘Will President Karzai be able to implement the assurances he made at the Second Bonn Conference?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction with the future particle.’ (8. the connotation is that the action is not necessarily probable.AOR-PTCP..STR.CONT-PST-OPT AOR-become.DIR work-M.120) .AOR.’ The following two sentences suggest that either a continuous or an aorist optative can be used to express an a repeated event with future time reference: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR amáli kṛ-ay š-i implemented do.228.AOR-OPT become.CONT-PST-OPT become.DIR kaw-ə́l-ay š-e do.M] ‘There's no one else who could build such a thing. second-M Bonn konferans-Ø ke wə́rkṛ-i tazmin-una conference-M .PRS-PRS.‫بل څوګ نشته چې داسې يو شی جوړولی وشي‬ bel-Ø tsok nə́ šta če dāse yaw šay-Ø other-M.DIR who.177.

1996: 145–147): (8.AOR.ANIM.’ ‫ناټو دې د مرکچيان طالبان پرېږدي چې په خلاسه پښه تګ راتګ وکولای‬ .DIR from which-F.’ 8.3SG.DIR do.M] COMP INSTR open-F.5.OBL without tag rātag-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay go come-M.PST-PST.298  Verbs .M CONT-write-PST-OPT ‘Until now.CONT-PST-OPT wə́-š-i AOR-become.DIR foot-F.4 Negative The negative particle must precede the auxiliary verb in a potential construction.4.124) .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .AOR.to now-M.M.DIR and of father-M.DIR Taliban-PL.3[PL.M.3[PL.PRS-PRS .‫تر څو خلک له کومې ستونزې پرته تګ راتګ کولای وشي‬ (8. I wasn't able to write either my name or my father's.OBL num-Ø ná šo-Ø Ø-lik-ə́l-ay name-M.OBL problem-F.3[SG.DIR AOR-do-PST-OPT become. but the optative form may come before or after the negated verb phrase (Tegey & Robson.DIR NEG become.AOR.228.DIR go rātag-Ø wə́-kaw-əl-ay š-i come-M.‫تر اوسه مې خپل او د پلار نوم نه شو لیکلی‬ tər os-a me xpəl-Ø aw də plār-Ø up.177.DIR prégd-i če pə xlās-a pxa-Ø tag AOR\permit-PRS.122) tər tso xalək-Ø lə kum-e stunz-e prata up.‫شي‬ (8.M] ‘NATO should allow the Taliban delegates to be able to come and go as they please.M] ‘So that the people can come and go without issue.to some people-M.DIR NEC representative-PL.WK own-M.123) nāto-Ø de marakič-ian tālibān-Ø NATO-M.ABL 1SG.PRS-PRS.

127) də kābul-Ø pohəntun-Ø də 9 11 pə aṛa-Ø of Kabul university-M.4.AOR..4). infinitives ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.1 Infinitives as nouns Infinitives show the default masculine plural agreement (see Section 11.3SG.125) qalam-Ø ka māt-Ø š-i tsə pen-M.’ (8.DIR tašxis-Ø wə-nə́ šo-Ø kṛ-ay diagnosis-M.5.in doctor-PL.’ !!!‫ په اړه کوم سیمپوزیم جوړ نشو کړای‬۹/۱۱ ‫د کابل پوهنتون د‬ (8.DIR built-M.M.PST-PST.CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together.PRS-PRS.AOR-OPT ‘The doctors in Kunar couldn't give a correct diagnosis.M.5.228.DIR 1SG.‫قلم که مات شی څه لیکلی نشو‬ (8.DIR kum-Ø simpoziyom-Ø joṛ-Ø ná which-PL.DIR NEG šo-Ø kṛ-ay become.2.5.M do.AOR-OPT ‘The University of Kabul wasn't able to offer any seminars on 9–11!!!’ (8.5).3[SG..OBL correct-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .Verb usage  299 .’ 8. non-direct forms take the /‑o/ oblique/ablative plural suffix used on declension Class II nouns (see Section 5.DIR if broken-M..DIR seminar-M.AOR.ANIM.‫په کونړ کې ډاکټرانو سم تشخیص ونه شو کړای‬ pə konaṛ-Ø ke ḍāktar-āno sam-Ø in. Like other event nominals.5 Infinitives 8.126) .PRS-1PL ‘You can't write anything with a broken pen. Kunar-M .PST-PST.3 and Section 11.128) .AOR.DIR become.‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M.AOR.OBL of 9 11 on topic-F.PST do.129.M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.AOR.7.. as in 8.DIR AOR-NEG become.3SG.177.M] what Ø-lik-əl-ay ná š-u CONT-write-PST-OPT NEG become.WK NEG become.

3PL.3PL.F ‘I heard on the radio about the government's helping out..OBL . . infinitives and past participles can be used as the nominal component of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ to form a verbal construction that is often referred to as the Pashto passive.PRS..135. 8.OBL of mərast-e kaw-ə́l-o xabar-e w-ā́rw-ed-e help-PL.PST-PST.‫ما له راديو څخه د حکومت د مرستې د کولو خبرې وارويدې‬ (8..2.DIR be.133.DIR do-INF-PL.177. in addition to an aorist form of /kedə́l/. and 8.228.M ‘Is it legal to take opium for a head-cold?’ (8.OBL sərə mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-Ø di .DIR xoṛ-ə́l-Ø jāyiz-Ø di eat-INF-PL.OBL from sake-M.130) ‫ايا د زکام لپاره تارياک خوړل جايز دي؟‬ ayā də zukām-Ø lə pār-a tiyārāk-Ø Q of head. radio-F.ABL opium-M.5.DIR COMIT..2.‫د مدني ټولنې دنده د دولت سره مرسته کول دي‬ də madani ṭolən-e danda-Ø də dawlat-Ø of civilized society-F. or object of an adposition.CONT.PRS. object.M. Both infinitival and participial complements of /kedə́l/ can optionally have the aorist prefix /wə́‑/in aorist forms of this construction.3PL.DIR be.5.M.OBL word-PL.F.F.CONT..5.COMIT help-F. as in 8.129) mā lə rādyo-Ø tsəxə də hakumat-Ø də 1SG.M.300  Verbs may take their own complements.STR. government-M.OBL from.M..DIR legal-PL.DIR AOR-hear.’ 8.DIR do-INF-PL.from of government-M.M ‘Helping the government is a duty in an advanced society.132.131) . Infinitival phrases may serve as a subject.’ (8..5.OBL job-F..2 The periphrastic passive As described in Section 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫وـ‬ . ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.cold-M.

PST-PST.M ‘Two hundred people were killed in the attack.PRS-1SG ‘I am being tied.133) wə́-taṛ-əl s-əm AOR-tie-INF become.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫وتړل شو)ل(م‬ (8..’ .AOR. skin-M.F] ‘It is considered good to eat an apple along with its peel.‫ښه بلل کېږي چي مڼه له پوټکي سره وخوړله شي‬ (8.132) xə bal-əl kég-i če good consider-INF become.3[SG.AOR.in 200 person-PL.DIR kill-INF šw-əl become.136) .CONT.PRS-PRS.AOR.‫تړل کېږم‬ Ø-taṛ-ə́l kég-əm CONT-tie-INF become.DIR š-i become.M] COMP maṇa-Ø lə poṭək-i səra wə́-xoṛ-əl-a apple-F.137) pə brid-Ø kxe 200 tan-a waz-əl in..DIR COMIT.‫وتړل شم‬ (8.PST-1SG ‘I was tied.CONT.177.AOR.PST-1SG ‘I was being tied...3PL.‫ تنه وژل شول‬۲۰۰ ‫په برید کښې‬ The prefix (8.228.Verb usage  301 .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ..CONT. however: .135) wə́-taṛ-əl sw(əl)-əm AOR-tie-INF become.’ ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ is not obligatory.COMIT AOR-eat-INF-F.PRS-1SG ‘[that] I be tied’ (8.PRS-PRS..OBL .’ .134) .3[PL..’ (8.M.‫تړل کېد)ل(م‬ Ø-taṛ-əl ked(əl)-ə́m CONT-tie-INF become. attack-M ..

DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.144: .141) de sten-e pə sim-Ø ob-e ná of needle-SG.PL.CONT.177.’ (8. as can be seen in examples 8. In Dzadrani.302  Verbs If a participle rather than an infinitive is used.DIR NEG Ø-mínd-e kež-i CONT-find.M] ‘He is being beaten.PRS-PRS.3[SG.OBL INSTR eye-M water-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F] ‘His feet will be injured.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.143 and 8.DIR become. as in 8.PL.‫دی وهلی کېږی‬ (8.‫دوی وهلي کېږی‬ duy Ø-wah-ə́l-i 3PL. it agrees with the undergoer.CONT.DIR 3.CONT.CONT.142) pš-e ye wa wə́-tik-əl-e feet-PL.F.DIR kég-i become.M.M.F.STR.DIR kég-i become.3[PL.PL.M] ‘They are being beaten.F.3[PL. however.’ .138) day Ø-wah-ə́l-ay 3SG.F] ‘Not a needle's eyeful of water is [to be] found.8.228.DIR become.F.WK WOULD AOR-injure-INF-PTCP.STR.140) .PRS-PRS.F] ‘She is being beaten.F.PRS-PRS.’ (8.142.PRS-PRS.STR.F.‫دا وهلې کېږی‬ (8.PST-PTCP.3[PL.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.139) dā Ø-wah-ə́l-e kég-i 3SG. the participle does not show agreement but remains masculine direct regardless of the gender and number of the subject.F.3[SG.’ (WAZ-L) (8.DIR Ø-š-i CONT-become.PRS-PRS.138 .M.

.OBL CONT-see-PTCP-SG.144) ḍənder-e ó-wa-l-ay drum-PL.F.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP. as in: ..M.3SG.M.5.PST-PST.DIR CONT-become.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP.DIR NEC of CONT-liberate-PTCP-SG.145) europay-i ṭulən-a bāyad də Ø-xlas-únk-i Europe-ADJZ society-F..M.DIR Ø-šw-e CONT-become.3SG.’ (DZA) (8.Verb usage  303 (8.146) . ukren-Ø ke pə kār-Ø payəl-Ø Ukraine-M.AOR-PRS.DIR considered kṛ-i do.F.DIR kṛ-áy do.1.F ‘The European Union must consider commercial rescue policies.F ‘A drum was struck.OBL beginning-M.228.. see Section 11.DIR policy-PL.M.F.PST-PST.3.OBL sawda-gar-iz-e taglar-e ɣwára business-NMLZ-ADJZ-PL.F ‘Drums were struck.5.143) ḍəndera-Ø ó-wa-l-ay Ø-šw-a drum-F.M.OBL .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫اروپایی ټولنه باید د خلاصونکی سوداګریزې تګلارې غوره کړي‬ (8. 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.OBL in.‫د اروپایی ټولنې کتونکی په اوکراین کې په کار پیل کړی‬ də europay-i ṭulən-e Ø-kat-únk-i pə of Europe-ADJZ society-F.3PL.6 Present participles Present participles can be used to modify nouns.’ or to form a verbal noun: (8.DIR ‘A European Union observer has begun work in the Ukraine.in on work-M.AOR-PTCP.’ (DZA) For more example sentences using the periphrastic passive.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

1987). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. attested examples show that Pashto also has ambipositions. there is a set of principles that we understand only in part. are mentioned by Heston (1987).1 gives an example of this glossing convention. typically the postpositional component. and in some case assignments. 1996) or ambipositions (Heston.² • Finally. though for a given variety the inventory of prepositions and postpositions is fixed. 3 The translation into English of this work was provided by Melissa Fox.e.. the functions of adpositions in Pashto range from quite abstract relationships to very specific spatial. i. adpositions that may occur either before or after their objects. The postpositional component in such cases may be a lexicalized meronymic expression. rendering the effect of independent prepositions or (more typically) postpositions. The term circumposition more transparently denotes a single discontinuous lexeme. In this chapter we discuss those principles that we understand. and generally the interpretation of any given adposition will depend on the context. The Middle dialects vary from General Pashto in the inventory of adpositions. for several reasons: • First.1 Overview Pashto exhibits three categories of adposition: prepositions. postpositions.³ which 1 These items are referred to in other grammars as pre-post-positions (Tegey & Robson.177. including cognates. In the general style of Indo-European. and circumpositions.228. 2 Circumpositions in Persian. some circumpositions appear to be semi-productive combinations of prepositions and postpositions or prepositions and adverbs (as asserted by Babrakzai 1999). Much of the description provided of Middle dialect adpositions originates in Septfonds (1994). Where two components of a circumposition together express a single relation. Sentence 9. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 109) use this term as well.74.. We call these phrasal adpositions complex adpositions. Brugman 9 Adpositions 9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . some items that function as circumpositions are complex in one component. as is shown in Example 9. which require or allow one or the other component of a circumposition to be deleted.) after the gloss. and the second will have an ellipsis before the gloss. Lazard (1963) and Phillott (1919). • Second. Throughout this chapter. in the pronunciation of individual items.¹ The class of circumpositions is the most difficult to describe exhaustively.Claudia M. temporal. the first component will have an ellipsis (. and in the examples throughout this book. as reflected in the glossing or translation. or causal relationships.

2. we identify /wrusta/ ‘after. In addition. adpositions generally govern either oblique or ablative case assignment to their objects. however. səra/ is identified here primarily as a postpositional component of a circumposition.73).1.) suggests that the direct case may be becoming the preferred case assignment for some adpositions as well. however. it is possible that there are varieties of Pashto that treat it as a simple adposition. example sentences and descriptions may reflect other Middle varieties. and based on the fact that from our information it only governs an object when it is a component of a complex circumposition (see Example 9..72 and 9.120).3.177. 9. this is reflected in some written examples by the lack of space between the adposition and its object. adpositions in Pashto may govern objects other than noun phrases.. Furthermore.228. including strong pronouns and oblique pronominal clitics. Three other points should be remembered about Pashto adpositions: • Items that are identified (in this grammar or elsewhere) as adverbs may in fact function as adpositions. L. This is in addition to some dialect-based variation in the specific combinations of adpositions into complex adpositions or circumpositions.2. Finally. and is therefore properly classified as an adverb.306  Adpositions is a description of the Dzadrani dialect.4. concurring with other grammars.1.4 give examples of different adpositions in construction with the complementizer /čə/. Our own research suggests the existence of both similarities and differences between Dzadrani (as Septfonds describes it) and Waziri. For instance. both of which may be case-marked according to the requirements of the governing adposition (see 9. in its function outlined in Section 10. Conversely. as described more briefly by Lorimer (1902: 39–40). claiming that the use of the oblique form may sound dated to some speakers. however. 9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..c. • Individual adpositions are often described as clitics. later’ as an adverb in Table 10. it is possible that some of the features noted here for Dzadrani and Waziri may be found in varieties of Pashto outside of the Middle dialect group as well. but a dearth of information prevents us from making any substantive claims about how they differ from each other. it does not take even a notional object. Furthermore. where the adposition’s object is a subordinate clause. the item /. ‫ورسته‬ ‫ سره‬. However.2.. • As expected. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the object in an adpositional phrase may be more or less clausal: one possibility is an infinitive verb and its local argument. ‫چه‬ • Some adpositions are subject to dialect-based pronunciation variation as exemplified in Table 4. Many of the subsections of Section 11. The same can be said for some items identified in this grammar as adverbs of place in Table 10. Rzehak (p.2 Adpositions and case assignment For all varieties of Pashto.32 gives an example with a case-marked adjectival object.

M] ‘Zartsangay's son lives in France.OBL . In particular.1 Assignment of oblique case Our research suggests that the object of an adposition is most often assigned the oblique case.2) claims that the comparative postposition /tǝr/ ‘than’ can assign either oblique or direct case to its object. Also for Dzadrani.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . sometimes case-marking can vary (usually between direct and oblique) without difference in meaning. in’ preferentially assigns direct case but may also assign oblique case. Some speakers have reported that vocative case-marking may be assigned. the difference in case-marking is associated with a difference in meaning.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. this grammar recognizes an ablative case. the case assignment is always oblique. Septfonds (1994: 262) notes further that circumpositions whose first component is /ye/ or /tər/ may assign the oblique or the ablative case to their objects.OBL son-M.. as shown in sentence 9. where some other grammars do not. this matter deserves more study. 9.19).2.3) as the object of the adposition. There may be varieties of Pashto for which oblique is the only case-marking form governed by adpositions (as is claimed in. ‫تر‬ (9. according to Lorimer (1902: 40). In addition. oblique.2..g.Adpositions and case assignment  307 the picture is somewhat complicated by several issues: first.3[SG.DIR in. Septfonds (1994) asserts that an adposition may assign direct. however. Septfonds (1997: 8.3.. the preposition /tər/ ‘up to’ and circumpositions of which it is the prepositional component always assign the oblique case to their objects. Our own research on Waziri confirms that assignment of direct case predominates. so descriptions of the same facts may not line up. This includes the appearance of the fused genitive strong pronoun (see Section 7. however. France-M. Dessart 1994: 52). In Waziri. again..1) . Our research suggests that Waziri does not observe this constraint: singular or plural objects of /e/ may be case-marked direct (as shown in example 9.‫د زرڅانګي زوی په فرانسې کي اوسېږي‬ də zarʦāng-i zoy-Ø pə farāns-e ki of Zartsangay-M.in Ø-os-éẓ-i CONT-live-PRS-PRS.3. however. For Dzadrani in particular. in other situations. in some situations either ablative or oblique case may appear in construction with a particular adposition. when the object is plural. or ablative case to its object when the object is singular in number. e.. The ablative case is governed by a small number of adpositions.228. /pə/ ‘on.177.

The ablative case is discussed in Section 5.CONT. 1SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3PL.2.M..SW) (9.CONT.308  (9.DIR metal-PL.1SG ‘I have come from father.DIR be...M.PST-PST-PTCP..PRS.M ‘The members of al-Qaida fled from Afghanistan. ‫نه‬ ‫پاس‬ ‫نه‬ (9.3.2 Assignment of ablative case ‫له‬ Some adpositions assign the ablative case to their object.‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣ-əl-əy yəm from father-M.3) .M..’ (9.5) .DIR from Afghanistan-M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR..OBL . Tegey & Robson 1996) that treat /a/ as simply a variant of /na/.POSS note-PL.ABL come. /pāsa/ ‘top.’ (SW) 9. boat-F .DIR in.in di be.DIR be.COMIT in..M. In this work. most notably GP /lə/ and complex adpositions that contain it.17 is historically derived from /pas/ ‘top’ plus the postposition /na/ ‘from’.3PL.PRS.DIR and white-PL.DIR sr-ə aw spin-Ø zar-Ø di red-PL.ABL’ in example 9.g.’ (NW.M. notebook-F. we nevertheless treat the ablative suffix as a case-marker and /na/ as a postpositional element.OBL member-PL.177.M.CONT.. for instance.in much-PL.2) Adpositions .STR.M ‘My notes are in the notebook. unlike other sources (e.1.M..‫زما نوټونه په کتابچې کې دي‬ zmā noṭ-una pə kitābč-e ke 1SG..4) ‫پاسه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ه‬ .M ‘There is a lot of gold and silver in the boat with me..OBL .3PL..STR.PRS.‫له ما سره په كښتۍ كې ډېر سره او سپين زر دي‬ la mā sərə pə kixt-ey ke ḍer-Ø COMIT.‫د القاعده غړي له افغانستانه وتښتېدل‬ də al-qedə-Ø ɣəṛ-i lə afɣānistān-a of al-Qaida-M.ABL wə́-taxt-ed-əl AOR-flee-PST-PST.3.228. The ablative case-marking suffix is apparently historically related to the postposition /na/.

12.3 Assignment of direct case In General Pashto.PRS.AOR.‫ په‬/pə.10 demonstrates it in direct form. the noun is in direct plural form. there is apparently synchronic alternation between the ablative suffix and the postposition /na/ ‘from’.M ‘Without a man. ‫نه‬ 9.228.PRS. this time using the masculine noun /xār/ ‘city’. at’ may assign direct or oblique case to their objects (Tegey & Robson.OBL house-M.AOR. Likewise. while Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the use of the direct form as literary or formal.1).DIR empty be. having the object marked in the ablative case gives the sense of ‘(motion) away from’: ‫د‬ (9.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.’ (SW) For some other adpositions.AOR. it is in the oblique plural form. (9.’ There may also be dialectal variation as to whether the oblique or the ablative case is assigned by a particular adposition.8) .3..3SG.’ (SW) (9.‫بې سړېه کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-aya kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M. in’ and ‫کې‬. while 9. the house is empty. ‫کوټه‬ ‫ښار‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. In some dialects or in different styles.‫د کوره راغلم‬ də kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M.M ‘Without a man. the house is empty.2. our own research on current usage is that direct case may be gaining ground. Example 9. assigning ablative as opposed to oblique case affects the meaning of the phrase.. the adpositions ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘on.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .11 and 9.9 shows the feminine noun /koṭa/ ‘room’ appearing in the oblique form. which is normally associated with possession (see Section 9. examples 9.Adpositions and case assignment  309 Other adpositions can assign either oblique or ablative case to the object.1.. In example 9. for instance with /də/.DIR empty be.‫بې سړي کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-i kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M..ke/ ‘in.7) .6) . in 9.12 contain the same alternation.177. 1996: 158).3SG.ABL come.11. We have not found this difference in case-marking to correspond to a difference in meaning.ABL house-M. without a difference in meaning.

PRS.’ (SW) (9.OBL but.M ‘My brother is sitting in the room.DIR ..DIR in.DIR dəy be.. xār-una ke ham xorāki mowād-Ø xalk-o city-PL..STR.310  (9.CONT.DIR .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. village-PL.in also nutritional items-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL of nutritional items-PL.in sitting-M.DIR dəy be.PRS.OBL ...’ (SW) (9.3SG.M.M..POSS brother-M..M ‘My brother is sitting in the room.M.9) Adpositions ...OBL ta Ø-weš-í to CONT-distribute-PRS.‫هم خوراکي مواد خلکو ته وېشي‬ də malgr-o məlit-uno də ɣzāyi mowād-o of friend-PL.DIR in.11) ‫ بلکې په ښارونه کې‬،‫د ملگرو ملتونو د غذایي موادو پروگرام نه یوازی په ککې‬ .M.‫زما ورور په کوټه کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-a ki nāst-Ø 1SG.in sitting-M.also in..M.DIR people-PL.STR.177.M. but also to those in cities.M] ‘The United Nations' Food Program is distributing food items to people not only in villages.OBL nation-PL. room-F.3[SG.POSS brother-M.228.CONT.. room-F.M..3SG.OBL progrām-Ø ná yuwaze pə kal-io balki pə program-M.DIR NEG only in...‫زما ورور په کوټې کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-e ki nāst-Ø 1SG.10) .

DIR of country-M.DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell.OBL of education-F.OBL ministry-M. as shown for adjectives in sentence 9.’ (9. city-PL.M.2.DIR qāz-āno ɣunde di goose-PL.PRS-PRS..CONT.M.3[SG..177. of alive-PL.M. that-PL.13 and for demonstratives in 9.OBL .‫نڅاګران لکه د ژوندی قازانو غوندی دي‬ nətsāgār-ān leka də žwand-i dancer-PL...M.M.228. (9.like be.DIR topic-PL..M ‘The dancers are like energetic geese.ANIM.OBL .‫کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو سان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M.OBL .M.M] COMP CONT-want..11.DIR kṛ-i do.M.3PL.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø barābár-a one-M.14.Adpositions and case assignment  (9.M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno aw UNESCO INSTR help-F.DIR opportunity-F.13) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’ 9.PRS-PRS.OBL in.14) ‫په هغه موضوعاتو باندې‬ pə háɣ-ə mawzo-āto bānde on.PRS.3[SG. as shown in example 9.ANIM.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO..M.M..on ‘on those topics’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..DIR prepared-F.OBL and kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə pār-a village-PL. case-marking is not particularly consistent.3[SG.OBL from sake.12) 311 ‫ چې غواړي د په مرسته د هیواد په ښارونو او‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ .DIR like. Conjoined noun phases inside the adpositional object may fail to agree with each other.4 Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions Inside the objects of adpositions...in of student-PL. Modifiers of the noun inside the adpositional object may fail to agree on case with the governing noun.DIR similar educational-F.AOR-PRS..

As a determiner (see also Section 6. Pashto has three prepositions: /də/ ‘of’.177. Some examples of common relationships expressed using /də/ are given here. Besides their independent functions as prepositions. and /tər/ ‘up to’.3.3. Other scholars analyze the different pronunciations in terms of dialect differences: Penzl (1955) identifies the pronunciation /da/ with the Eastern dialect. The Middle items appear to vary with relative freedom within the dialect group. some of them alternate with circumpositions. and /e/ characteristic of the Middle dialects. however. the geographic area including Kabul (labeled Northwest in this grammar).3). and is used also to mark the complements of transitive nominalizations or gerunds. Notice that phrases governed by /də/precede their governing noun irrespective of ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 4 Hewson & Bubenik (2006) refer to /də/ as the genitive marker. /pə/ ‘on.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . it expresses typical possessive and meronymic relations.1 The General Pashto preposition /də/ The preposition /də/ is used to express any of a wide range of functional relationships between its object and other elements in the sentence⁴.3. ‫تر‬ 9. This group of items expresses functions that are in other languages associated with genitive case marking.3  Adpositions Prepositions ‫د‬ ‫په‬ According to most analyses. while acknowledging its grammatical status as a preposition. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ 9. /ye/. There appears to be a high degree of variation in the pronunciation of /də/: this same orthographic form may be pronounced as /də/ or /di/ in construction with the first and second person pronouns.312 9. while /da/ is additionally attested for in construction with the third person pronouns.1 The prepositions /də/. /e/ ‘of’ ‫د‬ The GP preposition /də/appears to alternate with the items /de/. The additional prepositions listed in that section may be associated with different varieties of Pashto. We describe here several additional prepositions. by means of’. so it is possible that what appear to be independent prepositions are circumpositions with omitted postpositional components.228.1.2. /de/. while the GP item /də/alternates distributionally with the GP item /lə/. /ye/.5. which we treat separately in Section 9. each of them may also appear as components of various circumpositions. and Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the pronunciation /di/ with what they call the Central dialect. which is nevertheless discussed separately in Section 9. as well as the subjects of intransitive nominalizations or gerunds.

2 Complex adpositions using /də/ In general.OBL of wazir-Ø də waynā-Ø la məx-e minister-M. In example 9.2.OBL of speech-F.16 are both in phrase-initial position.2) (9. except for the final one.15 and the true possessive in 9. 1955: 77.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . 1994: 4. ‫د‬ ‫د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو د وزیر د وینا له مخی‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də korən-əyo čār-o də of Afghanistan-M.9. as in the example /də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’. the result is a set of coalesced or fused forms that are identified in Section 7.2.0..2 and 9.16) ‫ له مخی‬.3.M..228. /də/ governs the item denoting the possessor or the holonym of which another adpositional phrase may denote the possessed item or be the meronym.M.OBL laɣwa-Ø kaw-ə́l cancellation-M. which is a circumpositional phrase with /də .OBL of result-PL. the phrase is pronounced with distinct preposition and object (Penzl. In such uses.1. With the lexicalization of meronyms.15) ‫د تیرو انتخاباتو د نتایجو لغوه کول‬ də tir-o intixābāt-o də natāyij-o of past-PL.Prepositions  313 the functional relationship between the two—for instance. An apparently independent condition requires the phrase governed by /də/ (or the possessive pronoun mentioned above) to be the first element in the larger phrase it belongs to. the nominal complement in sentence 9..OBL from direction-F. ‫د‬ (9.DIR do-INF ‫د‬ ‘invalidating the results of the past elections’ ‫د وطن ساتنه‬ /də/ can govern the objects of deverbal nouns. la məxe/. when /də/ governs a strong pronoun. In other dialects.OBL affair-PL.3 as pronouns expressing genitive functions. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F. this produces the effect of a circumposition.OBL ‘according to Afghanistan's Minister of the Interior’ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ In many dialects.3a). the /də/ has reduced to a single consonant..F.177.OBL elections-PL. we consider each phrase consisting of /də/ and its object to be a simple prepositional phrase.OBL of internal-PL.16. it is common to find multiple instances one after another. /də māxām storay/ ‘the evening star’ NW ‫د ماښام ستوری‬ ‫ د بالاپوښ لستوڼی‬/də bālāpox lastuṇay/ ‘the coat sleeve’ ‫ د عادل خپلوان‬/də ādil xpəlwān/ ‘Adil's relatives’ ‫ د دوست سپی‬/də dost spay/ ‘the friend's dog’ ‫ د وطن ساتنه‬/də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’ NW /de yespone čapləy/ ‘sandals of iron’ DZA (Septfonds. ‫د‬ 9. Examples of these items are found in examples 9.M.

lə pāsa/. Section 6..1.DIR be. is found less often in Dzadrani than its variant /ye/. in an apparently extragrammatical way (because the construction appears without either /də/ or /lə/governing the grammatical object). These two variant forms fulfill functions very similar to the corresponding items /də/ and /lə/ in General Pashto. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists only /de/ and /e/.5.PST-PTCP.CONT.3 The Middle dialect prepositions /de/. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ 9.də pāsa/ ‘above. /də.228. the glosses reflect the translation of their components. As is the case for General Pashto.5. while the sentence translations reflect the meaning of the phrase as a whole. (See also Table 6.’ (E)⁶ (9. 6 Standardized version of 9... ‫د‬ ‫ د پاسه‬.3SG.38 describe how. Other common phrases with /də/ that function as complex circumpositions are discussed below in Section 9.) These collocations are fixed and idiomatic to varying degrees.DIR 1SG..18) .M ‘The flood came from above the village.17: 7 Standardized version of 9.17.‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما ندی‬ də mez-Ø də pās-a kitāb-una zmā of table-M.PRS. ‫د‬ (9. /də.DIR rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.’⁷ This situation results in constructions that function as circumpositions.1.M ‘The books on top of the table are not mine.‫د کلي له پاسه سیلاو راغلی دی‬ .17) . the /silāw/ is an Eastern-dialect variant.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫سېلاب‬ .3SG.3. used in some additive number name forms. In Western dialects it is /sélāb/. the form closer in pronunciation to General Pashto.ABL flood-M.17. /de/. /ye/..POSS ná day NEG be.177.ABL book-PL.OBL from top-M.3.18: .STR.PRS. in that the elements together all govern one object. for Waziri. this circumposition can be used in number names.1.M. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫سلاو‬ 5 In example 9.. a phrase governed by /de/ or /ye/is often found in pre-clausal position.‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما نه دي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.314  Adpositions as exemplified in 9.OBL of top-M.‫د کلي له پاسه سلاو راغلی دی‬ də kil-i lə pās-a silāw-Ø of village-M.2 and Table 6.. on top of’ ⁵ ‫ له پاسه‬. these items appear to vary freely with each other. over. /e/ In their prepositional uses..AOR.38 for a variant on this construction.CONT. not /ye/.

17) • /ye .) In Dzadrani.3SG. ye pora/ ‘after’ A number of phrases are based on the combination of /ye/ (in its use indicating motion away from—see 9.M.DIR located-PL...CONT. and with ‫ په لور‬. pə sar/ ‘at the top of.1.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .2 and Section 9. but Septfonds records different combinations which result in different circumposition-like phrases.89). above’ • /ye .8) with two nouns in succession.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F. according to Septfonds (1997: 8. This is analogous to the situation in General Pashto (see Section 9..DIR nation-PL.5. ‫ د‬/də. pə manj ke/ ‘in the middle of’ • /ye ..M.’ (DZA) (Example 9. xo ta/ ‘next to’ • /ye .177..STR. the contracted forms discussed in Table 7.DIR yi be.DIR of sake-M. the entire phrase governs a single object..4 Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/ Septfonds notes that the placement of these phrases before the phrase they modify has resulted in the effect of circumpositions.3.3....228. The following are constructions mentioned specifically in Septfonds (1994: 258) for Dzadrani: • /ye . above’ (compare 9.6 do not exist.1PL ‘We are on your land.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F. The second noun is always /liri/ or /lerya/ ‘direction’.PRS. 9.1).OBL path-F.20) da ye to pə oršo ke miʝ prot-ə this. due in part to the lexicalization of the meronym.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations.CONT.1. Again in these cases. the uncontracted forms with the governing preposition /ye/ and the strong pronoun objects are found instead. both of which are marked ablative.16)...19) 315 ...in 1PL.STR in.1...’ (WAZ) (9.M..pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9.DIR be.20 is from Septfonds 1994: 269. ‫مخې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. pə ɣo/ ‘at the top of.Prepositions  (9.DIR of 2SG.PRS.DIR of all-PL.2.. land .. Compare the GP examples with /mǝx/ ‘direction’ (9.1).

from . ker .M.22) ‫له‬ ‫له‬ .CONT. reflecting the fact that they are interchangeable as components of many circumpositions.AOR. when its object appears with ablative case marking.. bərya lerya/ ‘from .... The preposition /lə/ should not be confused with the postposition /la/ ‘to’ . top direction]’ • /ye .3. pə liri/ ‘towards’ (9..na/ ‘from’ and /be lə.pə liri of....4.... 9. from . below [lit. above [lit. from .SW) ‫له‬ The GP variant /lə/ is claimed to be nonexistent in Dzadrani.1.228.3. back direction]’ • /ye ..na/ ‘without’. kiza lerya/ ‘from . if there are two circumpositions that contain the same postpositional element and vary between /də/ and /lə/.PRS.316  Adpositions • /ye .3.... the preposition /lə/ does not have the possessive interpretation exemplified in Section 9. on top [lit.on direction ‘toward the house’ (DZA) • /ye . for Waziri. While we are neutral as to that issue.1. from .5).2)...... top direction]’ • /ye ..ABL come. we should nonetheless note that the two items may differ in meaning when appearing as independent prepositions..2 The General Pashto preposition ‫ له‬/lə/ ‘from’ ‫له‬ Most grammars treat the element /lə/ only as part of a circumposition.’ (NW..DIR be. However. which exists in some dialects (see Section 9...21) ye. house . posa lerya/ ‘from . they are apparently synonymous or reflect dialectal differences.‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣl-əy yəm from father-M. Lorimer (1902: 39) cites it as part of the circumposition /lə. In particular.. however.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..PST-PTCP..... ‫له‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ (9.. bottom direction]’ In addition to these combinations.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. /lə/ can function as a preposition of ablative function or of origin...177. above. acknowledging that it is relatively rare. our own consultants dispute this. Some sources treat /lə/ as a variant of /də/. the circumposition /ye. ʦət̩a lerya/ ‘from ..1SG ‘I have come from father. behind [lit.. On the other hand...na/ ‘from’ governs the standard of comparison where the compared item is the object of /tǝr/ ‘than’ (compare General Pashto: see Section 9..

23) .’ Some scholars (e.DIR ECHO corpse-M.ABL and dəṛ-ay wəṛay jəsad-Ø wə́-lid-Ø shredded-M. Septfonds (1994: 5.OBL without movement-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . See Section 6. See also examples 9. la na/ (suggesting that /lə/ is an ambiposition).3.DIR lonely be.24) . or two words.. ‫ پر‬/pər/ Scholars disagree as to whether Pashto synchronically possesses one polyfunctional word with two pronunciations. The object shows abla- ‫بې‬ tive case-marking.STR. we treat the prefix and the preposition as two separate.2 for a ‫بې‬ brief description of its use as an affix deriving adjectives. but he does mention the presumably cognate circumposition /be .M.6 and 9.M ‘I saw his lifeless and broken body.1.g.STR.ABL brother-M.’ (NW) (9. Arguments Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4 The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/.1. We treat it as corresponding to GP /be/ ‘without’. this shows the relationship to the derivational affix.‫ما د ده بې حرکته او دړی وړی جسد وليد‬ mā də də be harkat-a aw 1SG.DIR AOR-see.24. Both variants are cited by Lorimer (1902: 39) for Waziri. as it normally does in General Pashto (see Section 9. fulfilling the function of an adjective.M ‘A brother without a sister is lonely. Note that in sentence 9. 9.Prepositions  9. Penzl 1955) suggest that ‫ بې‬/be/ can be thought of as an affix rather than a preposition.228. /pə/ and /pər/.116. Our analysis of the corresponding Dzadrani item differs from that of Septfonds (1994: 269) in that he identifies the /be/ with the future marker (the /bǝ/ of General Pashto). By contrast. he does not discuss case assignment. the prepositional phrase is attributively modifying a noun. items based on the lexical class of the item governed by /be/. ‫بې‬ /be/ ‘without’ may govern an object which is typically assigned the ablative case.4) claims that the governing of ablative case-marking by /be/ is limited to singular nouns whose stems are consonant-final.177.PRS. /pər/.3SG.PST-PST.AOR.3).OBL of 3SG.3 The preposition 317 ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ Alone or in construction with the preposition ‫له‬ /lə/ ‘from’.‫بې )له( خوره ورور یوازي وي‬ be (lə) xor-a wror-Ø yawāzi wi without (from) sister-F.3. but related. /pə/.8.3SG.. Lorimer (1902: 39) gives the same analysis for Waziri. ‫له‬ (9.3.

. in at least the NW and SW dialects.1 for a variant of this preposition that incorporates its object.‫ په‬/pə..W) Example 9..3SG..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..‫پر کتابچې مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābč-e me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F.CONT-PRS.OBL 1SG.1 The locational /pə/. See Section 9.26) pə afɣānistān-Ø pə dəxt-o aw ɣar-uno in. (9. we describe three functions of the prepositions /pə/.228.⁸ Here we note that the more frequent pronunciation of these items in Dzadrani is /pə/ (Septfonds.F.‫د افغانستان په دښتو او غرونو کي تجربې کوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.WK pen-M.M] ‘They are performing experiments in the deserts and mountains in Afghanistan.318  Adpositions can be made in both directions.3.. desert-PL..M. Lorenz (1982) takes the position implied here.PRS. Below.25 with 9. mod- ified by a prepositional phrase headed by (9.27) .’⁹ Note again the possibility.27.M ‘I put a pen on the notebook.4. 1997).6.‫په مېز قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø qalam-una di on table-M pen-PL.OBL and mountain-PL. and spelling and pronunciation variation does not line up neatly with differences in function. while /pər/ is cognate with Persian /bar/ ‘on’ (Heston.OBL ki tajriba-Ø kaw-í .DIR do.DIR be.M ‘There are pens on the table.5. which are discussed in Section 9.in experiment-F. 9 Standardized version of 9. (9. /pər/ ‘on’ or a circumposition containing it may be used to express location.25) .3. that there are two words.128.. 1987: 166–167). to’ . as shown in examples 9. /pər/.CONT.‫په افغانستان په دښتو اوغرونوکي تجربه کوي‬ ‫کې‬.177. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پر‬ 9.3PL. that either oblique or direct case may be assigned to the object.DIR AOR\place.. /pər/ ‘on’ Either the preposition /pə/.3[PL.M.26: . This item can also be the first component in several circumpositions. .ke/..’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫به‬ ‫پر‬ ‫بر‬ 8 /pə/ is cognate with Persian /ba/ ‘in.’ (E.28 and 9. Compare example 9.26 shows a circumpositional phrase containing ‫ په‬/pə/. Afghanistan-M in.PST-PST.

which indicates an event that has a causative or circumstantial relationship to the event denoted in the finite verb.PRS-PRS. who is a former energy advisor in India's Industrial Federation. by means of’ One use of the preposition /pə/ (but not /pər/) indicates instrumentality or means (compare with example 9.AOR..’ ‫ په‬/pə/ may govern an event nominal.CONT.OBL former-M. often in infinitival form.DIR INSTR knife-M CONT-eat.2 The instrumental /pə/ ‘with.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL of industry-M. says that this problem will be solved by means of significant investments from the private sector.PRS-PRS.F.‫پر کتابچه مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābča-Ø me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F.OBL in.136). The examples in Section 5.29) ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ .‫زه ډوډۍ په چاکو خورم‬ za ḍoḍ-əy pə čākú-Ø Ø-xor-ə́m 1SG..PRS.3[SG.3SG.STR. kanfərəns-Ø ke də inerž-əy də barx-e paxwān-ay conference-M . (9.3SG.DIR be...DIR COMP of India-M.30) ‫رګو رام چې د هند د صنعت په کانفیدراسیون کې د انرژۍ د برخې پخوانی‬ ‫سلاکار دی وایي چې دغه ستونزه به د خصوصي سکتور د غټو پانګه اچونو په‬ .3.OBL of ɣaṭ-o pānga āčawən-o pə mərasta-Ø hál large-PL.DIR WOULD of private sector-M.in of energy-F.’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫په‬ 9.’ (SW) (9.DIR salākār-Ø day Ø-wāy-í če advisor-M. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-1SG ‘I eat with a knife.M] COMP dáɣa stunza-Ø bə də xosusi sektor-Ø də this.28) 319 .OBL wealth tossing-PL.4.WK pen-M.OBL INSTR help-F.M ‘I put a pen on the notebook.M CONT-tell.DIR food-F.‫مرسته حل شي‬ rago rām-Ø če də hind-Ø də sunat-Ø pə Rago Ram-M.2 show this usage.228.4.DIR problem-F.DIR 1SG.32).Prepositions  (9.OBL of part-F.177.DIR solved š-i become.F] ‘Rago Ram. Note too the use of /pə/ with an inflected adjective complement (9.DIR AOR\place.3[SG.PST-PST.M.

DIR NEG CONT-take. /pər/ ‘at.’ ‫په‬ An example of /pə/ conveying manner can be seen in the following examples (see also 9.32. Compare 9.DIR CONT-tie-PRS. as shown in 9.4.DIR INSTR rope-F horse-M.33) .35 and 9.ABL of nor-o hukәm-Ø ná Ø-axl-í other-PL.’ (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫سړی په رسۍ اس تړي‬ saṛ-ay pə ras-əy ās-Ø Ø-taṛ-i man-M.31) .36.DIR Pashtoon-M.M.228.81 for a temporal collocation with /pə/. rather than nominal.3 ‘The man ties the horse up with a rope.320  Adpositions ‫په‬ When the object of /pə/ is animate.‫څه په ګرانه مي کړي‬ tsә pә gran-a mi kә́ṛ-i what INSTR difficult-M. (9.OBL order-M. /pər/ ‘at. the animacy value of the prepositional object prompts the interpretation as denoting an intermediate agent or an instrument. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. see also 9.DIR INSTR easy-M.177. on’ can govern a noun that refers to a time of day. object (as shown in example 9.3[PL.‫په خټه پښتون دی‬ pə xaṭ-a paxtun-Ø d-ay INSTR mud-F.AOR-PTCP.’ ‫په‬ The preposition /pə/ can appear in a number of idioms indicating manner.94).CONT. on’ The prepositions /pə/ . (9.DIR be.DIR person-PL.M] ‘These people don't easily take orders from others.2. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ 9.PRS-3SG.PRS-PRS.93 and 9. In this usage.ANIM.154.3 The temporal /pə/. These lexicalized phrases differ across dialects.PL.DIR ‘I did something with great strain.M ‘He is Pashtoon by origin.M.M.WK do.ABL 1SG.32) . see also Section 10. the sentence takes on the sense of a causative construction in which the grammatical subject denotes an ultimate cause of an event expressed through the rest of the sentence: the actor of the caused event is expressed as the prepositional object.3.34) .‫دغه کسان په آسانه له نورو حکم نه اخلي‬ daɣa kas-ān pә asān-a də this.31 with 9.3). it may be found in construction with an adjectival.’ (9.

DIR drunk wo be.DIR šúw-e da če də become.PRS.AOR.‫نه غوښتنه شوېده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ háɣa farmān-Ø če də dāxila čār-o aw də that.36: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL beliefs-PL.PST.M in.in də ahmadiy-e na ɣuxtəna-Ø from.PST-PTCP.OBL .PRS.OBL haywād-Ø də loy-Ø ʦāranwāl-i lə xwā-Ø də country-M.OBL from...‫غوښتنه شوې ده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ 10 Standardized version of 9.OBL from side-F..AOR-PRS.177.DIR at that. it was requested that Ahmadiya refrain from proselytizing its beliefs. broadcasted-do-INF-PL.DIR be.M..F] ‘In the order that was written on Monday night by the ministers of Internal Affairs and of Religious Affairs.3SG. as well as by the nation's Attorney General..OBL of large-M.3SG.F COMP of xpəl-o əqāyid-o də xəpar-aw-əl-o own-PL.OBL of došanb-e pə šp-e lās lik Monday-F.M.OBL at night-F..from request-F.DIR be.OBL of minister-PL.’ (SW) (9.DIR night-F..PST-PTCP.DIR very-M. Ahmadiya-F.CONT..AOR.3SG.DIR COMP of internal affair-PL..’¹⁰ ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او د دې‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې نه‬،‫هیواد د لوي څارنوالي له خوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ .36) ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او ددې هیواد د لوی‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې‬،‫څارنوالي لخوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ .CONT.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.OBL hand letter šúw-ay day pə haɣ-ə́ ke become.F.OBL na ḍaḍa-Ø wə́-kṛ-i .228.OBL and of mazhabi umur-o də wazir-āno aw də de religious affair-PL. that-M.CONT.M...Prepositions  (9.M ‘Ahmad was very drunk on that night.OBL and of this.OBL .‫احمد په هغه شپه دېر نېشه وو‬ ahmad-Ø pə háɣa špa-Ø der-Ø neša Ahmad-M.from side-F.OBL attorney-M.M.3[SG.35) 321 .DIR order-M..ANIM.M.DIR AOR-do.F.

DIR CONT-eat. Compare 9.WK 3SG-to AOR-take.PST-PST. In this construction.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.4 With aspectual verbs Described for Dzadrani (Septfonds.STR. is a use of /pə/ in construction with aspectual verbs to indicate the beginning of the process.3.M attack-M.F.322  Adpositions It may also be used with number terms in time expressions to mean at X o'clock.F. ‫په‬ (9.3SG.’ (9.’ (SW) 9.37 and 9.DIR hour-PL.PST-PST.DIR food-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . as expected after a preposition.DIR 1SG.4. or in the direct form.’ In some dialects. both pronunciations of the preposition can be found with this meaning: (9.38.WK pə wə́-k-ə TMP AOR-do.M ‘I took it to her and started [to milk]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL hour-PL. the numbers can appear either in the oblique form.3SG.40) da me we-ta wə́-niw-Ø brid-Ø me this.DIR hour-F.DIR at two-PL. which also show that the object can appear as either singular or plural: (9.38) .DIR food-F.39) .PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock. and found also in General Pashto.37) .F.DIR CONT-eat.F.DIR 1SG.‫زه پر دوې بجې ډوډۍ خورم‬ zə pər/pə dw-e baj-e ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.‫په دوو بجو ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-ó baj-ó ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-PL.OBL food-F.‫په دوه بجه ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-á baj-á ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-F.228.DIR Ø-xwar-ə́m CONT-eat.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock. 1994: 269).177.

‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫نه‬.DIR be.. As part of a pair of correlative adpositions ‘from. na/ ‘from’.M..ABL of paxtan-o hāl-Ø Pashtoon-PL.1..DIR ‘the state of Pashtoons from Karachi to Kabul’ In the SW dialect.AOR-PST.. For a reduced form of this preposition in construction with the weak third-person pronoun.135 and 9.M COMP skāṭlanḍ-iāno bə pə skāṭlanḍ-Ø ke Scottish-PL.DIR EMPH this.OBL situation-M.M..41) 323 ‫ دا خو دی دومره غټ ډز په وکړ چی سکاټلینډیانو به په سکاټلینډ‬،‫ وروره‬،‫ارمل‬ ‫ لول‬..‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL .‫د‬ (9.VOC this..OBL WOULD in.DIR shot-M.M.136.‫کی اوریدلی وی‬ armal-Ø oror-a dā xo de dumra Armal-M.109 through 9.5 The preposition ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‘'up to'’ ‫تر‬ The preposition /tər/ often appears as the first component of several circumpositions.’ /tər/ pairs with the circumposition /de . across' (Hewson & Bubenik..ANIM....to Kabul-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR TMP AOR-do..to. Scotland-M . (a) pore/ ‘up to.. Across dialects /tər/ may assign direct or oblique case to its ob- ‫)ه( پورې‬.42) .3SG.53 gives an example of /tər/ in a common idiom.much ɣaṭ-Ø ḍaz-Ø pə wə́-kəṛ-Ø če big-M. LOL’ 9.DIR brother-M.PRS. the circumposition /tər . it is also found as an independent preposition with a meaning of 'up to.from up.113 for an alternative form for comparatives and superlatives). he took such a large shot right then that the Scots must have heard it in Scotland.AOR.. and can govern the assignment of ablative or direct case marking to its object.3SG. /tər/ also functions as a preposition in comparative and superlative constructions (see also examples 9. Karachi-M. as indicated by the parentheses in examples 9.177.93 for an example of this use..Prepositions  (9..228. brother. see Section 9..3.OBL so.6. Example 9. until’ is claimed to have an optional second component.. 2006: 156)—see 9.in Ø-āwr-ed-ə́l-ay wi lol CONT-hear-PST-PST-PTCP.M LOL ‘Armal.‫د کراچې نه تر کابله د پښتنو حال‬ dә karači-Ø na tәr Kabul-a dә from.

3SG.PRS.PRS.6 The preposition ‫ لکه‬/leka/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ The preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may appear independently or may be part of a circumposition (see 9.CONT..‫سلو ډیرو خلکو ته مرګ ژوبله اوښتې ده‬ də pākistān-Ø pə karāč-əy ke də polis-o pər of Pakistan-M. Pakistan.OBL to death žobl-a Ø-awuxt-é da injury-F.OBL on yaw-ə merkaz-Ø də brid-Ø pə traʦ-Ø ke tər yaw one-M. the entire circumpositional phrase precedes the adjectival head. interval-M .13).M.’ (9.‫د محمود کور تر ټولو لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø tər ṭol-o lw-ay of Mahmoud-M.na/.2) claims that or direct case to its object.M.in of police-PL.M.PRS..‫افغانستان تر فرانسې غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø tər frāns-e ɣaṭ-Ø dəy Afghanistan-M.3SG.3SG.3.324  Adpositions ject.DIR than France-M.OBL house-M.CONT.DIR be.DIR day be.OBL .OBL more-PL. is cited by Lorimer (1902: 12) as the marker of comparison for Waziri..M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest [of all].M.CONT.OBL big-M.DIR than all-PL.. for Dzadrani.in than one nim səl-o ḍer-o xalk-o ta mərg half one.M.3.PST-PTCP.hundred-PL.228..45) ‫د پاکستان په کراچۍ ښار کې د پولیسو پر یوه مرکز د برید په ترڅ کې تر یونیم‬ . (9..F ‘More than 150 people were injured or killed during an attack on a police station in Karachi.DIR CONT-cross.44) .177.M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’ (9.F.OBL in.OBL in. Karachi-F. Septfonds (1997: 8.43) ‫ تر‬/tər/ can assign either oblique .. which he transcribes as /pa...OBL people-PL.OBL center-M of attack-M. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. 9.OBL large-M..over.’ A circumposition.DIR be.

However.1 Overview ‫ته‬ Some other grammars indicate only one postposition for Pashto overall.228. Tegey & Robson (1996) indicate that /na/ can appear as an independent postposition in NW and NE dialects.PST-PTCP.PRES-PRS.DIR name-PL. accordingly.46) 325 .DIR built-M.DIR wear-INF become.4. the claim that /ta/ is the only independent postposition may be true for only some dialects: Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that /ke/ can appear independently in Eastern and Western dialects. like Taghir and Umed.DIR become.48) .AOR-PTCP.M decoration do.’ ‫چه‬ The preposition can also be used in construction with the complementizer /čə/.3 ‘It seems like they are coming.’ (9.4 Postpositions 9.M.‫ټلوالې هڅه کړې ځان په ښکلي نومونو سینګار کړي لکه تغییر او امید‬ ṭalwāl-i hatsa-Ø kəṛ-e dzān-Ø pə mass-PL.DIR and Ahmed-M.DIR self-M.F.CONT-PRS.DIR like lās pox-e aɣwast-ə́l kíg-i hand cover-F.F] ‘A [computer] mouse has been made to be worn like a glove.DIR effort-F.AOR-PRS.DIR ‘Everybody’s been trying to doll themselves up using fancy names. many items treated in other works as adverbs take objects.’ (SW) 9. Although they do not identify the associated dialects. as exemplified below.Postpositions  (9. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) also identify the independent Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. some of them are listed in this section. indicating an epistemic judgment: (9.CONT.PRS.M] like taɣir-Ø aw umed-Ø Taghir-M.177. /ta/ ‘to’. In any case.DIR INSTR xkl-i num-uno singā́r kṛ-i leka beautiful-PL.M.47) .AOR.M.‫لکه چه دوی راځي‬ leka čə duy rāʣ-i like COMP 3PL come.3[PL.3[SG.DIR do.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . with scope over the corresponding proposition. ‫ته‬ ‫کې‬ ‫نه‬ also.‫داسې ماوس جوړ شوى لکه لاس پوښي اغوښتل کېږي‬ dāse māws-Ø joṛ-Ø šúw-ay leka such mouse-M.

for’ ‫ ته‬/ta/ is the postposition most commonly described as functioning independently.STR. in construction with the preposition /wə/. There are several morphosyntactic conditions under which the first component of a circumposition is omitted.SG ‘Give the book to Ahmad.CONT.4.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself. Pate (2012: 18) cites the circumposition as possible for the Kandahari dialect.DIR also AOR-take.228.177.7.164. above’ we here identify with Middle varieties. 9. To the extent we can discern.50) . we consider these cases of incomplete circumpositions.OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.326  Adpositions ‫باتدې‬ postposition /bānde/ ‘up.DIR AOR-take.DIR school-M. with the postposition preferred.DIR rupee-F. In practical terms. and may also govern beneficiary arguments. as in 7. appears to be much less common. Note that /ta/ can also function as the second component of a circumposition. in particular the discussion preceding sentences 9.‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this.DIR give. however. ‫ته‬ (9.51) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . above’. Its object appears in the oblique case form. This form.‫احمد ته کتاب ورکړه‬ ahmad-Ø ta kitāb-Ø wə́rkəṛ-a Ahmad-M. we have found it described for Dzadrani (see Table 9.2 The postposition ‫ ته‬/ta/ ‘to. See Section 9.’ (9.’ ‫له‬ ‫لره‬ Several sources (Skalmowski 1996.AOR-IMP.50).5.PRS-IMP.71. whose cognate /bondi/ ‘atop. or a circumposition with its first component omitted. rather than cases of complete postpositions.OBL to book-M. it is often difficult to decide whether an item is a postposition.PRS-1PL ‘We are going to school’ (9.49) ‫و‬ . There is little agreement as to which variant is more character- ‫ته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL to go.2).49) and recipients (9. It governs arguments denoting destinations (9. while it was marked as archaic by Lorimer (1902) for Waziri. after Lorimer (1902). Shafeev 1964) claim that /la/and /lara/ are variants of /ta/.‫موږ ښوونځي ته ځو‬ muẓ ṣowəndz-i ta ʣ-ú 1PL.SG self-M.PRS-IMP.162 and 9.

OBL Mohammed-M. in everyday use.3 The postposition 327 ‫ لره‬/lara/ appears to be the rarest ‫ سره‬/səra/ ‘with’ Though more common as a component of a circumposition (see examples 9. /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ can be found as an independent postposition: ‫سره‬ (9.’ This situation is sometimes described as a dialect-dependent optional omission of the first component of a circumposition (Tegey & Robson. 9. 9.3PL. and the stem as a nominal with the approximate meaning ‘opposite’.3PL.OBL against fāliyat-una tər sar-á kṛ-i activity-PL.M] ‘The Taliban wanted to undertake anti-government activities on the road from Kabul to Jalalabad.DIR rejection keṛ-l-e do.228.ABL do.OBL jalālābad-Ø pər lāra-Ø dawlat-Ø zidi Jalalabad-M.3[PL. 1996: 155–156).‫ جلال اباد پر لاره دولت ضدي فعاليتونه ترسره کړي‬. among these.F ‘Mullah Mohammed Omar rejected talks with the Afghan government.M.M COMP of Kabul-M.52) .OBL on road-F.Postpositions  istic of which dialect group.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .8.4.DIR on head-.99).OBL COMIT word-PL.‫ملا محمد عمر افغان حکومت سره خبرې رد کړلې‬ mullā-Ø mohammed-Ø omar-Ø afghan Mullah-M.M.DIR government-M.PST-PST.177. however.AOR-PST-PST.66 and 9.F.OBL Omar-M.‫طالبانو غوښتل د کابل‬ tālibān-o Ø-ɣuxt-əl če də kābəl-Ø Taliban-PL. with the approximate meaning ‘contrary’ (see Section 6.OBL Afghan hukumat-Ø səra xabər-e rád government-M.4.DIR CONT-want.M.2). (9. It can also be used to govern a predicate or modifier.53) .AOR-PRS.4 The postposition ‫ ضدی‬/zidi/ ‘against’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against. anti-’ (also pronounced /zed-e/) denotes opposition.

A use of postposition /bondi/ in Waziri that we have not found in General Pashto is within number names.SG ‘Chug it like a beer.‫شـربـت غـونـدې يـې غـړپ کـه‬ šarbat-Ø ɣunde ye ɣáṛp k-a alcohol-SG.M.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL.6 The postposition ‫ غوندې‬/ɣunde/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ Both this postposition and the preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may independently govern an object.4..‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F.AOR.5 Adpositions The postposition ‫ و ړاندې‬/wṛānde/ ‘before’ ‫وړاندې‬ Although it has not been described as a postposition by other Pashto scholars.5. /wṛānde/ ‘before’ fits our definition of a postposition that governs ablative case on its object. I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.M. See 9.54 for an example. (9.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.3 for more information.‫په‬ For some dialects.5. /bānde/ can function with a range of meanings similar to those of /pə.. (9.ANIM.OBL one-M..’ 9.328  9.OBL like 3.OBL before of student-PL.AOR-IMP.4.M.WK gulp do.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become..7 The postposition ‫ باتدې‬/bānde/ ‫باتدې‬ ‫باندې‬.1SG ‘A few days ago.4.55) .PST.OBL conference-M. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL international-F.PST-PTCP. see Section 9.CONT.54) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ . or may be combined into the circumposition exemplified in sentence 9.bānde/.177.OBL society-F.M. an example is given in Section 6.DIR be.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’ 9.228.13.

This conflicts with most claims about General Pashto that they are only components of circumpositions.’ (DZA) 9.3[PL.DIR fire-M.harvest’ is uncertain. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M.OBL manual.PRS-PRS.OBL from work-M.57) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se wə́-čaw-i when COMP 3PL.56) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M. (9..M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you .177. some of the elements found in circumpositions do not function as independent prepositions 11 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual.4. and some may exemplify constraints that resemble those of General Pashto. According to many grammarians of Pashto.CONT. such as Heston (1987: 169) and Dessart (1994).8 Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects In apparent contrast to GP.’ /pere/ ‘across’.228. and sometimes we use the reaper.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .57 shows /(p)se/ used as a postposition. For Waziri.¹² Our analysis is somewhat different in two ways. First. /londi/ ‘beneath.. each circumposition can be analyzed as a combination of a preposition and a postposition.Circumpositions  329 9. such as the constraint against weak pronouns inside circumpositions: Example 9. and 9.harvest(?)-F.DIR AOR-gather.STR. some speakers of Northern dialects have reported that they can be found in those dialects as well. Attested examples suggest an even larger inventory of items that can be used as independent postpositions.M] ne če der-bež-iž-i then COMP 2-near-become. as independent postpositions.5 Circumpositions The majority of adpositions in Pashto are circumpositions.3[PL. among others.DIR 2 after AOR-throw-PRS. /pse/ ‘after’ may be used as an independent postposition in Dzadrani. some of these may represent dialect differences. however.DIR AOR\take.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.56 gives an example of /na/ used as a postposition. 12 Some authors.’ (WAZ)¹¹ (9. go further and state or hint that the circumpositions are the result of free combinations of prepositions and postpositions and are not completely conventionalized. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists the independent postpositions /kxe/ ‘on’. We nevertheless find it useful to treat the most commonly occurring circumpositions as (discontinuous) lexical items.

and there is not full consensus on even which are the most frequent. When we are in doubt as to this question.1. we list the sequence as if it were a circumposition.1 shows many of the simple circumpositions we have found for General Pashto. Since an adpositional phrase can take an adpositional phrase rather than a noun phrase as an object. Some of those differences are reflected in Table 9. Table 9. we want to emphasize that although they consist of separate parts that are in some cases identifiable as independent words. on the grounds that such phrases may be in the process of lexicalization. the first component of some circumpositions appears to be fairly freely omissible. Other studies treat the components as separate words. the second component of many of these may appear independently with approximately the meaning of the circumposition.2. it is not always easy to tell whether an item is a true circumposition. or is (for instance) a preposition with a postpositional phrase as its object. circumpositions function as single relations governing a single complement.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . apparently there is some freedom in how the elements are combined. either through our own research or in other sources. Other dictionaries and descriptions show additional combinations or alternative orderings. In many of the Northern dialects of Pashto. and variability noted throughout this section constitutes some evidence in favor of this view.177.330  Adpositions or postpositions (though perhaps most do).228. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as well as in some Middle dialects. Of the circumpositions listed in Table 9. showing common circumpositions of Dzadrani and Waziri. Second. according to the definition above. rendering the effect of a postposition. It is evident that this is also an area of dialectal variation: besides there being differences in pronunciation associated with dialects. there are also differences in which combinations are to be found as circumpositions.

‫تر‬ lə.. ‫پر‬ də.na ‘from’ 9... behind’ 9...pore ‘up to. Circumpositions  Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 331 ....lānde ‘under’ 9....101 ‫څخه‬..‫د‬ . by means of’ 9............... ke ‫ کې‬..228... ‫په‬ tər ...pəse ‘after...‫له‬ də.128 ‫باندې‬.......124 ‫پسې‬.....pəse ‘after’ ‫ پسې‬.. ‫د‬ .... on’ 9... . bānde ‫ باندې‬. ‫تر‬ lə.1: Some GP simple circumpositions   pə....səra ‘with’ 9. Table 9...ʦəxa ‘from’ 9......‫په‬ . at..lānde ‘under’ 9..‫په‬ . . ‫پر‬ pər .. lə.pore ‘with’ ‫ پورې‬...ke ‘in..59 ‫نه‬.61 ‫لاندې‬..99 ‫سره‬.. lə . pəse ‫ پسې‬.‫د‬ ..123 pə .104 ‫نه‬...səra ‘with’ 9.. ‫له‬ də .‫له‬ də..‫تر‬ pər. pə.... up to’ 9.. ‫د‬ ↓first component →second component tər..63 ‫څخه‬.səra ‘with’ 9...177.lānde ‘under’ 9.bānde ‘on top of..na ‘from’ 9. pore ‫ پورې‬..100 ‫لاندې‬.. ‫د‬ ..134 ‫پورې‬......‫د‬ . .. lānde ‫ لاندې‬. səra ‫ سره‬...... pə.‫په‬ lə.. ‫د‬ ...‫له‬ də... across’ 9.‫له‬ də. ‫کې‬.. na ‫ نه‬.. ʦəxa ‫ څخه‬.... tər....... pə.ʦəxa ‘from’ 9.139 ‫لاندې‬..132 ‫سره‬....66 ‫سره‬.pore ‘until.‫په‬ də....65 ‫ پورې‬.. ...

g.3SG..58) in contrast with /pə.M.F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that. this. in positions corresponding largely to the ones in Table 9. /ye/ and /de/ may vary freely in circumpositions. since in the Middle dialects.F..2 shows the circumpositions cited for Middle dialects (Septfonds 1994.DIR fee-F.DIR ..bānde/ (9.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be..2 may be understood as corresponding to the first two rows of that table. The first row of Table 9.1. (9.PST-PTCP..DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F..OBL on.228.AOR..58) ʣəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL.332  Adpositions Table 9. Lorimer 1902). /pə. Some of these forms may also be found in GP dialects.’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR CONT-take.PRS.nde/).on much-F. and some of them may vary with forms found also in General Pashto (e..

səra wa.177...na ‘from..ta Circumpositions  333 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132... (y)ə .londi ‘under’ yə.  pə.. (p)se tər. tər .... londe Table 9.2: Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP wa.. .. at. pera pə. first ↓ component second component → pə....pse ‘in..nde ‘on top’ 9....65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . on’ 8. with’ yə... with’ 8. up to’ pə...127 ...ta ‘to’ ........londe ‘under’ ......kxe ‘in. after’ 9...londe ‘under’ pə..61 ...nde.sra ‘with’ 8...44 .pera ‘until’ .130 . na tər..pera ‘with’ yə.228..bondi pə..42 . pə .pera ‘until..na ‘from. kxe (xe) tər....sra ‘with’ yə.....

DIR yəm be..PRS.PRS. (9.from come.OBL ...i under.. house-M. carpet-F.¹³ The ones we have found are exemplified in this section.1SG ‘I came from Kabul...60) .3PL.. shadow-F.61) .PRS.177..5. Kabul-M.1 Adpositions Circumpositions with ‫ د‬/də/ ‫د‬ 9.OBL ..’ 13 Tegey & Robson (1996: 154ff. Compare example 9..under water-PL.1SG ‘I am sitting in the shade. ‫د‬ • ‫ نه‬.1.59) . who claim to describe a Northwest.‫د کور نه راغلم‬ də kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from..under sitting-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . out of’ In this construction.’ • ‫لاندې‬...DIR be. Babrakzai (1999: 44).na/ ‘from.AOR. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M..8 with 9.‫د سایې لاندي ناست یم‬ də sāy-e lāndi nāst-Ø yəm under. recognizing only the variant /lə/ as a possible components.CONT.62) .’ (SW) (9..60.AOR.F ‘There is water under the carpet. do not list /də/ as a component of circumpositions.. does give examples of circumpositions with /də/..‫د غالۍ لاندې اوبه دي‬ də ɣāl-əy lānde ob-ə d....5.‫د کابل نه راغلی یم‬ də kābəl-Ø na rā́ɣl-ay from.334  9.F.1 General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/ The preposition /də/ can combine with a number of postpositions to form simple circumpositions.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.CONT.CONT. oblique case is assigned to the object.OBL ...PST-PTCP.)..OBL .228.DIR be. who claims to be describing the same variety. ‫ د‬/də.’ (9.from come. ‫ د‬/də.lānde/ ‘under’ (9. Kabuli variety of Pashto..

7): ‫له دې سره‬ ‫سره‬..’ (SW) ‫سره‬.133 .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .up.in go.OBL . on account of...1. which is exemplified in Section 9.63) .‫ له‬/lə. as in examples ‫سره‬..‫له‬ Note too the apparently synonymous phrase /lə.tsəxa/ ‘from...4. friend-M.177.]’ (SW) (9.to. best translated as nonetheless or thereby (see also Section 11. The following sentence exemplifies the common “joining with” use of /də.. stick-M.. for a postpositional use of ‫ څخه‬/ʦəxa/.səra/. Ahmad-M... • ‫څخه‬..STR....COMIT computer-M.from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit..‫ د‬/də.lānde/ (see 9.66) .‫د لرګي څخه بېرېږم‬ də larg-i ʦəxa Ø-ber-éẓ-əm from. as well as the idiomatic phrase /la de səra/ ‘with this’ ...65) ..64..135.‫تر‬ /tər.‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه سته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG.to in.pore/. see 9..OBL from three good book-PL....139).Circumpositions  335 This can also be expressed with ‫لاندې‬.100)..səra/.ABL .‫د دوسته پورې په موټر کې ولاړم‬ də dost-ə pore pə moṭər-Ø ke wlā́ṛ-əm up.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9. see 9.. • ‫پورې‬.PST-1SG ‘I went to my friend by car’ (NW) This relation can also be expressed with 9....‫تر‬ /tər...’ (NE) • ‫پورې‬.M...228.. I am afraid of the stick... car-M..‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL .‫ د‬/də...’ For dialectal variants. and with ‫لاندې‬...AOR.OBL .2..5..102.. (9.4..pore/ ‘up to’ (9..‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬ də ahmad-Ø səra kampyuṭər-Ø nə šta COMIT.‫ د‬/də.9.64) ...DIR EXT ‘I have three good books..lānde/ (see 9.DIR NEG EXT ‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer.

.. it is less common in the Middle dialects than the variants /ye/ and /e/.67: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. /e/ A local variant of the GP preposition /də/ is Middle /de/. ‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتاونېږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل‬ ..OBL .DIR COMIT.OBL to w-ā́staw-i AOR-send-PRS.2.COMIT from pul-e xpəl-Ø pawʣ-iān də border-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR wə́-tawan-eg-i če də hindustān-Ø səra lə AOR-able-PRS-PRS..COMIT WOULD Pakistan-M.M] COMP COMIT. āfɣānistān-Ø səra ugd-a sarhad-Ø ta Afghanistan-M.M..’¹⁴ ‫سه‬ The particle /səra/ can appear independently and without an overt object...OBL .2.. and it is the first component in many of the same circumpositions.3[SG..4) notes that the postpositional component of this item can be heard as /sra/ and.228. Pakistan will be able to send their forces from the border with India to the long border with Afghanistan. with interpretation determined by context. ‫ده‬ • /ə.M. However.‫افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ lə de səra bə pākistān-Ø COMIT.3[SG.DIR force-PL..COMIT long-M. .1 for more discussion and some examples.OBL own-PL.336  Adpositions (9.OBL border-M. Because the /de/ form is the less common.‫پوځیان د افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ 14 Standardized version of9.177. this.2 Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/. we are showing here the circumpositions using the more common variants /ye/∼/e/.3.. India-M.M] ‘Nonetheless.1.1.OBL . /sa/.67) ‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتوانیږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل پوځیان د‬ .ANIM.. 9. less often.5. which apparently vary freely with each other.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ Septfonds (1994: 5.. See Section 10.

. for the sake of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132...Circumpositions  337 (9.PRS-PRS. including marking the standard of comparison (compare GP 9... ‫ له پاره‬. that is.69) e to na kəšər-Ø da than. death-M. home invited be. As these examples show.DIR be...OBL danger-M.than young-M. ‫ د‬/də.OBL ..CONT. the first component is that complement marked by /də/..70) ye de mlo-Ø kra wolma day at. nominal..3SG..PRS..M ‘He is invited to the mullah's..M] ‘Sometimes their head is in danger.M that.. exemplified here.5. of mullah-M.2. kra/ ‘at the home of’ This distinctive circumposition is translated as chez in Septfonds (1994: 267) and cited also by Lorimer (1902: 39) as /de .AOR. kra/.. often abstract or relational..3.CONT.. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ • ‫ دپاره‬.lə pāra/ ‘for.nə/ The circumposition /ye.1. the second component consists of an adpositional phrase with a complement-taking.də pāra/ .8: ‫کور‬ (9. accompaniment.OBL ..3 Complex circumpositions with /də/ As discussed in Section 9....PRS..STR.PRS. possession.151 and 9.AOR. they are faced with death.68) kəla kəla xo e sar-Ø xatár-Ø when when EMPH of head-M.177..’ (DZA) ‫د‬ 9.is COMIT..109): (9.3SG. to mark a participant who is involuntarily involved in and affected by an event.1.M ‘Is he younger than you?’ (WAZ) Septfonds notes that this circumposition can work as in a malefactive-type construction. the rule about positioning a phrase with /də/ at the beginning of its noun phrase often results in the effect of a circumposition. ‫ د‬/də.DIR wi yane e marg-Ø səra məxāmə́x be.. and means..the. 2SG.nə/ can be used with various functions associated with separation or differentiation..3[PL. • /ye .OBL . • /ye. We conjecture that this use.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3SG.’ (WAZ) He notes further that this item fulfills the a broad range of functions including association.228.COMIT facing š-i become. as exemplified in sentences 9. is related to GP phrases using forms of /kor/ ‘house’..

DIR path-F.CONT.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL to go..3SG.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.’ (SW) Verbal nouns within adpositional phrases may express the complements of verbs or..73) ‫د نو کانو ژوول ښایي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابدیو د ځرکندولو یوه لار‬ .M. Here the circumpositional phrase containing /də.338  Adpositions (9.F.OBL in.ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.PST-PST.to all-PL.M.OBL to of thirty thousand-PL. nominalizations.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad.DIR wi be..OBL from sake-M.ANIM.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.AOR.72) ‫افغانستان ته د دیرش زره اضافی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه یی د جمهوری‬ .3SG.’ (9.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL.OBL for of concern-PL..M.OBL from sake-M..PRS.AOR.M. term-F.OBL one-F.F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term.WK of national office-M.OBL of send-INF-PL.OBL bite-INF-PL.3[PL..lə pāra/ is the complement of /prekṛa/ ‘decision’: ‫ له پاره‬.M COMP medicine-M.DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.DIR 3.‫ریاست په دوره کی ترټولو سخته پریکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M.228.M.DIR of Ahmad-M.71) .PST.DIR decision-F. ‫د‬ ‫پرېکړه‬ (9.DIR be.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL..PRS-PRS..3[SG.M.in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up.OBL difficult-F.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.DIR .M.DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy. as in this example.ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M.ANIM.M.OBL and sadness-PL.177.‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M.

DIR .OBL in.74) .’ (SW) (9..PRS.3[SG.F.STR.DIR ..PL.in Ø-ẓaɣ-éẓ-i če mā ʦanga CONT-speak-PRS-PRS..pə bāb/ ‘about’ (9..CONT.DIR di be.F..PRS..75) .M.Circumpositions  • ‫ په باره کې‬..DIR di be.OBL how wə́-gaṭ-əl-ə AOR-win-PST-PST. subject-F. ‫ د‬/də.STR.F.3PL...3PL..177.OBL to of Zalmay-M....PST-PST-PTCP.‫دی د مسابقې په باره کې ږغېږي چه ما څنګه وګټله‬ day də mušābiq-e pə bāra-Ø ke 3SG..OBL teacher-M.DIR maqāl-e lik-əl šə́w-i article-PL.pə ʣāy/ ‘instead of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 339 .CONT.OBL in.228.OBL on bāb-Ø tsə Ø-way-ə́l-i subject-M what CONT-tell. ‫ د‬/də.pə bāra ke/ ‘about’ (9.’ (SW) • ‫ په باب‬....DIR of contest-F..STR..‫د احمد په باره کي ډېرې مقالې لیکل شوي دي‬ də ahmad-Ø pə bāra-Ø ki ḍer-e of Ahmad-M.DIR write-INF become. ‫ د‬/də..F ‘Many articles have been written about Ahmad.PST-PTCP.76) ‫تاسو ښوونکي ته د زلمي په باب څه ویلي دی؟‬ tāso ṣwunk-i tə də zalm-i pə 2PL.3SG.PL.M] COMP 1SG.M ‘What have you said about Zalmay to the teacher?’ (SW) • ‫ په ځای‬. subject-F.M.AOR.in many-PL.F ‘He is talking about how I won the race.

DIR person-M. ‫ د‬/də.‫د ضیا په ځای بل کس مقرر شوی دئ‬ də ziā-Ø pə ʣāy-Ø bal-Ø kas-Ø muqarar-Ø of Zia-M.. face-M .177..OBL on place-M other-M. note the variation in the location of the genitive phrase: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR.’ (SW) (9.DIR be.78) . a corresponding item in Waziri can be found in 9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL in.3SG.AOR..PRS..3SG.pə məx ke/ ‘in front of’ This circumposition has more and less literal uses: (9.228....DIR šáw-ay dəy become.M.79) !‫د احمد په مخ کې ما ته څه مه وایئ‬ də ahmad-Ø pə məx-Ø ke mā ta ʦə má of Ahmad-M.M.STR.80) .‫د صنف په مخ کې ودرید‬ də sinf-Ø pə məx-Ø ke wə́-dar-id-Ø of class-M.OBL in.. face-M ..SG.CONT..1PL good WOULD be.M ‘It will be better to go to Kandahar instead of Kabul..‫د کابل په ځای چه کندهار ته لاړ شو ښه به وي‬ də kābul pə ʣāy čə kandahār ta lā́ṛ of Kabul in place.DIR assigned-M..M ‘He stood in front of the class.PRS.’ Septfonds (1994) translates the Dzadrani collocation /pə məx/ as ‘immediately’.PRS.PRS.M ‘Someone else has been appointed instead of Zia.PL ‘Don't tell me anything in front of Ahmad!’ (9.OBL to what NEG Ø-wāy-ə́y CONT-tell-IMP.’ (SW) • ‫په مخ کې‬.in 1SG.PST-PTCP.340  (9.81 below.AOR šu ṣə bə wi be.in AOR-stop-PST-PST.DIR COMP Kandahar to go.77) Adpositions .AOR.3SG.

.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR smuggling xalək-Ø dáɣa mol-ina pə max-Ø e people-PL..‫د احمد له امله ما ته زیان ورسېد‬ də ahmad-Ø lə amal-a mā ta zyān-Ø of Ahmad-M..‫موټر د احمد )په( خوا کي تېر شو‬ moṭər-Ø də ahmad-Ø (pə) xwā-Ø ki tér-Ø car-M.DIR goods-PL.OBL city-PL.81) dā mol-ina če kala ile ḍér-Ø this.M.Circumpositions  341 (9.AOR..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .85) (9.OBL from cause-M..in passed-M.DIR š-i biyā dáɣa qāčābar become. ‫ د‬/də.PST-PST-PST.’ (WAZ) • ‫ )په( خوا‬.OBL large-PL.M.STR.lə amala/ ‘because of’ (see also 9. 9.82) .M.DIR on face-M of məlk-Ø country-M.3SG.84.OBL nor-e stər-e šār-e ta other-PL.OBL to loss-M.DIR of Ahmad-M..DIR šu-Ø become.M.OBL to e rasaw-ə́l-e košəš-Ø Ø-k-í of send-INF-PL.PST-PST.DIR goods-PL.DIR wə́-ras-ed-Ø AOR-arrive.OBL effort-M.ABL 1SG.AOR.DIR COMP when here much-PL..M ‘I have suffered much loss because of Ahmad.DIR CONT-do.PRS-PRS.M..177.M.83) . ‫ د‬/də.PRS-PRS.M] then this. side-F ..3[PL.(pə) xwā ke/ ‘alongside’ (9.. • ‫ له امله‬.3[PL..M ‘A car passed beside Ahmad.OBL in.M] ‘When these goods become excessive in their area.3SG..M.228.’ (SW) Both the version with the postposition and that without were acceptable to our speaker. then smugglers immediately try to send these goods to other big cities in the country.DIR this.M.

PL.’ (9..’ • ‫ په شان‬.M.M.pə šān/ ‘like’ (9.PRS...OBL in. ‫ د‬/də.F.3[SG....65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .AOR.OBL .ABL from high-F. Asad too has been wounded..OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want.DIR NEG EXT ‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war.DIR also wounded šúw-ay dəy become..OBL court-F.DIR be.ABL in.84) Adpositions .OBL from cause-M.‫د جان په شان اسد هم ټپی شوی دی‬ də jān-Ø pə šān-Ø asad-Ø ham ṭəpi of John-M.CONT..‫غوښتي چې نتایج باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F.PST-PTCP.DIR COMP results-PL.OBL fraud-PL.CONT.342  (9.’ (9..WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.87) !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M.AOR-PRS.M ‘Like John.PST-PTCP.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M..F.in amniat-Ø ná šta security-M.DIR 3.85) ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬ də jang-Ø lə amal-a pə afɣānistān-Ø ke of war-M.M.PL.in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become.OBL .OBL lawyer-F.SG má NEG.F.PST-PTCP.F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.PRS-IMP.228.OBL INSTR manner-M become.177.OBL INSTR manner-M Asad-M. elections-PL.AOR.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M. Afghanistan-M.86) .3SG.OBL vast-PL..

OBL on direction-M in.OBL INSTR sort-M Ahmad-M.motion-M.AOR...1..2.OBL house-M. (9.3[SG.pə ʦer/ ‘like’ (9.DIR from side-F..DIR be.3.PRS.M.‫د پولیس له خوا کوریی محاصره شو‬ də polis-Ø lə xwā-Ø kor-Ø ye mahāsra of police-PL. as in denominal verb constructions (see Section 8. ‫ د‬/də...M.Circumpositions  • 343 ‫په څېر‬.M.5.‫د محمود په څېر احمد هم ښه کار نه کوي‬ də mahmud-Ø pə ʦer-Ø ahmad-Ø ham xa of Mahmoud-M.DIR šáw-ay dəy become.‫افغانستان د ترقۍ په لور روان شوی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø də taraq-əy pə lor-Ø Afghanistan-M..2 and Section 11.5).PST.PST-PTCP. as in sentence 9.92 below.PRS.M ‘His house was surrounded by police.90) .‫د امریکا په لور روان شوی دی‬ də amrikā-Ø pə lor-Ø rawān-Ø of America-F.’ (9.CONT.’ • ‫له خوا‬.94.OBL on direction-M rawān-Ø šáw-ay dəy in.pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9.91) . This is exemplified in 9.M ‘Afghanistan has been moving towards development..DIR NEG do..PST-PST.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR. ‫ د‬/də.228. Ahmad does not do good work.5.3SG.AOR-SG.CONT-PRS.DIR become.motion-M..DIR be.89) .CONT.3SG.M ‘He is heading towards America.DIR also good kār-Ø ná kaw-í work-M.’ • ‫ په لور‬..91 and 9.3SG.DIR of development-F.88) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M] ‘Like Mahmoud.DIR 3.. ‫ د‬/də.177.WK surrounded šáw-Ø become.lə xwā/ ‘by’ This circumposition may be used to mark the agent of an action when it is not the subject. It may also mark the agent of a nominalized form of a verb.

OBL pə āṛa-Ø də amrikā-Ø lə xwā-Ø də on topic-F.AOR.‫د مذهبي ډلو لخوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ də mazhabi ḍəl-o lə xwā-Ø wər tə salā of religious group-PL.DIR of Moscow-M.DIR give-INF do.OBL statement-F.M.DIR AOR-NEG do.M.’ (9.‫دا لیک د احمد له خوا راغلی دئ‬ dā lik-Ø də ahmad-Ø lə xwā-Ø this.CONT.OBL 3 to advice mašwar-a wərkaw-ə́l kíg-i advice-SG.PRS.OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.OBL INSTR direct-F.M.DIR of America-F.344  Adpositions (9.to Shiranai-M.PST-PTCP.’¹⁵ (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .93) .OBL republic-M.95) .DIR up.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.177.3[SG.‫د امریکا له خوا د انتقادونو یادونه ونکړه‬ də rusiy-e jumhor-Ø rais-Ø pə mustaqima-Ø of Russian-F.DIR toga-Ø də mosko-Ø də ḍəmokrās-əy də sābəq-e manner-F.SG.F] ‘Advice is being given to them from religious groups.M ‘This letter came from Ahmad.92) .’ (SW) 15 Standardized version of 9.F.DIR letter-M.OBL of history-F.‫هغه په نبړه ځان تر سیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.DIR self-M.94) ‫د روسیي جمهور رئیس په مستقیمه توګه د مسکو د ډموکراسۍ د سابقي په اړه‬ .‫د مذهبي ډلو له خوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL INSTR haste-F.DIR of Ahmad-M.F ‘Criticisms from America regarding Moscow's history with democracy were not directly mentioned by the Russian president.OBL from side-F.AOR-PST.DIR be.OBL from side-F.STR.OBL from side-F.OBL rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.92: .M.3SG.3SG.OBL of democracy-F.’ This circumposition may also express origin: (9.228.PRS-PRS.OBL of intiqād-uno yadawəna-Ø wə-nə́ kṛ-a criticism-PL.OBL president-M.

‫ د‬/də.M ‘[The sanctions] were implemented last year in Iran by the United Nations Security Council.OBL country-M .DIR of friend-PL.DIR year-M.M..OBL wə́-waž-əl šu-Ø AOR-kill-INF become.‫یو صراف د غلو له لورې ووژل شو‬ yaw-Ø sarrāf-Ø də ɣəl-o lə lur-e one-M.DIR of thief-PL.AOR..3SG.Circumpositions  • 345 ‫له لورې‬..DIR banker-M.’ (9.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..M.‫کبله پر دې هیواد کې وضعه شول‬ (9.PST-PST. this circumposition can also be used to indicate an agent.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL from side-F.OBL of amniat šurā-Ø lə lur-e də irān-Ø də atomi security council-F..ABL in..OBL of atomic fāliat-o lə kabəl-a pər de haywād-Ø ke activities-PL...‫ د‬/də lə xwā/ ‘by’.OBL from cause-M.in wázā šwu-əl established become.lə lure/ ‘by’ Like ‫له خوا‬.PST-PST.177..M ‘A banker was killed by thieves.M.OBL of Iran-M.OBL from side-F.97) .OBL nation-PL..228. ‫تیر کال د ملګرو ملتونو د امنیت شورا له لورې د ایران د اتومي فعاایتو له‬ .3PL.96) ter-Ø kāl-Ø də malgr-o milat-uno də passed-M. this.AOR.

.. .OBL of Iran-M.3[PL..99) .PL.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9.98) britānyā-Ø də irān-Ø lə lur-e háɣa Britain-F..F ‘I talked with Ahmad.F.’ ‫ په كې‬،‫بریتانیا د ایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ ..in seize-INF become.2 General Pashto circumpositions with ‫ له‬/lə/ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Many grammars describe /lə/ as a variant of /də/ that can appear in circumpositions.M.. The postpositional component is the one to look to for the meaning information. ‫له‬ 9.COMIT 1SG.AOR.98: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT.AOR-PST.OBL ..DIR become.DIR wə́-kəṛ-e AOR-do.346  Adpositions ‫په كې نیول شوي‬،‫بریتانیا دایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ .M] condemned do.3PL.1 GP simple circumpositions with /lə/ What follows are the most commonly encountered simple circumpositions starting with /lə/.228.F ‘Britain condemned a video tape broadcast by Iran in which 15 captured Naval soldiers were shown.PST-PTCP..OBL this.OBL from side-F.3SG.DIR show-INF kíg-i mahkúm kṛ-a become.9.‫له احمد سره مې خبرې وکړې‬ lə ahmad-Ø səra me xabər-e COMIT.PRS-PRS.‫بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكوم كړه‬۱۵ (9.’¹⁶ 9.5.DIR 15 britānawi samandari sartir-i xud-ə́l British marine soldier-PL.DIR videotaped document-F.5.‫ له‬/lə.2..AOR-PST.DIR če pə ke niw-ə́l šúw-i 15 COMP in.102.99 . • ‫له‬ ‫سره‬.AOR. as shown in Examples 9.‫ بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكومه كړه‬۱۵ ‫نیول شوي‬ 16 Standardized version of 9..F.DIR xəpura-Ø šuw-e widiỵowi paṭa-Ø broadcast-F.WK word-PL.PST-PTCP..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177..M. Ahmad-M.

PST-PST.PST-PTCP. Kabul-M.. see Section 10..under di be. See also 9.63...from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit.DIR of attack-PL.M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit. leaving the postposition /səra/ (Tegey & Robson.DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..‫له کابل څخه راغلی یم‬ lə kābə́l-Ø ʦə́xa rā́ɣl-ay from.3SG. pressure-PL..M. head-M.3...’ (NW) ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ایسته کړ او هیڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ ....65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .101) /lə.’ (9..2. from below (9..‫کښېننست‬ (9.AOR.. stick-M.102) . Compare also the function of /səra/ that appears without an object.ʦəxa/ ‘from. For a variant with the /də/. it is possible to omit the prepositional component.DIR yəm be..3SG.Circumpositions  347 In NE and NW dialects... I am afraid of the stick].OBL under.F.‫له‬ preposition (9.from crown-M.CONT.‫له لرګي څخه ډارېږم‬ lə larg-i tsəxə Ø-ḍār-ég-əm from.from come.OBL from.OBL . ‫د‬ .103) šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø ʦəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M. see 9.‫ له‬/lə. on account of’..OBL .OBL .103.AOR-PST.PRS.PRS-1SG ‘I have come from Kabul. 1996: 155–156).1.228.. • ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫لاندې‬.’ • ‫څخه‬..M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne.M ‘Pakistan is under pressure of attack.M.3SG.‫پاکستان د حملو له فشارونو لاندې دي‬ pākistān-Ø də haml-o lə fišār-uno lānde Pakistan-M..lānde/ under.OBL ....CONT.OBL Mahmud-M.177.100) .

104) . Compare 9. It typically indicates motion away or separation from.177..‫کالي مي موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭə́r-Ø na w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL.’ In the NE and NW dialects.. only the two forms /də. as shown in Section 9.’ (9.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car. The following two examples show how the postposition /nə/ alternates with the ablative case-marker /-a/: the two items may not co-occur. this circumposition is unacceptable.na/ is the most common simple circumposition starting with ‫ له‬/lə/.‫کالي مي له موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi lə moṭər-Ø na clothes-M..348  • Adpositions ‫نه‬.M.. (9.ABL come...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ نه‬.’ (9.. 1996: 155).107... ‫له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫د‬ .‫ له‬/lə.108.from w-ā́xist-ə AOR-take.PST-1SG ‘I came from home..from come.SG. the ablative marker cannot appear without an adposition governing it..OBL . which is ungrammatical.PST-PST..5..106) .PST-1SG ‘I came from home.107) .‫ له‬/lə.NW) In sentence 9.2.OBL from AOR-take.228.AOR.2..M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.PST-PST.‫له کوره راغلم‬ lə kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M. it is possible to omit the prepositional component of this circumposition in informal speech (Tegey & Robson. car-M.WK car-M..’ (NE.105) ... ‫نه‬ ‫ـه‬ (9.na/ from The circumposition ‫نه‬.‫له کور نه راغلم‬ lə kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from.¹⁷ and it is also used with complex circumpositions.AOR.OBL ...DIR 1SG. 17 For Babrakzai (1999: 42).na/ and /lə/ exist.WK from.DIR 1SG. house-M.106 and 9.3SG..

Mahmoud-M.DIR zyāt-i pays-e Ø-lar-ə́m more-PL.M..228.WK car-M.DIR CONT-have.M.5 (from Tegey & Robson 1996: 162). For the superlative construction. Mahmoud-M.F. the circumposition /lə.3SG.F..OBL ....‫له‬ Similarly.M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France.. few’.STR.from few-PL.DIR from.108) 349 .‫زه له محمود نه لږ کتابونه لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ləž-Ø 1SG..na/ can be used in Pashto to create superlative constructions. the object of the circumposition must be preceded by a universal quantifier such as /ṭolo/ ‘all’.. The object appears in the oblique case (Tegey & Robson.PRS-1SG ‘I have much more money than Mahmoud.DIR coin-PL.CONT. (9.PRS-1SG ‘I have fewer books than Mahmoud.’ ‫نه‬.DIR from.’ ‫نه‬.DIR 1SG.. for another construction.Circumpositions  (9. ‫ټولو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..‫زه له محمود نه ډېري زیاتي پېسې لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ḍer-i 1SG.PRS.111) .’ (9.M.DIR dəy be..’ Quantitative comparatives such as more than and less than are created using the circumposition /lə..OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .from many-PL.ABL AOR-take.from big-M.DIR kitāb-una Ø-lar-ə́m book-PL.na/ followed by /zyāt/ ‘more’ .DIR from.. /der/ ‘very’ or /ləg/ ‘less.‫افغانستان له فرانسې نه غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø lə frāns-e na ɣaṭ-Ø Afghanistan-M...‫* کالي مي موټره واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭər-a w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL.. see the examples in Section 9..3.STR.. ‫نه‬.110) ‫زیات‬ ‫دېر‬ ..PST-PST.177.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car...‫له‬ The full form of the circumposition /lə..DIR CONT-have.na/ is also the most common way to make comparative statements in Pashto.F..109) .OBL . France-M.‫له‬ ‫لږ‬ (9. 1996: 155).3SG..

228. the postposition /na/ governs oblique case-marking on its object.‫له‬ 9.DIR from.2...from smart-M.CONT..AOR...’ ‫نه‬.2 GP complex circumpositions with /lə.OBL .‫د محمود کور له ټولو نه لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø lə ṭol-o na of Mahmoud-M.DIR dəy be.3SG.’ (9...DIR from...PRS..‫احمد له ما نه پخوا راغلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə mā na pəxwā Ahmad-M. all-PL.‫ له‬/lə.. 1SG.DIR from..112) .M..OBL .‫له‬ ‫نه‬ • ‫نه پخوا‬.113) ... /lə.from before rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.na bahar/ ‘out of..DIR be.‫محمود له ټولو نه پوه دی‬ mahmud-Ø lə ṭol-o na poh-Ø Mahmoud-M. Together they govern the item between the two sets of ellipses. ‫نه‬.PST-PTCP.from lw-ay dəy big-M.’ • ‫نه بهر‬.. all-PL. Most of the time. it may assign case somewhat irregularly.. Traditionally...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .na/ does not contribute any meaning beyond the meaning of the other element..3SG..CONT.STR.. this object may sometimes appear in the ablative case form.M ‘Mahmoud is the smartest of all/Mahmoud is smarter than all [of them]..M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest/Mahmoud's house is bigger than all [other houses].3SG..OBL house-M.‫ له‬/lə.PRS.177..DIR be..na/ The circumposition /lə.. however..OBL .M ‘Ahmad has come before me.‫له‬ ‫نه‬..PRS.350  Adpositions (9.5..na pəxwā́/ ‘before’ [ ‫ پخوا‬/pəxwā́/ ‘before’ ] (9. Furthermore.CONT..114) . outside of’ [ ‫ بهر‬/bahar/ ‘outside’ ] Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.na/ frequently combines with other adpositions or adverbs to form complex circumpositions.

PST-PST..CONT...118 and 9.‫ پرته له‬/prata lə.115) 351 . Ahmad-M...(na) wrusta/.228..’ • ‫نه‬.119)... it appears to be an ambiposition in that it can appear as either a prepositional or a postpositional component of circumpositions.PST-PTCP..M.AOR..WK other-PL..OBL ...M ‘Ahmad has come out of the house.‫ وروسته له‬/wrusta lə.(na)/ ‘after’ [ ‫ وروسته‬/wrusta/ ‘after.(na)/ next to /lə.177.DIR ʦok-Ø wə-nə́ lid-əl who.. later’ exemplifies some of the complexity of the system of adpositions. house-M.1] ‫وروسته‬ The item /wrusta/ ‘after.PST-1SG ‘I went without you.M. as well as /də.‫ بې له‬/be lə.M ‘I didn't see anybody except for Ahmad....from 1SG. We find /wrusta lə..117) .‫احمد له کور نه بهر وتلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə kor-Ø na bahár Ahmad-M.116) . See Table 10.from outside Ø-watə́l-ay dəy CONT-leave.. later’.’ • (‫)نه‬..DIR AOR-NEG see...DIR be.STR.from go.. Besides being identifiable as an adverb....DIR from.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .na/ except for [ ‫ پرته‬/prata/ ‘except’ ] (9..PRS.3SG.(na) wrusta/ (see 9.‫وروسته له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL .OBL ..Circumpositions  (9.’ • ‫نه‬...‫بې له تا نه ولاړم‬ be lə tā na wlā́ṛ-əm without from.na/ without [ ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ ] (9. 2SG. (‫)نه‬..3PL.‫پرته له احمد نه مې بل څوک ونهلیدل‬ prata lə ahmad-Ø na me bəl-Ø except from..

OBL eating-F.‫اه دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election.AOR-1PL ‘After this.DIR after from 2SG.120) .118) də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.OBL collection-F. See also 9.from after 3.DIR NEG do.‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG.DIR darlód-Ø have.OBL .OBL from side-F.WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.119: .’¹⁸ As the parentheses indicate.DIR INSTR neck-F.STR.228.140 and the examples that follow it for another variant using the adposition /wrusta/. the element /na/ is apparently optional in all three versions..’ 18 Standardized version of 9.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrusta bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.M.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL.DIR imported-M.OBL responsibility-M.177.‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ (9.’ (9.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‫وروسته‬ (9. we won't import fuel through Iran.OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you.AOR.352  Adpositions ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورښ په اړه د‬ .OBL təl-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.STR..3SG.119) .PST-PST.. vote-F.OBL INSTR topic-F.

PST-PST.PST-PST.M.OBL dispute-F.in COMP .OBL in.AOR.. də of that.3PL.DIR AOR-kill-INF šw-ə́l become. or causal. temporal.‫وروسته رامنځټه شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ (9.OBL to WOULD gone-PL.’ (SW) 9....DIR 1PL.PST-PST.M.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍod-̣əy mo after from this.OBL from brid-Ø wrustá rā-mánʣ ta šw-a dwa attack-M.177.121) də háɣe nəxət-e pə traʦ-Ø ke če .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR attacker-PL.5.OBL after 1-center to become.‫برید وروسته رامنځته شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ 19 Standardized version of 9.3SG.OBL of attacker-PL.OBL on one post-F.M ‘Two insurgents were killed in a fight which broke out after they attacked a police station. ‫چه‬ (9.3SG.F cinema-F.AOR.228. A selection of circumpositions with /pə/ follows: ‫په‬ ‫د هغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوسته د بلواګرو له‬ .. these relations may be physical.M..AOR.M..WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat.121: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner. of polis-o pər yaw post-e də balwāgar-o lə police-PL.F two tan-a balwāgar-Ø wə́-waž-əl person-PL.. interval-M .3 Circumpositions with ‫ په‬/pə/ ‫په‬ Circumpositions with /pə/ denote an entity’s relationship to another’s.DIR š-u become.’¹⁹ The following example shows the usual form of clausal complements of adpositions: a demonstrative head and an embedded clause introduced by the complementizer /čə/.M.122) .OBL COMP food-F.Circumpositions  353 ‫دهغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوستې د بلواګرو له برید‬ .

.177.98 shows this circumposition with a null object..pəse/ ‘after’ (9.124) !‫په ما پسې راځه‬ pə mā pəsé rāʣ-á after.ke/ and the prepo- sition /pə/ in the same clause..DIR in. introducing a relative clause. however.. into.. and see 9.M ‘Mahmoud is in class.‫ په‬/pə.. There is evidence. mostly. (9.123) . 2009). the postpositional component /ke/ is also subject to substantial variation in pronunciation: various scholars have cited /kxe/..in be.STR. 1970) and /ki/.OBL .PRS-IMP..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫ په‬/pə.CONT...ke/ ‘in. on..... 1SG. /kʂe/ (Henderson.’ Example 9.. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that ‫ کې‬/ke/ ‘in. that it is restricted to the Eastern dialects (Pashtoon.CONT. or that its appearance is restricted to certain kinds of usage.3SG.160 for an example of this circumposition in construction with an omitted object.after come.121 for a temporal meaning of this circumposition..‫محمود په صنف کې دی‬ mahmud-Ø pə sinf-Ø ke dəy Mahmoud-M. at’ In addition to the variation that one can find in the pronunciation of the prepositional component.354 •  Adpositions ‫کې‬. See 9. a claim that is supported by our research.‫ په‬/pə.‫په‬ This very common circumposition indicates a very wide range of relative locations of juxtaposition (Hewson & Bubenik. where the prepositional phrase is modifying the circumpositional phrase..OBL . 2006: 150). • GP ‫پسې‬. that it is much rarer than the circumposition (given that it lacks separate description).228. It appears not to permit direct case-marking on its object.PRS. . into’ can function indepen- dently as a postposition. the specific relationship must be inferred from the context..26 shows the use of the circumposition ‫په‬ ‫کې‬. class-M.. The example 9.SG ‘Come after me!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..

’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. (9...SG ‘Don't backbite me!’ For a variant of this form in which ‫پسې‬ /pesə/ acts as a preposition.128) ‫ پر‬/pər/ as its first component.DIR Ø-k-ã́ CONT-do. see notes at example 9..OBL ....DIR .. but our research has not substantiated this meaning.PRS-1SG ‘I am studying in the mosque school.STR.126) ..OBL .CONT.3PL. see 9..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫ په‬/pə.on many-PL..pəse/ ‘after’ (Septfonds.127) zə xo pə madrasa-Ø še tadris dars-Ø 1SG...‫په‬ /pə.’ (WAZ) • GP ‫باندې‬.228.OBL ‘after this’ (9.se/ ‘after. table-M. mosque-F..in study study-M.DIR pen-PL.DIR di be.‫په مېز باندې ډېر قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø bānde ḍer-Ø qalam-una on.F.M ‘There are many pens on the table.F. because of’ corresponds to the GP ‫پسې‬.M..Circumpositions  (9.DIR EMPH in.. 1SG.‫پس له دې‬ pas lə de after from this..PRS..CONT-IMP.126.DIR word-PL. and this variant apparently exists in other varieties of Pashto as well..STR.after many-PL. This circumposition may also appear with the variant (9.177. The Dzadrani item /pə. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 151) gloss this circumposition as an adverb ‘up’. 1994).DIR NEG kaw-á do.bānde/ Septfonds (1994) transcribes the second component /bonde/..125) 355 !‫په ما پسې ډېرې خبرې مه کوه‬ pə mā pəse ḍer-e xabr-e má after.M.. .130 for conditions on its appearance in Dzadrani...

bānde/...356  Adpositions An instrumental/means/manner function of in 9.157 for an example of the instrumental function. on’ (also pronounced /pə. the object of /pə. while the grammatical subject designates a causer or enabler of the entire event.DIR wə́-š-i AOR.M.M..AOR.on ɣag-Ø Ø-k-ə́ voice-M.‫په‬ ‫په‬ There are dialects in which the first component /pə/ may be omitted.... ‫باندې‬.’ (SW) • ‫ سره‬. and 9. the latter is found in poetic registers in these Middle varieties.‫په‬ (9.PRS..3SG. See 9. (9.‫نوبياپه څه وِرکه په څه ُروکه بون ِد فيصله وشي‬ no biyā pə tsə werk-a pə tsə therefore then INSTR what exchange-F..PST-PTCP.DIR .F ‘The matter is resolved by give-and-take.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬ kitāb-Ø mi wər bāndi iṣ-ay book-M...228. excutioner-PL.’ The Middle dialect circumposition /pə.. Under these conditions.DIR dəy be.nde/ ‘at.M ‘I put the book on it. so /bānde/ functions as a postposition.129) ‫باندې‬.DIR 1SG.177.7.PRS-become..3SG.bānde/ designates the proximal actor of the named activity. ‫ په‬/pə .bānde/ is exemplified .ne/) corresponds to GP /pə.. sara/ ‘[instrumental] with’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. ‫باندې‬.’ (DZA) A meaning related to this one involves an animate object of this circumposition.STR..‫ په‬/pə.M.PST-PST. according to Septfonds (1994).3 for more discussion and an example..DIR INSTR....130) če də pə želot-on nde COMP 3SG.-PRS....DIR CONT-do. he got ready to call the executioners.INSTR decision-F.OBL on. (9..DIR .131) .131 for an example of the locative meaning..3SG.CONT..PRS.129 below..M ‘Him. See Section 9.. what rok-a bonde faysəl-a exchange-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..WK 3 on CONT\put.

133) !‫تر سبا پورې د خدا پامان‬ tər sabā-Ø pore də xodā pāmān-Ø until. 21 Henderson (1970) additionally cites ‘hence’ as a translation of this term.5. 1997).pore/ ‘up to.‫زما ځوانۍ ډول کوي په پښتونواله سره‬ zmā zawān-əy ḍəwəl-Ø kaw-i pə 1SG....4 Circumpositions with ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‫تر‬ The form /tər/ is most often found as the first component of several circumpositions that indicate a movement up to a terminal point in time or space.‫ تر‬/tər. Kabul-M..... the postposition /pori/ may be omitted from this circumposition in speech.. pera/ or /tər .6.DIR ‘See you tomorrow! [lit. with God's protection]..CONT-PRS.INSTR ‘My youth manifests itself in Pashtunwali.ABL .pore/. until’ ²¹ Where Standard Pashto uses ‫)ه( پورې‬.. 20 Our thanks to James Caron for this example.until of God with.DIR manner-M. (9..228.’ (9. For a variant of /tər/ .134) ‫تر کابله پورې‬ tər kābəl-a pore up.up..to ‘as far as Kabul’ ‫پوري‬ In the Western dialects.177..DIR do. see Section 9... This is in keeping with the alternation between GP /o/ and M /e/ that is illustrated in Table 4.OBL .3. until tomorrow. the corresponding circum- position in Dzadrani is pronounced /tər. which he attributed to the Jalalabad poet Malang Jan.F] INSTR.3.‫ تر‬/tər...Circumpositions  (9. rendering a prepositional phrase..’ (NE)²⁰ 9. ‫تر‬ • ‫)ه( پورې‬. see Section 5.POSS youth-F.3[SG.1.5..1..to. pere/ (Septfonds..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . paxtunwāla sara Pashtunwali .protection-M. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. For a discussion of ablative case assignment to its object.132) 357 ... morning-F.STR.

358

 Adpositions

(9.135)

.‫تر سړي )پوري( دي وشرمولم‬

tər
saṛ-i
(pore)
di
wə́-šarmaw-əl-əm
up.to... man-M.OBL (...up.to) 2.WK AOR-shame-PST-1SG
‘You shamed me in front of the man.’ (NW)
(9.136)

.‫تر پلاره )پوري( په منډه ولاړم‬

tər
plār-a
(pori)

mənḍa-Ø wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... father-M.ABL (...up.to) INSTR run-F.DIR go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I ran to my father.’ (SW)

‫ تر څو چه‬/tər ʦo čə/ ‫ ; تر هغه چه‬/tər haɣa čə/ ‘until’
These two expressions both convey temporal relations, and both can introduce subordinate clauses: see 9.137 and 9.138. The translation ‘until’ incorporates the negated
assertion in the subordinate clause.
(9.137)

.‫زه هغې ته لیک نه لېږم تر څو چه ما ته تېلیفون ونه کړي‬

za
haɣé
ta lik-Ø

Ø-leẓ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3SG.F.STR.OBL to letter-SG.M.DIR NEG CONT-send-1SG
tər
ʦo
čə

ta telifún-Ø
wə-ná
up.to how.much COMP 1SG.STR.OBL to telephone-M.DIR AOR-NEG
kr-̣i
do.AOR-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘I am not writing to her until she calls me.’ (SW)
(9.138)

.‫تر هغه چي ته نه یې راغلی ډوډۍ نه خورم‬

tər
haɣə́
či


ye
up.to this.OBL COMP 2SG.STR.DIR NEG be.CONT.PRS.2SG
rāɣl-ay
ḍoḍ-əy

Ø-xur-ə́m
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.M.DIR food-F.DIR NEG CONT-eat.PRS-1SG
‘Until you have arrived, I will not eat.’ (SW)

‫)ه( لاندې‬...‫ تر‬/tər...lānde/ ‘under’

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Circumpositions 

(9.139)

359

.‫سړی تر پله لاندې ناست دی‬

saṛ-ay
tər
pl-a
lānde
nāst-Ø
man-M.DIR under... bridge-M.OBL . ..under sitting-M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘The man is sitting under the bridge.’

‫لاندې‬...‫تر‬

The Dzadrani circumposition /tər...londe/ corresponds to the GP item
/tər...lānde/ ‘under’, and is attested in Dzadrani as appearing both with and without
an object, i.e. as both an adposition and an adverb (see also Table 10.2).

‫ وروسته‬... ‫تر‬

/tər ... wrusta/ ‘after’ (Hewson & Bubenik, 2006). These authors
provide the following examples in comparing this item with the circumposition /lə
... wrusta/ exemplified herein; see also 9.121 and 9.120.
(9.140) tər
dwa ʦalwišt kal-uno
wrusta
after... two forty
year-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after forty-two years’
(9.141) wrusta tər
špag-o
myāšt-o
after
after six-PL.F.OBL month-PL.F.OBL
‘after six months’
(9.142) tər
xwar-əl-o
wrusta
after... eat-INF-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after eating’

9.5.5

A Middle dialect circumposition with

‫ و‬/wə/

‫و‬

The independent preposition /wə/ is not discussed here, since it has been described
as obsolescent (Trumpp, 1873: 85) or only poetic (Skalmowski, 1996).
There appears to be only one circumposition with /wə/ (also sometimes transcribed as /vu/—see Section 3.2.1.2) as its first component, and it is not common in
General Pashto, although it is cited by Lorimer (1902) as a variant of the postposition
/ta/. Skalmowski (1996) cites another variant, the compound postposition
/wə
ta/.

‫و‬

‫ته‬

‫وته‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

360 

(9.143)

Adpositions

.‫دغسي خلګو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬
daɣase
xalk-o
ta wə xār-Ø
ta

those.same people-PL.M.OBL to to... city-M.OBL ...to of
nənəwat-əl-o
ejāza-Ø

warkaw-ə́l-a
enter-INF-PL.M.OBL permission-F.DIR NEG give-INF-SG.F.DIR
kég-i
become.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘Permission to enter the city is not being given to those [same] people.’²²

9.6

Coalesced adpositional phrases

9.6.1

Pro-adpositional phrases

‫په ې‬

Tegey (1977: 35ff.) lists three adpositions that may govern null objects:
/pə ke/
‘on.3’ ( /pəkʂe/ in the Kandahar dialect, according to Pate 2012),
/pə/ ∼ /pre/
∼ /pe/ ‘on.3’, and /tre/ ‘up.to.3’. Tegey terms these “Pro-Pre/Postpositional Phrases”
and analyzes them as incorporating third person definite objects, an analysis which
reflects the requirement that the incorporated object be recoverable from the discourse
or extralinguistic context. Pate (2012: 23), in contrast, analyzes these items as weak
pronouns that are constrained to function as non-nuclear terms.
There is apparently dialect-based variation on the inventory of these items: Pate
(2012) additionally lists the Kandahari form /dzine/ ‘from.3’ as an object-incorporating
form corresponding to the circumposition
/də ... ʦəxa/ ‘from’.
The pronunciation /pe/ instead of
/pre/ (Section 9.6.1) is cited by Lorimer
(1902: 40) as a characteristic of Waziri.

‫پرې‬

‫څخه‬...‫د‬
‫پرې‬

(9.144)

.‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬
zmā
tre
na
bad raʣ-í
1SG.STR.POSS up.to.3... ...up.to bad come.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘I don't like him.’

(9.145)

.‫ترې پوري ولاړم‬
tre
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to.3.. ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (NW)

22 Standardized version of 9.143:

.‫دغې خلکو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Coalesced adpositional phrases 

‫پرې‬

361

‫پر‬

The following examples show that both
/pre/ and /pər/ are possible in the
same context; this suggests that there is a lexical distinction between the fused forms
and the forms that allow a null object.
(9.146)

.‫زه پرې سپور یم‬
za
pre spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’

(9.147)

.‫زه پر سپور یم‬

pər spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’ (SW)

The relative order of the pro-adpositional phrase and the negative in examples
9.148 and 9.149 lends support to the alternative analysis given by Pate (2012) of these
forms as essentially pronominal rather than essentially adpositional, since the form incorporating the third person assumes second position, as is characteristic of the weak
pronouns:
(9.148)

.‫زه پې نه پوهېږم‬

pe

Ø-poh-eẓ́-əm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 NEG CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’

(9.149)

.‫زه نه په پوهېږم‬


pə Ø-poh-éẓ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR NEG on CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’ (SW)

9.6.2

The adpositional phrase

‫کره‬

‫ کره‬/kara/ ‘at the home of’
‫کور‬

/kara/ is a pro-adpositional phrase related to the noun
/kor/ ‘house’ that
may appear just in case the house’s possessor is identified or recoverable. This form
optionally replaces
/kor ta/. Compare sentences 9.150 and 9.151; see 9.70 for the
corresponding construction in Dzadrani.

‫کور ته‬

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

362 

(9.150)

Adpositions

.‫زموږ کور ته مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kor-Ø
ta mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.OBL to guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M
‘Guests came to our house.’

(9.151)

.‫زموږ کره مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kar-a
mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.ABL guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M

‘Guests came to our house.’
Additionally, the special form
/kara/ can be used instead of

‫کره‬

‫ په کور کې‬/pə

kor ke/, as shown in this pair.
(9.152)

.‫احمد د محمود په کور کې دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
pə kor-Ø
ke
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL in... house-M.OBL ...in
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

(9.153)

.‫احمد د محمود کره دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
kar-a
dəy
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL house-M.ABL be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

9.7

Adposition usage

Throughout this chapter and others, we describe various exceptional or idiosyncratic
interactions of adpositions with particular pronouns and nouns that they govern. We
summarize some important ones here.

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Adposition usage 

9.7.1

363

‫ نه‬/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object
‫نه‬

Elsewhere we observe that the postpositional component
/na/ alternates in usage
with ablative case-marking on the noun object. Compare sentences 9.8 and 9.60.

9.7.2

‫ د‬/də/ and strong pronoun objects
‫د‬

In Section 9.3.1.1, we observed that in some dialects the preposition /də/ assimilates
to a following strong pronoun in the first and second persons. In those dialects, the
sequence of /də/ and the pronoun is unacceptable and the fused form is the only
possible form. This is discussed in Section 7.2.3.

‫د‬

9.7.3

‫ په‬/pə/ and ‫باندې‬...‫ په‬/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction

In Section 11.5 we describe a causative construction that involves one or another verb
of causation and a subordinate clause describing the caused event. However, there is
also a use of
/pə/ and
/pə...bānde/ that requires a causative interpretation of the sentence it appears in, even though there is no overt expression of causation, either with another verb or with an affix. In Pashto, the object of
/pə...bānde/ refers to the proximate agent, and the grammatical subject, if present,
refers to ultimate agent.

‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

(9.154)

.‫سړی په ما اس تړي‬
saṛ-ay


ās-Ø
Ø-taṛ-i
man-M.DIR INSTR 1SG.STR.OBL horse-M.DIR CONT-tie-PRS.3
‘The man makes me tie up the horse.’

(9.155)

.‫سړي په ما باندې اس وتړه‬
saṛ-i


bānde
ās-Ø
man-M.OBL INSTR... 1SG.STR.OBL ...INSTR horse-M.DIR
wә́-taṛ-ә
AOR-tie-PST.3SG.M
‘The man made me tie up the horse.’

(9.156)

.‫په جواښي دې خوره‬

xwāx-e
de
Ø-xor-á
INSTR mother.in.law-F 2.WK CONT-eat.PRS-IMP.SG
‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].’

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

364 

Adpositions

In some dialects, the first part of the circumposition is optional; in this case, the
postposition alone can fulfil the same function in this construction.

.‫هغه باندې مې چای وڅکله‬

(9.157)

haɣə
bānde me
c̉ay-Ø
wə́-ʦak-l-ə
3SG.STR.OBL INSTR 1.SG.WK tea-M.DIR. AOR-drink-PST.PST.3SG.M
‘I got him a cup of tea to drink.’ (NE)

9.7.4 Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions
As noted in Section 7.3.2, weak pronouns may not appear as objects of adpositions. The
following examples demonstrate that weak pronouns cannot appear as the object of
an adposition as shown in the ungrammatical example 9.158; compare this with the
acceptable 9.159, using the strong pronoun.

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬

(9.158)

pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬

(9.159)

pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)
The object can be omitted entirely if it is known or can be recovered from the context, as in 9.160.²³
(9.160)

.‫په کې اوبه واچوه‬

ke
ob-ə
w-ā́čaw-a
on... ...in water-PL.F.DIR AOR-pour-IMP.SG

‘Pour water in it! ’

23 One speaker reports that a weak pronoun may be placed after the circumposition; we have not
verified this with other speakers or sources.

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Adposition usage 

365

9.7.5 Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics
Some postpositions may govern the oblique pronominal clitics discussed in Section
7.4.

.‫محمود کتاب را ته اخلي‬

(9.161)

mahmud-Ø
kitāb-Ø
rā ta Ø-axl-í
Mahmoud-SG.M.DIR book-M.DIR 1 for CONT-buy.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Mahmoud is buying me a book.’

.‫خلک درپورې خاندي‬

(9.162)

xalak-Ø
dər pore Ø-xand-í
people-PL.M.DIR 2
up.to CONT-laugh-PRS.3[PL.M]
‘People are laughing at you.’
Oblique pronominal clitics cannot be governed by circumpositions; compare the
unacceptable 9.163 with the acceptable 9.164 (and note the claim in Babrakzai 1999:
34 that prepositions also may not take oblique pronominal clitic objects; we have not
found a counterexample to this claim in any dialect). The postpositional component
of a circumposition will cooccur with the directive pronoun.

.‫* زه له ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬

(9.163)

za

wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR COMIT... 3
...COMIT park-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went to the park with them.’
(9.164)

.‫زه ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬
za
wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR 3
COMIT garden-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG

‘I went to the park with them.’

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

Melissa Fox and Anne Boyle David

10

Other Lexical Elements

This chapter provides an overview of lexical categories not treated elsewhere in this
grammar.

10.1 Particles
We have classified as particles any lexically free item that does not host inflection and
that does not function as the argument or complement of a verb or adposition. This
second criterion rules out some elements called “particles” in other works, notably
the various pronoun forms. Some particles are formally clitics.

10.1.1 The existential particle

‫شته‬

‫ شته‬/šta/

The particle
/šta/ marks existential clauses in Pashto (including Waziri: Lorimer
1902: 32). The negative form of
/šta/ is
/nə́ šta/. Though derived from an
archaic third person singular form of the verb to be in Pashto,
/šta/ is no longer
inflected. Another example of this construction is found in example 10.1. In example
10.3 the particle is found at the end of the clause with a relative clause following it.
(10.1)

‫شته‬

‫نشته‬

‫شته‬

.‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬

ahmad-Ø
səra
kampyuṭər-Ø

šta
COMIT... Ahmad-M.OBL ...COMIT computer-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer.’ (SW)

(10.2)

.‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬
də jang-Ø

amal-a
pə afɣānistān-Ø
ke
of war-M.OBL from cause-M.ABL in... Afghanistan-M.OBL ...in
amniat-Ø

šta
security-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war.’

Brought to you by | provisional account
Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65
Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM

‫هم داسی عناصر شته چی نه غواړی حقیقت څرګند شی‬ ham dāse anāsir-Ø šta če ná also such elements-PL.8.DIR revealed-M.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ (10.’ In the Northern and Middle dialects.6) .AOR.DIR NEG EXT ‘No.3SG.M. (10.PRS-PRS.M] ‘There are also those parties who don’t want the truth the come to light. (10. he is not here. which does not: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. a concordant negative particle may but need not appear within the clause in scope.7.M] reality-M.‫ هغه نه شته‬،‫نه‬ ná haɣá ná šta NEG 3SG.DIR EXT be.PRS-PRS.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M this.’ ‫نشته‬ In clauses containing the phrase /nə́ šta/.M.228. exhibiting third person masculine singular agreement. which contains a concordant negative.STR.ANIM.DIR EXT COMP NEG Ø-ɣwāṛ-i haqiqat-Ø ʦargánd-Ø CONT-want.3[PL. contrast 10.368  (10.‫ظالمان شته دي دا منم‬ zāləm-ān šta day dā abuser-PL.5) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M. 1996). I get that. with 10.DIR Ø-man-ə́m CONT-accept-1SG ‘There are bad guys around.3[SG. the existential particle may exist in construction with the copula.PRS.177.DIR š-i become.4) .CONT.3) Other Lexical Elements .’ The existential particle will often be used over the phone to ask or tell someone if a person is at home (Tegey & Robson.

‫چه‬ ‫به‬ 10.OBL 3-to complaint-M.5. /bə/ conveys habitual.’¹ 10. as in That would be Mary arriving at the front door and Every day last summer the girls would play in the park. speculation. It is used to convey future time reference.M] ‘There's no organization that one may complain to about America.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR dreyəm-Ø fariq-Ø ná šta third-M.DIR and or authority-F. since its irrealis and past habitual uses parallel two of the uses of English would. it is difficult to discern a difference between these—contrast 10.1.7) 369 .‫هېڅ داسې سازمان او يا مرجع نشته چې له امريکاورته شکايت وشي‬ hets dāse sāzmān-Ø aw yā marja-Ø ná šta none such organization-M.DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become.15.2) if the verb refers to an event that is to be repeated or ongoing.CONT.M.DIR NEG EXT ‘There’s no third party claiming the money. as in 10. We try to capture its apparent polysemy by glossing this modal clitic as WOULD.PRS-PRS.23. however. With a past continuous verb form.1.’ (10. ‫به‬ ‫به‬ 1 Standardized version of 10.177.22 with 10.2). The clause within the scope of the particle may appear as a main clause or as a finite subordinate clause.2.‫دفنډونو دادعا لپاره کوم دريم فريق نشته‬ də fanḍ̙-uno də idiā-Ø lə pār-a kum-Ø of fund-PL.OBL of claim-F.Particles  (10. Pashto sometimes fulfills modal functions by means of uninflected sentence-level modifiers. previous action.228.2.2 Modal particles In the Indo-European style.1.DIR NEG EXT če lə amrikā-Ø wər-ta šikāyat-Ø COMP from America-F.5.ABL which-M.8: .OBL from sake-M.3[SG. though given the optionality of the complementizer /čə/ under some conditions.2.1 The modal clitic /bə/ As noted in the Verbs chapter (Section 8.8) .‫د فنډونو د اعدا لپاره کوم دریم فریق نه شته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the modal clitic /bə/ often appears in constructions with irrealis semantics.DIR party-M. or doubt when it occurs with a present aorist verb and can also express the future with present continuous forms (see Section 8.

these follow a particular order discussed in Section 11.DIR of this.OBL contract-M.AOR-PRS.11) .10: ‫د دې تړون له مخې به نوموړی شرکت د دې پروژې سروې تر سره‬ .OBL project-F.‫ځانګړې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ 3 Standardized version of 10.2. (10.’³ (10.3.ABL do.’⁴ .14 is taken from Pate 2012: 26): ‫به‬ .F. the aforementioned company will complete a survey of this project.DIR WOULD selected-PL.3[SG.DIR Christian become.9: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3[SG. The following sentences illustrate the uses of /bə/.11: ‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدي‬،‫که زه عیسائي شم‬ 2 Standardized version of 10.M] ‘According to the contract.AOR.DIR court-F.F] ‘A special court will investigate these cases.STR.POSS korən-əy bə mā prégd-i family-F.F] ‘If I become a Christian.OBL WOULD numwaṛ-ay šarkat-Ø də de prož-e aforementioned-M.STR.DIR WOULD 1SG.OBL sarw-e tər sar-á kṛ-i survey-F.F.OBL AOR\abandon.3[SG. then my family will abandon me.3. If other clitics are present.DIR wə́-ʦeṛ-i AOR-investigate-PRS.DIR up.to head-M.‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدى‬،‫کۀ زۀ عیسائى شم‬ ka zə isayí š-əm no zmā if 1SG.DIR case-PL.DIR company-M.‫کړي‬ 4 Standardized version of 10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .9) ʣāngr-e mahkma-Ø bə ṭākəniz-e qazy-e special-F.177.2).STR. /bə/ must appear after the first stressed element of the clause.‫ځانګړ ې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ (10.10) .’² (10.PRS-1SG then 1SG.228.PRS-PRS.370  Other Lexical Elements ‫به‬ As a second-position clitic (Section 11.5.‫ددی تړون له مخې به نوموړي شرکت ددی پروژی سروي ترسره کړي‬ də de təṛun-Ø lə məx-e bə of this.OBL from direction-F.

’ (10.DIR above do.177.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F.‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST.‫دا لوى مار به ښامار سي‬ dā loy-Ø mār-Ø bə xāmā́r-Ø this.M] ‘This big snake will turn into a dragon.PTCP-3MSG be.AOR.14) dāwud bə rāɣəl-ei wi Davud WOULD come.DIR WOULD from outside-M.5.‫مونږ به له بهره مرسته وغواړو‬ mung bə lə bahar-a mərasta-Ø 1PL.’ See also Section 8.’ ‘Davud should have come [but I'm not sure].12) 371 . the entire world would cry out.e.M] ‘Davud might have come.DIR š-i become.OBL of woman-PL.1 and Section 8.3 for more examples of the uses of Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.’ (10.13) .F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.3.228.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M.DIR wə́-ɣwāṛ-u AOR-want. foreign aid].DIR WOULD dragon-M.3SG.3[PL.DIR snake-M.’ (10.4.F.CONT-PST.15) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .3PL.STR.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ به‬/bə/.PRS.OBL world-F.PRS-1PL ‘We'll ask for help from the outside [i. .PRS-PRS.DIR step-M.Particles  (10.OBL WOULD shout-PL.3[SG.AOR.F.DIR large-M.ABL help-F.

17) nārina di pə lānde koṭ-u ke kṣén-i men NEC in.DIR NEC gone-M.in AOR\sit.OBL on topic-F.DIR do.AOR-2SG ‘Hey Jalan.372  Other Lexical Elements ‫دې‬ ‫باید‬ 10.3[PL.20) .AOR-PRS.16) haɣá di wlā́ṛ-Ø š-i 3SG.3[SG.VOC good haste-M. in construction with the present aorist form of the verb: ‫دې‬ ‫دي‬ !‫هغه دي ولاړ شي‬ (10..19) aljazira-Ø televisyon-Ø de də bahrayn-Ø pə aṛa-Ø Al-Jazeera-M. below room-PL.18) nor-Ø de lə xudāy-a aw lə rasul-a other-PL.3[SG.177.in ‘Let the men sit in the downstairs rooms and the women in the upstairs rooms.PRS-PRS..DIR xabar-una sānsór-Ø kṛ-i news-PL.M.DIR NEC AOR-do.OBL .DIR become.M] ‘The others should be ashamed in front of God and the Prophet Mohammed.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-PRS.M] ‘He should go!’ (SW) .’ (10.M] ‘The Al-Jazeera network should censor reports on Bahrain.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..ABL wə́-šarm-eg-i AOR-shame-PRS-PRS.2 The modal particles /de/ and /bāyad/ The particle /de/ ( /di/ in the Western dialects) ⁵ functions most frequently as a deontic modal.DIR NEC from God-M..DIR television NEC of Bahrain-M.‫جلانه! ښه مزې دې وکړې‬ jālān-a xə məz-ay de wə́-kṛ-e Jalan-M.‫نارینه دي په لاندې کوټو کې کښېني او ښځې دي په پورته کوټو کې‬ (10.‫الجزيره تلويزيون دې د بحرين په اړه خبرونه سانسور کړي‬ (10.DIR NEC in..M. ‫ دې‬/de/ functions as an enclitic. above room-PL.DIR censored-PL.‫نور دې له خدايه او له رسوله وشرميږي‬ (10.1.STR..OBL .AOR.’ (W) .M.M] aw ṣəʣ-e di pə porta koṭ-u ke and woman-PL..228.3[PL.2.ABL and from Prophet-M.’ . you'd better hustle!’ 5 According to Babrakzai.

DIR do. ‫ کشکې‬/kaške/.DIR 1SG.22) ṣāyi za day pə wāšəngṭən ke wə́-win-əm must 1SG be. ‫ کشکي‬/kaški/—to introduce clauses expressing a wish or desire that something would happen or would have happened.DIR NEC self-M.DIR mə́ṛ-Ø kṛ-əm killed-M..3 ‘It is possible that my brother will come home tomorrow..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Washington .AOR-1SG ‘He said: I should just kill myself!’ 10. 373 ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ is also found in construction with the present aorist form !‫ زه بايد ځان مړ کړم‬: ‫ويې ويل‬ (10.SG.23) .WK tomorrow to kor ta rāš-i house.3 The modal particle ‫ ښایي‬/ṣāyi/ ‘may.’ (SW) (10.STR.228.M.1. It can be used one of two ways: • with an optative verb.2.OBL to come-PRS.4 The optative particle Pashto uses the particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’—also ‫ کاشکي‬/kāški/.3PL.M.Particles  The particle of the verb. to express a counterfactual wish • with a present aorist verb.‫ښايي زه دی په واشنګټن کې ووينم‬ (10.2.‫ښايي چه ورور مي سبا ته کورته راشي‬ ṣāyi čə wror mi sabā ta maybe COMP brother..177.M 1SG.’ (SW) 10.M in.21) wə́ ye way-əl zə bāyad dzān-Ø AOR 3..1.in AOR-meet. ‫چه‬ .3SG.PST-PST.PRS-1SG ‘I should meet him in Washington. to express a polite request Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. must’ This particle is positioned sentence-initially and may appear in construction with the complementizer /čə/.WK tell.SG.

which expresses an irrealis event (see Section 8.AOR. intonation differentiates the question use from the affirmation use.POSS house-M.only early come.CONT.‫هو که نه‬ wo kə na yes or not ‘Yes.3.25) !‫کشکي ته زما کور ته راسې‬ kaški tə zmā kor-Ø tə rā́s-e if.STR.AOR. The verb in a sentence with this meaning must appear with present aorist marking.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177.PST-PTCP. The most common of these particles is /kə na/.OBL to come. see 11.27) .103 for an example of this use.24) !‫کشکي وختي راغلئ وای‬ kaški waxti rā́ɣl-əy wāy if.STR.PST-2SG or not ‘You understood.374  Other Lexical Elements The verb in a sentence with counterfactual meaning must appear with optative mood marking (see Section 8.8 for the formation of these verbs): (10.DIR be.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3 Affirmation particles In Pashto.OPT ‘I wish you had come earlier! [lit. the speaker is stating a hope that the event will take place.7 and Section 8.’ It appears to be found more frequently in affirmation questions than in affirmation statements.3.3. In speech. 10. If only you had come earlier!]’ (SW) In the second use.26) ‫پوه شوې که نه؟‬ póh-Ø šw-e kə na learned-M.2 for the formation of these verbs): (10. didn't you?’ (SW) (10.DIR 1SG.AOR.DIR become.only 2SG.1. affirmation questions and statements contain an affirmation particle.228. a polite request.M. a phrase that translates literally as 'or not. of course.PRS-2SG ‘Please come to my house! [lit. If only you would come to my house!]’ ‫که‬ It is also possible to use the form /kə/ ‘if’ plus the optative to achieve this counterfactual effect.PST. ‫که نه‬ (10.

DIR more after.after NEG become.. OK? [because] I can't follow you any longer.CONT.28) 375 .29) ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‫ خو‬/xo/⁷ is a second-position clitic and expresses emphasis..3.3SG.5 Vocative particles A vocative particle may introduce a noun in the vocative case form (see Section 5.OBL brother-M.PRS-1SG CONT-go. 6 Standardized version of 10.Particles  (10. man!’ !‫ ای ښځو‬/ay ṣeʣu/ ‘Hello there.AOR.DIR EMPH 1SG..4).M of bel-Ø saṛ-i wror-Ø ná other-M.28: 7 The emphatic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.DIR be.. the vocative particles are called /də nədā adāt/ ‘call particles’.POSS brother-M.’⁶ 10..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . tā pse ná š-əm Ø-təl-ə́l-ay 2SG..1..‫راودرېږه که نه؟ زه نور په تاپسې نشم تللی‬ rā-wə́-dar-eg-a ka ná zə nor pə 1DVC-AOR-stand-PRS-IMP. women!’ .228.OBL .‫راودرېږه که نه! زه نور په تاسې نه شم تللای‬ ‫ خو‬/xo/ is considered to be different from the conjunction ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‘but’./ .1..‫ وا‬/wā .PRS.‫ او‬/o .STR.. not some other man's brother!’ 10. In Pashto..PST-PST-OPT ‘Stop.1. man!’ !‫ آ سړیه‬/ā saṛaya/ ‘Hey.STR.4 The emphatic clitic The particle (10./ .DIR man-M. Examples of vocatives in Pashto are: ‫د ندا ادات‬ • • • • • !‫ اې سړیه‬/ē saṛaya/ ‘Hey.177.SG or not 1SG..DIR NEG ‘He is in fact my brother.. !‫ د بل سړي وررو نه‬،‫دا خو زما ورور دی‬ dā xo zmā wror-Ø day də this.

They include: ‫ کچ کچ‬/kuč kuč/ To shoo a dog: ‫ چغه چغه‬/čiɣa čiɣa/ To make a camel kneel: ‫ اېخ اېخ‬/ex ex/ To call a cat: ‫ پش پش‬/piš piš/ To shoo a cat: ‫ پشتې پشتې‬/pište pište/ • To call a dog: • • • • ‫ اشه اشه‬/aša aša/ To call a donkey: ‫ کورو کورو‬/kuru kuru/ To urge on a horse: ‫ چ چ‬/č č/ To call sheep: ‫ درهۍ‬/drhey/ To urge on oxen: ‫ او او‬/aw aw/ • To urge on a donkey: • • • • Another set of interjections is onomatopoetic: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Really?!): • • • ya/ E (Penzl. for calling or urging various domesticated animals. ‫ یه‬/ya/. ‫ بلې‬/bale/.228. ‫ نه نه‬/na na/. usually in fully-reduplicated form. 1955: 44) • To threaten or caution (Whoa!): ‫ وښ‬/uṣ/ A number of interjective particles are used.177. ‫ واوا‬/wā wā/. ‫ آه‬/āh/ • To express grief or pain (Ouch!. Oh!): • To express admiration or praise (Bravo!): /aški/ ‫اشکي‬ ‫ آفرین‬/āfarin/. ‫ بلې هو‬/bale hō/ Yes!.6 Interjections Below are some common interjections: ‫ آخ‬/ax/. ‫ افسوس‬/afsos/.376  Other Lexical Elements 10. ‫ یه یه‬/ya • To express surprise (Wow!. ‫ های های‬/hāy hāy/. ‫ شاباس‬/šābāš/. ‫ واخ‬/wāx/. ‫ اوف‬/of/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‫ آپرین‬/āprin/. All right!): ‫ هو‬/ho/. ‫ رښتیا‬/rixtyā/ To express regret (For shame!): ‫ اپسوس‬/apsōs/. ‫ وا‬/wā/. ‫ ارمان‬/armān/ What a pity!. ‫ توبه‬/toba/ For corroboration or agreement (Yes!. ‫ وای وای‬/wāy wāy/.1. ‫ خیر‬/xayr/ For contradiction or disagreement (No!): ‫ نه‬/na/.

Our criteria for eliminating an item from the class of adverbs are these: • If a word has an adjectival function. • Said after praising someone to ward off the evil eye: God willed’ • Said in relief or in thanks: ‫ما شاء الله‬ /mašallāh/ ‘what ‫ الحمد لله‬/alhamdulillāh/ ‘praise to God’ • Said when beginning something such as a speech or starting a journey: /bismillāh/ ‘in the name of God’ • Said when talking about an action to be completed in the future: lāh/ ‘if God wills’ ‫بسمالله‬ ‫ ان شاء الله‬/inšal- • Said after swearing. after saying or doing something inappropriate. or when being modest: /astaɣfarallāh/ ‘I ask God for forgiveness’ ‫استغر الله‬ 10. it is less straightforward to find lexical properties that differentiate adverbs from other word classes. we have excluded “style disjuncts”—terms that have scope over the entire proposition or speech act. we have classed it as an adposition.2 Adverbs For the purposes of this grammar.177.228. these are classified in this work as particles (Section 10. we have not found mentioned in the literature or from our own research any derivational morphology that results in lexical adverbs. verbs or verb phrases. As is often the case. adverbs comprise modifiers of adjectives. Functionally. Both of these points deserve further clarification: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. we have classified adverbs in terms of both lexical and functional properties. and sentences.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . we have classified it as an adjective.1).Adverbs  377 ‫ ټک ټک‬/ṭek ṭek/ Whispering: ‫ پس پس‬/pes pes/ Water: ‫ شړپ شړپ‬/šṛap šṛap/ Gunfire: ‫ ډز ډز‬/ḍez ḍez/ • Knocking: • • • There is also a set of interjections borrowed directly from Arabic for religious reasons and used in certain cultural contexts. • If a word is uninflected (and therefore not a verb) but governs an object.

2. /ham/ ‘thus’. /wrusta/ ‘after. and degree. The position that we take here is that an item is an adverb if. /həlta/ ‘there’). it may not be possible to tell whether an adjective is being used adjectivally or adverbially without looking at the overall syntax and interpretation of the sentence. They can appear in any position in the clause that precedes the verb.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . We treat both circumstances as adjectival modification.228.7. and because of the numerous conditions under which adpositions can appear without an overt object.30) !‫تل دي وي افغانستان‬ təl de wi afɣānistān-Ø always NEC be. many of the terms here listed as adverbs but not listed as adpositions may in fact (or in addition) be adpositions. (10. beginning with 10. Similarly. In this last case.g.g. acting alone. Table 10. since some classes of adjectives in Pashto do not undergo inflection. In addition. later’). however. and when they modify verbs.1 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of time. some adverbs refer anaphorically and may therefore be classified as pro-forms (e. see also Septfonds.378  Other Lexical Elements • Two circumstances exist in which adjectives function adverbially: when they modify other adjectives.30. we have placed the adverbial pro-forms in this section. adverbs of place or time may also take complements and under those conditions are classified as adpositions (e.2. the adverbs discussed in the current section are never inflected. find examples of their use in sentences. manner. there is a fair amount of uncertainty as to whether a particular item has a distinct function as an adverb. /ləg/ ‘a little’). section 4.g.PRS.2.DIR ‘May it always be Afghanistan!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as discussed in Section 10.AOR.g. some adverbs listed here are exophoric in their reference and can therefore be classified as demonstratives (e.177. • Because adpositional phrases are substantially “adverbial” in their functions. since our chapter on pro-forms has been confined to pronouns. some items are multifunctional: adverbs of degree may also be nominal quantifiers (e.M] Afghanistan-M. Unlike adjectives functioning adverbially. it modifies one of the constituents listed above. In Pashto as in many other languages.1 Adverbs of time Adverbs of time include both adverbs with time reference and quantifier-like items. place. Adverbs can generally be divided into the traditional semantic classes of time. ‫لږ‬ ‫وروسته‬ ‫هم‬ ‫خپل‬ ‫هلته‬ 10.3[SG.2 on /xpəl/ ‘own’ as an adverb with reflexive reference). However.

see also Section 9.5.2) ‫مخکښې‬ məxkṣe ‘before’ ‫لا‬ lā ‘yet’ ‫پس‬ pas ‘later.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 379 .2.1: Some adverbs of time Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228. then’   Table 10.7) (‫هیڅ کله )نه‬ hiʦ kala (na) ‘never’ ‫کله‬ kala ‘sometimes’ os ‘now’ ‫اوس‬ ‫اکنون‬ ‫الحال‬ aknun ilhāl ‫نن‬ nən ‘today’ ‫پرون‬ parun ‘yesterday’ ‫سبا‬ sabā ‘tomorrow’ ‫وختي‬ waxti ‘early’ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta ‘after’ (11.Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫تل‬ təl ‘always’ ‫همېشه‬ hameša ‘any time’ ‫هر کله‬ har kala ‘whenever’ (see Section 7.89.177.

CONT.33) halta kṣén-a there AOR\sit.M ‘My book is lying on top.DIR 1SG.CONT-1SG ‘I always work.5).OBL yet food-F.‫زه همیشه کار کوم‬ za hamiša kār-Ø kaw-ə́m 1SG. Some items mentioned here as adverbs also function as adpositions.34) !‫دلته راشه‬ dəlta rā́š-a here come.32) tā lā ḍoḍ-əy ná da 2SG.3SG.2 Adverbs of place Table 10.380  Other Lexical Elements (10.AOR.33 provide examples of their use in sentences.2.35) .WK above lying-M.PST-PST-PTCP.PRS-IMP.PRS.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR ‘Haven't you eaten yet?’ 10. !‫هلته کښېنه‬ (10.DIR NEG be.F.2 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of place.DIR be. sentences beginning with 10.‫کتاب مې پورته پروت دئ‬ kitab-Ø me porta prot-Ø dəy book-M.177.DIR always work-M.CONT.’ ‫تا لا ډوډۍ نه ده خوړلې؟‬ (10.3SG.DIR do.SG ‘Sit there!’ (10.’ (W) ‫دلته‬ ‫هلته‬ 8 Notice that /dəlta/ and /halta/ follow the same d/h alternation for proximal vs.STR.PRS-IMP. distal reference as the demonstrative pronouns (Section 7.SG ‘Come here!’ (10.31) . 9 Also: /bāhar/ ‫باهر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR.PRS.F Ø-xwoṛ-ə́l-e CONT-eat.

2: Some adverbs of place Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. upon’   Table 10.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 381 .Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫دلته‬ dəlta ‫دلې‬ dale ‘here’ dele. underneath’ ‫هيچرې‬ hičare ‘nowhere’ ‫هيچرته‬ hičarta ‘there’ ‘above. dolata WAZ ‫هلته‬ halta⁸ ‫هلې‬ hale ‫پورته‬ porta ‫پاسه‬ pāsa ‫)د(ننه‬ (də)nəna ‘inside’ ‫دباندي‬ dabāndi ‘outside’ ‫بهر‬ bahar ⁹ ‫باندې‬ bānde ‘on top’ ‫لاندې‬ lānde ‘down.177. below’ ‫نژدې‬ nəžde ‘near’ ‫پوري‬ pori ‘around’ ‫لرې‬ lare ‘far (away)’ ‫کښته‬ kṣətə ‘below.

3SG.over.OBL in..228...2. this. This stands next to the more usual construction of /pə/ with a noun object.37) ‫په‬ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکی لحاظ د دی نیمګری ژوند له مداره واوښت‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا‬، ‫او له دی نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ .3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR become.PRS. ‫په‬ (10.WK movement-F.in still of de ʦəlānd-ə stur-i raṇā-Ø zmung pər this..OBL life-M.DIR Stori-M.OBL də de nimgəṛ-i žwand-Ø lə madār-a of this.AOR-PST-PST.DIR Kabir-M..PRS-IMP.OBL shining-M.M ‘Go inside! It is raining outside.DIR AOR-do.38 and following.DIR if INSTR physical side-M.2).DIR dəy be. also used to convey manner. to render an adverbial phrase (10.’ (W) 10.OBL from orbit-M.‫ دباندې باران دئ‬،‫دننه ولاړ شئ‬ dənəna walā́ṛ-Ø səy dəbānde bārān-Ø inside gone-M.OBL world-F.PRS.4.3SG.177.F ‘Even though Dr..36) Other Lexical Elements ..3 Adverbs of manner Table 10. the light of his shining star is still above our heads. in examples 10.M and from.CONT. find examples of their use in sentences.‫ددې ځلانده ستوری رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ ḍāktar-Ø kabir-Ø stori-Ø ka pə fiziki ləhāz-Ø doctor-M.3SG.ABL w-ā́wuxt-Ø aw lə de naṛ-əy ʦəxə AOR-cross.. as discussed in Section 9.3.3 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of manner.OBL of literature-M. height-M . in the heights of Pashto literature.from ye kaḍa-Ø wə́-kəṛ-l-a magar də 3.OBL light-F.STR.OBL .382  (10.PST-PST.F but of paxto-Ø də adab-Ø pə hask-Ø ke lā də pashto-M.POSS on sar-Ø da head-M be.AOR.CONT.’¹⁰ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SG outside rain-M..OBL insufficient-M. The preposition /pə/ can be used with an adjective object.OBL star-M.DIR 1PL.37). Kabir Stori has physically turned away from movements of his meager life and left this world.

40) !‫ورته ووایه چې عاجل راشي‬ wər-ta wə́-wāy-a če ājil rā́s-i 3-to AOR-tell.M] slow wro xabr-e wə́-kəṛ-a slow word-PL.OBL to 3DVC nə́nawat-əl AOR\enter.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .SG COMP quick come.DIR COMP sitting-PL.ANIM.37: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.‫ځلانده ستوري رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ 11 Also: ‫ دا سي‬/dā si/ 12 Also: ‫ ځبله‬/ʣabla/ 10 Standardized version of 10.AOR.DIR 3.AOR.3[PL.SG ‘Talk softly when there are elders present!’ .WK sudden house-M.PRS-PRS.PST-PST.PRS-IMP.M] ‘Tell him to come quickly!’ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکي لحاظ د دې نیمګري ژوند له‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا د دې‬، ‫مداره واوښت او له دې نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ .‫مېلمانه یې ناڅاپه کور ته ور ننوتل‬ (10.39) melm-ānə ye nāʦāpa kor-Ø ta wər guest-PL.ANIM.228.AOR-IMP.F.3[SG.38) 383 !‫مشران چې ناست وي ورو ورو خبرې وکړه‬ məšr-ān če nāst-Ø wi wro elder-PL.M.M ‘Their guests suddenly entered their home.M.3PL.DIR AOR-do.177.’ (10.DIR be.Adverbs  (10.PRS.

3: Some adverbs of manner Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.384  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ‫ژر‬ žer ‫په لغت‬ pə laɣat ‫جلته‬ jalta ‫عاجل‬ ājil ‫ورو‬ wro ‫آهسته‬ āhista ‫نا څاپه‬ nā-ʦāpa ‫بې څافه‬ be-ʦāfa ‫ناګاه‬ nā-gāh ‫دا هسي‬¹¹ dā hasi ‘thus’ ‫دا رنګ‬ dā rang ‘in this manner’ ‫سره‬ səra ‘together (with)’ ‫بهم‬ baham ‫زبله‬¹² zablah ‫هم‬ ham ‘also.228. too’ ‫بې جا‬ be-jā ‘improperly’ ‘quickly’ ‘slowly’ ‘suddenly’   Table 10.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .

OBL 1PL.‫په هغو لارو چارو مو بحث سره وکړ‬ pǝ haɣo lār-o čar-o mo bahs-Ø in..M.’ ‫سره‬ Often.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .AOR-PRS. • ‫ سره‬/səra/ may indicate a reciprocal reading of the predicate.41 and 10. as shown in 10.3SG.‫په دوهم پړاو کې به سره سيالي وکړي‬ (10.AOR.43. it has a number of potential meanings.M] ‘They will compete with [each other] in the second round. /səra/ (otherwise an adposition) can appear without an overt object.AOR. a translation into English might include the particle along.M.F.OBL affair-PLF.177.1 The adverb /səra/ Across Pashto varieties. that.. in that instance.2.DIR] become.in WOULD together competition-SG.DIR səra kǝ́ṛ-ay day together do.PST-PTCP.3[PL. generally determined through context.DIR be. subject to predictable semantic conditions: ..3.228.Adverbs  385 ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ 10.F. and when it is. second-M stage-M .. In this usage.M ‘We discussed those efforts [among ourselves]. the adverb can appear either preceding the substantive word or may occur between the substantive and the verbalizer.42) .41) pǝ dohǝm-Ø paṛāw-Ø ke bǝ səra siyāl-i in. the verb that allows this usage of /səra/ is a denominal verb. • A second likely interpretation involves the null object of reference: (10. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL road-PL.PRS-1PL ‘whenever we come face to face with [them]’ Note too that the omitted.CONT.WK discussion-M..DIR wǝ́-kṛ-i AOR-do. understood object need not be animate.’ (10..43) ‫ سره‬/səra/ having anaphoric ‫چي کله سره مخامخ شي‬ če kala sǝrǝ mǝxāmǝ́x-Ø š-i COMP when COMIT facing-[PL.PRS.

2. 1867) ‫ چټ پټ‬/čaṭ paṭ/(Raverty. their use in sentences can be seen in examples beginning with 10. as a corruption of the Persian ‫ صرف‬/sirf/(Raverty.4: Some adverbs of degree 13 Also: 14 Also: ‫ سرپ‬/sirp/. Table 10.4 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of degree. and they strongly tend to precede the modified element.228.4 Adverbs of degree Often adverbs of degree will be used to modify adjectives or verbs to denote intensity or emphasis.386  Other Lexical Elements 10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177.44. Adverb Gloss ‫لږ‬ ləg ‘a little’ ‫ډېر‬ ḍer ‘very’ ‫زښت‬ zəxt ‫خورا‬ xwarā ‫تنها‬ tan(h)ā ‫صرف‬¹³ serf ‫مازې‬ māze ‫بیښي‬ bixi ‫کورټ‬ kwərṭ ‫چټ‬¹⁴ čaṭ ‫څخو‬ ʦaxo ‘only’ ‘completely’ ‘slightly’   Table 10. 1867) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

M ‘I ran a little yesterday.44) 387 .DIR do.3SG.46) . 1964: 50).OBL voice-M.’ . These adverbs are recognizable because they end in the Arabic accusative case marker adverbs.WK complete ECHO xlā́s-Ø kṛ-Ø finished-M.‫د مرمیو ږغ ماشوم خورا وبېراوه‬ (10.¹⁵ ً‫ا‬ /‑an/. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.DIR very wə́-berāw-ə AOR-scare-PST.OBL child-M.DIR daily-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M ‘The gunfire scared the child immensely.‫پرون مې لږ وځغستل‬ parun me ləẓ wə́-ʣɣast-əl yesterday 1SG.5 Adverbs borrowed from Arabic A number of adverbs in Pashto have been borrowed from Arabic and have retained their Arabic morphology.3PL.’ (10. Borrowings from Arabic include all categories of 15 Similarly.F.DIR 1SG.’ 10.‫خپل ننی کار مې چټ پټ خلاص کړ‬ xpəl-Ø nan-ay kār-Ø me čaṭ paṭ own-M.Adverbs  (10.228. though since these borrowings do not have a peculiar morphology. they are listed among the Pashto adverbs. a number of adverbs have also been borrowed from Persian and Urdu (Shafeev.45) də maram-io ẓaɣ-Ø māšum-Ø xwarā of bullet-PL.177.3SG.M ‘I completely finished my work for today.AOR-PST.DIR work-M.WK little AOR-run-PST.

6 and exemplified beginning with 10.49 for examples with /wáli/ ‘why’.CONT-PRS.50.AOR.388  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ً‫تقریبا‬ taqribán ‘approximately’ ً‫رسما‬ rasmán ‘officially’ ً‫دفعتا‬ dafatán ‘suddenly’ ً‫فورا‬ fawrán ‘immediately’ ً ‫كاملا‬ kamilán ‘completely’   Table 10. suggesting from the variable ‫ولي‬ ‫څه‬ position of the weak pronoun clitic that this element may be outside the clause.3[SG.‫کله چې ماشومانو خپل پلار ولید نو دفعتاً په خندا شول‬ (10.5: Arabic adverbs in Pashto .48) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do. They words are summarized in Table 10.M ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father.47) kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .48 and 10.’ 10.PST-PST. (10.6 Adverbial interrogatives Other interrogative words fill the positions of adverbials .3SG.OBL own-M. In many cases there is a shorter form as well as a longer (sometimes two word) form starting with /ʦə/.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā́-Ø AOR-see.WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.PST-PST.2.M] 1SG.M that suddenly INSTR laugh-F.DIR šw-əl become.3PL.DIR father-M.ANIM.M. /sə/ ‘what’. See 10.

DIR come.177.51) ‫څه وخت راغلې؟‬ sə waxt-Ø rā́ɣl-e what time-M.50) ‫کله راغلې؟‬ kəla rā́ɣl-e when come.228. sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga.AOR.CONT-PRS.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) (10.AOR.Adverbs  GP M Translation ‫ ولي‬wáli wále ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla (če) kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخت‬ʦə waxt. sanga ʦanga.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. čere ‫ چرې‬čare   Table 10. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga. sə waxt ʦə waxt.49) wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG.3[SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 389 . səranga ʦərga.6: Some other interrogative words ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ (10. sərga ‘how (what manner)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri. sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ čeri.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) (10.WK kiss-do.

PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) (10.DIR in. The reduplication of the question word gives the sense that the eating events are distributed over time.AOR.DIR how table-M. ‫هر چېري‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هر کله‬ ‫هېڅ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) As with interrogative pronouns.56. /hes/ ‘any’ also occur with other interrogatives/indefinites.CONT-PRS.PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) ‫چېرته ځئ؟‬ (10. (10. as shown in 10.’ (SW) (10. as in /har kəla/ ‘whenever.56) .‫هرکله راشئ‬ har kala rā́š-əy every when come.54) ‫نجار څنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ najār-Ø sanga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M..PL ‘You are always welcome [lit.STR.CONT-PRS. everywhere’. when being used indefinitely.DIR built-do.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) ‫نجار څرنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ (10. anytime’ and /har čere/ ‘wherever.CONT.3 for more on reduplication.52) čere z-əy where go.58.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .177.PRS-1SG ‘Sometimes I eat in restaurants.’ Also like interrogative pronouns. can occur with /har/ /ar/ ‘every’.57) . Come anytime!]..DIR built-do. as in Example 10.3[SG. restaurant-M .‫کله کله زه په رستوران کي خورم‬ kəla kəla zə pə restorān-Ø ki Ø-xwar-ə́m when when 1SG.DIR how table-M.55) najār-Ø səranga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M.3[SG.PRS-IMP. Negative statements with /hets/..390  Other Lexical Elements ‫چېري ځئ؟‬ (10.53) čerta z-əy where go.in CONT-eat.CONT. See Section 10.. these interrogatives. these interrogatives also may be used with indefinite meanings.

AOR. and is.DIR NEG become. goes soft]. the Pashto-speaking region is situated between the regions in which Avar is spoken (western Dagestan. and Kazakhstan) and those of the western Indo-Aryan languages. Notably. contiguous with Punjabi areas—a fact which suggests that adverbial concord is an areal feature.59) hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-a never when backbiting-M.STR.‫دا اوښ په لاره پوست ځي‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښایسته‬ ‫سخت‬ dā ux-Ø pə lāra-Ø post-Ø this.M] ‘This camel rides very comfortably [lit.DIR camel-M.’ (NW) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ (10.DIR none where gone-M. ‘very’ (adverb).Adverbs  391 .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‘many’ (adverb). While it has been briefly described elsewhere. According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 87). Some adjectives that frequently modify verbs are: /xə/ ‘good’ (adjective).‫زه هېڅ چېرې ولاړ نه شوم‬ (10. concord in Pashto adverbs is a subject ripe for further linguistic investigation. and Kashmiri (Hook & Chauhan 1988b.177. as well as certain western Indo-Aryan languages—for example.’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PST-1SG ‘I didn't go anywhere.60) ‫زیات‬ ‫پوست‬ . Hook & Joshi 1991. when playing this adverbial role they show agreement with the direct object if there is one.2.DIR ʣ-í go. /ḍer/ ‘many’ (adjective).CONT-IMP. Punjabi. /zyāt/ ‘heavy’ (adjective). northwest Azerbaijan.PRS-PRS.DIR NEG do.CONT. The following examples use the adjectives /post/ ‘soft’ and /səxt/ ‘hard’: ‫ډېر‬ (10. /xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ (adjective). Hook & Koul 2008). and with the subject if not. ‘well’ (adverb). Bhitrauti.7 Adjectives as adverbs Many adjectives can also be used as verbal or sentential modifiers. This unusual type of concord has been observed in the Caucasian language Avar. in fact.DIR on road-F. ‘very’ (adverb).DIR soft-M.SG ‘Never backbite!’ 10.228. Gujarati.3[SG.58) zə hes čere wláṛ-Ø ná šw-əm 1SG.

DIR camel-PL. goes soft].M.M.M ‘I pushed this camel hard.DIR on road-F.228. go soft].DIR on road-F.OBL this.’ (NW) .CONT.3[SG.‫ما دغه اوښه سخته ټېلې کړله‬ mā dáɣa uxa-Ø səxt-a ṭelé 1SG.’ (NW) (10.F] ‘This she-camel rides very comfortably [lit.‫دا اوښان په لاره پاسته ځي‬ (10.PRS-PRS.DIR ʣ-í go.‫ما دغه اوښ سخت ټېلې کړ‬ (10.DIR pushed kṛ-ə do.177.STR.8 Reduplication of adverbs Degree adverbs may undergo full reduplicaton to indicate increased intensity of the action.2.‫دا اوښه په لاره پسته ځي‬ (10.DIR hard-F.PRS-PRS. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.DIR pushed kṛ-əl-a do.OBL this.DIR soft-F.’ (NW) 10.DIR soft-PL.62) dā ux-ān pə lāra-Ø pāst-ə this.63) mā dáɣa ux-Ø səxt-Ø ṭelé 1SG.DIR camel-F.64) .CONT.3SG.STR.F ‘I pushed this she-camel hard.DIR ʣ-í go.AOR-PST.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .61) dā uxa-Ø pə lāra-Ø past-a this.M] ‘These camels ride very comfortably [lit.’ (NW) .DIR camel-F.DIR camel-M.AOR-PST-PST.392  Other Lexical Elements .3[PL.DIR hard-M.

Some attested examples are given here. as in examples 10.1. Section 6.7 gives a list of some more doublet words and the stem from which they are derived (Pashtoon. full reduplication is a morphological process with effects dependent on the lexical class of the word reduplicated.3.DIR quick quick go. For instance.67: . 2009). and Table 10. Tibeto-Burman. The doublet may convey intensity if the repeated element refers to an action (example 10. Nouns.228.3.‫دومره ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنو کی ساری نه لری‬ 17 Standardized version of 10. number names.69).65) 393 .3.‫فاطمه زر زر ځي‬ fatəma-Ø zər zər ʣ-í Fatima-F.4.’ (NW) 10.F] ‘Fatima went very quickly. ¹⁷ 16 Standardized version of 10. the functions of reduplication for each of these are found in Section 5.3 Reduplication 10. 10.‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ ‫د رایې گیري نه وروسته یې د ټگي برگي او رشوت خوري په اړه د‬ ‫دغو بی هویتو او بی پتو مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل‬ . adjectives.8. adverbs. the doublet construction may be a generalized plural.2 Partial reduplication: echo words Partial reduplication (resulting in a doublet that consists of a lexeme plus an echo word) typically involves the alteration of only the initial sound.¹⁶.66 and 10.5.6 respectively. if the noun refers to an object. the quality of this altered segment is conventionalized for the particular stem. and Austroasiatic languages.PRS-PRS. and Section 10.69: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Section 10. The meanings of these doublet words are similarly conventionalized.177.Reduplication  (10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .67.2. and interjections are subject to full reduplication. Echo words are an areal phenomenon throughout South Asia.3[SG.CONT. It seems reasonable to assume that their existence in Pashto is due to areal influence.8.1 Full (morphological) reduplication In Pashto. Dravidian.2. where they occur in Indo-Aryan. Section 6. though some patterns exist.4.

’ (10.3SG.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL..WK ‘The Disease of Malaria and the Ways to Prevent It’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR and of prevention-M..OBL responsiblity-M.66) ‫ګلان ملان دې خواښیږی؟‬ gul-ān mulān de flower-PL.DIR darlód-Ø have.from after 3.AOR.M.‫مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.394  Other Lexical Elements (10.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3[PL.M] ‘Do you like flowers and such things?’ (NW) (10..WK xwāx-íg-i sweet-become. vote-F.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.OBL INSTR topic-F.228..OBL sickness-F.M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election.DIR ECHO 2.PST-PST.OBL collection-F.DIR ECHO 3.CONT.67) ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورئ په اړه د تحقیقاتو‬ .OBL .F.OBL eating-F.68) ‫د ملاریا ناروغی او د مخنیوۍ لاری چاری یی‬ də malāryā-Ø nāroɣ-i aw də məxniw-i of malaria-F.DIR INSTR neck-F.PRS-PRS.177.WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.ANIM.OBL lār-e čāre ye path-PL.

.DIR in.OBL ke sār-ay ná Ø-lar-i .M] ‘A couple of times now..M.DIR NEG CONT-have-PRS.DIR ECHO do..PST-PCTP..DIR of electricity-F.177.OBL year-PL.M. and tore it to such pieces that our history has had no such example in two hundred years.M.M.ANIM. built-do-INF-PL.M.in behind ECHO súw-ay day become..3[SG.OBL to in.ABL and without honor-M.OBL of fābrik-o pə joṛ-aw-ə́l-o ke xpəl-Ø factory-PL.OBL .STR.OBL country-M.OBL hundred-PL.‫رسیدو کې شاته پاته سوی دی‬ hind-Ø ʦo ʣəl-i də brixnā-Ø də India-M. ras-éd-o ke šātə pātə arrive-become-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..AOR.PST-PTCP.DIR be.M.DIR Kabul-M.70) ‫هند څو ځلي د برېښنا د فابریکو په جوړولو کې خپل ټاکل شوي هدف ته په‬ .Reduplication  (10.F] ‘These nameless and honorless leaders destroyed Kabul.OBL in.in own-M.OBL .M.PRS.OBL ṭāk-ə́l šúw-i hadaf-Ø tə pə select-INF become.DIR some time-PL.in example-M.228.‫ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنوکی ساری نلری‬ daɣá be huyat-a aw be pat-a this..OBL plazmena-Ø kābul-Ø dumra wijā́ṛ-Ø aw capital-F.M.69) 395 ‫دغه بی هویته او بی پته مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل دومره‬ ..STR.OBL goal-M. India has fallen behind in its desired goal of building power plants..OBL without identity-M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR.OBL 1PL.M. the capital of our dear country.’ (10. two-PL.much destroyed-M.POSS of dear-M.DIR so.3[SG.3SG...AOR-PST.DIR and də́ṛ-ay wə́ṛay kəṛ-Ø če zmung shredded-M.CONT.POSS tārix-Ø pə dw-o saw-o kal-uno history-M..ABL məšr-āno zmung də grān-Ø hewād-Ø elder-PL.M COMP 1PL.M.

DIR word-PL.DIR ECHO AOR NEG kṛ-u do.‫موږ به د امریکا او ملګرو سره یې هیڅ ډول خبری اتری و نه کړو‬ mung bə də amrikā-Ø aw malgər-o 1PL.with 3.OBL and friend-PL.STR[DIR] WOULD with. America-F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.71) Other Lexical Elements .M.F.OBL sərə ye hiʦ ḍawal-Ø xabar-e atere wə́ ná .WK nothing manner-M..AOR-1PL ‘We will not hold talks with America or any of its allies...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228..177.396  (10.

‫وار پار‬ wār pār ‘through and through’ ‫ناسته پاسته‬ nāsta pasta ‘social intercourse’ recognition’ ‫ وار‬war ‘time. turn’ ‫ ناسنه‬nāsta ‘sitting’ ‘conduct’ ‫تت پت‬ tət pət ‘disordered’ ‫ تت‬tət ‘confused’ ‘confused’ ‫غټ پټ‬ ɣaṭ paṭ ‘very big’ ‫ غټ‬ɣaṭ ‘large’ ‫لټ پټ‬ laṭ paṭ ‘soiled’ ‫ لټ‬laṭ ‘sluggish’ ‘besmirched’ ‫خوړین پړین‬ xuṛin pṛin ‘boiled very soft’ ‫ خوړين‬xuṛin ‘boiled soft. ‘worry. confidence’ ‫هله‬ hala ‘attach’.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .Reduplication  Doublet 397 Stem ‫پوښتنه اتنه‬ poxtәna utәna ‘questioning’ ‫ پوختنه‬poxtәna ‘question’ ‫پېژنې اېجنې‬ pežәne ajane gloss unknown ‫ پېژنه‬pežəna ‘familiarity. bend’ ‘bent’ ‫سست پست‬ sust pust ‘quite listless. lax. alarm’ ‫ ځله‬zila   Table 10.177.7: Some doublets and their base stems Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. overcooked’ ‘overripe’ ‫کړینګ پړینګ‬ kṛing pṛing ‘curved’ ‫ کړينګ‬kṛing ‘curve. non-diligent’ ‫خل پل‬ xal pal gloss unknown ‫هلې ځلې‬ hali zali ‘effort’ ‫ سست‬sust ‘listless’ ‫ خل‬xal ‘faith.228.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228.177.

2.3.1 for more examples). It is not a comprehensive treatment of Pashto syntax.2. modifiers. Brugman and Anne Boyle David 11 11. described in Section 11. but not restricted to. Because weak pronouns are second-position clitics. this is called the Determiner Phrase or DP. and determiners. which has been described in various degrees of detail by Babrakzai (1999).2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .1. the research we conducted with native speakers rendered differences in lexical forms or case-marking patterns.Adjective . and case-marking and agreement. We refer to this position as the post-clausal position. A set of apparent exceptions to the general order of elements in a clause results from the large inventory of second-position clitics. Pashto exhibits strong head-final order in noun phrases and verb phrases. before the subject. The current chapter covers some aspects of Pashto sentence construction. they may follow ‫د‬ 1 We use this term in its traditional sense of a noun and its complements. however.Claudia M. we refer to this position as pre-clausal position. not in the general properties of Pashto syntax. Pate (2012).Quantifier .1 Syntax Overview This grammar has concentrated on Pashto word-formation and phrase-formation.1 Noun phrases Pashto noun phrases¹ generally exhibit the internal order Determiner .2 Phrasal syntax 11. irrespective of its function (see Section 9. which is similarly used for a variety of functions. It is used for a variety of purposes including. Because it apparently fulfills many independent grammatical requirements of Pashto. 11.2. among others. Penzl (1955). in generative terminology. a focus function.2.1. Pashto is a pro-drop language: the pronoun coreferential with the agreement marker on the verb may be omitted under the conditions detailed in Section 7. A genitive determiner (headed either by /də/ or by a fused strong form—see Section 7.3. focusing on questions of word and phrase order.2.3) is generally phrase-initial. For the most part. Most of the description in this chapter has been synthesized from these works. when they are used as genitive determiners (which is indicated only by their proximity to the noun). rather than as a Focus position. Lorimer (1902). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. In addition.Noun.186. and Tegey (1979).189. There is at least one phrasal position outside the clause. there is a phrasal position outside the clause after the verb phrase. our field research on syntax was more limited than that on other aspects of Pashto grammar.

WK none who.PL. these are discussed in Section 9.PST-PST.DIR 1SG.PRS.DIR AOR-NEG eat.’ (11..DIR be.WK AOR-hit-INF become. as is shown in 11. and circumpositions. and nobody even cared. (11.CONT.5.AOR.DIR 1PL. having to do with the interrelationships between weak pronouns or oblique pronominal clitics and adpositions.M. but may also appear in the post-clausal position.189.’ (SW) Participial phrases modifying nouns pattern as adjective phrases and tend to precede their heads..7.3) .3SG.PST-PST.’ Relative-clause modifiers appear after their heads in the same phrase.‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL. postpositions. as shown in example 11. as shown in 11.186.PST-PTCP.7.DIR released become.400  Syntax their head.M ‘The workers kidnapped in Farah were released.M.WK book-M.M ‘That is my book. 11.OBL also sorrow-M.in kidnap-INF become.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .1.M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná xoṛ-Ø 3.75.AOR.3SG. as shown in example 11.‫په فراه کې تښتول شوي کارګران خوشې شول‬ pə farā-Ø ke təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i in.1) .3PL.M ‘Our forests were destroyed.M.3: (11. given the existence of prepositions.AOR.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬ dā mi kitāb-Ø dəy this.2.PST-PST..2) .ANIM. A number of additional conditions obtain on the internal structure of adpositional phrases. This is exemplified in 11.2 Adpositional phrases The salient exception to the head-final principle can be found in adpositional phrases.2. respectively..4 and Section 9.3PL. Farah-M .DIR kārgar-ān xóše šw-əl worker-PL. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.76. They may also precede their head.

As for the other type of LVC—Verb + Verb (V-V)—since it is abundant in South Asian languages of both the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families. if any. Only one of the two canonical types—those of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb (N-V)—appears in our data and has been described by other authors as occurring in Pashto.4 for a detailed description of their morphosyntactic behavior. shove’ ‫ ببوزی وهل‬/bəbozay wahə́l/ ‘to fan’ < ‫ ببوزی‬/bəbózay/ ‘(m. See Section 8. LVCs are so prominent and productive in Pashto that they serve as simplex predicates for further syntactic purposes—for example.2.4.) The inventory of light verbs in Pashto should not surprise anyone familiar with LVCs. In addition to the verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make.186.) wrestling’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2. with the verb. to grasp’. and has recently been reported for Persian (Kshanovski. 2011). (See Section 11.189.2. the morphosyntactic requirements on the complement are discussed in Section 8. to do’.)’ < ‫ کنګل‬/kangál/ ‘(m.4. as the final element. Pashto uses the verbs /axistə́l/ ‘to take’. two-word expressions that are semantically interpretable as a single predicate. as in the following examples: ‫کېدل‬ ‫نيول‬ • • • • • • ‫اخیستل‬ ‫ایستا‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وهل‬ ‫ پښه اخیستل‬/pša axistə́l/ ‘to stride’ < ‫ پښه‬/pša/ ‘(f.1 Light verb constructions Like many other languages of the Western Asian and South Asian areas.3 401 Verb phrases Generally. further investigation is necessary. As verbs are a closed class in Pashto. head-final order is found also in the verb phrase.4.) foot’ ‫ سا اخیستل‬/sā axistə́l/ ‘to breathe’ < ‫ سا‬/sā/ ‘(f.2. respiration’ ‫ ڼېل وهل‬/ṭel wahə́l/ ‘to push. /wahə́l/ ‘to beat’. and /istə́l/ ‘to throw out’ as light verbs. as described by Tegey (1979) and Pate (2012).Phrasal syntax  11.) fan’ ‫ کنګل نيول‬/kangal niwə́l/ ‘to freeze (intr. 11.) ice’ ‫ کشتي نيول‬/kuští niwə́l/ ‘to wrestle’ < ‫ کشتي‬/kuští/ ‘(f. the LVC is the only means of creating new verbal forms in the language. it is also used as a way of importing loanwords. which we refer to as the intransitive and transitive verbalizers when they act as light verbs. Pashto has a robust system of light verb constructions (LVC). For that reason we will not say definitively that V-V LVCs do not occur in Pashto. with the borrowed word filling the complement slot.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .5 for examples.) breathing.3.) push. shove (one another)’ < ‫ ڼېل‬/ṭel/ ‘(m. Relative clauses and sentence-level modifiers may appear in postclausal position. it would not be surprising to find it in Pashto as well. /niwə́l/ ‘to seize. they can license further complementation.

DIR in...4) .OBL on.3[SG.F] ‘Australia is establishing a 'P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam]' team in Afghanistan.WK freed-do..’ (11.M. we do not know how productive the other verbs in the above examples are as light verbs.PRS-IMP.6) .‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M. compelled’ While LVCs with ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ are by far the most common and extremely productive. In addition. Afghanistan-M .CONT-IMP.. further research in this area is needed.5) .‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د "پي آر ټي" ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də "pi ar ṭi" ṭim-Ø Australia-F. as these are so common in Pashto.‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL. many more can be seen throughout this book.DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.DIR machine-M.189. Contracted LVC: (11. there are likely more light verbs in Pashto.’ Uncontracted LVC: (11.M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages. but again..on services-PL.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.3[SG.SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.CONT-PRS.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR CONT-kill.DIR kaw-í do.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.402  • Syntax ‫ اړ ایستا‬/aṛ istə́l/ ‘to compel’ < ‫ اړ‬/aṛ/ ‘obstacle.F.CONT-PRS....M.in of "P R T" team-M.ABL 3.OBL people-M. A few examples follow of typical LVCs. gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde xadmāt-Ø numerous-M number-M language-PL.OBL .DIR of world-F.186.

186. The particles that interact with verbs in this way are: • The modal clitics ‫ به‬/bə/ and ‫ دې‬/de/ • The weak personal pronouns.3. or prefixed.189. see Section 8.AOR-1PL ‘After this. similarly to adjective complements.8) .OBL bull-M. we won't import fuel through Iran. and are therefore also case-marked according to split-ergative alignment. on the other hand. or pronominal clitics and ‫ مو‬/mo/ 2 Standardized version of 11. as the verb can have at most two arguments.2.) • The complement of a denominal verb and its verbalizer. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4 for a discussion of these exceptions.DIR imported-M.3SG. it is instead indicated by an adposition and accordingly case-marked oblique.DIR pulled do.DIR NEG do.’² (11. (This includes both the a-initial complex verbs and second conjugation.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . verbs. which is in turn marked in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity.OBL tel-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M. Nominal complements are usually treated as the direct object of the verb.1 The verbal group in General Pashto Certain particles can be inserted between: • The aorist prefix ‫ وـ‬/wə́/and its verb.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 3 However. cannot be a direct object.2.2.3.AOR-PST.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart. • A prefix or pseudo-prefix and its verb.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.Phrasal syntax  (11. .7: ‫ مې‬/me/ .4. ‫ دې‬/de/ . The undergoer of the action.OBL from side-F.³ 11. ‫ یې‬/ye/ .OBL cart-F.7) 403 . some nominal complements behave like part of the verb lexeme and allow a direct object.2 Elements in the verbal group 11.’ Adjective complements of N-V LVCs always show agreement with the undergoer of the action of the verb.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.2.

WK buy.‫و مې واهه‬ (11.’ With second conjugation (= prefixed) verb: (11. Tegey (1977) reports the following ordering of enclitics between verbal components: /xo/> /bə/> { /mo/| /me/| /de/| /ye/} > /no/ ‫خو‬ ‫به‬ ‫مو‬ ‫مې‬ ‫دې‬ ‫یې‬ ‫نو‬ If the first syllable of the verb does not carry stress (that is. if an aorist form is negated.‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG.WK beat-PST.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .AOR. Also.‫بو به مې نه زې‬ bó bə me ná z-e take.11) .12) . the negative marker—not the initial syllable of the verb—takes the stress. and the clitics follow the negative. the negative precedes the verb.‫ا مې خیستل‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG.3PL.PST-PST-3PL. Some examples of these phenomena follow (examples are from Kopris 2009 and Tegey 1977 ).PST-PST. but only when the /a/ is stressed (the a-initial verbs are unusual in that they have variable stress placement): (11. and adverbials are all second-position clitics.’ With /wā́/ (< /wə́/+ /a-/): ‫واـ‬ (11.’ versus: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189. if it is a non-aorist form).404  Syntax ‫ خو‬/xo/ and ‫ نو‬/no/ The negatives ‫ نه‬/ná/ and ‫ مه‬/má/ • The adverbial clitics • Modals.M ‘I was buying them. They also obey strict rules of ordering relative to each other.M ‘I bought them.M ‘I beat him.186.9) wə́ me wāh-ə AOR 1SG. weak personal pronouns.WK NEG take-2SG ‘You won't take me.WK buy.’ With a-initial verbs.PRS WOULD 1SG.10) ‫وـ‬ . With aorist prefix /wə́/: ‫وـ‬ .3SG.

13) 405 .down 1SG.WK do.Phrasal syntax  (11.3PL.3SG.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him. or the weak pronoun clitic may cliticize to the initial stressed syllable of the verb.WK knock.WK ‘I was buying them.3SG.‫ما څملول‬ mā́ ʦámlaw-əl 1SG.M ‘I knocked them down. (11.PST-PST-3PL.M ‘I knocked them down.OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.AOR-PST.2.15) . The Waziri particles take the following forms: • The modal clitics /wa/ and /de/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M 1SG.down-PST.DIR 1SG.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects Particles in the Middle dialects interact with verbs similarly to those in the General Pashto dialects.DIR AOR-NEG do.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M.16) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .17) .’ 11.186. as illustrated below.down-PST. They differ somewhat in form.M ‘I made it worse.2.14) .3.’ A negated aorist form (note stress on negative): (11.’ ‫څملول‬ The pair below with the second conjugation verb /ʦamlawə́l/ ‘to knock down’ shows that the choice of pronoun is optional: either the strong pronoun may precede the intact inflected verb.OBL AOR\knock.’ (11.STR.’ With denominal verbs: (11.189.‫اخیستل مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy.‫څه مې ملول‬ ʦá me mlaw-əl AOR\knock.3PL.AOR-PST.‫وران مې کړ‬ warān-Ø me k-ə worse-M.

2. Because it carries an inherent stress. /ye/ .3. in contrast to General Pashto dialects.3PL.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase The negative particle /ná/ nearly always precedes the verb and is placed as close to the verb stem as possible.186.OBL AOR NEG read-PST. and nobody even cared.PST-PST.406  Syntax • The weak personal pronouns.DIR AOR-NEG xoṛ-Ø eat.2. or the light verb complement for complex verbs. /(y)e/ .WK AOR-hit-INF become. the prefix.PST-PST.18) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4) and /nu/ • The negative morphemes /ná/ and /má/ The Dzadrani particles take these forms: • The modal clitics /be/ and /de/ • The weak personal pronouns. In aorist constructions.M.’ (11. or pronominal clitics /mi/ .M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná 3. or pronominal clitics /me/ ∼ /be/. /de/ . 11.DIR 1PL. it takes the main stress in an aorist verb phrase: ‫نه‬ ‫و‬ (11.WK none who.1.‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL.M ‘Our forests were destroyed.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. it therefore follows the aorist marker /wə/ for simplex verbs.M ‘I didn't read [them] over.189.STR.‫ما و نه لوستل‬ mā wu nə́ lwast-əl 1SG. and either initial /a/. /di/ .19) . and /əm/ • The adverbial clitic /xo/ • The negative morphemes /nə́/ and /má/ We do not have information on the ordering of Waziri clitics. but Septfonds reports Dzadrani ordering as follows: adverbial clitics > pronominal clitics > modal clitics Note that this ordering distinguishes between modal /de/ and pronominal /de/ ‘you’ .3PL. where the two occupy the same slot.OBL also sorrow-M.3SG. and /mo/ • The adverbial clitics /xo/ (see Section 10.AOR.

’ .from crown-M.STR.DIR umbrella-F..AOR-PST.M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ (11.1: Element ordering in negative future constructions Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne.OBL Mahmud-M. the order of the other elements depends on the presence of a subject and object or both.21) haɣe xpəl-a čatr-əy xlā́s-a ná 3SG.F. when negating future time reference..DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do.AOR-PST.OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-PST.20) 407 ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ايسته کړ او هيڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ .’ ..3SG.3SG.189.‫کښېنناست‬ šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø tsəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M.DIR opened-F.F ‘She didn't open her umbrella.3SG.3SG.OBL .1.‫هغې خپله چترۍ خلاصه نه کړه‬ (11. head-M.’ Because /bə/ is a second-position clitic and therefore must follow the first stressed word in the clause or sentence.OBL own-F. as indicated in Table 11.DIR NEG kṛ-a do.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him.22) baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M.Phrasal syntax  (11. ‫به‬ Condition Order of elements subject OR object expressed subject/object + subject AND object expressed subject + NEITHER subject NOR object expressed ‫ و‬wə + ‫ به‬bə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + object + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb   Table 11.DIR AOR-NEG do.186..AOR-PST.OBL from.

.to that.4).F] ‘Only in Balkh Province will the railroad not be completed.OBL path-F.186.DIR WOULD only in.DIR WOULD of 3PL. [lit. he won't reach his goals.23 through 11.DIR WOULD 2-to AOR-NEG deliver-PRS.25) .DIR conspiracy-PL.28..2.‫داډول دسیسې به ددوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ dā ḍawal-Ø dəsis-e bə də duy this.DIR own-F.OBL to damage-M. as in 11.OBL mox-e tə wə ná ras-eg-i goal-F. Balkh-M walāyat-Ø ke pāy tə wə-nə́ ras-eg-i province-M .408  Syntax In the case of simplex verbs (i.M] ‘Even now.DIR manner-M.DIR AOR NEG deliver-PRS.’ (11.STR.1 (Tegey & Robson..DIR benefit-F..23) .fire-M.]’⁴ (11. see Section 8. the negated verb is simply /ná/ + inflected verb stem.e.ABL WOULD aforementioned-M.189. 1996: 128). This type of conspiracy won't bring damage to their cease-fire.3[SG.‫کومه فایده به درته ونه رسوي‬ kum-a fāyida-Ø bə dər-tə wə-nə́ rasaw-i any-F. examples of the orderings in Table 11.26) .’ 4 Standardized version of 11.’ (11.M] ‘This type of conspiracy won't hurt the cease-fire.OBL orband-Ø tə ziyān-Ø wə ná rasaw-i cease.OBL time-M.3[SG.F.‫د اور ګاډي لار به یوزاي په بلخ ولایت کې پای ته ونه رسیږي‬ də orgād-i lār-Ø bə yawāze pə balx-Ø of train-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .24) .‫تر هغه وخته به نوموړی خپلې موخې ته و نه رسیږي‬ tər háɣə waxt-ə bə numwaṛ-ay xpəl-e up.. ‫نه‬ (11.in end to AOR-NEG arrive-PRS-PRS.3[SG.25: . all first conjugation verbs except a-initial ones.‫دا ډول دسیسې به د دوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3[SG] ‘It won't do you any good.OBL to AOR NEG arrive-PRS-PRS.

’ . and third conjugation verbs.AOR.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Table 11.3[PL.OBL from path-F.‫وبه نه شم کړاى د پارلمان له لارې خدمت وکړم‬ (11. /bə/ always appears after the first stressed element of the sentence: ‫به‬ • a-initial verb ‫ اخیستل‬/axistə́l/ ‘to take.AOR-1SG ‘I won't be able to serve in Parliament.28: .‫و به نه شمېرل شي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. to buy’: 5 Standardized version of 11.’⁵ With complex verbs (i.2 describes the relative position of the elements..DIR AOR-do.27) wə́-ba ná š-əm kə́ṛ-āy də AOR-WOULD NEG become. See also Section 11.29 through 11. examples of this negative placement.189. Note that in these constructions.2.3.OBL service-M.AOR-OPT of pārlamān-Ø lə lār-e xadmat-Ø wə́-kṛ-əm parliament-M.4). see Section 8.28) wə́ bə ná šmir-ə́l š-i AOR WOULD NEG count-INF become. ‫و‬ Verb type Positioning a-initial verbs w + ā (note lengthening) + verb Second conjugation verbs prefix + Third conjugation verbs noun or adjective + ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ نه‬ná + rest of ‫ نه‬ná + rest of verb ‫ نه‬ná + verbalizer   Table 11.PRS-PRS.Phrasal syntax  409 .AOR. a-initial verbs.PRS-1SG do.M] ‘[The votes] won't be counted.‫وبه نه شمېرل شي‬ (11.2: Negative placement Consider 11. Note that the prefix /wə/ occurs only in a-initial verbs.e. the negative particle is inserted between the first element and the verb stem.2.2.31.186. second conjugation verbs.

‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.‫نو بیا به هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ .3 Main clause sentence types Pashto is a pro-drop language: it often lacks overt marking of arguments.OBL work-M.186.. and absolutive functions (see Section 5.29: 7 Standardized version of 11.OBL ʦəxə lās-Ø w-ā́ ná xl-əm .OBL tel-Ø wāréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.1 and Section 5...from hand-M.3.’ • third conjugation verb (11. accusative.PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone.DIR NEG do.AOR-1PL ‘After this. this.’⁶ • second conjugation verb (11.31: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL from side-F.31) ‫ واردول‬/wāredawə́l/ ‘to take’: . both because the direct case marker is often zero.’⁷ 11.1.‫نوبیابه هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ no biyā́ bə ham zə də de kār-Ø then then WOULD also 1SG.STR.DIR WOULD 3SG.30) ‫ پرېښودل‬/prexud-ə́l/ ‘to abandon’: .DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR from.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 6 Standardized version of 11. .DIR imported-M.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG. This affects word order in that subjects may be expressed through verb agreement suffixation alone. and because the direct case reflects nominative.410  Syntax (11.189.DIR AOR-take NEG take..STR.STR. we won't import fuel through Iran.29) .PRS-1SG ‘Then I also won't quit my job.2).

M.hundred-PL..186..M. however.M.OBL . “Word order within a clause is very flexible. In addition to verb agreement.PRS-PRS..” The following example shows that (for some speakers at least) the object may precede the subject.3PL.3[PL. Compare examples 11. one.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189.1. the order of elements in main clauses in Pashto is S .’ There are various exceptions to the basic S-O-V principle. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M Ø-taxtaw-ә́l-i CONT-kidnap-PST-PTCP.STR. providing that the larger context supports the interpretation: (11.‫ترکي انجينران ددوى کسانو نه دي تښتولي‬ turki injinir-ān dә duy Turkish engineer-PL.OBL NEG be. suggesting that the pre-clausal position is being used in this case for focus.O .1 Order of elements in declaratives Subject to several more specific conditions. One is that the required second position of a weak pronoun may result in a violation of the S-O-V order. According to our sources.M.DIR governmental māmur-in rašwat-Ø Ø-xor-í official-PL. the second possible translation (O-S-V) would require a supporting context and would.3. ‫مامورین‬ (11.ANIM. in keeping with the strong preference for the subject to precede the object. the nominal /māmurin/ ‘officials’ is the first of the two directmarked nouns.60 and 11. The second one.M] ‘Ninety percent of government officials take bribes..DIR bribe-F.PRS.M.CONT.ANIM.V. be signaled through special intonation (including a heavy pause). in speech. for emphasis or contrast.in ninety-PL.32) . word order contributes to interpretation in present-tense clauses where both subject and object are case-marked as direct.DIR CONT-eat.32.Main clause sentence types  11. Babrakzai (1999: 13–14) notes that outside of a strict verb-final condition.OBL kas-āno ná di person-PL. In example 11.DIR of 3PL. the first translation is the intended one.33) .‫په سلو کې نوي دولتي مامورین رشوت خوري‬ pə səl-o ke nuw-i dawlati in.1 411 Declaratives 11.DIR ‘Their people didn't kidnap the Turkish engineers.3. and is the head of the subject noun phrase.PL. has been confirmed by speakers as a possible interpretation.’ In the following attested example.M.61.

M] ‘Why are the nation's soldiers killing foreign fighters?’ ‘Why are foreign fighters killing the nation's soldiers?’⁸ Roberts (2000: 11–12) claims that O-S-V order such as is shown in 11.DIR CONT-kill.STR.186.M. the adpositional phrase containing the undergoer precedes the denominal verb. The agreement suffix on the verb reflects that /mərasta/ ‘help’ is the grammatical direct object.PRS-PRS.STR.34 is much more likely in past tense sentences. We leave to future research whether these somewhat contradictory claims reflect dialect variation. no special intonation is associated with the O-S-V word order.DIR AOR-see-1SG ‘It's you I see!’ Because Pashto’s denominal verbs place the verb’s complement in the direct object position.412  (11.189.35) sp-ay pišo-Ø ye xog-aw-í dog-M.OBL 1SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .ANIM. where the ergative-absolutive case-marking pattern provides disambiguation.CONT-PRS.OBL soldier-PL. where the weak pronoun co-refers with the noun /spay/. (11.M. In these constructions.3[PL. Note that this example contrasts with the previous one in that only one direct object expression appears.WK hurt-do.’ Penzl (1955: 133) provides a present-tense example for Kandahari with O-S-V word order.37). present-tense sentences with O-S-V order instantiate a construction that contains a pronoun coreferential with the object.35. (11.34) Syntax ‫د ملي اردو سرتيري ولې بهرني پوځيان وژني؟‬ dә mili urdu-Ø sartir-i wale baharəni of national army-M. this lends support to the view that the object noun phrase is in a preclausal position. the undergoer of the expressed action is often given in an adpositional phrase (highlighted in example 11. According to Roberts. he claims further that in such cases.34: ‫د ملي اردو سرتیري ولي بهرني پوځیان وژني؟‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. or register or stylistic variation.36) tā zə Ø-win-ə́m 2SG. ‫مرسته‬ 8 Standardized version of 11.DIR 3.DIR cat-F. as shown in 11. the cat is hurting him. which he claims places focus on the object.3[SG]F ‘The dog.DIR why foreign pāwdz-iān Ø-wažn-í force-PL.

’ (11. spray.M] ‘Bill is loading hay onto the wagon.M] ‘Bill is loading the wagon with hay.186..3[SG. indirect objects are always marked with an adposition..na Bill wagon-SG.” Shafeev (1964: 55) claims that the indirect object preferentially precedes the direct object in the Kandahari dialect.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ She shows further that whichever argument appears in the direct object function is the trigger of verb agreement in the past tense. She shows that three-argument predicates such as load..’ 11.OBL ..F.. ‫ته‬ 11. which express the caused movement of material into or onto a location.COMIT help-F..on of attack-PL.M.3.from bār-aw-i load-do. allow either the undergoer of the activity or the location affected to appear as a nuclear term.DIR wə́-kəṛ-l-a AOR-do. and that either argument may also Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. and smear.. any order of arguments is possible. (11.37) 413 ..2 Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses There is in Pashto no double-object ditransitive construction.OBL . This is in keeping with Pashto’s limit of two distinct noun phrases per clause. “as long as the grammatical functions of the arguments are clear from context or case-marking [and] .F[DIR] from..OBL at time-M 3.1.. bus-o . hay-PL.189.38) Bill lar-əy də. a direct object.3. the remaining argument appears in an adpositional phrase.F[DIR] load-do.. the verb appears finally.WK də pākistān-Ø sərə mərasta-Ø COMIT.AOR-PST-PST.‫په افغانستان باندې د حملې پر وخت یې د پاکستان سره مرسته وکړله‬ pə afɣānistān-Ø bānde də haml-o pər waxt-Ø ye on.M] on wagon-SG.F ‘He helped Pakistan when Afghanistan was under attack. and an indirect object marked with the postposition /ta/ ‘to’.39) Bill bus-Ø pə lar-əy bār-aw-i Bill hay.CONT-PRES.3SG..3[SG. Roberts (2000: 13) demonstrates that in sentences that have a subject..DIR[PL..CONT-PRES..3 Locative alternation Takahashi (2008) explores the phenomenon of locative alternation in Pashto..Main clause sentence types  (11. Afghanistan-M . Pakistan-M.1..

Descriptions produced well into the 20th century (including Penzl 1955) often confound Pashto’s split ergativity with the existence of a passive construction.3SG.SG. The undergoer of the action is expressed as the grammatical subject of the ‫کېدل‬ 9 The form /i/ for the participial endings originates with Takahashi.F.PST-PTCP..4 Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 172). with both the actor argument and the other oblique argument available to appear in their respective adpositional phrases.5 Passive clauses Pashto does not have a clearly distinguishable morphological or periphrastic passive. a phenomenon discussed at greater length in Section 8.414  Syntax appear as the subject of the construction that Babrakzai (as cited by Takahashi) identifies as passive (see Section 11.M. Grammars produced later usually do not include this confound.AOR. 11.F[DIR] loaded šew-i di become.PL.laxwā pə lar-əy bār hay-DIR[PL.F[DIR] from.CONT.1. Bill from.laxwā pə bus-o bār wagon-SG.5.side on wagon-SG. Tegey (1979) explicitly denies the existence of a distinct passive construction.’ (11..CONT.OBL loaded šew-i dā become.AOR.3PL.’ 11.186..3.F ‘The wagon has been loaded with hay by Bill. Similarly. The verbal part of the construction consists of a form of the verbalizer /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and a verbal complement. and is one we have not otherwise encountered..3. Bill from. Bill .. however. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189..2...PST-PTCP.DIR be..5.3..M] from..⁹ (11.2..1. This construction does have the properties characteristic of passives that it alters the canonical termhood of actors and undergoers.40) lar-əy də. as shown in the examples that follow. Bill .5). they may identify the construction described here as a passive.PRS.side on hay-PL.41) bus-Ø də. a position we do not concur with. Like us. that adpositional phrase will generally precede the verb immediately.M ‘The hay has been loaded onto the wagon by Bill. The construction identified by some contemporary linguists as a passive comprises a special case of denominal verbs.PRS. with the pronominal cliticizing to the verb.40.M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . we have not otherwise seen the long /ā/ of the be-verb in 11.DIR be. if an adpositional phrase includes an oblique pronominal clitic as its object.1. This complement appears in the infinitive form.

OBL bənsaṭ-Ø kexud-ə́l šo-Ø foundation-M. we will continue our protests.OBL building-PL..PST-PST.DIR man-M. ‫د‬ 10 Standardized version of 11..in of two-PL.Main clause sentence types  415 sentence..’ (11.OBL to WOULD dawām-Ø wárkṛ-u continuation-M.F.43) .44) .c.DIR woman-F.DIR and that. or.DIR both-PL.AOR.. the subject may be expressed through the verb agreement suffix alone. Kunar-M .5.F. Tegey (1979) asserts that there is no dedicated means of marking an agent within this construction. if expressed.44: ‫له لورې‬. and that noun is case-marked direct and triggers verb agreement (in both tenses)..PRS-PRS.M.)..AOR. (11.” ‫له خوا‬. will most likely appear in an adpositional phrase governed by the circumposition /də.DIR bāyad wə́-waž-əl š-i NEC AOR-kill-INF become.‫په کونړکې د دوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3)...46 and in Section 9.3[PL. However.F.DIR place-INF become.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .‫په کونړکې ددوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ pə kunaṛ-Ø ke də dw-o wədān-əyo in. “any [adposition] that gets the semantic job [of marking the agent] done is a suitable candidate..186...’¹⁰ The actor.AOR-1PL ‘If our requests are not accepted. as in example 11.‫هغه سړی او هغه ښځه دواړه باید ووژل شي‬ háɣə saṛ-ay aw háɣa xəʣa-Ø dwāṛ-a that.lə lure/(as seen in examples 11.F] protest-PL.M] ‘Both that man and that woman must be killed.DIR give.M ‘The foundations of two buildings were laid in Kunar.42) .’ (11. and James Caron has remarked (p.DIR 1PL.45 and 11.46. as with active sentences.‫د‬ .‫]که[ غوښتنې مو ونه منل شي مظاهرو ته به دوام ورکړو‬ [ka] ɣuxtən-e mo wə-nə́ man-ə́l [if] request-PL.1..F.PRS-PRS.AOR.WK AOR-NEG accept-INF š-i muzāhər-o ta bə become.189.3[PL.lə xwā/ or /də.3SG.

OBL international-F.F.AOR.‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F.416  (11.OBL Karzai-M.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL.45) Syntax .ANIM.DIR ‘The presented drafts have been accepted by President Karzai.PST-PTCP.OBL society-F.CONT.OBL conference-M.F.OBL before of student-PL.PST-PTCP. like most noun modifiers. it precedes the head: 11 Standardized version of 11.186.AOR.M.DIR be.45: ‫وړاندې شوې طرحه د ولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M.DIR draft-F.OBL one-M.46) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ .189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.M.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become.’ An embedded instance of this construction may modify a noun.DIR of people məšər-Ø Karz-i lə lur-e man-ə́l elder-M.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.OBL from side-F.‫وړاندې شوې طرحه دولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ wṛānde šúw-e tarha-Ø də walas before become.1SG ‘A few days ago.OBL accept-INF šúw-e become.PST.’¹¹ (11.PST-PTCP.AOR.

OBL Zakir-M.2..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PRS..DIR CONT-eat. if any.M.DIR writing-PL.2 Interrogatives Pashto uses the same word order for questions as for statements. Questions in Pashto can be differentiated from statements through the presence of the particle associated with yes-or-no and affirmation questions.47) 417 ‫دډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شوي اثارو په دې وروستیو کې په ځوان کول‬ . in speech.CONT.47: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. ʣwān-Ø khol-Ø ke xorā minawāl-Ø young-M generation-M .OBL lik-əl šúw-i āsar-o pə write-INF become.3.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL from side-F.M.Main clause sentence types  (11.’¹² 11. with interrogative elements. through intonation.. in the place where they would be expected if they were not interrogatives.‫په ځوان کول کې خورا مینه وال موندلي دي‬ 12 Standardized version of 11.OBL food-F.PL.in many admirer-PL.189. ‫آیا‬ (11.F.DIR da be. or.DIR ‘The works that were written by Dr.3.186..48) ‫آیا تا ډوډئ خوړلې ده؟‬ āyā tā ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e Q 2SG.AOR.OBL in. or of the interrogative pronouns used for information questions.F ‘Have you eaten yet?’ (SW) ‫د ډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شویو اثارو په دې وروستیو کې‬ .1 Yes-or-no questions with the particle /āyā/ Pashto uses the interrogative particle /āyā/ to introduce yes-or-no questions.PST-PTCP.M. ‫آیا‬ 11. It is thought to be more characteristic of Western dialects than others. Zakir Naik have become popular with young people.PST-PST-PTCP.PL.M.OBL Nayak-M.‫کې خورا مینه وال موندلي‬ də ḍāktar-Ø zākir-Ø nayak-Ø lə lur-e of doctor-M.3SG.STR.DIR Ø-mund-ə́l-i CONT-find.

sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga. sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri.3.6. reproduced here from Section 10.2.50 shows that interrogative elements appear in the position characteristic of their grammatical function.6. (11.2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3: GP additional interrogative adverbs Example 11.418  Syntax In addition.186. the existence or presence of something may be queried by means of the existential particle /šta/. the identity of the undergoer of the action is being asked about. the human interrogative pronoun is /ʦok/ (direct) or /čā/ ‘who?’ (oblique). here. səranga ‘how (what manner)?’   Table 11. (11.OBL who.49 is an example.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ 11. and Table 11. lists other interrogative terms.49) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ ‫شته‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M.3SG.2 Information questions with interrogative pronouns As discussed in Section 7.50) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M.189.DIR AOR-hit-PST. and the interrogative element appears in direct object position.M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3. ‫څوک‬ ‫چا‬ Pashto Translation ‫ ولي‬wali ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخټ‬ʦə waxt. 11.

given that there may be no word order difference between them.1 The imperative verb form Pashto utilizes an imperative verb form.5 and Section 8.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.189.2 for more explanation and examples.2. 11. This is described in Section 8. although a name may be used. which shows that both the question and its answer may be marked with the same particle.5 and Table 8.5.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .SG ‘Zalmay. case-marked vocative. ‫که نه‬ 11.51 shows that verb agreement sanctions the omission of the subject noun for questions just as it does for statements.3. see Section 8.PRS-IMP.1. stop!’ (NW) (11.3. and both show normal Pashto word order. The addressee subject is generally omitted from the sentence.PRS-2SG healthy-M.DIR abuse-PL.3.3.3.DIR become.Main clause sentence types  419 Example 11.3 Affirmation questions with the particle /kə na/ Affirmation questions are formed through use of the particle /kə na/.53) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) ‫یو‬ Section 7.DIR repeated-do-INF-PL.2. (11.3.M.52: (11.DIR then this. with associated word forms summarized in Section 8.2.3.7 explains the use of the number name /yaw/ ‘one’ to differentiate between indefinite statements and information questions.48.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ Use of the imperative verb form is not the only way to express a command.3 ‫که نه‬ Imperatives 11.52) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫زلمیه‬ zalm-aya wə́-dar-eg-a Zalmay-M.M.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want.AOR. as in 11.51) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who.DIR CONT-see. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.6.5. Suggestions or polite commands may be conveyed with the use of the second person present aorist form of the verb.STR. This is exemplified in Section 10.186.

(11.PL ‘Don't think badly about your brother!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. in which the particle /má/ instead appears sentence finally.56 exhibits negative concord.‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځخ‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M.PRS-IMP.SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me.OBL brother-M.57) !‫د خپل ورور په باب غلط فکرونه مه کوئ‬ də xpəl-Ø wror-Ø pə bāb-Ø ɣalat-Ø of own-M.SG ‘Never backbite!’ (11.OBL on subject-M wrong-PL.420  Syntax ‫مه‬ 11.3.2 The negative imperative particle /má/ Normally /má/ precedes a verb in the imperative form to create a negative command.DIR NEG.CONT.PRS-IMP.OBL laugh-F.DIR INSTR laugh-F. See also example 11.3.CONT-IMP.PST-PST-3PL. In example 11.OBL to NEG ʣ-a go. 'Don't go to the movies.DIR NEG.OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell.M.186.IMP do.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .'’ Notice that example 11.IMP do.56) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-á never when backbiting-M.DIR fikr-una má kaw-əy thought-PL.CONT-IMP.189.M. ‫مه‬ (11.CONT.SG má NEG.OBL INSTR manner-M become.M COMP cinema-F.55.54) ‫مه‬ !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) (11. the negative imperative appears inside a direct quotation.55) .54.

.. 3PL.in so.58) 421 ‫ شته‬/šta/.F.DIR EXT ‘I have three good books.4 Generic and existential sentences with ‫ شته‬/šta/ Generic and existential sentences are formed using the clause-final particle as outlined in Section 10.DIR COMP di xo pə duy ke dāse yaw-a ham nə́ be..STR.189.1 Weak pronouns Because weak pronouns must appear in second position in the clause.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3.58: .DIR 2.61.‫مانا وی‬ ʣəka pə dunyā-Ø ke ʦumra žəb-e če because in.‫نشته چې بې مانا وي‬ ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبې چې دي خو په دوي کې داسې یوه هم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186..M.. .. (11. the weak pronoun is in second position irrespective of its role in the sentence.V ordering in main clauses.’¹³ (11.3. ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبی چی دی خو په دوی کی داسی یوه هم نشته چی بی‬ .many language-PL..DIR also NEG šta če be mānā-Ø wi EXT COMP without meaning-F. there is not one that is without meaning.F ‘While there are many languages in the world.Main clause sentence types  11.AOR.‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه شته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG.60 and 11.PRS.’ 13 Standardized version of 11.OBL from three good book-PL. verb agreement allows for unambiguous interpretations.3.STR.60) .O .3PL.59) .1.1.‫زه دې وهم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́m 1SG.3SG.F but in. (11.PRS.5. the order of two pronouns may violate the basic S ..’ (NE) 11.STR.OBL be. world-M .WK CONT-beat-1SG ‘I am hitting you.5 Other principles of word order in main clauses 11. In sentences 11.CONT.in such one-F.

64) .OBL CONT-see.63.‫وینم تې‬ Ø-win-ə́m di CONT-see. an adpositional phrase.PST-PST.DIR ‘They have called upon the Israelis.DIR 2.‫او ښار یي پریښود‬ aw xā́r-Ø ye préxud-Ø and city-M.3.STR.M. as in example 11. where the strong pronoun can occur before the verb.66) . it may follow a direct object.189. or the complement of a denominal verb. because it is not prohibited from appearing in clause-initial position. as in example 11.65) . as in example 11.65.M.M ‘And they abandoned the city.WK voice-M.2).WK ‘I see you. as in example 11.’ Similarly. an adverb. (11.63) .PRS-1SG 2.186. (11.AOR-PTCP. the verb must precede the pronoun.68.62) .67. Compare the unacceptable 11.‫په اسرایيلو یی غږ کړې‬ pə isrāyel-o ye ɣag-Ø kéṛ-ay on Israeli-PL.’ (SW) (11.61) Syntax .WK CONT-see.‫* دې وینم‬ di Ø-win-ə́m 2.64.WK CONT-beat-PST-1SG ‘You were hitting me.DIR do.62.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.STR.DIR 3.422  (11.66.WK AOR\leave.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.‫تا وینم‬ tā́ Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.’ (SW) (11. in example 11. in contrast with 11.OBL 3.‫زه دې وهلم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́l-əm 1SG.’ (11.3SG.’ (SW) When a weak pronoun is the subject of a past tense transitive verb (see Section 7.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

’ (NW) Given that a weak pronoun cannot appear sentence-initially.70) .3[SG.’ (11.186..OBL intention-M.DIR darlód-Ø have.71. It contrasts with sentence 11.189.WK do.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST. it may instead appear in post-clausal position.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tút-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.‫پخوا مي د جهاد نیت درلود‬ pəxwā́ me də jihād-Ø niyat-Ø before 1SG.M.‫ما لوبه وڅکلې‬ mā́ ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG.M] 1SG.3SG.STR. and may therefore not be the second word.F.3PL.70.OBL water-PL..3SG.WK AOR-eat.DIR 3.Main clause sentence types  (11..PST-PST.’ Example 11.F ‘I drank water.. which shows that the sentence-initial position for pronouns may acceptably be filled with a strong pronoun.72.M ‘Previously.F COMP ‘And he added that.CONT-PRS.DIR 1SG.69 shows that the weak pronoun may be the next element after an entire noun phrase.WK of Jihad-M.AOR-PST.DIR mulberry-PL. (11.M ‘I ate many mulberries. to be contrasted with the unmarked order of 11.PST-PST.‫او زیاته یی کړه چي‬ aw ziyā́t-a ye kṛ-a če and more-F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .71) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do.’ (11.67) 423 .69) . (11.M.3PL.WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. This is shown in example 11. I intended [to undertake] a Jihad.68) .AOR.

3.3[SG. (11. aside from the fact that /də/ ‘of’ encodes a much wider range of relations than possession. ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. and 11.DIR worker-PL.PST-PTCP..’ ‫د‬ 11.DIR pə farā-Ø ke xóše šw-əl in.AOR.5. nouns. and deverbal nouns.2 for summaries of the order of negative particles with respect to other segments of the verb.3.ANIM.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) 11.PL.) discusses the separation of possessive clitics from their possessee phrases in terms of an apparent possessor raising construction.2 Particles Section 11..3.1 and Table 11.. The appearance of such a phrase in this pre-clausal position does not necessarily put that phrase in focus.5. too.73.3 Adpositional phrases in main clauses Adpositional phrases may be governed by verbs. as shown above in the contrast between example 11.CONT-PRS. Other discussions of particle order are found throughout Chapter 8.4 Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/ As shown in Section 9.57 shows this.3. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 14 Roberts (2000: 121ff.145 shows that a phrase governed by /də/ may appear extracted from its governing phrase—in this case.M.2. and shows also that this may result in the effect of a complex circumpositional phrase. the phrase governed by the circumposition.424  (11.AOR.1.2 provides a comprehensive discussion of the order of particles with respect to verbs.5.72) Syntax ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG.3.3PL. 11.M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189. Another feature of these phrases is that any such phrase may appear in pre-clausal position¹⁴. noun modifiers governed by /də/ ‘of’ are extremely common and may be nested within one another.73) . That concept could account for this phenomenon.M ‘The kidnapped workers were released in Farah.3. adpositional phrase modifiers precede the element they modify.1.WK kiss-do. See also Table 11. In general.in released become.186.PST-PST.‫تښتول شوي کارګران په فراه کې خوشې شول‬ təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i kārgar-ān kidnap-INF become. Example 11.. Farah-M . Example 11.

75) .189.ki Ahmad WOULD COMP now in.74) ahmad bə. 2012) that all finite subordinate clauses are determiner (i. we believe rather that the condition is for specificity.DIR CONT-have.PRS-1SG COMP tut-Ø Ø-lar-í mulberry-PL. The analysis of relative clauses in Tegey & Robson (1996: 206–208) implies that the head noun must be definite. reside-PRS-3[SG.. and adverbial clauses. All tensed subordinate clauses except verb complements require the complementizer (Pate.in os-iʐ-i. as cited by Pate (2012: 79ff)..PRS-3[SG. who now lives in Germany.OBL to come. čə os pə.3[SG.M.AOR.‫هغه باغ ته ځم چه توت لري‬ háɣa bāɣ-Ø ta ʣ-ə́m čə that. non-restrictive relative clauses are signaled prosodically by pauses.OBL to go.M] sabā zmā kor-Ø ta rās-i tomorrow 1SG.M] ‘I am going to the garden that has the mulberries. including relative clauses. not definiteness (sentence 11..CONT.. Germany . reported speech. ‫چه‬ (11. verb-governed subordinate clauses.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .78 has a specific indefinite item in the determiner position).186. and syntactically by allowing a second position clitic to intervene between the head noun and the relative clause: (11.Some subordinate clause types 11. complementizer) phrases with noun-phrase complements. sometimes combined with another item (which may be classifiable as a resumptive element). the general condition accords with Pate’s claim (Pate. jarmani .4  425 Some subordinate clause types The complementizer ‫ چه‬/čə/—also ‫ چې‬/če/ in Eastern and ‫ چي‬/či/ in Western dialects— can introduce numerous types of subordinate clauses.OBL house-M. Relative clauses in Pashto all employ the complementizer /čə/. 2012).’ The rest of this section concerns restrictive relative clauses.. 11..1 Relative clauses According to Babrakzai (1999).’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL garden-M.STR.M] ‘Ahmad.PRS-PRS. orthographically by commas (though this does not always differentiate them from restrictive relative clauses). will come to my house tomorrow..4.e..

DIR in death-F.DIR also yād-éẓ-i remembered-become. (11. 252 tərhagər-Ø without pilot-M.. relative clauses that modify objects appear in the post-clausal position (Tegey & Robson.F ‘the house the door of which is blue’ Relative clauses that modify subjects generally follow their subjects immediately.DIR da be.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M.from 12 person-PL.CONT.79.PST.STR. the full noun phrase identifying the actor is apparently in pre-clausal position.3[SG. 1996: 208)..M COMP of 3PL. as shown in 11.189.PL.3[SG.M ‘Drones killed 252 terrorists.OBL complete Ø-tṛ-ə́l-i wə CONT-tie-PST-PTCP.CONT-PRS.DIR do.STR.. however..PRS-PRS.3PL. where the relative clause immediately follows its head.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR be..78) .M.3PL.ANIM.DIR COMP door-F.M.77.. total-F. 252 terrorist-PL.WK AOR-kill-PST.OBL ʦexə 12 kas-ān pə al-qeda-Ø pori .3SG.M] haɣá pə mṛinə-Ø həm 3SG..’ Notice too that in sentence 11.DIR 3.75 and 11. contrast these with 11.PRS.426  (11.M.M.M] ‘He who does good deeds is remembered even after his death.77) ۱۲ ‫ ترهګریی ووژل چي دهغوی له جملي څخه‬۲۵۲ .‫څوك چه ښه كارونه كوي هغه په مړینه هم یادېږي‬ ʦok čə xə kār-una kaw-í who.M. of whom twelve were definitively tied to Al-Qaida.DIR on Al-Qaida-M.‫کسان په القاعده پوري تړلي وه‬ be piloṭ-a alotek-o .WK blue-F.OBL from.CONT.77.DIR ye wə́-waž-əl če də haɣwi lə jaml-e 3.CONT. with a resumptive weak pronoun appearing before the verb (see also Roberts 2000: 176–177 for a fuller description of the conditions on the appearance of resumptive pronouns).‫بی پیلوټه الوتکو‬ ..186.76) Syntax ‫هغه کور چه دروازه یې شنه ده‬ háɣa kor-Ø čə darwāza-Ø ye šn-a that...ABL airplane-PL.DIR house-M. (11.DIR .DIR COMP good work-PL.

regardless of nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive alignment—may relativize (under conditions discussed below). Pate (2012) shows that any argument type— subjects.WK civilian-PL.CONT.3[SG.DIR be. direct objects.PST-PST-PTCP.F.OBL 16 person-PL.DIR woman-F.189.ANIM.CONT. and adpositional objects.Some subordinate clause types  427 .DIR boy-M.F.CONT.DIR COMP Zarang-M.ANIM.’ (SW) Among others studying relativization.3.M of Gabina-F.3SG.3SG.3PL.F] NEG AOR-see-PST.M COMP many 3.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي نه ولیده‬ (11.M. while accusative arguments require an overt pronoun (see also Babrakzai 1999 and Roberts 2000: 152ff).F ‘Xushal didn't see the woman who was talking with Zarang. His analysis shows also that relative clauses employ resumptive pronouns whose distribution reflects split ergativity: in present-tense relative clauses relativizing on nominative arguments.‫ کسان ووژل چي ډیر ئې ملکیان ول‬۱۶ ‫دوه بیلابیلو چاودنو‬ dwa belābel-o čāwdən-o 16 kas-ān two separate-PL.PST.2. while transitive subjects do (as in 11. In pasttense relative clauses.CONT.DIR be.OBL that.‫هغه هلک چه بازار ته تللئ و د ګبینه وراره دئ‬ háɣa hələk-Ø čə bāzār-Ø ta that.186.PRS.PST.M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . This follows from the occurrence restrictions described in Section 7.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي ونه لیده‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. direct objects and intransitive subjects do not have a corresponding overt resumptive pronoun.’ (SW)¹⁵ (11.DIR wəl be.1.9. see Table 7.79) xušāl-Ø háɣa ṣəʣa-Ø čə zarang-Ø sara Xushal-M.OBL explosion-PL.80) .79: . many of whom were civilians.81).M ‘Two separate explosions killed 16 people.81) .M ‘The boy who went to the market is Gabina's nephew.OBL wrār-ə dəy nephew-M. no overt resumptive pronoun appears.DIR wə́-waž-əl če ḍer ye mulk-iān AOR-kill-PST. (11.3SG.PST.OBL to tl-ə́l-əy wə də gabina-Ø go.DIR COMP market-M.’ 15 Standardized version of 11.3PL.M.OBL COMIT Ø-ɣag-ég-i ná wə́-lid-a CONT-speak-PRS-PRS.

Kabul-M.F. the subject function is filled with a pronoun (or by agreement).3[SG.PRS-PRS. instead.186.. /čə/ is often preceded by the interrogative adverb /čərta/ ‘where’ or followed by the locative adverbial /həlta/ ‘there’ (see sentence 11.428  Syntax Pate (2012) reanalyzes the assertion in Tegey (1979) that ergative subjects cannot head relative clauses.DIR do.PRS.’ 11.DIR wə́-lar-u če həlta pə lumṛ-ayo do-Ø AOR-have. every-PL.DIR and safe-M.. contrast this with sentence 11.3PL.DIR comrade-ADJZ language-PL.DIR zdá-Ø kṛ-í learned-PL.189..OBL .OBL first-PL.OBL .OBL year-PL.in COMP istixdām-Ø kég-i bāyad pə kābul-Ø hired-PL.AOR-PRS.DIR become. as evidenced by the second-position clitic /bə/ (example is from Pate 2012: 80).PRS-1PL COMP there in.M. appears in pre-clausal position..82) haɣə səṛei čə lungota ye pər sar-Ø kər-e that man. Fully nominal..PTCP-SG.F də sabā bə rās-i be.M..2 Noun complement clauses ‫تجربه‬ Nouns that denote states or events (such as /tajraba/ ‘experience’ in 11.M.CONT.in one-M.M.M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4. ergative arguments cannot co-occur with restrictive relative clause modifiers. case-marked direct and with its relative clause modifier.F tomorrow WOULD come. first-PL.F.OBL ke yaw-Ø mašax-Ø aw masun-Ø ʣay-Ø .. and the coreferential nominal.DIR do.DIR COMP turban 3.3SG.DIR place-M.83).F.84) can govern a subordinate clause expressing the content of that state or event..M ‘In the first years in which they are hired.74 above: ‫به‬ (11.M NEC in..3PL. we must have a private and safe place in Kabul where they will study their national languages for the first two months.. ‫چرته‬ ‫مړیو‬ (11. As is the case Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL two-PL.M.83) ‫په هرو لمړیو کالو کې چې استخدام کیږي باید په کابل کې یو مشخص او‬ .‫مصؤن ځای ولرو چې هلته په لمړیو دو میاشتو کې خپلې ملي ژبې زده کړي‬ pə har-o lumṛ-ayo kāl-o ke če in.-PRS.in own-PL.’ ‫چه‬ When the subordinate clause relativizes on a location expression..M] ‘That man who is wearing a turban will come tomorrow.M.WK on head-M.DIR private-M..OBL miyāšt-o ke xpəl-e mil-i žəb-e month-PL.

.OBL aw njun-o pər zid-Ø də jagr-e yaw-a jabhha-Ø and girl-PL..CONT.F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term.Some subordinate clause types  429 for the heads of relative clauses.ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.M..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .84) .DIR be.3SG.OBL Times-M.DIR .F.M.WK of national office-M.to all-PL.. are also introduced with the complementizer /čə/ ‘that’.CONT.F ‘The author of the Asia Times study has had the experience that men have started another war against women and children. nārina .PST.’ 11. Here the complement clause appears in post-clausal position.OBL difficult-F.. heads of complement clauses must have a determiner.M.DIR prānist-ə́l-e da CONT\open.DIR da če .DIR be. then of woman-PL. dā tajraba-Ø Ø-lar-ə́l-e .3SG..CONT.OBL of this...F..OBL author-M.DIR front-F.’ Complements of nouns may also take the form of infinitive verbal nouns governed by adpositions. ‫د ایشیا ټایمز د دې مطلب لیکوال‬ .F COMP .‫ریاست په دوره کی تر ټولو سجته پرکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M. this. ‫ نارینه‬. (11. biyā də xəʣ-o be. men .F.OBL in.OBL one-F.DIR . term-F.OBL on opposite-M of war-F..85..DIR 3.. sometimes called subordinate noun clauses.3 Verb complement clauses Verb complement clauses.. When a subordinate clause is an ar- ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL of send-INF-PL...OBL to of thirty thousand-PL.DIR decision-F.4. (11.OBL study-M.‫بیا د ښځو او نجونو پرضد د جگړې یوه جبهه پرانستلې ده‬ də asiyā-Ø tāymz-Ø də de matlab-Ø likwāl-Ø of Asia-F. see sentence 11...F.3SG.PRS.DIR CONT-have-PST-PTCP.in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up.. ‫ دا تجربه لرلې ده چې‬.OBL from sake-M.PST-PST-PTCP.DIR experience-F.85) ‫افغانیستان ته د دیرش زره اضاقی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه بی د جمهوری‬ .189...186..PRS..DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.

86 and 11. Example 11. which by convention is marked third person plural masculine (this default agreement registration also holds of infinitive verbal noun arguments.89 shows a past tense transitive verb.PST.186.M.3SG.PST.DIR thing-M.’ (SW) (11.189.430  Syntax gument of the predicate. In this case the demonstrative pronoun /dā/ may appear in the usual position of the subject (Tegey & Robson.DIR very expensive-M.DIR learned-become.3PL. /wayəl/ ‘to tell’.CONT.‫دا خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ dā xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi this.M COMP alone AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone.86) . see sentence 11. split ergativity dictates that the agreement be with the subordinate clause.PRS-2PL COMP gold-PL.DIR danger-M. ‫دا‬ (11.3SG.M ‘You know that gold is a very expensive thing.DIR be.M COMP alone wú-gərʣ-ed-e AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone.DIR zar-Ø xə grān-Ø šay-Ø precious.M. in the past continuous aspect.DIR be. 1996: 199–200).140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .CONT.‫خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi wú-gərʣ-ed-e danger-M. as shown in sentences 11.88) .’ (SW) When the main clause verb is in the past tense.STR.87.‫تاسو پوهېږئ چه سره زر ښه ګران شی دی‬ tāso puh-éẓ-əy čə sr-ə 2PL. it is likely to appear in post-clausal position.CONT. and with the agreement suffix for the subordinate clause.’ (SW) It is more common to find verb-governed a subordinate clause as the internal argument: (11.85).CONT.87) .DIR di be. ‫ویل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.metal-PL.PRS.

AOR-PRS...WK mother-F.M če wrusta oro oro də mān-əy fəzā-Ø COMP later slow slow of house-F.DIR 3.DIR COMP results-PL.PST-PST.DIR become.F.89)  431 .OBL court-F.F ‘Afterwards my mother would say that the house's atmosphere slowly grew sorrowful.M.F.‫وروستو به مې مور ویل چې وروسته ورو ورو د ماڼۍ فضا غمجنه شوه‬ wrusta bə me mor-Ø Ø-way-ə́l later WOULD 1SG.90 (see Section 8.OBL .OBL lawyer-F.OBL fraud-PL.M. An example showing the main subject controlling the embedded subject is found in 11..189.OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want.OBL vast-PL.‫غوښتي چې نتایج یې باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F.91.PL. the embedded verb will be in the present aorist as in 11.M.OBL atmosphere-F.PST-PTCP.in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become.3PL.OBL CONT-tell.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.AOR.186.PL.ABL from high-F.OBL in. ‫غواړ‬ (11.PST-PST.AOR.F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.Some subordinate clause types (11. elections-PL.PST-PTCP..90) ‫کشش کو‬ ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3[SG.2).’ When appearing with control verbs such as /ɣwāṛ‑/ ‘to want’ and /košiš kaw‑/ ‘to try’.3SG.WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M.3.F.DIR ɣámjan-a šw-a sad-F.

In example 11.DIR similar educational-F.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO.55. Pashto accepts both direct and indirect forms of reported speech (although Penzl 1955: 141 claims that only direct speech is found in Kandahari).3[SG. city-PL.M.PRS.OBL aw kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə and village-PL.95.1 Reported speech Verbs of speaking may govern clausal complements.OBL of education-F.3[SG..AOR-PRS..PRS-PRS.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø one-M.OBL from pār-a sake-M. as we would expect of quoted speech.4.DIR barābár-a prepared-F.3SG.‫ښارونو او کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو شان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M. Note the use of the present-tense form of the verb in the subordinate clause in 11.OBL .93 demonstrates.CONT.91) ‫ چې غواړي د یونسکو په مرسته د هیواد په‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ .92) . ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.432  Syntax (11. but it is obligatory for indirect speech. The complementizer /čə/ is optional for introducing direct speech..OBL ministry-M.3.94 and 11.’ 11.DIR kṛ-i do.189.M.in of student-PL.DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell. the verb form is present-tense and imperative.AOR. as in sentences 11. ‫چه‬ (11.M.PRS-PRS..3[SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.DIR opportunity-F.M COMP peace-F.‫امېد دی چه سوله به راشي‬ omed-Ø day čə sola-Ø bə hope-M.3[SG.DIR of country-M.OBL in.M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno UNESCO INSTR help-F. as sentence 11.95 rather than a relative-tense expression.DIR WOULD rā́š-i come.’ /čə/ may also introduce a subordinate clause serving as the second element in a copular construction.F] ‘The hope is that peace will come.DIR be.M] COMP CONT-want.PRS-PRS.

PST-PST.M čə zməka-Ø da ɣwāy-i pə xkər-Ø walāṛ-a COMP earth-F.STR.3SG..OBL and paxlāyən-e prosa-Ø baryā́l-e reconciliation-F.OBL AOR-tell..‫پخوا خلقو به دا ویل چه زمكه د غوائي په ښكر ولاړه ده‬ pəxwā xalq-u bə dā Ø-way-ə́l before people-PL.M.M.CONT-PRS.OBL AOR-tell.186.to.OBL process-F.189. people elder-M.DIR kaw-í če də sol-e aw do.‫پخلاینې پروسه بریالۍ شي‬ də wə́-way-əl če də afɣānistān-Ø 3SG.PST-PST.DIR CONT-tell. os-a pure čā ná yəm xatā now-M.CONT.OBL lə walas məšər-Ø sərə yawzāy hatsa-Ø COMIT.to who.M COMP of Afghanistan-M.OBL WOULD this.CONT.M..93)  433 .ABL ..3[SG.F] ‘He said that he and the president of Afghanistan are working together to make the peace and reconciliation process a success.M 1SG.94) ‫ده وویل چې د افغانستان له ولسمشر سره یوځای هڅه کوي چې د سولې او‬ ..DIR of ox-M.95) ..’¹⁶ (11.up. 'No one has tricked me yet'.M] COMP of peace-F.3[SG.AOR..3PL.’ (E) 16 Standardized version of 11.STR.F ‘Formerly people would say that the earth rested on the horn of an ox.AOR-PTCP..OBL .’ (11.OBL on horn-M standing-F.DIR š-i become.‫یو سړي وویل زه تر اوسه پورې چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.‫یو سړی وویل زه تر اوسه پوری چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ yaw saṛ-i wə́-way-əl zə tər one man-M.PRS.DIR up.PRS-PRS.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3PL.PST-PST.OBL NEG be.DIR successful-F.1SG mistake kə́ṛ-ay do.DIR ‘A man said.93: .3PL.PRS.DIR da be.Some subordinate clause types (11.COMIT together effort-F.

M.DIR šw-əl become.AOR.434  11.PST-PST.189.’ (NE) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. ‫چه‬ ‫)نه( چه‬.AOR.’ (SW) This relationship may sometimes be expressed with the complementizer alone: (11.PST-PST. the subordinate clause is the object of an adposition such as /wrusta lə.PST-PST.STR.AOR.’ (SW) • ‫ کله چه‬/kəla čə/ ‘when’ (11.4.M ‘When the ship sank.WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat.DIR of Toryal-M.M then xalaq-Ø wur sara ɣárq-Ø people-PL...1 Subordinate clauses with time reference Clausal modifiers take the usual form of complementizer /čə/ and tensed clause.OBL COMP food-F.‫له‬ (11.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍoḍ-əy mo after from this.PST-PST.4.DIR become.M.DIR become.(na) čə/ ‘after’ (as in 11.DIR 1PL.OBL on sister-F.3SG.AOR.OBL xábr-a sw-a samdasti də informed-F.OBL to WOULD gone-PL.‫کله چه ډیوه د توریال په خور خبره شوه سمدستي د دوی کور ته لاړه‬ kəla čə ḍiwa-Ø də toryāl-Ø pə xor-Ø when COMP Diwa-F.3SG.3SG.OBL to go.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3SG.96) .DIR house-M.98) . people were drowned along with it.PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner.3PL.F cinema-F.M.PL.AOR..PST-PST.96).DIR sinking-M.DIR 3 COMIT sinking.‫چه جهاز غرق شو نو خلق ورسره غرق شول‬ čə jahāz-Ø ɣárq-Ø su-Ø no COMP ship-M.F ‘When Diwa heard about Toryal's sister she immediately went to their house.97) .DIR š-u become.4.4 Syntax Subordinate clauses as modifiers 11.F immediately of duy kor-Ø ta lāṛ-á 3PL. In some cases.186.

4 for the appropriate verb forms.OBL ear-M. The conditional clause generally precedes the main clause.PST-PST-PTCP.DIR be.M.2).‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬ kə rā́š-e za bə album-Ø dər-ṣkārá if come.Some subordinate clause types •  435 ‫ څنګه چه‬/ʦənga čə/ ‘as soon as’ (11.M ‘When President Obama was speaking everyone was listening.3PL.2 Conditional and counterfactual clauses with /kə/ ‘if’ Conditional clauses in Pashto are marked by the particle /kə/ ‘if’.DIR WOULD album-M.4.‫هغه وخت چه ولسمشر اوباما خبرې کولئ ټولو غوږ نیولی وو‬ haɣá waxt-Ø čə wuləs məšr-Ø obāmā-Ø this.’ (SW) ‫که‬ ‫که‬ 11.STR.OBL xabr-e kaw-ə́l-əy ṭol-o ɣwaz-Ø̣ word-PL.F all-PL.DIR time-M.101) .PRS-1SG ‘I will leave as soon as he comes.M.’ (SW) ‫ که‬/kə/ may also combine with other particles to introduce conditional clauses.PRS-2SG 1SG.PRS-PRS.DIR WOULD gone-M.CONT.’ (SW) • ‫ هغه وخت چه‬/haɣa waxt čə/ ‘when’ (11.STR.4.99) .AOR.M] za bə lā́ṛ-Ø š-əm 1SG.DIR come.AOR. This construction requires that the verb in the antecedent clause appear in the present or past aorist.3.PST.DIR Ø-niw-ál-ay wu CONT-seize. which may begin with the particle /no/ ‘then’ (Tegey & Robson.3[SG.3.‫څنګه چه دی راشي زه به لاړ شم‬ ʦənga čə day rā́š-i how COMP 3SG. 1996: 216). ‫نو‬ ‫که‬ (11.2 and Section 8.3SG.AOR.189.DIR COMP people leader-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .CONT-PST-PST.STR.DIR 2DVC-clear kṛ-əm do. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.6.DIR do.M.100) .AOR-1SG ‘If you come I will show you the album. see Section 8.DIR become.M. /kə/ may also appear as an element of a correlative conjunction (see Section 11.OBL Obama-M.186.

F] then 1SG.DIR.OBL to ʣ-í no za ham ʣ-ə́m go. ‫ځکه‬ ‫ځکه‬ (11.STR.ANIM have.PRS-1SG ‘Since she is going to the picnic.CONT. I will make him dance.OBL Shafi-M.102) .M.OBL imam-M.‫ نو زه به یې وګډوم‬،‫که چېري اسد و نه ګډېږی‬ ke čeri asad-Ø wə-ná gaḍ-eẓ-i no if where Asad-M.DIR AOR-NEG dance-PRS-PRS. then I am going too.PST-OPT ‘If only we had leaders like Imam Shafi!’ ‫ځکه‬ 11. Note the following variants of word order of /ʣəka/.OBL like məšr-ān darlód-ay leader-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .dance-1SG ‘If Asad does not dance.PRS-PRS.436  • Syntax ‫ که چېري‬/kə čeri/ ‘if’ (11. even when there is no main clause: ‫به‬ (11.103.4.103) !‫که موږ امام شافعي غوندې مشران درلوداي‬ kə mung imam-Ø šāfi-Ø ɣunde if 1PL.186. As shown in sentence 11.104) .’ (SW) A counterfactual interpretation of an antecedent clause in construction with a main clause is possible when both the main and the antecedent clause have optative verb forms and the main clause additionally contains the irrealis /ba/. a counterfactual interpretation of the conditional clause relies on the verb appearing in the optative form.STR.4.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M] then za bə ye wá-gaḍaw-əm 1SG.DIR WOULD 3.3[SG.3[SG.CONT. therefore’ may mark either the cause clause or the result clause.DIR picnic-F.WK AOR-cause.STR.189.3 Subordinate clauses with /ʣəka/ ‘because’ /ʣəka/ ‘because.‫ځکه چه هغه مېلې ته ځي نو زه هم ځم‬ ʣəka čə haɣá mel-e ta because COMP 3SG. its correlative /no/.DIR also go.AOR. and their respective complements.STR.

CONT.3PL.107 shows three instances of /če/ .OBL khan-M.CONT.DIR be.DIR COMP muslim day be. the second introduces the sentential complement of /wāy-/ ‘say’.106: .1SG because then doctor-M.PST-PST-PTCP. the third introduces the complement of the quantifier /sumra/ ‘so much’.M.in CONT-seize. bearing three different relation- ‫چې‬ ships to the sentence as a whole...’ (SW) ‫ چې‬،‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دی یې ځکه په امریکا کې نیولی‬ .OBL ta ʣ-ə́m to go.M 3.186..’¹⁷ It may be rarely that punctuation is used to delimit a subordinate clause in Pashto.M.3SG..106) yaw-ə watəl-i stor-i šarux-Ø xān-Ø one-M. Example 11.WK because pə amrikā-Ø ke Ø-niw-ə́l-ay če musəlmān in.OBL Sharukh-M.DIR sick-M.PST-PST-PTCP.Some subordinate clause types (11.‫زه ناروغ یم ځکه نو داکتر ته ځم‬ za nāroɣ-Ø yəm ʣəka no dāktər-Ø 1SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .CONT. America-F .M ‘A famous celebrity. ‫څومره‬ 17 Standardized version of 11.‫ چې مسلمان دی‬،‫نیولی‬ -‫وای‬ ‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دي یې ځکه په امریکا کې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PRS-1SG ‘I am sick so I am going to the doctor. The first introduces a relative clause that modifies its head noun.PL. has said that they arrested him in America because he was Muslim.OBL famous-M.‫مسلمان دی‬ (11.189. Sharukh Khan.PRS.CONT.PRS.STR.PRS.DIR be.105)  437 .OBL Ø-way-ə́l-i di ye ʣəka CONT-tell.OBL star-M.

AOR. government-M .186.108 for an example.in bribe xor-i dumra ziyāt-a da če čāra eating-F.3SG.M.PRS-PRS.DIR kṛ-i di Ø-wāy-í do..M.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā-Ø AOR-see.DIR šw-əl become...PRS-PRS.DIR 3. the main clause in such constructions uses the complement- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.in of America-F.438  Syntax ‫دغه محرم اسناد چې په کابل کې د امریکا سفارت برابر کړي دي وایی چې‬ ‫د افغانستان په حکومت کې رشوت خوري دومره زېاته ده چې چاره سازي یې‬ .3PL.’ /čə/ may introduce clauses that show the direct result of an action or a state of being..DIR COMP in.WK very-F. most often used in conditional sentences...’ 11.M.3PL.DIR father-M.OBL own-M..ANIM.‫ډېره گرانه معلومېږي‬ (11.PST-PST. Kabul-M ke də amrikā-Ø safārat-Ø barābár-Ø .DIR documents-PL.M then suddenly INSTR laugh-F. may also be used alone to introduce a result clause.CONT.DIR secret-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ..DIR difficult-F.PL.107) dáɣa mahram-Ø asnād-Ø če pə kābul-Ø this.4.AOR-PTCP.M.M CONT-tell.4.3[PL.3[SG. Often.OBL embassy-M.PST-PST. ‫نو‬ (11.OBL prepared-PL.M] če də afɣānistān-Ø pə hakumat-Ø ke rašwat COMP of Afghanistan-M. but not always.CONT.M ‫چه‬ ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father.ً‫کله چې ملشومانو خپل بلار ولید نو دقعتا‬ kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.OBL in.PRS.108) .DIR malum-ég-i known-become.F] ‘The secret documents that were prepared at the American Embassy in Kabul say that the bribery within Afghanistan's government is so extensive that resolving it has turned out to be very difficult.4 Subordinate clauses expressing result The particle /no/ .F COMP affair sāz-i ye ḍer-a grān-a wellness-F.DIR so.3SG.PRS.much more-F.CONT.M.DIR be. see sentence 11.DIR be.

PRS. the embedded verb in the subordinate clause appears in the present aorist form. (11.‫زه په منډه راغلم ولي څي وږی وم‬ za pə manḍa-Ø rā́ɣl-əm wale 1SG. see also example 11.111) .F.3SG.‫په دې چه لړې وه موټر مې ورو وچلوو‬ pə de čə ləṛ-e wa moṭər-Ø in this.much food-F.3SG.AOR.’ (SW) 11.110) .STR.DIR be.6 Subordinate clauses expressing purpose Pashto purpose clauses require the use of the complementizer /čə/.CONT.3SG.PRS-1SG ‘I have eaten so much that I cannot stand up.’ (SW) 11.4.189.STR.5 • Subordinate clauses expressing reason ‫ په دې چه‬/pə de čə/ ‘because’ (11.WK slow AOR-manage-PST.M ‘I had to drive slowly because of the fog.5) claims that this form is not colloquial among Kandahar speakers).DIR də či Ø-wəlāṛ-ed-ə́l-ay ná be.109) .PST.Some subordinate clause types  439 ‫دومره‬ taking quantifier /dumra/ ‘so much’ (although Penzl (1955: 80.1SG ‘I came running because I was hungry.112.DIR CONT-eat. as shown in 11.DIR be.4.DIR me wro wə́-čalaw-u 1SG.AOR.DIR INSTR running-F.‫ما دومره ډوډۍ خوړلې ده چي ولاړېدلای نه شم‬ mā dumra ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e 1SG.PST-PST-PTCP.4.OBL COMP fog-PL.’ (SW) • ‫ ولې چه‬/wale čə/ ‘because’ (11.186.F COMP CONT-stand-PST-PST-OPT NEG š-əm become.107.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST.PST-1SG because čə wəz-̣ay wəm COMP hungry-M. ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.CONT.4.F car-M.DIR come.F.CONT.OBL so.

PRS.4.DIR be.AOR.M.OBL COMP threaten-INF sə́w-ay wə pər xpəl-a become.113) .CONT-PST.186.DIR with from this.ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M. we present here commonly-encountered forms of periphrastic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ (SW) 11.3SG.AOR.7.AOR.DIR emphasis-M.1SG but ob-ə ná š-əm Ø-ʦəṣ-ə́l-āy water-PL.’ (SW) 11.M ‘He persisted in going his own way.‫هغه سره له ده چه ګواښل سوی و پر خپله تګلاره ټینګار کاوه‬ haɣá sara lə də čə gwāṣ-ə́l 3SG.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad.PST-PTCP.PRS-PRS.DIR NEG become.3SG.OBL from sake-M.DIR do.DIR taglāra-Ø ṭingār-Ø kāw-ə́ policy-F.3SG.114) .4.OBL to go.112) .PST. I cannot drink.STR.189. notwithstanding’ (11.M on own-F.‫اګر چه زه تږی یم خو اوبه نه شم څښلای‬ agar čə za təẓ-ay yəm xo although COMP 1SG.DIR be.3[SG.CONT.2.7 • Subordinate clauses of concession ‫ سره له د چه‬/sara lə də čə/ ‘despite.F.CONT.5 Periphrastic causatives As noted in Section 8.STR.’ (SW) • ‫ اګر چه‬/agar čə/ ‘although’ (11.PRS-1SG CONT-drink-PST-OPT ‘Although I am thirsty.DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy.440  Syntax (11. despite the warning.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-PST.M COMP medicine-M.DIR of Ahmad-M.‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M. morphological production of causative predicates is no longer productive in Pashto.DIR thirsty-M.

the infinitive affix has been omitted).bānde/.116—here found in post-clausal position).117) . One such construction encountered in Pashto uses the instrumental circumposition /pə.186.DIR do.‫په‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫اړ ایستا‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫ته‬ ‫چه‬ (11.1). The actor of the caused event must have animate reference: it is odd to use this construction with a true instrument. The sentences 11. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.115) or with a present aorist clause introduced by /čə/ ‘that’ (11.DIR man-M.3SG.DIR tie-INF-PL.OBL forced-M.OBL to majbór-a kṛ-l-a forced-F.AOR-PST-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse.OBL rope-F.’ (SW) (11.3.‫* سړي رسئ د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ sar-i ras-əy də ās-Ø taṛ-әl-o ta man-M.M.115 and 11.’ (SW) ‫اړ ایستا‬ The lexical causative /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ shows the same two forms of embedded predication as seen in 11.189.115 and 11.STR.DIR do.Periphrastic causatives  441 causatives.2..DIR of horse-M.STR.M.117.119 with the present aorist subordinate clause. as shown in the unacceptable 11. The caused event may be expressed either with an infinitive object of the postposition /ta/ ‘to’ (11.4.DIR tie-.AOR-PST-PST.2.116: 11. along with a complement denoting the caused event..OBL of horse-M.OBL to majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm forced-M.AOR-PST-1SG COMP ās-Ø wә́-taṛ-әm horse-M.DIR man-M. or its simple adpositional variants.7.DIR do.116) .F ‘The man made the rope tie up the horse.‫زه سړي مجبور کړلم چی اس وتړم‬ zә sar-̣i majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm če 1SG. A different construction involves the light verb constructions /majborawél/ ‘force’ and /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ (see Section 8. with no additional verb of causation: see Section 9..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ (SW) (11..115) .INF-PL.‫زه سړي د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ zә sar-̣i də ās-Ø taṛ-ә́l-o ta 1SG.3.DIR AOR-tie-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse.116 show the construction with /majborawél/ ‘force’. ‫باندې‬.118 with the infinitive (in this example. and 11.4 and Section 11.

OBL countryman-PL.CONT.WK hidden-F.M.DIR 3.DIR mouth-F.PST-PST..119) dә de xalk-o xabar-o de ta aṛ of this.OBL to forced Ø-ist-ə́m cě dā mawzo-Ø la CONT-remove.189.DIR COMIT.‫ خفه دی‬،‫احمد نه راځی‬ ahməd-Ø ná rāʣ-í xapa Ahmad-M. verbs.M..‫شریکه کړم‬ (11. he is sad.DIR NEG come.’ 11.CONT.‫هغه یې پټه خوله کښیناستو ته اړ ایست‬ haɣá ye paṭ-a xola-Ø kxenāst-ó ta aṛ 3SG.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.118) ..PRS-PRS.COMIT shared-F. as in the following example of simple apposition expressing a causal relationship: (11. grān-o hewāwāl-o səra šarík-a great-PL.M.OBL .DIR kṛ-əm do.M ‘They made him sit quietly.F.OBL person-PL.AOR-1SG ‘I was forced to share these people's words with my esteemed countrymen.OBL this.3SG..M ‘Ahmad isn't coming.STR.186. frequently expressing simple coordination but also other relationships.DIR sit-PL.M. Apposition is also found.OBL to forced Ø-ist-Ø CONT-remove.3SG.OBL word-PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-1SG COMP this.3[SG.M] sad day be. and nouns can be conjoined using similar markers.PRS.6 Conjunction In Pashto.120) .’ ‫د دی خلکو خبرو زه دی ته اړ ایستم چي دا موضوع له ګرانو هیواوالو سره‬ .442  Syntax (11. clauses.DIR topic-F.

PRS-PRS.PRS-PRS.PST.123) .M] and of ɣarm-e ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-í noon-F. phrases.6.1.121) ‫او‬ .DIR house-M.Conjunction  11.1 443 Coordinating conjunctions ‫او‬ 11.OBL to go.3SG.DIR CONT-eat.3[SG.OBL to go.6.PST-PST.2PL ‘You and Khaibar were very good friends.M.’ Two verb phrases with the same subject may be conjoined.CONT.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .‫محمود بازار ته ځي او د غرمې ډوډۍ خوري‬ mahmud-Ø bāzār-Ø tə ʣ-í aw də Mahmoud-M.STR. however.STR.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.CONT-1SG ‘I'll go to Kandahar and spend the feast of Eid there.OBL food-F.OBL to come.PST-1SG and food-F.M] ‘Mahmoud is going to the market and having lunch.DIR me wə́-xoṛ-a 1SG.AOR.DIR halta tər-aw-ə́m there pass-do. the pronoun comes first: (11.STR. or clauses that perform the same function inside a sentence.M.189.WK AOR-eat.‫زه کور ته راغلم او ډوډۍ مې وخوړه‬ za kor-Ø tə rā́ɣl-əm aw ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.DIR market-M.DIR be.‫ته او خیبر ډېر نژدې ملګري واست‬ tə aw xeybar-Ø ḍer-Ø nəžde 2SG.CONT.F ‘I came home and ate [dinner].1 /aw/ ‘and’ The particle /aw/ ‘and’ is used to connect two words.’ (11.186.DIR Kandahar-M.3[SG.DIR and Khaibar-M. (11.DIR very-PL.’ Example sentences in Tegey & Robson (1996: 191–194) suggest that when one of the conjoined words is a pronoun.CONT. Most often the phrases are joined by simple apposition.PRS-1SG and feast-M. the conjunction /aw/ ‘and’ may be used: ‫او‬ (11.124) .DIR close malgər-i wā́st friend-PL.122) .‫زه کندهار ته ځم او اختر هلته تېروم‬ za kandahār-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m aw axtar-Ø 1SG.

‫زه چه سهار د خوبه راکښېنم سپورټ ته ځم )او( یا کتابخانې ته ځم‬ za čə sahār də xob-a rā́kṣen-əm 1SG.SG ‘Give me water or juice.PRS-1SG (and) or library-F.DIR clothing-PL.SG ‘Wear a white or black suit!’ It may also conjoin two verb phrases.444  Syntax (11.186.125) .DIR food-F.M] and water-F.M.2 /yā/ ‘or’ This conjunction¹⁸ may conjoin items of many classes.STR.3[SG. bine with the conjunction /aw/ to express disjunction.’ ‫یا‬ 11.189.STR.DIR COMP morning from sleep-M.1.’ 18 Shafeev (1964) additionally cites /ka/ as a disjunction marker. noun phrases.CONT. and adjectives: (11.DIR w-ā́ɣund-a AOR-wear.3[SG.OBL to water-F.M.‫ماته اوبه یا شربت راکړه‬ ma tə ob-ə yā šərbat-Ø rā́kṛ-a 1SG.CONT.M.6.127) !‫سپین یا تور کالي واغونده‬ spin-Ø yā tor-Ø kāl-i white-PL. (11.M] ‘Ahmad eats food and drinks water.PRS-PRS.DIR give.OBL to ʣ-ə́m go.ABL AOR\arise.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ (11. including nouns.AOR-IMP. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PRS-1SG ‘When I wake up in the morning I go to the gym or to the library.128) ‫ یا‬/yā/may com- ‫او‬ .DIR CONT-eat.DIR Ø-ʦiṣ-i CONT-drink-PRS.‫احمد ډوډۍ خوري او اوبه څښي‬ ahmad-Ø ḍod-̣əy Ø-xor-í aw ob-ə Ahmad-M.DIR or juice-M.PRS-1SG səporṭ-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m (aw) yā kitābxān-e tə sport-M. When used to join phrases.126) .PRS-IMP.DIR or black-PL.OBL to go.

3 /xo/ ‘but’ The conjunction /xo/ in Pashto functions similarly to its English counterpart but.CONT.WK xarāb-a da bad-F.’ (W) ‫سو‬ 19 In 11.DIR house-M.DIR good hotel-M.3SG.132) .STR. the verb must agree with the last element (examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996: 194): .DIR be.DIR be.PST-PST.’ (SW)¹⁹ (11.PRS.M but food-F.PRS.OBL to come.AOR.129) amān-Ø yā laylā-Ø wə́-gaḍed-a Aman-M.PST-PST.WK bad-M.‫لیلا یا امان وګډېده‬ laylā-Ø yā amān-Ø wə́-gaḍed-ə Layla-F.131. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.F ‘This is a good hotel.3SG.PST-PST.3SG.M ‘I was coming to your home.‫امان یا لیلا وګډېده‬ (11.F ‘Aman or Layla danced.DIR AOR-dance.’ ‫خو‬ 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .6. but its food is awful.M ‘Layla or Aman danced.131) ‫خو‬ .DIR become.DIR 3.’ (11. ‫س‬ ‫ شو‬/šwə/.1.CONT.DIR AOR-dance. but my car broke down.DIR me xarāb-Ø so-Ø 1SG.‫دا ښه هوټل دئ خو ډوډۍ یې خرابه ده‬ dā ṣə hoṭəl-Ø dəy xo ḍoḍ-əy ye this.DIR or Aman-M.186.3SG.PST-1SG but car-M.DIR or Layla-F.3SG.CONT.Conjunction  445 ‫او‬ ‫یا‬ Unlike with /aw/ ‘and’ . 1996: 196). (11.‫زه کور ته درتلم خو موټر مې خراب سو‬ za kor-Ø tə dərtəl-əm xo moṭər-Ø 1SG. when the two elements conjoined by /yā/ ‘or’ differ in gender. /so/ is the Kandahari pronunciation of but may sometimes be spelled with instead.130) . (Tegey & Robson. this is usually spelled with ‫ش‬.

446  Syntax ‫ )او( بیا‬/(aw) byā/ ‘then’ ‫ بیا‬/byā/ may be used to express the sequencing of events.4 The adverb za awəl maɣāz-e tə wlā́ṛ-əm byā kor-Ø 1SG.SG ‘Cook and then eat!’ 11...AOR.. !‫ډوډۍ پخه کړه او بیا یې وخوره‬ ḍoḍ-əy pax-á kr-̣a aw byā ye food-F..‫زه اول مغازې ته ولاړم بیا کور ته راغلم‬ 11.balkə/ ‘not only..’ • ‫بلکه‬.DIR first shop-F.6.135) .‫محمود هم موټر چلوئ او هم یی خبرې کولي‬ mahmud-Ø ham moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy aw ham Mahmoud-M..‫ نه یوازې‬/ná yawāze.1.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3SG.WK word-PL.PST-1SG ‘First I went to the store.M and also ye xabr-e kaw-ə́l-i 3.and’ (11.AOR-IMP. then I came home.DIR do..OBL tə rā́ɣl-əm to come. (11.aw ham/ ‘both.134) ‫ او‬/aw/ ‘and’ optionally accompanies ‫ بیا‬/byā/ (Tegey & Robson.DIR cooked-F.DIR CONT-manage-PST.F ‘Mahmud was driving and also was talking [on the phone].F.‫ هم‬/ham.STR.OBL also car-M.but also’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..6..2 Correlative conjunctions Elements conjoined in a correlative structure are generally of the same phrasal class.SG and then 3. • ‫او هم‬.CONT-PST-PST.’ The conjunction 1996): (11.DIR do.PST-1SG then house-M.AOR.3PL..189.OBL to go..WK wə́-xor-a AOR-eat-IMP.133) ..186.

OBL NEG only car-M. so’.. • ‫خو‬.137) .SG or gone-M...WK also do.. and may or may not appear in construction with the particle ‫ نو‬/no/ ‘then..‫ که څې هم‬/kə ʦe ham .F.PRS-1SG and NEG water-PL. a single example in Bilal. Khan.189.4.3SG.ná/ ‘neither..nor’ (11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4..‫نه ډوډۍ خورم او نه اوبه څښم‬ ná ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m aw ná ob-ə NEG food-F.then’ ‫ که‬/kə/ ‘if’ introduces the antecedent clauses of conditionals.DIR 3.CONT-PST-PST.DIR Ø-ʦṣ-ə́m CONT-drink-1SG ‘I neither eat nor drink.4. yā/ ‘either. xo/ ‘even if.’ • ‫یا‬.DIR CONT-eat.SG ‘Either eat here or go.AOR..no/ ‘if....4. Ali & Ahmed (2011: 57) suggests that one instance of the negative particle /ná/ in the second conjunct of a correlative construction has a possible reading of wide scope.Conjunction  447 (11.PRS-IMP.136) .‫ نه‬/ná.F.M balkə xabr-e ye ham kaw-ə́l-i but..4...‫محمود نه یوازې موټر چلوئ بلکه خبرې یې هم کولې‬ mahmud-Ø ná yawāze moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy Mahmoud-M.2 and Section 11.DIR CONT-manage-PST. although’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR s-a become.....186..138) .DIR AOR-eat-IMP.F ‘Mahmud was not only driving but was also talking [on the phone].‫ که‬/kə. These two components are discussed respectively in Section 11.3PL.‫ یا‬/yā .’ Although we have not found this attested elsewhere. negating both clauses.’ • ‫نه‬..or’ (11. ‫نه‬ • ‫نو‬.also word-PL..‫یا دلته ډوډۍ وخوره یا ولاړ سه‬ yā dəlta ḍoḍ-əy wə́-xor-a yā wlā́ṛ-Ø or here food-F..

Table 11.PRS. direct case suffixes. 11.7.. the two-way distinction between ergative and absolutive is realized on nouns in the differential use of oblique vs.3SG. Essentially the same pattern is found for resumptive pronouns (see Section 11.5 shows a similar pattern for human interrogative pronouns..STR. That is.in sad be. zər-̣a ki xəpa day heart-M . and the ergative-absolutive alignment is used in the past tenses.7. In Section 11.189. we present a summary of the expressions of split ergativity.. In Section 11.1 Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity Pashto uses two strategies for case-marking nouns: the nominative-accusative alignment familiar from Western European languages is used in the non-past tenses.3[SG.M] but in. also reflecting split ergativity.9.‫ خو په زړه کي خپه دی‬،‫که څې هم دی خاندی‬ kə ʦe ham day Ø-xānd-í xo pə if how.4 shows this.6.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Pashto is a morphologically split ergative language. he is sad deep inside. A somewhat different pattern.448  Syntax (11.’ (SW) 11. Table 11. as shown in Table 7.1.7. we describe briefly a few constructions in which the general nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive agreement patterns are not found.139) . Pashto instead uses the direct form for both. By contrast with many familiar nominative-accusative languages that mark nominative and accusative cases differently on nouns. In the past tenses. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M ‘Although he is laughing..6 shows how the two-way split is manifested in the pattern of case-marking for strong pronouns.7 Principles of case-marking and agreement In this section we provide some of the principles that underlie case-marking and agreement patterns. In this section we summarize the morphosyntactic expressions of this property.4 and Section 11.much also 3SG. Table 11.CONT.7.1) and for the distribution constraints on weak pronouns.5.M. can be found for the personal pronoun systems.DIR CONT-laugh-PRS.4.186. as described in Section 7.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 449 .5: Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns Non-past tenses Transitive subject DIRECT Intransitive subject Direct object Past tenses OBLIQUE DIRECT OBLIQUE   Table 11.6: Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4: Case-marking pattern for nouns   Non-past tenses Transitive subject Past tenses  OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.189.186.Principles of case-marking and agreement  Non-past tenses (nominative-accusative alignment) Transitive subject Past tenses (ergative-absolutive alignment) OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.

450  Syntax 11. we discuss two constructions that show case-marking strategies other than those outlined elsewhere.OBL heat-F.7.F ‘Zalmay was feeling hot.7. We present the group in subcategories as determined by case-marking or agreement patterns associated with the construction. 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . the experiencer is expressed by means of a genitive phrase. 11. the construction resembles a denominal verb construction.4.7.7 summarize agreement properties for conjoined elements in noun phrases.4 Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference In the following sections.CONT.189. though they can be compared to similar constructions in other languages.3SG.2.4.7.1 Four denominal verbs of sensation Three verbs in this group consist of the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ with a noun. or as the complement to the denominal verb in Section 11.4. i. ‫د‬ 11. In these constructions.3 and Section 6.3 Concordant adverbs See Section 10. The thing experienced may be expressed as the accusative argument.’ • ‫ ساړه کېږـ‬/sārə́ keg‑/ ‘feel cold’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. except that the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase (recall that weak pronouns appearing in apposition to their heads may express a genitive relation).7.7.186.‫د زلمی ګرمی کېده‬ də zalm-i garm-i ked-á of Zalmay-M. as among the predicates discussed in Section 11.140) .7.PST-PST.1. a phrase governed by /də/ or a possessive pronoun.2.2 Agreement of conjoined items Section 5. ‫کېږـ‬ • ‫ ګرمی کېږـ‬/garmí keg‑/ ‘feel hot’ (11.DIR become. A brief description is given by Tegey & Robson (1996: 184) of a set of collocations expressing preference or sensation.e.

PRS-PRS.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3[PL. Again.PRS.F ‘He has a fever.PRS-PRS. The thing experienced is expressed as a noun.CONT.DIR to 1SG. (11.’ 11.3SG.‫ساړه دې کېږی‬ sāṛ-ə de kég-i cold-PL.WK heart-M. for’ or.Principles of case-marking and agreement  (11.189. pleasant’. Verb agreement is governed by the noun expressing the thing experienced.’ A third collocation uses the verb /da/ ‘be’ as an auxiliary. it will take the usual form of a tensed complement (Tegey & Robson. 1996).M] ‘I am craving pilau.4.M. ‫ده‬ • ‫ تبه ده‬/təba də/ ‘have a fever’ (11.CONT.141) 451 .DIR sweet-become.‫تورتاوده ته مې زړه کېږی‬ tortāwdə-Ø tə me zṛ-ə kég-i pilau-PL.3[PL. and the experiencer appears as a genitive phrase. The thing experienced is expressed inside an adpositional phrase governed by /ta/ ‘to.CONT.POSS American food-F. if the thing experienced is expressed through a clause.DIR 3.143) ‫ته‬ .M] ‘You feel cold.WK be.M. enjoy’ ‫کېږـ‬ A fifth denominal verb.3[SG.2 Denominal -‫ خوښېږ‬/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like.‫زما امریکایی ډوډۍ خوښېږی‬ zmā amrikāi ḍoḍ-əy xwax-ég-i 1SG.STR.142) . the thing experienced governs agreement.DIR 2.7.’ • ‫ رړه کېږـ‬/zrə keg‑/ ‘feel like’ ‫زړه‬ This idiomatic expression consists of the verbalizer plus the word /zṛə/ ‘heart’.144) . derives from the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ plus /xwax/ ‘sweet. the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase.WK become. generally written as one word. ‫خوښ‬ (11.PRS-PRS.CONT.186.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR become.F] ‘I like American food.‫تبه یې ده‬ təba-Ø ye da fever-F.

OBL of chemistry-F.‫له‬ ‫د‬ (11.. Unlike the preceding example.3.147) ‫بد ایسـ‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه ایسـ‬ ‫ایسـ‬ .3[SG. as in 11...to.145) . /bad/ ‘bad’ and /xə/ ‘good’ in these expressions show variable agreement inflection: both these and the verbal component agree with the noun expressing the thing experienced.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬ zmā tre na bad raʣ-i 1SG.up.3[PL.‫د سنا مېړه یې بد ایسی‬ dǝ sanā-Ø meṛ-ə ye bad Ø-yis-í of Sana-F.PST-PST.DIR good CONT-seem-PRS.AOR.146.. according to Tegey & Robson (1996).to bad come. The verb component always carries third person plural agreement inflection..452  Syntax 11. .na/.OBL from.CONT.F] ‘Everyone likes Diwe. and the experiencer appears as a phrase governed by the preposition /də/.M] ‘I don't like him.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4.OBL na bad rā́ɣl-əl .‫د محمود د کیمیا له درس نه بد راغلل‬ də mahmud-Ø də kimyā-Ø lə dars-Ø of Mahmoud-M.148) .WK bad CONT-seem-PRS.OBL husband-M.. lesson-M.‫د هر چا ډیوې ښه ایسی‬ de har-Ø čā ḍiw-e xa Ø-yis-í of every-M.3PL.’ (11.POSS up.’ (11..186.DIR 3. The thing experienced is expressed as the object within the circumpositional phrase /lə. a strong possessive pronoun.M] ‘He doesn't like Sana's husband..OBL Diwe-F.PRS-PRS.’ The expressions /bad yis‑/ ‘dislike’ and /xə yis‑/ ‘like’ are idioms made up of /bad/ ‘bad’ or /xə/ ‘good’ plus /yis‑/ ‘seem’. or.146) .from bad come.3[SG. ‫بد راځـ‬ ‫نه‬. ‫بد‬ ‫ید‬ (11..OBL who.M ‘Mahmoud didn't like his chemistry class.7...STR.3 Three more expressions of preference The expression /bad rāʣ‑/ ‘dislike’ is an idiom.189.

PL. Though Septfonds’ research reports on Dzadrani. nevertheless trigger oblique case marking on their subjects in past tenses. and we have also found examples of this construction in General Pashto. /trapəl/ ‘to jump’. this construction resembles a middle voice construction. though formally intransitive.189.150) . /ṭuxəl/ ‘to cough’.OBL CONT-laugh-PST.Principles of case-marking and agreement  453 11.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Septfonds 1997. It occurs only with past tense verbs.OBL and Abaseen-M.149 and 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ (11.M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing. Tegey & Robson 1996) describe a set of verbs (called “anti-impersonals” by Septfonds) which.151) .’ (11. Functionally.M. according to Septfonds.‫ښـــه ډیــر مې ژړلي‬ xə ḍer me Ø-žār-əl-i good much 1SG.DIR ‘I was crying my eyes out. /ɣapəl/ ‘to bark’. /lambəl/ ‘to bathe’. Recall that the oblique case form is expressed through the presence of the weak pronoun in 11.M ‘I laughed a lot today.WK CONT-cry-PST-PTCP.186.149) ‫غپل‬ ‫ترپل‬ ‫ټوخل‬ ‫ژرل‬ .‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F. ‫خندل‬ ‫لمبل‬ (11. Septfonds 2006.7. The verbs that exhibit this case-marking pattern comprise a small set of vocalization verbs and a small number of activity verbs: /xandəl/ ‘to laugh’.150. we have not through our own research been able to confirm the existence of this case-marking pattern in Waziri.3PL.‫نن مې ډېر وخندل‬ nən me ḍer wə́-xand-əl today 1SG. /zarəl/ ‘to cry’. the default agreement value in Pashto.WK much AOR-laugh-PST.3PL. The verb itself exhibits PNG marking of third person masculine plural.5 An unergative or middle voice construction A number of authors (Babrakzai 1999.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.

1992) to convert both the descriptive and the formal grammars into a single PDF for readers who wish to see both. is supplemented by a formal grammar. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. and the XML-based formal grammar is converted into a computational form for morphological parsers.Michael Maxwell and Anne Boyle David A Structure of this Grammar A. These intended uses are described in more detail in Section A. a PDF) and into a morphological parser. rather than an arrangement that might be required by the computer language’s compiler program. This appendix describes how the grammar is conceptualized. and which may be used to build a morphological parser.186.e. The electronic form of the grammar. The XML-based descriptive grammar is converted into a PDF for people. Literate Programming was developed as a way of improving the documentation of computer programs by allowing the programmer to embed pieces of a computer program into a prose document describing the program. such as morphological parsers.3. suitable for automatic extraction and conversion into a form usable by a computer program. Included is a brief description of the structure of the formal grammar. The mechanism for producing the PDF (or other output formats) in these two forms is sketched in Section A. in a form that a researcher with a minimum of training in descriptive linguistics would understand— i. and the twin processes for converting the XML document into a descriptive grammar (specifically.1 Overview This book is a descriptive grammar of Pashto. also in XML. It is also possible to use the technique called “Literate Programming” (Knuth. • As a template for writing similar grammars of other languages.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . this book.189. the parts containing the formal grammar can be (and have been. in an order and arrangement that would make sense to the human reader. the grammar is structured into two separate but largely parallel grammars: one is a traditional linguistic description in English. When the grammar is converted into a PDF for on-line viewing or printing. This formal grammar is available for download from deGruyter Mouton. The other grammar is a formal grammar of morphology and phonology. As an XML document. • As a resource for automated grammar adaptation to related languages. which encapsulates the morphological and phonological part of the descriptive grammar. The formal grammar may be used in several ways: • As a grammar which is easily converted into computational tools.6. in the printed version) omitted. written in the Extensible Markup Language XML.

186. In addition. or to use the grammar or parser on a new platform or computer environment. The descriptive and formal grammar sections on a given topic are written in parallel fashion. For such a user.456  Structure of this Grammar Weaving together the two grammars allows the strengths of each to support the weaknesses of the other. In particular. This is particularly important since some paradigm cells are likely to be sparsely attested in typical corpora. may be of interest to those users. and with the functional meaning of constructions. One intended user is a computational linguist.189. where the English description is (unintentionally) ambiguous.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . people who wish to learn about the grammar—linguists and learners of Pashto—form the primary audience of this book. Another audience we have tried to keep in mind is the linguist who is charged with describing the grammar of another language.2 Audience The multi-use grammar is in a format which is expected to be useful to linguists ten years or a hundred years from now. whereas the formal grammar should be unambiguous. In the form in which both are woven together. Depending on the purpose. and in particular with supporting the creation of morphological analysis tools. This is why we have presented the formal grammar separately. But since the complete paradigms of exemplar words are provided in this descriptive grammar. Again. we have kept the terminology and the Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Since the formal grammar is especially concerned with morphology. Of course. as is ours) is that they tend to be difficult for people to comprehend. Since these users are largely concerned with understanding how the grammar works. whether they wish to understand the structural properties of Pashto. A. making it easy to perform such disambiguation or clarification. the formal grammar. although the sections on usage of the descriptive grammar will probably be of less concern. both the descriptive grammar and the formal grammar will be of interest. For the sake of all audiences. and conversant in basic linguistic terminology for morphology and phonology. our intention is that the meaning of the formal grammar will be clarified by the descriptive grammar. supplementing the use of corpora for parser testing. Such a person may wish to adopt the model given here to this other language. the examples in the paradigm tables and the examples of usage can serve as tests of parser implementations. a descriptive grammar written in a natural language such as English tends to be ambiguous. a weakness of formal grammars (and particularly formal grammars that are computer-readable. particularly of a related language. the descriptive grammar. the formal grammar may be of less interest. or both. the parser can be tested on those more rarely used parts of the paradigm. this application assumes that the computational linguist is knowledgeable about technology for morphological analysis. Conversely. referring to the formal grammar should disambiguate the intended meaning.

2 Finite State Transducers (FSTs) combine parsing and generation capabilities.186. the descriptive grammar’s source document is structured as a DocBook XML¹ document. as described in the next sub-section). Therefore. and 1 We use DocBook version 5. and in particular as a morphological parser or generator. Specifically. The DocBook formalism. it is convenient to format the text for viewing by converting the XML tags into formatting appropriate to the printed page. We describe in Section A. This can be done by a variety of means. because this document is intended as a description of the grammar of Pashto which will be simultaneously unambiguous and understandable. with some extensions described later. The Extensible Markup Language XML is a computer representation of text in which the function of pieces of text is indicated by tags. since the DocBook XML format is a widely used format. It provides a mechanism for describing the structure (as opposed to the display format) of documents.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .1 The grammar as a basis for computational tools As we have discussed. A. The XML source of this grammar is available. For some purposes (such as converting the grammar into a form suitable for use with computational tools.6 the method we have used to convert it to camera-ready copy as PDF. DocBook is a form of XML that has been developed for book. we describe how the XML document is converted into software. the “parsing” engine serves both as a parser and as a generator. In the following section. it is suitable for implementation as a computational tool. But for other purposes. beginning with computational uses. and many tools are available for conversion. the native XML is the appropriate format. if the morphological parsing engine being used is an FST (such as the Xerox or Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools).189.and article-like documents. such as reading the grammatical description. avoiding as much as possible theoretical constructs which do not correspond directly to observable linguistic phenomena.3. we should therefore use the term “transducer” for the computational program which uses our grammar. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. A. but we continue to refer to this as a “parsing engine” for reasons of familiarity. Technically. particularly technical documents like this one. are described in more detail in the documentation supporting the formal grammar.3 More on uses of this grammar In this section we describe in more detail the potential applications we see for this grammar.More on uses of this grammar  457 linguistic analysis itself as basic as possible. and the modifications to that formalism that we have used in this project.² We describe the method for converting this grammar.

3 An example of a piece of this formal grammar structure in XML form is given in Section A. For example. which operates on the complete XML grammar to extract the formal grammar in its XML format.458  Structure of this Grammar in particular the formal grammar of Pashto morphology and phonology. In the first step. Our goal in this is to make it more portable to future computing environments by extensively documenting in English each construct of the formal grammar. using the technology of Literate Programming (briefly described in Section A.1. largely because it is difficult to define a formal grammar mechanism for syntax which would be as generic and a-theoretic as the formal grammar schema for morphology and phonology. as well as unambiguous to computers. thereby making this grammar understandable by humans.189. and allomorphs. and if so generates an intermediate representation in terms of Python objects. the formal grammar is extracted from the grammatical description as a whole (including the descriptive grammar). such formal grammars have already been written for a variety of natural languages—and in many programming languages.1 Building a parser and generator Using this grammar’s source document to produce computational implementation (a parser) requires several steps.1. In theory. written in some unambiguous format. In fact. The descriptive grammar also describes basics of Pashto syntax. this extracted XML grammar is translated into the programming language of the chosen morphological parsing engine. there is no formal grammar of the syntax.186. phonological rules.3. into a form usable by computational tools in Section A.1. However. written in natural language.2. This operation has been programmed as a simple XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation).3. We have opted instead to blend our XML formal grammar with a descriptive grammar. a formal grammar. This part of the converter program is analogous to the front end of a programming language compiler: it ensures that the formal grammar is syntactically correct. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . This conversion could be done by any program which can parse XML and convert the result into other formats. The result should be that a computational linguist who is unfamiliar with our formal grammar schema should be able to understand the meaning of the formal grammar itself by referring to the descriptive grammar. We have implemented our converter in the Python programming language.³ Second.3. A. there are elements in the XML grammar corresponding to classes in the Python converter for linguistic objects such as affixes.1). would suffice. in which each linguistic structure expressed as an element in the XML grammar corresponds to a class. We chose Python because it allows the use of an object-oriented programming approach. a grammar intended to be used by a computer would not need a descriptive component.

SFST’s own compilation phase becomes very slow and memory-intensive under certain circumstances. it supports the kinds of constructions needed for most languages. the back end of our converter currently does do some optimization for the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer (SFST). Fortunately.uni-stuttgart.⁶ The final step of the conversion process is to use the parsing engine to compile the converted grammar together with an electronic dictionary of the language. such as infixes and reduplication. available from http://www.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 6 While the converter accounts for the morphological constructions needed for Pashto. The details of how this information needs to be represented will vary. and it rewrites the grammar into that programming language.” where optimization is done. since any optimization is highly dependent on the target programming language. at least grammars of the sort required for morphological parsing. the XML-based grammars serve as a stable way to define the morphological analysis of natural languages. In fact. our converter breaks large compilation steps into shorter ones. into the target programming language.⁷ In summary.ims. for other languages. however. This half is thus analogous to the back end of a programming language compiler: it translates from the intermediate representation of the grammar as Python objects.de/projekte/gramotron/SOFTWARE/SFST. This affects only SFST’s compilation. 4 Modern programming language compilers often include a “middle end. there are some linguistic constructs in other languages.⁵ Targeting a different parsing engine would require rewriting this half of the converter for the new parsing engine. an electronic dictionary is a required resource. The converter program is generic in terms of the language being described: that is. the final morphological transducer would be virtually the same regardless of this optimization. In order to avoid this. In particular. so that the grammars can be used by different parsing engines. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. require effort to convert them into the form required by the parsing engine. the same converter will work for a grammar of any language for which an XML grammar conforming to the schemas has been written. Electronic dictionaries will. which are allowed in the formal grammar schema but are not yet handled by the converter.⁴ Our converter currently targets the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools.More on uses of this grammar  459 The other half of the converter is specific to the particular morphological parsing engine being targeted. and the grammar needs to be ported to that new parsing engine. including Pashto.html. more information is required. This is not directly relevant to our converter. 5 The Stuttgart Finite State Transducer is an open source program. 7 Normally.186. depending on the particular parsing engine. including declension classes (for nouns and adjectives) and stem class allomorphy.189. When a new and better parsing engine is developed. the grammatical description can be re-used without change. The converter can be used for any language for which the morphology has been described using the formal grammar. only part of the converter needs to be changed. dictionaries are almost always more easily obtained than grammars. this work will be simply extracting words belonging to the various parts of speech into separate files. For some languages.

and in fact one which may help disambiguate the descriptive grammar. For example. By linguistic description we mean a description that uses such traditional linguistic constructs as allomorph and morphosyntactic features.189. It is possible.3. it is difficult for people to read.2 Structure of this Grammar The grammar as a description This grammar may of course be read as simply a linguistic description of the Pashto language. the XML representation of inflectional affixation in agglutinating languages uses a structure which (in somewhat simplified form) looks like the following (this example is based on Turkish): <Ln : PartOfSpeech name="noun"> <Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d ="slotNumber '> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f S i n g u l a r "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f P l u r a l "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d =" s l o t C a s e "> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" afNominative "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f G e n i t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f D a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A c c u s a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A b l a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f L o c a t i v e "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > </Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > <Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Number" i d r e f ="slotNumber "/ > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Case " i d r e f =" s l o t C a s e "/ > </Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > </Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > </Ln : PartOfSpeech> For a linguist.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . In its current format as an XML document. The formal grammar also constitutes a description. in which the slots have been treated as columns in a table of affixes.460  A. in order to make the formal grammar more accessible to linguists (particularly to linguists who are not familiar with the XML notation). to add to our XML-to-PDF conversion process the capability of converting the XML formal grammar notation into a notation more similar to a traditional linguistic description. a more useful (and more readable) display of this XML structure might be the following table.186. however. and the individual affixes are displayed as a pairing of a gloss and a Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

However. a parser requires that words be spelled in a particular way in order to be parsed. it is frequently the case—particularly in less documented languages— that spelling conventions are not as fixed as they are for languages like English. A.4 Spell correction A morphological parser constitutes a spell checker. without changing the underlying XML documents. Failure of a word to parse can therefore be construed to mean that the word is misspelled (although in fact.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189. when a word fails to parse. such as a missing lexeme in the dictionary). there is considerable variation in the spelling of Pashto. as we have noted in Chapter 1.Spell correction  461 form. However. However. not a change in the underlying XML. This can be a problem. That is. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. the use of an XML formalism for both the descriptive and formal grammars means that when the display mechanism is programmed. Pashto’s extensive orthographic variation is not well documented in the literature. That is. In particular. in the absence of special rules allowing for spelling variation. it is possible to build a spell corrector on top of a morphological parser. many parse failures can be attributed to other errors.186. However. we will be able to produce versions of this grammar as PDFs and other formats which incorporate the new display. rather than a reference to the definition of the affix elsewhere (the “idref” in the above XML code): Stem Number suffix slot Case suffix slot -Ø “-Singular” -Ø “-Nominative” -in “-Genitive” (Noun) -e “-Dative” -ler “-Plural” -i “-Accusative” -den “-Ablative” -de “-Locative” We emphasize that this is a matter of how the XML structure is displayed. This particular step (the conversion process from our XML-based grammar to a display in the form of tables or other forms familiar to linguists) is not implemented yet. the parser cannot suggest a corrected spelling. because while a morphological parser acts as a spell checker. it does not by itself constitute a spell corrector. This could obviously be important in the application of computer processing to printed texts.

186. We do not treat spelling variation in the formal grammar.⁸ A.org is the standard reference on languages of the world). but regardless.5 Grammar adaptation There are hundreds of languages for which one might want to build morphological parsers. discussed above. but not all. and then use the former knowledge to encode the latter knowledge. the finite state technology currently used for morphological parsing can also be used to encode spelling variation rules. Spell correction is therefore an important technology that can complement morphological parsing. Another difficulty. The multi-use grammar method which we have developed provides a way to avoid the first problem: to the extent that the descriptive and formal grammars are separable. However.⁹All of these. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. An obvious impediment to this approach is that it is difficult to find one person who combines all these skills. The two sub-sections below discuss each of these approaches in turn.5. learn the grammar and perhaps the writing system of the target language. they can be written by people who bring either of two skill sets: one. Some finite state tools allow the use of such weights. knowledge of the 8 Ideally.189. Over 300 languages have at least a million speakers. and probably the majority of these have non-trivial inflectional morphologies. and tools built on those grammars. There are two major ways that our work could be leveraged so as to make grammars of a large number of languages.1 Manual grammar building The traditional way to produce morphological parsers is to rely on highly trained linguists and computational linguists to learn the programming language for some morphological parsing engine (or to write one’s own parsing engine). rendering the parser that was built with so much expert effort obsolete. A. is that parsing engines tend to be replaced with newer and better engines after a few years. Of these. perhaps 1500 to 2000 are written languages. 9 There are in the neighborhood of 7000 languages in the world today (http://ethnologue. and by automatically or semi-automatically adapting the formal grammar of one language to another language.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . such rules are given “weights” which encode the likelihood that a given spelling variation will be found. all variation can cause problems for morphological parsing. we believe. available: by having it serve as a model or template for other grammar writers. variations can be termed errors.462  Structure of this Grammar Spelling variation may in fact result from several different causes. can benefit from grammar writing using the multiuse framework we have developed. some. In the absence of spelling standardization.

189. 1999). the other.g. something which is well beyond the current state of the art. We have also developed grammar testing tools based on the information in the descriptive grammar. To some extent. The two grammars must still be written collaboratively. which may reveal morphological constructions not previously described. allowing a descriptive grammar writing team from the linguistics department located in the country where a language is spoken.. While the authors of this pair of descriptive and formal grammars have worked in nearby offices. Olsen & Diab. there Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. etc. easier to find two different people (or perhaps two teams of people). related to the initial target language. one with each of these skill sets. While the vocabulary of the Bible is not always useful in a modern context. together with a formal grammar writing team from a computer science department. the Bible is available in nearly every written language and therefore constitutes a parallel corpus (Resnik. A. we believe. We have in fact employed this division of labor in writing our grammars. experience in computer programming. perhaps in a different country. since the typology of the languages would be similar. and it has become clear that this approach to grammar writing makes it easier to build teams that can construct grammars and morphological parsers. In particular. than it is to find one person with both skills.5. It may be possible to further reduce the expertise needed to write grammars. these tools use the example sentences and paradigm tables of the descriptive grammar as a source of parser test cases. this Pashto grammar re-uses the model of earlier grammars we have written using this same framework. Such testing of course needs to be supplemented by testing against corpora. it might be mediated by email or other collaborative technologies.Grammar adaptation  463 grammar (and writing system) of the target language.2 Automated grammar adaptation Rather than writing grammars by hand. since that would require understanding of an English grammatical description. e.) This task might be done with various sorts of resources in the third language: corpora. In particular.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . It is. if new grammars can be modeled after existing grammars. dictionaries of the third language. we believe that this working relationship can probably be more remote. bilingual corpora in the third language and the initial target language. (A computer could not be expected to adapt a descriptive grammar. But the use of model grammars may prove useful for unrelated languages as well. although we have introduced some new techniques with each new language. Using grammars as models might work best if the new grammars were for languages related to the ones already described. another approach to grammar adaptation would be to create a computer program that could automatically adapt an existing formal grammar to work for another language. bilingual corpora in the third language and English.186. which calls for a close working relationship between the descriptive grammar writer and the formal grammar writer.

Fortunately. we believe. there is an alternative typesetting method in the form of XeTeX. For example. In outline. we can extract elements for various purposes. The primary method for formatting XML DocBook documents is through the use of XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects.189. XML is now recognized as a standard for long term preservation of documents. Fortunately.) Perhaps in part because Kew had worked with Arabic scripts. One might ask why we did not write the grammar in LaTeX directly (or XeTeX).g. we found the dblatex program. Borghoff. The author. has been very helpful in modifying it to work well with XeTeX.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . (XeTeX is released under a free license. and available in the same Tex Live distribution as XeTeX. A. we were not satisfied that any of the available XSL-FO processors would do a good job of typesetting the Arabic script required for Pashto and other languages. It remained to find a way to convert our DocBook XML files into XeTeX. these are freely licensed. Scheffczyk & Schmitz 2006 and Bird & Simons 2003). see http://tug. see Stayton 2005). but by means of the judicious use of tags. and use them to test a parser. Again. While this method would work (provided it was supplemented with the XSL transformations needed for our literate programming and interlinear text extensions). Benoît Guillon. the result is. this is an open source program. available from Sourceforge (http://sourceforge.6 Formatting the grammar for viewing This section describes the method we have used to convert this grammar into a format readable by people.464  Structure of this Grammar is no reason good Bible translations in two related languages could not serve as the basis for converting the formal grammar of the morphology of one language into a formal grammar of the other language’s morphology. We have tweaked it slightly to allow for the conversion of the literate programming constructs and interlinear text. which was designed to convert DocBook into LaTeX (and now into XeLaTeX). Again. The main reason for this is that XML is a content markup system.5. Some work on automatic grammar adaptation has been described in Yarowsky (2002) and Feldman & Hana (2010). a Unicode-aware version of TeX and LaTeX.186. quite pleasing. the steps we have used to format this grammar are the following: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.net/projects/dblatex/). while LaTeX is a presentation markup system. as mentioned in Section A. In part because of this.org/texlive/. and developed by Jonathan Kew.1. Content markup means that not only is the markup easily extensible. particularly linguistic documents (see e. the latest distribution is currently included in the TeX Live distributions. Rödig. we can automatically extract all the words in both interlinear examples and example words in text. the latter was made easier by the existence of Michael Covington’s LaTeX macros for interlinear text.

XeLaTeX) to produce a PDF. which can interact badly with right-to-left scripts. Special care needs to be taken at this point with punctuation marks. Run dblatex to convert this file into a XeLaTeX file. must be provided with special code to convert them into the format expected by XeLaTeX. using the xsltproc program and the XSL weave stylesheet.g. we wrap the sequences in a special tag. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.189. Run XETEX (in its LATEX form. characters in the Arabic block of Unicode). 4.Formatting the grammar for viewing  465 1. such as interlinear text and inline examples.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 3. Any non-DocBook standard elements. Combine the various files of the descriptive and formal grammars into a single file. telling XeLaTeX to use the appropriate font for these characters. 2. For all sequences of characters which require a special font (e.

186.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189.

wikipedia. 6.com/ 3.tolafghan. 8.com/ 8.16 http://ps.net/ 6.19 http://www.189.bloguna. 8.20 http://eqtisad. 6.benawa. 7. 6.26 http://www.20 http://eslahonline.1 Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web Chapter 1: About this Grammar 1.com 2.com/ 2.org/wiki/ 5.55 http://www.186.1 http://www.15 http://www.tolafghan.bloguna. 6.facebook.net/ 4. 8. 8.shamshadtv.25 http://www.facebook.22 http://larawbar. 6.afghanjirga.B Sources of Pashto Data B. 8.tv 7.sada-e-azadi.com/ Chapter 6: Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 1.com/ 7.com 3. 1. 6.aryen.com/ 9.com 6. 8.36 http://www.26 http://sangaar.pajhwok.com/watch?v=Hw08YbmNFLo/ 4. 6.27 http://www.tolafghan. 8.net 8.com/PashtoJokes/ Chapter 8: Verbs 1.25 http://www. 8.com Chapter 7: Pronouns 1.21 http://www.28 http://www.youtube.14 http://www. 6.aminzay.miliehsas.37 http://www.sporghay.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .13 http://www.benawa. 8.com 5.

mirmanbaheer.468  Sources of Pashto Data 10. 8.facebook.41 http://bloguna.com/ 31.66 http://www.74 http://www.57 http://www.63 http://dailyshahadat. 8.wikipedia.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 8.com/ 17. 8.s-rohi.net/ 27.37 http://www.com/video/video/php?v=180813528650225/ 16.blogsky.af/ 24.189.com/ 14. 8.73 http://www.pajhwok.68 http://www/.net/ 32.bakhtarnews.net/ps/ 23.youtube.com. 8. 8.com/Zhwand/ 19.34 http://www. 8.186.46 http:/kandahartv-gov.67 http://eslahonline.khyberwatch.org/ 21.31 http://ps. 8.com/en/photo/96113 13. 8.50 http://www.com/ 15.com/ 11.facebook. 8.49 http://www.64 http://www.55 http://www.youtube. 8.mirmanbaheer.af/ 34.baheer. 8.tolafghan. 8.56 http://www. 8.bloguna.org/wiki/ 12.rohi. 8.bloguna.com/ 28.40 http://www.com/ 25.com/ 20. 8.afghan-german.org/ 22.33 http://www.com/ 26.65 http://www.51 http://iwpr.30 http://khabarial. 8. 8.com/watch?v=UxcFrUw1ybQ/ 18. 8. 8. 8.tolafghan.bosa. 8.arawbar. 8.com/all_comments?v=xjHs0–6bOo/ 30.org/ 33.32 http://www. 8.58 http://www.com/israrahmadzai/posts/246413462138948/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.com/ 29.38 http://awakening.

8.88 http://www.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  35.pashtunforums.79 http://www.84 http://khaibarial. 8.com/ 50. 8.afghanjirga.cri. 8.dawatfreemedia.75 http://taand. 8.86 http://yahyaghafoorzai. 8.scprd. 8.com/ 54. 8. 8.tolafghan.com/ 56.facebook.97 http://www.com/pashto/ 57.102 http://scprd.h-obaidi.blogspot. 8.93 http://pashtu. 8. 8.baheer.com/ 43.101 http://didanona. 8.com/ 55.com/ 48. 8. 8. 8.99 http://www.83 http://www.81 http://www.189.com/ 45.com/ 58.com/ 39.92 http://www.com/ 59.com/ 53.98 http://www. 8. 8. 8.76 http://www.benawa.com/ 51. 8.com/ 44. 8.cn/ 49.com/ 46.bloguna.95 http://sporghay.com/ 47.blogfa.96 http://www.100 http://afghan-warlods.82 http://bloguna. 8.89 http://taand.ahena.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.80 http://www.ir/ 52.com/ 36.com/PashtunUnity/posts/318701911484713/ 42.90 http://pushtu. 8.91 http://www.jahanionline.87 http://www.s-rohi. 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 469 .blogfa.benawa.voanews.org/ 37. 8.com/ 41.irib.com/ 40.85 http://ghazal.com/ 38.

com/ 70. 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 8.com/ 66.106 http://www.org/ 81.121 http://www.asia/ 75.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 8.pashtoonkhwa.bloguna.com/ 73. 8.com/ 72. 8.com/pashto/ 80.net/ 74.126 http://aryen. 8.net/ 79. 8.tolafghan.uk/pashto/world// 78.125 http://www.meenapukhto. 8.net/ 76. 8.110 http://nunn.voanews.af/ 83. 8.107 http://pushtu.104 http://ghorzang.129 http://iwpr. 8.blogfa.net/ 71.asia/ 68.net/ 84.127 http://rohi.com/ 69.117 http://eslahonline.124 http://www.105 http://taand.com/ 77. 8.bbc.186.103 http://waak.114 http://iwpr.111 http://quizlet. 8. 8.bloguna.cri. 8.esalat.co.tolafghan.470  Sources of Pashto Data 60. 8. 8.115 http://wolas-ghag. 8.com/ 64.122 http://www. 8.cn/ 65.com/ 61.com/ 67. 8.destaar.109 http://khabarial.113 http://www.com/ 82.120 http://afghanfoundation. 8.189. 8.116 http://islam-iea. 8. 8.118 http://nunn.com/ 63.net/ 62.108 http://baheer. 8.123 http://afghanjirga.130 http://taleemulislam-radio.

9.24 http://lashkargah.wakht.3 http://www.131 http://www.26 http://sporghay.net/ 14. 9.voanews.com/ 2.facebook.azadiradio.bloguna.acsf.186. 9.67 http://pa.baheer.facebook. 9.voanews.15 http://pa.97 http://www.tolafghan.net/ Chapter 10: Other word classes 1.com/ 7.bloguna.46 http://larawbar.94 http://da.azadiradio.com/afghanistancricketboard/posts/245676592129372/ 11.org/ 17.af/ Chapter 9: Adpositions 1.com/ 19.blogfa. 9.org/ 15.92 http://lokrana. 9. 9.com/ 2.sada-e-azadi.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .azadiradio.11 http://afg-liberal-party.azadiradio. 9.14 http://www. 8. 9.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  471 85. 10.com/ 20. 9.121 http://www.com/ 10.189.org/ 5. 9. 9.com/ 8.47 http://www. 9.45 http://pa.voanews.com/ 16.com/Israratal/posts/193484757403886/ 9.32 http://www.com 4. 9. 10. 9. 9.13 http://pushtu. 9.facebook.cri.36 http://www.33 http://www.tolafghan.com/ 13. 18.com/ 6. 9.96 source: from a 12/22/2010 Azadi Radio Broadcast.41 http://www. 9.fbjs.org/ 12.cn/ 3.mashriqsoft. 9.98 http://www.4 http://www.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.benawa.

khabarial.com/ 5.67 http://www.com/ 12.com/ 13. 10.com/ 5. 10. 10.7 http://www.20 http://www.com/ 11. 10.sada-e-azadi.com. 10.24 http://www.wikipedia.com/ 19. 10.org/wiki/ 6.wordpress.af/ 6.com/ 17.68 http://lifeinafghanistan.bloguna.khost-web.21 http://www.net/ 7.com/ 18.70 http://www.kitabtoon.71 http://larawbar. 11. 10. 10. 11.net/ 7.18 http://www. 11.9 http://www.benawa.69 http://wepakhtoons. 10.gma.11 http://www.186.afghanijokes. 11. 10.19 http://bowraa. 10.com/ 16.sada-e-azadi.42 http://sola.com/ 4.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 10.8 http://www. 11.talafghan.voanews.19 http://khedmatgar.com/ 10.pajhwok. 11.com/ 4.12 http://khyberwatch.21 http://thanda.189.3 http://www.benawa.10 http://www.tolafghan. 10.com/ 9.gotquestions. 10. 11.org/ 8.com/ Chapter 11: Syntax 1.com/ 15. 10.23 http://www.28 http://www.22 http://ps.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.voanews.com/ 14.bloguna. 10. 10.com/ 3.20 http://s-rohi.com/ 2.tolafghan.472  Sources of Pashto Data 3.blogspot.

azadiradio.com/ 24.93 http://www.31 http://www.106 http://www.surgar.com/ 23. 11.net/ 21.com/ 19.org/ 31. 11. 11.77 http://www.afghanijokes.37 www.67 http://www.dailyshahadat.co. 11.com/ 18.af/ 15. 11.voanews. 11.tolafghan. 11.khabarial.45 http://www.net/ 27. 11.com/ 16.com/ 9. 11. 11.com/ 20.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  8.benawa.af/ 13.com/ 10.bbc. 11. 11.189.tolafghan.tolafghan.com/ 32.25 http://www. 11.34 http://loyafghanistan.com/ 22.186.net/ 11.com/ 28.26 http://peshgaman.uk/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.44 http://www.32 http://origin-pa.org/ 14. 11.org/ 17. 11.29 http://www. 11.loyafghanistan.42 http://www. 11.org/ 30.68 http://pa.pashtozeray. 11.azadiradio.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 473 .27 http://iwpr. 11.65 http://lawaghar.azadiradio. 11.com/ 26.46 http://eslahonline.tolafghan.org/ 29.pajhwok.blogfars. 11.47 http://www. 11.com/ 12.azadiradio.azadiradio.84 http://www.90 http://pa.85 http://pa.43 http://www. 11.org/ 25. 11.91 http://pa.81 http://www. 11.tatobay.

186.azadiradio. http://www. http://origin-pa.ghatreh. http://peshgaman.af/ 13.com/ 19.blogfars.afghanistantoday.com/ 12.com/ 21.co. http://bakhtarnews. http://da. http://www. http://www.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. http://www.dailyshahadat. http://ghorzang.afghanistanonlineforums.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . http://pa.facebook. http://www.com/ 16.com/ 17.net/ 22.org/ 6.blogfars.189.benawa.baheer.org/ 9.474  Sources of Pashto Data B.tolafghan.aminzay.uk/ 14. http://www.com/ 24. http://www.bloguna.com/ 18.net/ 4.com/ 23.afghanistanvotes. http://www.com.com/ 7. http://eslahonline. http://afg-liberal-party.com/ 3.azadiradio.com/ 15.blogspot. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ 2.com/ 5. http://wepakhtoons.blogfa.afghanjirga. http://nojavan.bbc.com/ 8.org/ 11. http://www.org/ 10.com/ 20.afghanijokes. http://www. http://lokrana.2 List of web pages mined for language data 1.bloguna.azadiradio.

pashtozeray.com/ 47. http://www. http://sporghay.org/ 27.gotquestions. http://graanafghanistan.189. http://www. http://www.pajhwok.gov.ir/ 42. http://www.tatobay.af/ 37.af/ 45. http://larawbar.com/ 39.com/ 43.net/ 32.mohe.spenghar.qamosona.com/ 30. http://khyberwatch.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. http://www. http://lawaghar.org/ 41.af/ 38.surgar.loyafghanistan.khost-web.com/ 28.com/ 40.List of web pages mined for language data  25. http://pashtu. http://www.com/ 36.kabirstori.com. http://www. http://iwpr. http://www.net/ 29.net/ 31. http://kw. http://www. http://www.sada-e-azadi.irib. http://www. http://khatez.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 475 .com/ 44. http://www. http://www.186.com/ 48.com/ 35.af/ 34.gma. http://rohi.net/ 49.af/ 26.com/ 33. http://rohella-pashto-forum.ntm-a.net/ 46. http://www.

net/ 60.com/ 52. http://www.com/ 51. http://www.zarlakht.476  Sources of Pashto Data 50.com/ 59. http://tolo.tolafghan.tolafghan.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . http://cricket.com/ 58.com/ 57.com/ 55. http://lifeinafghanistan.wranga.189.com/ 54.tv/ 53. http://article.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.wordpress.voanews. http://www. http://www.wakht. http://tolonews. http://zwand.com/ 56.186. http://www.wn.

1999. Wiesbaden: Dr. 1998. Sydney. 2008. Reflexive anaphora resolution in Pashto discourse. Elena. Culture Area Karakorum Scientific Studies 4(2). Tribe. Schmitz.186. 480—488. Farooq.htm. 1957. 2008.C. C. historical change.d. Prepared under Contract No. n. Seven dimensions of portability for language documentation and description. 1969. lost: One thousand languages. African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research 4(2). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Ph. Ahmed. Bellew. Scheffczyk & L. Evidential. Anonymous. Butt. Aygen. University of Hawai'i. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden.L. The Light Verb jungle. Bird. http://www. Long-term preservation of digital documents: Principles and practices. 1989. In Rüdiger Schmitt (ed. Lahore: Rai Sahib M. Peter K. Introduction to Pushtu. Rahman. 55—63. Bauer. Bielmeier. 2009. raised possessor. A study in Pashto stress.). An adaptive approach of syntactic ambiguity resolution in Pashto. Languages of Northern Areas. Radloff. The Pathans: 550 B. 2nd edn. 2011. 2002. http://lrc. 2005. Prague: The Oriental Institute in Academia. Tribe and community among the Ghilzai Pashtun.M. Unpublished manuscript. 2008. 1—72. Living. Miriam & Aditi Lahiri. Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. (ed. Erhard. M. P. Transactions of the Philological Society 103(1). A grammar of the Pukkhto or Pukshto language. Backstrom.). endangered. http://www. J. Tafseer. Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. Theodora. 1962a. University of Minnesota Libraries Learning Resources Center. Bečka. Peshawar.shtml. In LFG06 Conference.-A. 2008. 627—640. Borghoff. 1901. Bellew. Ali & R. 2003. 2006. 2002. Mohammad Abid Khan & Mushtaq Ali. 1992. Austin.189. Jon. Khyber.). Henry Walter. Several groups of Pashto-speakers in Pakistan's northern areas: Different ways of dealing with multilingual surroundings (Preliminary results of field research). The diachrony of complex predicates. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 2009. 1958. Steven & Gary Simons. O'Leary (ed. Babrakzai. 1975. Ali. Sociolinguistic survey of northern Pakistan.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 2003. Naval Postgraduate School. Bilal.. Butt. Bowern. Language 79(3).Bibliography Ahmed. Anonymous. O. Caroe. A dictionary of the Pukkhto or Pukshto language: In which the words are traced to their sources in the Indian and Persian languages. Gulab Singh & Sons. Abid Khan. R. GSAS/Dudley House workshop on light verbs. Evidentiality in South Asian languages. Quinn (eds. 149.html. 1867. M. 2006.). and the historical source of the ergative construction in Indo-Iranian. Anderson. Balochistan. Chavarria-Aguilar. Diachronica 25(2).lib. & Carla F. Instrument as path: reconciling the semantic usages of Urdu se and Pashto pa. SAE-8888 between The University of Michigan and the United States Office of Education.khyber. In Clare F. Pakistan: Saeed Book Bank & Subscription Agency. Claire. 575—601. Askar. Berlin: Springer.. 557—582. thesis. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Anthropos 70. In Proceedings of the Conference on Language & Technology.D. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. Henry Walter. Pashto basic course.nps/ edu/Programs/CCs/FamilyTrees. Umar Gul (ed. Ghilzai. Bashir. Topics in Pashto syntax. Peter C.org/pashtotribes/g/ghilzai-a. Wanechi.). Roland.D. Jiří. Yaghnobi. U. M. Workshop on South Asian Languages. Bowern & C. Sir Olaf Kirkpatrick.edu/pushto. Anonymous. In Workshop on Morphosyntactic aspects of Instruments and Instrumentals. 161—185.org. London: Macmillan. Bynon. 1972. Historical stability vs. Quetta: Pashto Academy. Rödig. clan and ethnic genealogies. In G.umn.

Behera (eds. Dench & N. A Resource-Light Approach to Morpho-Syntactic Tagging. 1994. Bianqius. 207—232. explanatory theories.Pakistan. J. Glatzer. Unicode standard annex #15. Wechsler (eds. Trends in Linguistics. Davis. Elfenbein. O. Cheung. Directorate of Intelligence.). SAE-8888 between The University of Michigan and the United States Office of Education. 1996. 1888. Washington. Directorate of Intelligence. IN: Eisenbrauns. Robert M. Frye. Paris: L'Harmattan. Calcutta. C. Winona Lake. Texas Linguistic Society IX: The Morphosyntax of Underrepresented Languages. Ascander. 1997. Darmesteter. White & S. 70. A. E. Netherlands and Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Catching language: The standing challenge of grammar writing. A domain-based approach to 2P clitics in Pashto. Chants populaires des Afghans [Afghan popular songs]. Die Sprache der Afghanen. Bosworth. 2008. Kendall D. Languages of Chitral (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 5). Stanford: CSLI Publications. Th. Leiden. 2010. Teodorescu.). University of Maryland: Brill Online. 2011.W. 2007.J. version 29 edn. Pfeffer & D. 265—282. 2010. New Reflections on Grammaticalisation 5 conference. Seifert. In P. van Donzel & W. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Eranian Languages. Unicode normalization forms. Feldman. Hoyt. 2009b. Elfenbein. 2007. In G.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . David. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland 54—76. On the evolution of Pashto endoclitics. Wilhelm. Grundriss der iranischen Philologie [Outline of Iranian philology].K. Geiger. Dost. Phonologies of Asia and Africa (including the Caucasus). The rise and fall of languages.brillonline. Laurent. Mark & Martin Dürst. 733—760. 1997.html. Pashto]. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] Series. Josef H.unicode. 1921. A. 1992.L. Parlons Pachto: Langue et culture de l'Afghanistan [Let's speak Pashto: Language and culture of Afghanistan]. DC: Central Intelligence Agency. New Delhi: Concept Publishers. Washington.Afghanistan. In Wilhelm Geiger & Ernst Kuhn (eds. E. In Alan S.478  Bibliography Chavarria-Aguilar. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. Edinburgh. Bearman.org/reports/tr15/tr15-37. Germany: K. vol. The Wanetsi connexion. In F. Matthew S. 1972. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Descriptive theories. The World Factbook . http://www. Afghanistan 25(1). Evans (eds. Fourth International Conference on Iranian Linguistics. Concept of Tribal Society.186.). Anne & Sarah Goodman.). Peter & William Bright (eds. The world's writing systems. Waneci. P. Josef H. Paris: Impremerie Nationale. das Pasto [The language of the Afghans. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1984. George A. N. Ghalzay. nl/subscriber/uid=2015/entry?entry=islam_SIM-2453. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. 2009a. Scotland. Pashto phonology. Ameka. Kaye (ed. 2006. 28—73. Decker. Anna & Jirka Hana. 2012. Unicode Consortium. Daniels.). The grammaticalization of Pashto Light Verb Constructions. Dryer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2. Strassburg. The Pashtun tribal system. K. R. 2002. Prepared under Contract No. and basic linguistic theory.).C. Trübner. Etymological dictionary of the Iranian verb. 89—110. James. DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Elfenbein. URL http://www. Josef H. A short introduction to the writing system of Pashto. 1962b. Linguistic Survey of India: Volume X.). Amsterdam: Rodopi. Grierson. 1895. The World Factbook . Anne. Bernt. Dessart. 201—206. In F. David. Johnny. India: Government Press. Language and Computers: Studies in Practical Linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter. Heinrichs (eds. N. Dixon.

The computational morphology of Pashto nouns — the classification. Nadir Durrani & Sana Gul. Notes on Pashto grammar and orthography. 65—86. Tokyo: Pergamon Press. 1988a. 1986. project description and samples. Henderson. Eugene. In R. Hussain. 1989. Hook.1.W. Online Edition. In Encyclopaedia Iranica.). 2273—2276. 1987. Ḡilzī. Bloomington.186. Hook (eds. Dimitra Vergyri. DC: Office of International Education. In 19th European conference on modern South Asian studies. Pashto. Hook. 1970. Madhav M. Hanifi. 46—47. 2008. Amsterdam. Speech translation for low-resource languages: The case of Pashto. Journal of the American Oriental Society 103(3). & Dayashankar M.com/ articles/gilzi. 243—274. Rahmon. 2009. Some 'Indic' features in Pashto. Facts About the World's Languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages: Past and present. M. 1992. Pashto verbs in the past tense — a computational view. 2005. Aleksandr L. Hallberg. Khan. 1988b.. Separating phonology from syntax: A reanalysis of Pashto cliticization. In Interspeech-2005. Heston. Pashto ambipositions and historical antecedents. 595—597. Bruce.189. In Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the Pacific Linguistics Conference. Chauhan. New York: H. Petersburg. URL http://www. M. Henderson. In Jane Garry & Carl Rubino (eds. 1—14. Kathol. Journal of Linguistics 17(2). & Omar N. 1992. Gaveshana 51-52. Waneci. Wisconsin Papers in Linguistics: 1. 2006. Natural absolutivity in Indo-Aryan.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Koul (ed. Oregon: University of Oregon. Sweden: Uppsala University. Inomkhojayev. Leningrad. Leiden. Survey of language computing in Asia. Concordant adverbs and discordant adjectives in Kashmiri and other Indo-Aryan languages. Ingham. Chauhan. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.). Igor. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. From case to adposition: The development of configurational syntax in Indo-European languages. Hook. Wilson. Khan. 163—181. Peter E. Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club. Hook. 2005. 2001. New York. Scientific Khyber 18(2). Hook. Daniel G. Concordant adverbs and postpositions in Gujarati. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 2006. India: Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL). Wilma L. Lahore. The language situation in Afghanistan. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Joshi. Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region. Wilma L. On the functions and origin of the extended verb in Southern Rajasthani.Bibliography  479 Grjunberg. Oxford. Očerk grammatiki afghanskogo jazyka (Pašto) [A sketch of the grammar of the Afghan language (Pashto)]. Mohammad Abid & Fatima-Tuz-Zuhra. Deshpande & Peter E. Pashto: An elementary textbook. Sarmad. National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences. E. M.). Indo-Aryan Linguistics. Mohammad Abid. 1994. Four varieties of Pashto. Indian Linguistics 52. In Omar N. The encyclopaedia of language and linguistics. and frequency list II. Kristin Precoda. Asher (ed. Indiana: Indiana University.T. John & Vit Bubenik. WORD 39(3). Inozemtsev. 1981.T. USSR (St. 543—547. Andreas. Jehani. 177—186.iranica. Peter E. Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 4). Select papers from SALA-7 / South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable Conference. Uppsala. Hewson.). Pashto. The perfective adverb in Bhitrauti. Rahmon. In Elena Bashir. Wen Wang & Susanne Riehemann. 39—57. Koul. Ellen M. 1991. 2005. Jamil. Washington: Georgetown University Press. Michael M. Michael M. Russia): Nauka. 1983. Pashto: An elementary textbook. frequency lists I. Pakistan: Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing. Peter E. Kaisse. 256—265. Peter E. Washington. 197—208. Peter E. & M. Heston. 2001. & M. Carina. 2011. Inomkhojayev. Mysore. Seoul. A dictionary of basic Pashto. 1987.

Lebedev.). In R. 1972. Donald E. TX: SIL International. Oxford: Blackwell. Literate programming (CSLI Lecture Notes 27). Lewis. 1974. A panorama of Indo-European languages. MD: Center for Advanced Study of Language. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo 'Vostochnaja literature'. 165—170. Labov. 1996. In 4th International Conference on Iranian Linguistics (ICIL 4). MacKenzie. D.B. India: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Kopris. The world's major languages.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Grammar and vocabulary of Waziri Pashto. 231—235. Philip G. College Park. Manfred. 1989. Le Pareci. MacKenzie. 2002. 2003. Colin P. & Anthony R. Qazi Rahimulla.third workshop on computational approaches to Arabic script-based languages. Lebedev. 3. Prepositions and postpositions in modern standard Pashto. Pashto. In Bernard Comrie (ed. Introduction to Pushtu: An official language of Afghanistan: Romanized. Klincksieck. Defining a linguistic area: South Asia. 1959. 1976. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information. 2959—2960. 2004. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. 1963. Masica. Frederking & K. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Lazard. Charles M. Grammatika jazyka pushtu [Grammar of Pashto]. 2011. Inc. In Bernard Comrie (ed. New York: Hippocrene Books.1: Current morphological methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Craig A. Michael.). vol. Lorenz. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Gilbert. Davis. 2005. Peshawar.N. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. International encyclopedia of linguistics. William. G. Endoclitics in Pashto: Can they really do that? In CAASL-3 . Kieffer. Knuth.). New York: Oxford University Press. 162—166. Pashto. University of Chicago Press.N. 1992.N. London: Hutchinson University Library. Endoclitics in Pashto: Implications for lexical integrity. Charles M. Pashto. Final technical report M. Asher (ed. MMM 5 abstract—Fréjus 15-18 Sept. In Afghanistan: jazyki.A. 2004. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 1994. l'Ormuri et le groupe des langues Iraniennes du Sud-Est [Parechi. Switzerland: Universität Bern Institut für Sprachwissenschaft. Kieffer. K. literatura. 130—133. In William Bright (ed.). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 22(1/3). 16th edn. D. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 5—304.A. Uppsala University. 1994. etnografija [Afghanistan: Languages. 2009. Verb serialization in modern Persian. L'Etablissement des cartes phonetiques: premiers resultats [Establishment of phonetic maps: first results]. Rapid MT experience in an LCTL (Pashto). Oxford: Oxford University Press. D. In R. 547—565. Pashto. 1902.186. Anatolian Journal of Clinical Investigation 578. 2009. M. Paris: Librairie C. Lockwood. Moscow: Muravej. 1992. Taylor (eds. 2005. Encyclopaedia of language and linguistics. Principles of linguistic change: Internal factors. 445—455. W. Calcutta.E. literature.480  Bibliography Khan. ethnography]. A standard Pashto.A. Lorimer. 1987. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Dallas.189.). 2007a. Paul (ed.). The world's major languages. K. La langue des plus anciens monuments de la prose persane [The language of the oldest monuments of Persian prose]. MacKenzie. 2nd edn. 1938. Sweden. MT Summit XII. Kreyenbroek. K. Oleh.). Craig A. 1982. Kopris. Ormuri and the Southeast Iranian language group].N. Kopris. Formerly published as The Modern Pushtu Instructor. In Rüdiger Schmitt (ed. 2009.B. J. MacKenzie. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie. Lehrbuch des Pashto (Afghanisch) [Pashto (Afghan) textbook]. Lebedev. Wiesbaden: Dr. 460—475. Craig A. Maxwell. Kshanovski. D. Sintaksis sovremennogo jazyka pushtu [Syntax of modern Pashto].E.

Morgenstierne. Michael. Afghan descriptions of the Afghan Pashto verb. A grammar formalism for computational morphology. Second position clitics and subordinate tʃe clauses in Pashto. Herbert. Payne. Nyrop. University of Texas at Austin. In Second international conference on electrical engineering. In Josef H. Lloyd-James. 1959. together with translations from the Articles of War. A grammar of Pashto: A descriptive study of the dialect of Kandahar. and descent of the Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 1961. Afghanistan: A country study. 514—522. 2009. Hyattsville. T. Morgenstierne. Penzl. 88—114. Pushto. Herbert. 2007b. Pashtoon. John R.C. Herbert. John R. Mohammad Alam. A tagmemic grammar of Pashto clause structure.N. forthcoming. MA: Harvard University Press. Georg. In R. Herbert. 1975. Morgenstierne. Henry G. 1940. 1969. 1951. 1942. Pence. Developing a tagset for Pashto part of speech tagging. India. Mahinnaz. Rabbi. Pamir languages. University Microfilms. Claitor's Publishing Division. 9—23. Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics. 43—52. literature. Minorsky.5: Standards for lexical and morphological interchange. V. Maxwell. 1968. Report on a linguistic mission to North-Western India. 8—14. Payne. Notes on the pronunciation of Pashto (Dialect of the Hazara district). Beiträge zur Iranistik [Contributions to Iranian]. or language of the Afghans: In which the rules are illustrated by examples from the best writers both poetical and prose. Master's thesis. In Bernard Comrie (ed.). Penzl. 2010. Miran. 1987. V. New Delhi: Star Publications. 1919.). Seekins (eds. 1932.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Pashtoon. & Donal M. Zeeya A. D. MacKenzie & Nicholas Sims-Williams (eds. 2008. David M. Pakistan: University of Engineering and Technology. Georg. Band 23: A new etymological vocabulary of Pashto.189. Mirdeghan. University of Texas at Austin. D.). 53—62. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Master's thesis. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 10(2). 1986. Penzl. and remarks on the language. MD: Dunwoody Press. Afghanistan 14(3). Richard F. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Baptist Mission Press: Calcutta. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Major problems of Dari speakers in mastering Pashto morphology. A grammar of the Pukhto. Schmitt (ed. Naming and address in Afghan society. Ihsan. The Turkish dialect of the Khalaj. Ann Arbor Michigan. Norwegian Journal of Linguistics XII. English-Pushto.Bibliography  481 Maxwell. Elfenbein. Afghanistan. Final technical report M. Georg. 2006. Naseer Hoonar & Zeeya A. Phillott. Dictionary. and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Miran. DC: American Council of Learned Societies. Morgenstierne. 417—437. Writing Systems Research 2(1). Urdu. Raverty. Higher Persian Grammar VI: for the use of the Calcutta University. The world's major languages. College Park.). Cambridge. Georg & A.186. Lahore. The Iranian languages. 1859. James Monroe. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 5(1). Pashtoon. 1928. 2003. Persian. MD: Center for Advanced Study of Language. Penzl. 2012. Hyattsville. Pashto-English dictionary. Mohammad Khan & Rahman Ali. Archaisms and innovations in Pushto morphology. Journal of the American Oriental Society 81(1). Journal of the American Oriental Society 71(2). Wiesbaden: Dr. A handbook of Pashto verbal conjugation. language of the Afghans = Inglisi-Pushtuqamus revised edn. Wiesbaden: Dr. Patil. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 417—444. Pate. 1989. Michael. Washington. Standard Pashto and other dialects of Pashto. 1955. 2004. Mohammad Alam. Western loanwords in modern Pashto. MD: Dunwoody Press.

127—153. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Ph. MIT. Languages of Kohistan. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Daniel. S. In Keith Brown (ed. Du Pashto standard au Wanetsi: /kawəl/ ou /kṛəl/? note de dialectologie Pashto [From standard Pashto to Wanetsi: /kawəl/ or /kṛəl/? Pashto dialectology note]. Rishtin. Taylor. Some onomasiological maps. Mari B.D. Takahashi. Etat des travaux et publication. 1989. 1977. London: Williams and Norgate. Naoko. Wiesbaden: Dr. Pashto. Split ergativity in Pashto. Hallberg. 1989. Paris: Peeters. Septfonds. Wojciech. 231—235. Louvain. Septfonds.D. Taylor. 395—406. thesis. Roberts. familiar phrases. Santa Cruz: SageHill Enterprises. 3rd edn. 129— 152. proverbs. Henry G. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. quelques cartes onomasiologiques [State of travels and publication. In Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Skalmowski. Split-agreement and ergativity in Pashto. Shafeev. 2001a. Pashto grammar. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1994. P. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1994. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. D.). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 1974. volume 1: Classification. Anti-impersonal constructions in Pashto. 1867. 2008. Henry G. Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard [Irano-Aryan studies offered for Gilbert Lazard]. Rensch. In Charles-Henri de Fouchécour & Philippe Gignoux (eds. London: Robert Hale Limited. Spain.html. 1992. 2001. London: W. 1987. 1997. Pashto. Prods O. Septfonds. Skjærvø. Septfonds. 1964. 384—410. A short grammatical outline of Pashto. Richard. 1997. Allen & Co. Roberts. 297—313. 2001b. Clitics and agreement.). Georges. Ph. 2001. The grammar of clitics: evidence from Pashto and other languages. 2000. Raverty. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. volume 1. Boston: Elsevier.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . exercises and dialogues. Kurdica 5. In Rüdiger Schmitt (ed.186. Deriving second position. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Calvin R. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. descriptive studies. 2005. The optimal second position in Pashto. Raverty. In William van Belle & Willy van Langendonck (eds. Peshawar: University Book Agency.). Taylor. A computational theory of writing systems. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 46(1/2). H.yorku. Roberts. Daniel. The way of the Pathans.3. Tegey. Taylor. Sproat.]. and vocabulary. thesis. Roberts. Habibullah. 1998. Bloomington: Indiana University. Dative counterparts in Pashto. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. Computers and Humanities 33. Sandra J. The Pushto manual: Comprising a concise grammar. A. DocBook XSL: The complete guide. Redard. and its affinity to the Semitic and other Oriental tongues. Daniel. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. A guide to the world's languages.482  Bibliography Afghan tribes. Olsen & Mona Diab. 2000. http://www. Roberts. Ruhlen.ca/twainweb/troberts/pashto/pashlex1. The dative. 7—19. Merritt. Stayton.. L'Atlas linguistique des parlers iraniens: Atlas de l'Afghanistan 13. Paris: Association pour L'avancement des Études Iraniennes. or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language.189. Journal of School of Foreign Languages 35. Le Dzadrâni: Un parler pashto du Paktya (Afghanistan) [Dzadrani: a Pashto dialect of Paktya (Afghanistan)]. In Clare F. Sociolinguistic survey of northern Pakistan. 1880. Decker & Daniel G.). Taylor. Resnik. Philip. James W. 129—153. 1996. O'Leary (ed. A dictionary of the Puk'hto. Khyber Bazar. Daniel. 1999.). Bob. 2nd edn. Pus'hto. The Bible as a parallel corpus: Annotating the “Book of 2000 tongues”. 2006. Pashto dictionary. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 26(2). 1962.

CA: O'Reilly & Associates. its culture. Zyar. Fatima & Mohammad Abid Khan. Ph. Carr (eds. M. 2002. Tegey.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . expressions. Norman & Leonard Muellner. Intermediate Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition. Iran & the Caucasus 5. Trübner & Co. Washington. United Nations Development Programme. Peshawar: Danish Publishing Association. its society. M. A corpus-based finite state morphological analyzer for Pashto. M. A English-Pashto dictionary of prepositions & postpositions. Wikipedia. Watt. Sebastopol. idioms. Yarowsky. Wilber.brillonline. translation & comparison. Bosworth. 1993a. Afghan transitional Islamic administration ministry of communications: Computer locale requirements for Afghanistan.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Pashto reader passages in transcription. Center for Applied Linguistics. Pashtun tribes. Rauch & G. 2003. Trumpp. A reference grammar of Pashto. The Hague: Mouton.). Habibullah & Barbara Robson.C. 369—418. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Donald N. Th. Pashto-English glossary for the CAL Pashto materials. Washington. Beginning Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition. 2001. 1993c. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. D.186. London: Messrs. vol. 2009. Peshawar: Sopi's Center of Pashto Research and Development. Qissa Khwani Bazar. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. 2005.C. Modeling and learning multilingual inflectional morphology in a minimally supervised framework. E.C. D. D. D. Washington.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Shah Mahmood Ghazi. Inc. Tegey. 1962. C. Johns Hopkins. URL http://www. Die Pashto-Sprecher des Karakorum: Zur Migrationsgeschichte einer ethno-linguistischen Minderheit [The Pashto speakers of the Karakoram: Toward a migration history of an ethno-linguistic minority]. compared with the Īrānian and North-Indian idioms.: Center for Applied Linguistics. thesis. 1993b. Pashto grammar. Tegey. 1996. Habibullah. David. 301—330.189. 79. Matthias. Yūsufzay. Bearman. Weinreich. University of Maryland: Brill Online. 2003. Tegey. E. Janua Linguarum Series Maior.). 1992. http://en. Pashto im Karakorum: Zur Sprachsituation und Sprache einer ethnolinguistischen Minderheit [Pashto in the Karakorum: On the language and linguistic situation of an ethno-linguistic minority]. 2010. P. van Donzel & W. Weinreich. 1873. Office of International Education. 107—132.wikipedia. Zyar. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Afghanistan: Its people. In I.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-8051. DocBook: the definitive guide. Zuhra. A. Walsh.org/wiki/Pashtun_tribes. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. In Conference on language & technology 2009. Ergativity in Pushto (Afghani). Grammar of the Pḁṣ̌tō or language of the Afghāns. Linguistic Method: Essays in honor of Herbert Penzl. A. 2000. Ernest.C. New Haven: HRAF Press.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Washington. E. Yapp. 2010.D.Bibliography  483 Tegey. Iran & the Caucasus 9(2). Tegey. Matthias. Heinrichs (eds. 1999. 1979. In P. Bianqius.

247 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class IV 119 – derivational suffixes 152 – loanwords 119 – comparative 156 – with /lə. 103 – comparable to noun inflection 103 – inflectional classes see Adjectives.186.. kra/ 337 – see also Location. comparative – usage 154 – verbs derived from 200.Index Abbreviations 4 Adjectives 103 – as adverbs 391 – as complements of denominal verbs 201 – as nouns 155 – animacy of 155 – inflection of 79 – attributive vs.189.na/ 351 – /bondi/ 329 – /bānde/ 328 – /de/ 314 – /de .. constructions with /kara/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. 303 – predicative 154 – reduplication of 153 – superlative 156 – see also Adjectives. 111 – forms without stem allomorphy 115 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class III 116 – Class IIIa derivational suffixes 152 – IIIa 116 – IIIb 118. etc.na/ 349 – with /tər/ 323 – compound 153 – derivation of 150 – by compounding 153 – Class I suffixes 150 – Class IIIa suffixes 152 – Class IV suffixes 152 – from loanwords 152 – from participles 116 – from verbs 118 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – inflection 45. Class I. 105 – forms without stem allomorphy 107 – in Middle dialects 121 – regularization toward 104. predicative 154 – Class I 104 – animate 109 – derivational suffixes 150 – dialect variation 104 – ending in /-gár/ 105 – ending in /-ján/ 105 – ending in /-mán/ 105 – ending in /-wár/ 105 – forms with stem allomorphy 104. – interrogative 147 – count and non-count 148 – negative – derived with /be-/ 152 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – number names see Number names – participles as – past 247 – present 246.. 202 Adpositions 305 – /be/ 317 – /be (nə)/ 317 – /be lə. 119 – Class II 109 – diphthongization 113 – forms with stem allomorphy 110.. 246..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .

. /də/ – /kxe/ 329 – /la/.pə məx ke/ 340 – /də..lə xwā/ 343 – /də.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM ... see Adpositions...lə lure/ 345 – /də... /trə/... 346 – /lə. variant /pre/ – /pse/ 329 – /pə/ – /pə..pə bāra ke/ 339 – /də...ʦəxa/ 156 – alternation with /lə/ 316 – expressing possession 163 – fusion with pronouns 313.londe/ 357 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.pāra/. /lə/ – with ablative case 309 – word order of /də/ clauses 424 – /e/ 314 – /e...tsəxa/ 335 – /də..lə pāra/ 337 – /də...lə amala/ 341 – /də.səra/ 336 – see also Adpositions.186....pə ʦer/ 343 – /də...na/ 348 – assigns oblique case 48 – complex circumpositions with 350 485 – in comparatives 349 – in superlatives 349 – /lə/ 316..... ablative case-marking 363 – /prata lə.pə lor/ 343 – /də.pəse/ 354 – assigns ablative case 48 – causative with animate objects 320. /də. 441 – /pə.....na/ 156.Index  – possessive use 313 – see also Adpositions. 363 – in aspectual constructions 322 – in circumpositions 353 – in manner phrases 320 – instrumental use 319 – locational use 318 – manner adverbs 382 – temporal use 320 – variant /pre/ 360 – variant /pər/ 317 – /səra/ 327 – reciprocal constructions with 385 – /ta/ 326 – elided in /kara/ 361 – /tre/ see Adpositions. /lara/ – as variants of /ta/ 326 – /leka/ 324 – modal constructions with /če/ 325 – /londi/ 329 – /lə..nde/ 356 – /pə.....bānde/ 355....pə ʣāy/ 339 – /də..lānde/ 347 – /lə... /lə.na bahar/ 350 – /lə.səra/ 335 – /də..səra/ 346 – /lə.... /də/ – /də/ 312 – /də də.. variant /tre/ – /tər/ 323 – /tər.pə šān/ 342 – /də.... /pə/... 356..lānde/ 334 – /də.pə bābi/ 339 – /də...pore/ 335 – /də..189...na/ – /lə.na pəxwā́/ 350 – /lə. 334 – /də.ʦəxa/ 347 – alternation with /də/ 316 – assigns ablative case 48 – in expressions of preference 452 – /na/ 329 – vs.lə pāsa/ 314 – /də.....na/ 351 – /pre/ see Adpositions..ke/ 354 – /pə.... 363 – in complex adpositions 313 – in possessive interrogatives 178 – in postpositional phrases 334 – variant /lə/ see Adpositions.na/ 156...

308 – in direct case 309 – in oblique case 48.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .pore/ 357 – assigns ablative case 48 – in circumpositions 357 – in comparatives 156.. /də/ – /zidi/ 327 – as negator 153 – /ɣunde/ 328 – adpositional phrases – overview of syntax 424 – structure of 400 – word order 424 – ambipositions 305 – and case assignment 306 – as adverbs 306 – circumpositions 305..486  Index – /tər.. 325 – postpositional phrases 334 – with oblique pronominal clitics 365 – prepositions 305.lānde/ 358 – /tər.186. /kara/ 361 – weak pronouns not allowed as objects of 167 Adverbs – adjectives as 391 – adpositions as 306 – agreement of 391 – Arabic loanwords 387 – interrogatives as 388 – of degree 386 – of manner 382 – of place 380 – of time 378 – reduplication of 392 – with /čə/ 438 Affixes 209 – /-(a)war/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-(w)o/ – Class IV oblique plural adjective (variant) 119 – /-(y)ún/ – Class I masculine direct singular animate noun (M) 61 – /-a/.nə/ 337 – in complex phrases 315 – see also Adpositions.. 307 – mixed case-marking inside 311 – omission of pronoun objects 364 – postpositions 305. /-ə/ – feminine Class I derived noun 71 – feminine Class I noun 67 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.(na)/ 351 – /wə/ 359 – /wṛānde/ 328 – /ye/ 314 – /ye. 329 – complex 337 – complex circumpositional constructions with /də/ 313 – in Middle dialects 332 – incomplete 326 – oblique pronominal clitics not governed by 365 – omission of preposition 348 – table of circumpositional elements 330 – table of Middle vs...189. 312 – omitted from circumpositions 348 – usage 362 – vs.. 323 – in Middle dialects 324 – variant /tre/ 360 – /wrusta/ – /wrusta lə.pere/ 357 – /tər.. Standard forms 333 – with /də/ 334 – with /lə/ 346 – with /pə/ 353 – complex 305 – with /də/ 313 – in comparatives and superlatives 156 – objects of – in ablative case 48...

151 – /be-/ – derived negative adjective 152 – /nā‑/ – derived negative adjective 153 – /wə́-/ – first conjugation aorist verb 197. 122 – masculine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ba/ – derived nouns: master. /-ān/ – masculine Class I plural animate noun 51. keeper 73 – /-e/ – Class II oblique plural adjective (M) 122 – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (W) 118 – /-e/. 254 – second conjugation infinitive verb 199 – /-ə́m/ – ordinal numbers (W) 144. 144. 55 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 151 – /-í/ – Class II adjective (M) 122 – /-ín/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 487 – /-úna/ – masculine Class I plural inanimate noun 51.Index  – /-an/ – Arabic adverbs 387 – /-aw-/ – causative verb 227 – /-ay/ – masculine Class III direct singular adjective 116. /-ye/ – masculine Class I derived noun 55 – /-ed.186. edə́l-/ – past tense intransitive verb 214 – /-eg/ – present tense intransitive verb 214 – /-in/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-iz/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-ján/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-man/ – derived Class I adjective 150 – /-ya/ – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (E) 118 – /-yé/ – Class III oblique plural and feminine adjective (M) 122 – /-ám/ – ordinal numbers 105.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .189. 52 – /-ān/ – masculine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āne/ – feminine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āno/ – oblique animate adjective 108 – /-ā́t/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 – /-əma/ – first person singular (poetic) 191 – /-əy/ – feminine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ə́l-/ – infinitive verb 194 – optional/prohibited in some past bases 215 – past tense transitive verb 214. 204 – on infinitive in periphrastic passive 300 – /‑(a)náy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑dā́r/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑gān/. 52.

308.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . ambipositions Animacy 50 – grammatical vs. 356. 111 – of nouns 45. 67. nonhuman objects 176 – in adpositional constructions with /pə/ 320. 363 – of adjectives – Class I 109 – used as nouns 155 – of nouns 50 – and gender 45 – and stem allomorphy 55 – Class II 73 – grammatically inanimate 62 – kinship terms 93 – switching animacy categories 68 Aspect 185 – aorist – as subjunctive with present base 252 – contracted denominal verbs separable in 202 – definition 203 – first conjugation base 204 – negative placement in 406 – no negative imperatives in 260 – of a-initial verbs 197 – periphrastic passive in 300 – position of enclitics 404 – second conjugation base 209 – third conjugation base 210 – aorist optative 263 – constructions with /pə/ 322 – continuous – contracted vs. natural 51 – human vs. 105 – Class II 110. 62. aorist Case – ablative 48 – instrumental usage 48 – objects of adpositions in 48. 317 – of adjectives 103 – vs. continuous – perfective see Aspect.189.186. postposition /na/ 363 – accusative – expressed with the oblique 162 – in Arabic loanwords 387 – adpositions and – case assignment 306 – in Middle dialects 307 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 69 – Class IIa 75 – in Middle dialects 61 Ambipositions see Adpositions. 198 – derivational 191. 52 – Class I 55.488  Index – /‑nāk/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wāl/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wālā/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑áy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑í/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑ə́/ – masculine Class II singular or direct plural adjective 111 – adjectival derivational suffixes 152 – Middle dialect personal endings 194 – table of derivational noun suffixes 98 – table of verbal affixes 187 – verbal prefixes – as second-position clitics 209 – deictic 172. 198 Allomorphy – of adjectives – Class I 104. uncontracted denominal verbs in 202 – definition 204 – continuous optative 261 – imperfective see Aspect.

then' 447 – /ná yawāze....nə/ 'neither. 307 – strong pronouns and 162 – with transitive verbs 48 – strong pronouns and 162 – syntax of case-marking 448 – vocative 49 – identical to ablative in masculine nouns 48 – of adjectives used as nouns 156 – particles assigning 375 – variant forms in Class III adjectives 118 – weak pronouns and 166 – with verbs of sensation 450 Causation see Verbs.......nor' 447 – /yā.189.. causative Circumpositions see Adpositions. consonants..Index  – mixed case-marking in adpositional objects 311 – direct 48 – identical to ablative in feminine nouns 48 – in present tense 48 – in strong pronouns 157 – objects of adpositions in 309 – predicative adjectives in 154 – strong pronouns and 162 – with intransitive verbs 48 – ergativity and 448 – in Middle dialects 48 – instrumental – causative with instrumental circumposition 441 – expressed by /pə/ 319 – oblique 48 – in objects of adpositional phrases 334 – in past tense 48 – in possessives 163 – in pronominal phrases 365 – in strong pronouns 157 – marking direct object 162 – objects of adpositions in 48.but also' 446 – /nə.. with /kə/.and' 446 – /kə... conditional clauses Conjunctions 442 – coordinating 443 – /aw/ 'and' 443 – /byā/ 'then' 446 – /xo/ 'but' 445 – /yā/ 'or' 444 – omission of in conjoined verb phrases 443 – correlative 446 – /ham....or' 447 – exclusive 447 – inclusive 446 – subordinating – /čə/ see Particles. circumpositions 489 Clauses – subordinate see Subordinate clauses Comparative see Adjectives.balki/ 'not only. subordinating.yā/ 'either.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . elegant Determiners – demonstrative 124 – distal 128 – medial 127 – proximal 124 – indefinite 130 – quantifiers see Quantifiers Dialect – about Pashto dialects 31 – approaches used in this book 34 – Central – adposition /də/ in 312 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94... /čə/ – compounds with /čə/ 440 Consonants – elegant see Pronunciation.186.no/ 'if.. comparative Conditionals see Subordinate clauses.aw ham/ 'both.

189. 32 – cardinal numbers 137 – circumpositional combinations 330 – independent postpositions 326.. hard 41 – Southeast 35 – Southern 41 – Southwest 8. /pər/ 318 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347. ta/ 326 – circumpositions 332 – consonants 39 – existential constructions 368 – independent postpositions 329 – omission of first circumpositional component 329.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 105 – vowel mutation in ordinal numbers 105 Dictionaries 459 Distance – distal demonstratives 176 – distal strong pronoun 157 – medial demonstratives 173 – proximal demonstratives 172 Dzadrani see Dialect. /pər/ 318 – circumposition /tər .490  Index – Eastern 41 – adposition /də/ in 312 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – unreduced strong possessive pronouns 163 – five-dialect approach 32 – four-dialect approach 35 – international differences 36 – map of dialect regions 32 – Middle 37 – a-initial verbs 207 – adjectives 121 – adposition /lə/ unattested in 316 – aspectual constructions 322 – circumposition /wə .. 357 – Northeast 35 – elision of weak pronouns 169 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347.. 348 – Northern 41 – existential constructions 368 – omission of first circumpositional component 330 – Northwest 35 – case marking with /pə/.. 186 – and case 448 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 448 – see also Verbs Existential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Middle Echo words see Reduplication Emphasis – emphatic particle 375 – marked by strong pronouns 161 Ergativity 50. 330 – pronouns 157 – vowels 13 – Waziri metaphony 37. 348 – soft vs.186. 35 – case marking with /pə/. 330 – morphology 32 – noun class membership 62 – Western 41 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – interrogative particle 417 – omission of postposition /pori/ 357 – ordinal numbers 144 – vowel mutation in Class I adjectives 104. pore/ 323 – present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ 236 – three-dialect approach 42 – two-dialect approach 40 – variation 8.

non-human distinctions see Animacy Loanwords 102 – adjectives derived from 152 – Arabic – adjectives 119 – adverbs 387 – interjections 377 – nouns 95 – gender assignment 92 – Hindi/Urdu – as dialect signifier 37 – Persian – adjectives 119 – as dialect signifier 37 Location – adverbs of place 380 – constructions with /kara/ 361 – constructions with /pə/. interjections Interrogation – adverbial interrogatives 388 – as indefinites 390 – affirmation questions 374. /pər/ 318 – in relative clauses 428 – locative alternation 413 Indirect discourse see Reported speech Infinitive see Verbs. aorist 260 – negative 258. 369 – optative – with optative particle /kāške/ 374 Gender – in strong pronouns 157 – lack of gender distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in number names 133 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124.186. instrumental Interjections see Particles.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . infinitive Instrumental see Case. existential – questions 418 – statements 421 – future – with modal clitic /bə/ 274.Index  491 – particle /šta/ 367 – see also Particles. 286 – of to be 229 – positive commands in present continuous 284 – syntax of commands 419 – usage 283 – optative Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 126 – of nouns 45 – in Class III 80 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – irregular 92 – loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – see also Nouns. 419 – existential questions 418 – interrogative adjectives 147 – interrogative particle /āyā/ 417 – interrogative pronouns 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – with interrogative pronouns 418 – word order 417 Irrealis – counterfactual – with subordinating particle /kə/ 436 Manner – adverbs of 382 – constructions with /pə/ 320 Modals – /kedə́l/ as modal auxiliary 293 – as second-position clitics 404 – constructions with /leka če/ 325 – in present aorist constructions 275 Mood 185 – imperative 258 – continuous vs.189. gender – of verbs 185 Human vs.

67. 390 imate 62 – of perfect constructions 291 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects – of potential constructions 298 61.186. 420 – switching animacy categories 68 – /mə́/ 286 – Class II 73 – /ná/ 404 – alternate inflection of Class I nouns – /nə́ šta/ 367 64 – present tense 272 – animacy of 73 – quantifiers 132 – gender of 73 – with /zidi/ 153 – IIa 73.492  Index – aorist 294 – of kinship terms 93 – continuous 294 – switching animacy categories 68 – counterfactual constructions with /kaški/ – Class I 52 373 – animate 55 – expressing potential 293 – derived feminine nouns 71 – lack of PNG distinction in 261 – derived masculine nouns 55 – particle /kāške/ 261.189. 69 – /má/ 258. 373 – feminine nouns 67 – inanimate 62 Negative – inflected as Class II 64 – adjectives – kinship terms in /ə́/ 62 – derived with /be-/ 152 – overlap with Class IIb 79 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – plural formation 55 – aorist phrases 406 – professional titles 55. 62.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 75 Nominalization see Nouns. 79 Nouns 45 – in Middle dialects 73 – abstract 46 – sample paradigms: class IIa 75 – adjectives as 155 – sample paradigms: class IIb 79 – inflection of 79 – stem allomorphy: class IIa 75 – animacy 50 – stem allomorphy: class IIb 79 – and gender 45 – Class III 80 – and stem allomorphy 55 – gender of 80 – Class I nouns 55 – IIIa 84 – of grammatically inanimate nouns – IIIa: ethnic denominations 84 62 – IIIa: feminine 85 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 64. 71 – particles 404 – stem allomorphy in 55. 61 – correlative conjunctions 446 – sample paradigms: feminine animate – existential 367 67 – future tense 407 – sample paradigms: feminine inani– infixation in 409 mate 70 – imperative 258 – sample paradigms: masculine ani– only in continuous aspect 260 mate 55 – with particle /mə́/ 286 – sample paradigms: masculine inan– indefinite pronouns 181. deverbal – IIb 73.

87 – in Middle dialects 89 – sample paradigms: IIIa feminine 85 – sample paradigms: IIIa masculine 84 – sample paradigms: IIIb feminine 88 – sample paradigms: IIIb masculine 87 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects 89 – stress 80. mass – compound 101 – derivation of 98 – by compounding 101 – by suffixes 98 – feminine nouns in /a/. 300 – inflection 45 – irregular 92 – in Middle dialects 71 – kinship terms 93 – Class I in /ə́/ 62 493 – loanwords – class and gender assignment 92 – from Arabic 95 – mass 46 – interrogative adjectives specifying 148 – noun classes 51 – dialectal variation in class membership 62.Index  – IIIb 87 – IIIb: feminine 88 – IIIb: masculine 84. 52 – in Middle dialects 61 – subordinate noun clauses 429 – used for reported speech 432 – syntax of noun phrases 399 – verbs derived from 200 – contracted vs.186.189. 89 – collective see Nouns. uncontracted denominal verbs 201 Number – in loanwords 95 – lack of number distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124 – in weak pronouns 164 – of nouns 46 – Arabic loanwords 95 – irregular plural forms 92 – mass nouns 46 – of verbs 185 Number names 132 – /yaw/ as indefinite determiner 130 – cardinal 133 – counting 137 – in Middle dialects 136 – inventory 137 – morphology 133 – reduplication of 146 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 92 – of irregular nouns 92 – number of 46 – quantifiers as 130 – reduplication 101 – stem allomorphy in 45. /-ye/ 55 – switching animacy categories 68 – deverbal 313 – formation of – deverbal 313 – feminine nouns in /a/. /ə/ 71 – from adjectives 155 – masculine nouns in /-e/. /ə/ 67 – gender 45 – in Class II 73 – in Class III 80 – of abstract nouns 46 – of derived nouns 55 – of irregular nouns 92 – of loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – governing relative clauses 428 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – infinitives as 194.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .

403 – /ṣāyi/ 373 – see also Particles. 404. 403 – in separable verb constructions see Particles.186. 198 – directional verbal clitics 171 – oblique pronominal clitics 170.494  Index – in time expressions with /pə/. /pər/ 322 – ordinal 144 – declined like Class I adjectives 105 – in Middle dialects 146 Orthography see Spelling Participles 185. weak – second-position clitics 404 – modal clitic /bə/ 369 – verbal prefixes 209 – weak pronouns 166 – subordinating – /kə/ 435. 419 – deictoids 169 – deictic prefixes 172. 425 – /ʣəka 436 – vocative 375 – weak personal pronouns 403 – word order 424 – dialectal variation 258 – in Middle dialects 406 – in separable verb constructions 404 Pashto Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . /bə/ – negative – /má/ 258. future. 275. 418 – future – /bə/ 274. 365 – emphatic – /xo/ 375 – enclitics 403 – in Middle dialects 405 – existential – /nə́ šta/ 367 – /šta/ 367. 420 – /mə́/ 286 – /ná/ 404 – /nə́ šta/ 367 – optative – /kaški/ 373 – /kāške/ 261 – pronominal see Pronouns. 246 – agreement of 265 – aorist 249 – in future perfect tense 289 – in past perfect tense 290 – verbs using 249 – as adjectives 116 – declension of 246 – past 247 – as adjectives 247 – irregular forms 249 – present 246 – as adjectives 246 – as noun modifiers 303 Particles 367 – adverbial – /no/ 404 – /xo/ 404 – as second-position clitics 404 – affirmative – /kə na/ 374. enclitics – interjections 376 – Arabic loanwords 377 – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – to express emotion 376 – interrogative – /āyā/ 417 – modal 369 – /bāyad/ 373 – /de/ 372. 369. 436 – /no/ 438 – /pə de čə/ 439 – /wale čə/ 439 – /če/ 325 – /čə/ 181.189.

strong – reciprocal 184 – vs.. interrogative. 363 – in past tense 161 – in present tense 161 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. determiners 172 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – indefinite see Pronouns. anaphoric 160 – interrogative 176 – as adverbials 388 – as indefinites 179. adpositional constructions 385 – relative 181 – interrogative pronouns as 181 – subordinating particle /čə/ 425 – resumptive 426 – in relative clauses 427 – strong 157 – agreement 161 – as emphatics 161 – distal 157 – fusion with /də/ 313. prepositions Pro-drop 161 495 Pronouns 157 – coreferential 181 – /xpəl/ 182 – vs. postpositions Prepositions see Adpositions. lə lure/ 345 – with /də. as indefinites – indexical vs.. 390 – as relatives 181 – human 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – non-human 178 – possessive 178 – omission of 161 – ergativity and 448 – in adpositional phrases 364 – see also Pro-drop – overview 157 – personal see Pronouns..189..186. possessive 181 – demonstrative 172 – as dummy subject 430 – distinguished from distal strong pronoun 157 – proximal 172 – vs. lə xw/ā 343 – periphrastic with infinitive 212 – as third conjugation verb 212 Person – lack of person distinction – in optative 261 – in weak pronouns 164 – of verbs 185. 191 Phonology 9 – dialectal variation 8. 32 – Class II adjectives 113 – consonants in Middle dialects 39 – glide insertion 207 – lenition of possessive /də/ 163 – Waziri metaphony 37 – of denominal verbs 201 – vowel variation in deictoids 170 – see also Allomorphy – see also Pronunciation Plurality see Number Possession – constructions with strong pronouns 163 – constructions with weak pronouns 168 – in conditions of coreference 182 – in interrogatives 178 – with /də/ 313 Postpositions see Adpositions.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .Index  – about 7 – dialects 8 – see also Dialect – history 8 – phonology 8 – speakers 7 – variation 8 Passive 414 – adpositional constructions – with /də.

enclitics – resumptive pronouns 426 – see also Pronouns.496  Index – in relative clauses 426 – possessive 163. with /čə/. 313 – replacing verbal enclitic 405 – vs. 422 – word order 404. relative clauses – /čə/ + interrogative 181 Reported speech 432 Script 15 – representation of vowels 25 Spelling 1. 15 – international differences 36 – Pashto-specific letters 16 – transcription 28 – table of characters 18 – variation 29 Split ergativity see Ergativity Stem allomorphy see Allomorphy Stress 15 – sentential – and weak pronouns 166 – negative aorist phrases 406 – with future particle /bə/ 370 – word – Class I and Class II adjectives 103 – Class III nouns 89 – Class IIIa adjectives 116 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – Class IV adjectives 119 – demonstrative determiners 124. 421 Pronunciation 37 – consonants 9 – elegant 9 – in Middle dialects 39 – vowels 11 – dialectal variation 32 – elegant 13 – in Middle dialects 13 – Waziri metaphony 37 – see also Phonology Prosody see Stress Purpose see Subordinate clauses. 126 – demonstratives 172 – in deictoids 170 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. purpose clauses Quantifiers 130 – as determiners 131 – as nouns 130 Reduplication – echo words 393 – full vs. resumptive – sentential stress and 166 – with intransitive verbs 166 – with transitive verbs 166. partial 393 – in interjections – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – of adjectives 153 – of adverbs 392 – of coreferential pronoun /xpəl/ 182 – of interrogatives 390 – of nouns 101 – of number names 146 Relative clauses see Subordinate clauses.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . with /čə/.189.186. demonstratives 160 – with intransitive verbs 161 – weak 164 – agreement 166 – as second-position clitics 166 – in past tense 166 – in possessive constructions 168 – in present tense 166 – in separable verb constructions 403 – lack of case distinction in 166 – not allowed as objects of adpositions 167 – omission of 166 – person and number syncretism in 164 – position in sentence 411 – see also Particles.

425. 217 – strong pronouns vs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . demonstratives 160 – third conjugation aorist base 210 – verbal group 404 – with directional verbal clitics 171 – with oblique pronominal clitics 170 Subordinate clauses 425 – with /kə/ – conditional clauses 435 – irrealis clauses 275 – with /no/ – result clauses 438 – with /čə/ 425 – adverbial clauses 438 – irrealis clauses 275 – noun clauses 429 – other subordinating conjunctions 440 – purpose clauses 439 – relative clauses 181. 427 – reported speech 432 – temporal clauses 434 – word order 437 – with /ʣəka/ – reason.186.189. comparative Syntax – adpositional phrases 424 – agreement 448 – commands 419 – conjunction 442 – noun phrases 399 – passive clauses 414 – sentence types 410 – subordinate clauses 425 – see also Subordinate clauses – verb phrases 401 497 Tense 185 – and case-marking 448 – future – expressing potential 295 – negative 407 – with particle /bə/ 275 – with present aorist + /bə/ 275 – with present continuous + /ba/ 273 – future perfect 289 – past – /-ə́l-/ in past bases 215 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 294 – oblique case and 48 – oblique case in 48 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – past aorist 256 – usage 281 – past continuous 254 – usage 279 – past perfect 267. and result clauses 436 – see also Particles.Index  – negatives 272 – second conjugation aorist base 209. subordinating Superlative see Adjectives. 290 – past potential 268 – perfect constructions – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 290 – present perfect 287 – present – direct case in 48 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 293 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – present aorist – expressing obligation with 373 – in imperatives 229 – irrealis constructions in 274 – polite requests in 373 – usage 274 – with purpose clauses 440 – present continuous 249 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. cause.

265 – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 267. 290 – past potential 268 – potential 293 – potential constructions 267 – present perfect 265. to be – see also Verbs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .189. 363 – periphrastic constructions 440 – vs. aorist – auxiliary 200 – to be see Verbs. contracted denominals 203 – classification 186 – a-initial 204 – conjugation classes 203 – complex – a-initial 196.186. stem 214 – first conjugation 204 – formation from stem 215 – of a-inital verbs 204 – of weak verbs 215 – second conjugation 209 – third conjugation 210 – types of verbal base 214 – causative 227 – /aṛ istə́l/ 441 – /constructions with /pə 320 – constructions with /pə/ 356.498  Index – in imperatives 284 – usage 270 – present perfect 265. 228. denominal – in negative future tense 409 – prefixed 198. transcription Transitivity see Verbs Verbs 185 – /biwə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /ixodə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /kawə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200. 229 – forms of 239 – in light verb constructions 401 – table of bases 220 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 220 – /kedəĺ/ – in light verb constructions 401 – /kedə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200. verbalizers – base 186 – base vs. 228. 444 – with subordinate noun clauses 430 – aorist see Aspect. 209 – compound 228. 204 – definition 196 – denominal 200 – see also Verbs. 287 – present potential 268 – conjoined verb phrases 443 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. /pər/ 320 – subordinate clauses of 434 Transcription see Spelling. 229 – expressing potential 293 – forms of 234 – in periphrastic passive 212 – table of bases 222 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 223 – /rātlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /tlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /wṛəl/ – table of bases 221 – agreement of – in perfect constructions 287 – with conjoined subjects 97. 287 – present potential 268 Time – adverbs of 378 – constructions with /pə/.

194 – as citation form 190 – as nouns 300 – as objects of adpositions 306 – formation of 194 – in periphrastic passive 212 – inflected 300 499 – intransitive – denominal 263 – direct case and 48 – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – predicative adjectives and 154 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 166 – irregular – past participles 249 – to be 229 – light verb constructions 401 – agreement in 403 – denominal 200 – middle voice constructions 453 – of preference 452 – of sensation 450 – participles see Participles – passive see Passive – personal endings 191 – root see Verbs. a-initial – imperative see Mood. continuous – denominal 200 – adjective agreement in 202 – and word order 412 – aspect of 202 – contracted 200 – in first conjugation 210 – in imperative constructions 202 – lexicalization of 201 – negation of 409 – of sensation 450 – omission of light verb in aorist optative 263 – periphrastic passive 212 – phonology of 201 – uncontracted 200 – with adjective complements 201 – with conjoined objects 149 – with enclitics 405 – derivation of 186 – a-initial 196 – denominal 200 – from denominal constructions 200 – from nouns or adjectives 200 – light verb constructions 401 – prefixed verbs 198 – first conjugation 196. imperative – infinitive 185. see Mood.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . imperative. base 214 – strong vs. weak verbs 212 – table of stem shapes 190 – two-stem verbs 218 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 204 – causatives 227 – formation of aorist base 204 – in Middle dialects 207 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs. 209 – prefixed 198 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs.189. complex.Index  – continuous see Aspect.186. base – second conjugation 196. 204 – a-initial 197. complex. prefixed – simple verb constructions – aorist optative 263 – continuous optative 261 – imperative continuous 258 – past aorist 256 – past continuous 254 – present aorist 252 – present continuous 249 – simplex 196 – stem – multi-stem verbs 219 – one-stem verbs 215 – stem classes 212 – stem vs.

219 – list of 224 – multi-stem 219 – tables of multi-stem verbs 220 – two-stem 218 – structure of 187 – subjunctive 252 – present aorist as 252. 374 – see also Irrealis – syntax of noun phrases 401 – third conjugation 196. 210 – see also Verbs. 229.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 229 – as copula 269 – imperative 229 – in existential statements 421 – in Middle dialects 229 – past continuous 269 – present aorist 275 – present continuous 269 – transitive – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – locative alternation in three-argument predicates 413 – past tense 48 – strong pronouns and 161 – verbalizers 234 – weak pronouns and 166 – unergative 453 – verbalizers 200 – /kawə́l/ 228. elegant Word order – denominal verbs and 412 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – in existential constructions 367 – in imperatives 419 – in negatives 420 – negative aorist phrases 406 – negative future 407 – in noun phrases 399 – in questions 177.186.500  Index – strong – base formation 218. 229. denominal – to be 228. 404 – subordinate clauses 425.189. vowels. 234 – aorist participles of 249 – transitive 234 – weak 215 Vowels – elegant see Pronunciation. 437 – weak pronouns and 421 Waziri see Dialect. 239 – /kedə́l/ 228. 417 – in statements 411 – ditransitive 413 – with multiple pronouns 421 – in verb phrases 401 – locative alternation 413 – of /də/ clauses 424 – of adpositional phrases 400 – of particles 424 – in separable verb constructions 404 – of relative clauses 426 – of subject and object 48 – of weak pronouns 166 – Pashto as verb-final language 410 – second-position clitics 166. Middle Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful