Anne Boyle David
Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects

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Mouton-CASL Grammar Series

Editors
Anne Boyle David
Claudia M. Brugman
Thomas J. Conners
Amalia Gnanadesikan

Volume 1

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Anne Boyle David

Descriptive Grammar
of Pashto
and its Dialects
Edited by
Claudia M. Brugman

DE GRUYTER
MOUTON

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Funding/Support: This material is based upon work supported, in whole or in part, with funding
from the United States Gouvernment. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the University of Maryland, College Park and/or any agency or entity of the United States
Gouvernment. Nothing in this report is intended to be and shall not be treated or construed as an
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any information contained or based on this report in advertisements or promotional materials
related to any company product, process, or service or in support of other commercial purposes.
The Contracting Officer’s Representative for this project is John Walker, Gouvernment Technical
Director at CASL, (301) 226-8912, jwalker@casl.umd.edu.

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e-ISBN 978-1-61451-231-8
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To my teacher, Eric P. Hamp

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Foreword
It is remarkable that, in this age of unprecedented global communication and interaction, the majority of the world’s languages are as yet not adequately described. Without basic grammars and dictionaries, these languages and their communities of speakers are in a real sense inaccessible to the rest of the world. This state of affairs is antithetical to today’s interconnected global mindset.
This series, undertaken as a critical part of the mission of the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL), is directed at remedying this
problem. One goal of CASL’s research is to provide detailed, coherent descriptions
of languages that are little studied or for which descriptions are not available in English. Even where grammars for these languages do exist, in many instances they are
decades out of date or limited in scope or detail.
While the criticality of linguistic descriptions is indisputable, the painstaking work
of producing grammars for neglected and under-resourced languages is often insufficiently appreciated by scholars and graduate students more enamored of the latest theoretical advances and debates. Yet, without the foundation of accurate descriptions of
real languages, theoretical work would have no meaning. Moreover, without professionally produced linguistic descriptions, technologically sophisticated tools such as
those for automated translation and speech-to-text conversion are impossible. Such
research requires time-consuming labor, meticulous description, and rigorous analysis.
It is hoped that this series will contribute, however modestly, to the ultimate goal
of making every language of the world available to scholars, students, and language
lovers of all kinds. I would like to take this opportunity to salute the linguists at CASL
and around the world who subscribe to this vision as their life’s work. It is truly a noble
endeavor.

Richard D. Brecht
Founding Executive Director
University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language

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corpora of naturalistic speech and text. Similarly. we realize that in many cases they will supply that role as well. which for every language continues to be warranted. In cases where such fieldwork was impractical. Among the ongoing projects at the Center is the development of such resources for various under-described languages. computational. They are spoken in areas of international significance. However. In commencing our work. the authors of that grammar have relied on close working relationships with native speakers. the native speaker consultants. All grammars in the series.Series Editors’ Preface This series arose out of research conducted on several under-described languages at the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language. and pedagogical developments in the future. comparative. accompanied where relevant by Romanization. We hope that our empirical work will provide a base for theoretical. We found the descriptive state of each language in the series to be different from that of the others: in some cases. some in regions associated with political.189. we were surprised at how many of the world’s major languages lack accessible descriptive resources such as reference grammars and bilingual dictionaries. where possible. furthermore. and. The authors have worked with the available resources to provide descriptions as comprehensive as these materials. but had never been collected into a single overview. virtually no materials in English existed. Gnanadesikan Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Each of the grammars is presented as a springboard to further research. include the native orthography. One of our goals is for these grammars to reach a broad audience. The conditions for data-gathering—and hence our approach to it—vary with the particular situation. the availability of source material in the target language varies widely: in some cases. For that reason the authors have worked to make the volumes accessible by providing extensive exemplification and theoretically neutral descriptions oriented to language learners as well as to linguists. Claudia M. or environmental instability. Conners Anne Boyle David Amalia E. these circumstances often make it difficult to conduct intensive. Providing resources for these languages is therefore of particular importance. The languages covered by the series represent a broad range of language families and typological phenomena.186. Brugman Thomas J. literacy and media are very sparse. and their own corpora allow. social.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . much work had been done. while for other communities plentiful written texts exist. While they are not intended as pedagogical grammars. in-country fieldwork. in other cases. This series of grammars presents some of the linguistic description we have undertaken to fill such gaps. We look forward to the publication of many such works.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .186.189.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

but also to those from a variety of theoretic backgrounds. Any abstract description of a language is necessarily informed by theory at some level. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. along with a detailed exposition of the dialectal situation. such that the descriptions and explications contained within this grammar will be of use not only to descriptive linguists. We aim to be theoretically informed in as broad a way as possible. Furthermore. the current political situation makes in-country fieldwork highly problematic. among them J.189. Two areas in particular that we wish we could devote more time to are syntax and prosody.Preface Pashto is a challenging language to study and describe. Although native orthography is frequently omitted from descriptive grammars. and complex contact situations have contributed to significant dialectal variation. invaders. has led to alternating cycles of isolation and upheaval in the various Pashto-speaking regions. complete with full interlinearization of the example sentences: a native script line. Daniel Septfonds.). This grammar builds on the considerable previous work of many scholars.¹ Without their diligent scholarship we would not have been able to begin this task. and finally. In our description we have attempted to be theory-neutral without being simplistic.186. Manfred Lorenz.G. Among the features our grammar adds to the corpus of Pashto research are some new analyses of previously described data and coverage of all the regional dialects in a single volume. a phonemic transcription. D. In addition. a formal grammar which can be used to feed a morphological parser. a morpheme-bymorpheme gloss line. Pashtoon. A descriptive grammar is never really finished. and David Pate.A. for several reasons. However. Shafeev. Wilma Heston. Lebedev 2003. at the heart of a historical crossroad for traders. we have unfortunately been able to consult Grjunberg only briefly and Lebedev not at all. and migrating peoples. and a free translation. We provide extensive examples and full paradigms. Pashto. Habibullah Tegey and Barbara Robson. data presented in both native orthography and transcription. Farooq Babrakzai. Taylor Roberts. D. and Grjunberg 1987. complemented by naturalistic corpora and work with native speaker consultants. p. Its location in areas of rugged terrain. our primary loyalty is to the language being described and not to a particular theoretic approach to Language. Georg Morgenstierne.c. Herbert Penzl.N. The data for this grammar come from a wide range of printed resources. demographic shifts. Lorimer. Naseer Hoonar Pashtoon and Zeeya A. has undergone longterm influence from the many neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. including Lebedev 1996. it is particularly useful not only to the language expert but also to the language learner.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . although the description 1 We have been made aware of a substantial literature on Pashto written in Russian (Lutz Rzehak. a member of the Iranian language group itself. available online for download to purchasers of this volume. Centuries of political turmoil. MacKenzie.

The authors would like to thank all our colleagues at the University of Maryland Center for the Advanced Study of Language for their support—in particular. There remains much work to be done on Pashto. and without whom this volume would not exist. Craig Kopris. James Caron. Mohammed Shahab Khan. Thomas Conners. infectious enthusiasm for the enterprise of language description. We also thank the generous native speakers of Pashto who worked with us patiently. I would like to thank my co-authors for devoting themselves so diligently to this sometimes frustrating. I especially thank Claudia Brugman for her conscientious editing of this entire book and Sarah Goodman for her tireless work finding and making sense of naturally occurring example sentences. CASL’s Executive Director. Katherine Burk. and we view this volume as a springboard for scholars to continue working on this fascinating language in all its varieties. Our colleague and patron David Cox. also deserves special mention for his assistance in promoting the idea of this series and for his constant.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM . Tristan Purvis. Amalia Gnanadesikan. and for never losing their senses of humor. Farooq Babrakzai.186. Michael Marlo. for being willing to disagree with me when I was wrong. Nathanael Lynn.xii  Preface of Pashto syntax provided here is more detailed than previous overviews available in English and benefits from analyses of individual phenomena made by other scholars. Amy Weinberg. All of these people have worked with scrupulous care to ensure that as few mistakes and misstatements crept into this book as possible. and Tamara Wehmeir. always stimulating project. Paul Rodrigues.189. and our founding Executive Director. Wilma Heston. And finally. Many people have helped in the creation of this book. those that remain fall to me alone. Richard Brecht—as well as Pashto language experts in the United States Government. Individuals who have had a part in producing this manuscript or advising our research include Nikki Adams. Anne Boyle David Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Shawna Rafalko. Evelyn Browne. Zeeya Pashtoon. who is much missed since his retirement.

1 2.1.Contents Foreword  vii Series Editors’ Preface  ix Preface  xi 1 About this Grammar  1 1.2.2.2.1.1 Inventory  9 3.1.1 Word-initial vowels  25 3.1.3 Tables and examples  2 1.3 Stress  15 3.1.1.2.2 Vowel transcription  11 3.2.1.1.1 2.1 Letters unique to Pashto  16 3.1.1 Phonetics and phonology  9 3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .1 Inventory  10 3.2 Tables of letters and numerals  18 3.1.3.2 Word-internal vowels  26 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.2.2.3.2 “Elegant” consonants  9 3.4 Middle dialect vowels  13 3.2 2.1 Scope of this book  1 1.2 Orthography  15 3.2 Vowels  10 3.1.2 The Pashto Language  7 Background  7 Population of speakers  7 History and classification  8 Dialectal variation  8 3 Phonology and Orthography  9 3.1.3 Representation of vowels  25 3.189.1.1.2.2.2.2 Orthography  1 1.2.186.1 The script  15 3.4 Abbreviations and symbols  4 2 2.1.1 Consonants  9 3.3 “Elegant” vowels  13 3.1.

1.2 Oblique case  48 5.3 Contents Word-final vowels  28 Rationale for transcription system  28 Orthographic variation  29 4 Pashto Dialects  31 4.4 Animacy  50 5.2.5 Split ergativity  50 5.2 Middle dialect consonants  39 4.2.3.1 Dialect marking in tables  34 4.2 3.1 Gender  45 5.3.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  67 5.3 Class I  52 5.186.189.2 Number  46 5.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples  34 4.3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .1.2.2.3.3.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns  69 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2 Three dialects  42 5 Nouns  45 5.2 Inflectional affixation  51 5.2.5 Other approaches  40 4.2.4 The Middle dialects  37 4.3.1.3.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri  61 5.2 Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations  52 5.2.1 Inflection  45 5.3.1.1 Overview  52 5.2.3.3 Ablative case  48 5.4.2.1 Introduction  31 4.xiv  3.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects  31 4.2.1 International differences  36 4.2.3 Case  47 5.1.1 Dialect marking in this work  34 4.4 Vocative case  49 5.4.5.1.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns  67 5.1 Direct case  48 5.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto  55 5.1.2.2.3.3.1.2.3.3 The four dialects of General Pashto  35 4.3.5.3.1 Two dialects  40 4.2.3.1.1 Middle dialect vowels  37 4.2.2.2.2 Class I masculine nouns  55 5.3 3.1.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri  62 5.1.2.1.3.3.2.1 Introduction  51 5.

3 5.2.3.2 5.2.2.5.2.4.1.2.1.2.1 5.2.4.1 5.1.2.2.2.1 Introduction  103 6.1 Case-marking suffixes  104 6.2.Contents  5.5 Animacy in Class I adjectives  108 6.1.5.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy  107 6.1 Case-marking suffixes  109 6.1.186.1 5.1.2.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xv .6.2 5.1.2.5.2.1 General Pashto Class I  104 6.1.2.1.1 5.2.2.2.4.1.1.4.5.1.1.2.4.2.2 5.1.1 5.2.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  103 6.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy  115 6.1.3 5.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns  71 Class II  73 Overview  73 General Pashto Class IIa  75 General Pashto Class IIb  79 Class III  80 Overview  80 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto  80 Class IIIa  84 Masculine Class IIIa nouns  84 Feminine Class IIIa nouns  85 Class IIIb  87 Masculine Class IIIb nouns  87 Feminine Class IIIb nouns  88 Class III in Waziri  89 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto  92 Kinship terms  93 Arabic borrowings  95 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  97 Derivational morphology and loanwords  98 Derivational morphology of nouns  98 Nouns derived with suffixes  98 Compounds  101 Reduplication of nouns  101 Loanwords  102 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers  103 6.2 5.1.5.3 5.4.2.1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives  103 6.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy  105 6.2.1.2.1 5.2.2.2 Stem allomorphy  110 6.5.2 5.3 5.2.4 5.2.2 5.1 5.2.3 General Pashto Class III  116 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.5 5.2 General Pashto Class II  109 6.5.2.5.6.4 5.3.2 Stem allomorphy  104 6.1.3.2.2.4 5.4.6 5.2.2.2.1.5.4.3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy  111 6.1.2.3.189.1 5.2.2 5.

1 6.1 7.6 6.1.4 6.4 7 7.3 6.2.1 6.1.1 6.2 6.5.2 6.3.2.1 6.3.1.4. /ar/ ‘every’  131 The quantifier /heʦ/ ‘none’  132 Number names  132 Cardinal numbers in Pashto  133 Morphology  133 Inventory  137 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri  144 Reduplication of number names  146 Interrogative adjectives  147 Inflection of conjoined adjectives  149 Derivation of adjectives  150 Derivational suffixes  150 Some Class I derivational suffixes  150 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes  152 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes  152 Negators  152 Compound adjectives  153 Reduplication of adjectives  153 Usage  154 Attributive and predicative adjectives  154 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives  155 Comparatives and superlatives  156 Adjectives as adverbs  156 ‫یو‬ ‫ټولـ‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هیڅ‬ Pronouns  157 Overview  157 Strong personal pronouns  157 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects  157 Usage  161 Strong possessive pronouns  163 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.8.2 6.4.1 6.2.4 6.1.2.9.7 6.1.2 6.9.1.9.8.2.2 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.8.3 6.2.2.9.1.4 6.8.3 Contents Class IIIa  116 Class IIIb  118 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives)  119 Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives  121 Waziri Class I  121 Waziri Class II  122 Waziri Class III  122 Determiners and definiteness  124 Demonstrative determiners  124 The indefinite determiner /yaw/ ‘one’  130 Non-numerical noun quantifiers  130 The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’  130 The quantifier /har/.1 6.2.1 7.4.3 6.8.5.5.1 6.3.2 6.3.9 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.2.2 7.8.186.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .2 6.8.xvi  6.2.5.5.2 7.1 6.2.1.8 6.2.2.1 6.2 6.

5.1 7.6.4.186.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto  204 8.4 Simplex and complex verbs  196 8.5.2.5.3.2.4.5 Conjugation classes  203 8.8 7.1 7.3.6.4.1 Structure of the verb  187 8.2.6 Stem classes and the four bases  212 8.1.3 The infinitive  194 8.3.2.2.2 7.6 7.2.5.2.2.2. /dər/.4 Second conjugation  209 8.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs  210 8.1 Overview  196 8.2.2.2.1 Overview of conjugation classes  203 8.10 7.1 Overview  185 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xvii .2.2.5 Third conjugation  210 8. and /wər/  169 Oblique pronominal clitics  170 Directional verbal clitics  171 Deictic prefixes  172 Demonstratives  172 Interrogative pronouns  176 Indefinite pronouns  179 Relative pronouns  181 Expressions of coreference  181 Reciprocal pronouns  184 Other pro-forms  184 ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ 8 Verbs  185 8.4 7.4.2.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects  207 8.5.189.2.3 7.1 7.2 Verb components  187 8.4.2.3.2 7.2 Weak verbs (one stem)  215 ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.2.2 Classifying verbs  186 8.4.5.4 Denominal verb constructions  200 8.2 Personal suffixes  191 8.5.1 Properties of verbs  185 8.4.3 Prefixed verbs  198 8.2.2.5.1.7 7.1 The four verb bases  214 8.Contents  7.2 7.5.11 Weak personal pronouns  164 Forms  164 Usage  166 Occurrence restrictions  166 Possessive constructions  168 Deictoids: /rā/.2 a-initial verbs  196 8.9 7.3 7.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/  212 8.2.5 7.

2.5.3.5.5.3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM ‫کول‬ .3.1.3 8.2.1.1.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.6.5 8.5.1 8.2.2 8.6.xviii  8.1.2.2 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.2 8.2.189.6.2 8.3.5.2 8.4 8.3 8.3.7 8.1 8.9 8.4.1 8.3.2.8 8.2.2 8.2.1.2.3.1.2 8.4.7 8.2.2.4 8.4.2.5.3.9.2 8.2.2.3.3.2 8.5.2.8 8.1 8.8.6.5.2.2 8.3 8.2.1 8.2.186.2.3 Contents Strong verbs (more than one stem)  217 Strong verbs with two stems  218 Strong verbs with three or four stems  219 List of strong verbs  224 The causative morpheme  227 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/  228 Forms of to be  229 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.2.1 8.5.3.4.2. to do’  239 Participles  246 Present participle  246 Past participle  247 Irregularities among past participles  249 Simple verb constructions  249 Present continuous  249 Present aorist  252 Past continuous  254 Past aorist  256 Continuous imperative  258 Aorist imperative  260 Continuous optative  261 Aorist optative  263 Compound verb constructions  265 Perfect constructions  265 Present perfect  265 Past perfect  267 Potential constructions  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 Verb usage  269 Uses of the verb to be  269 to be as a copula  269 to be as an auxiliary verb  270 Simple verb constructions  270 Present continuous  270 Negation of present tense verbs  272 Present continuous for expressing future events  273 Present aorist  274 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/  275 Other uses of the present aorist  275 Past continuous  279 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.1 8.2.3 8.4.8.6 8.2.4.2 8.2.9.8.3 8.1 8.5.9.5.

Contents 

8.5.2.4
8.5.2.5
8.5.3
8.5.3.1
8.5.3.2
8.5.3.3
8.5.4
8.5.4.1
8.5.4.2
8.5.4.3
8.5.4.4
8.5.5
8.5.5.1
8.5.5.2
8.5.6

Past aorist  281
Imperative  283
Compound constructions: perfect  287
Present perfect  287
Past perfect  290
Negation of perfect tenses  291
Compound constructions: potential  293
Expressing potential present events  293
Expressing potential past events  294
Expressing potential future events  295
Negative  298
Infinitives  299
Infinitives as nouns  299
The periphrastic passive  300
Present participles  303

9
Adpositions  305
9.1
Overview  305
9.2
Adpositions and case assignment  306
9.2.1
Assignment of oblique case  307
9.2.2
Assignment of ablative case  308
9.2.3
Assignment of direct case  309
9.2.4
Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions  311
9.3
Prepositions  312
9.3.1
The prepositions /də/, /de/, /ye/, /e/ ‘of’  312
9.3.1.1
The General Pashto preposition /də/  312
9.3.1.2
Complex adpositions using /də/  313
9.3.1.3
The Middle dialect prepositions /de/, /ye/, /e/  314
9.3.1.4
Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/  315
9.3.2
The General Pashto preposition /lə/ ‘from’  316
9.3.3
The preposition
/be/ ‘without’  317

‫د‬

9.3.4
9.3.4.1
9.3.4.2
9.3.4.3
9.3.4.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3

‫د‬

‫له‬
‫بې‬
The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/  317
The locational ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘on’  318
The instrumental ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘with, by means of’  319
The temporal ‫ په‬/pə/, ‫ پر‬/pər/ ‘at, on’  320
With aspectual verbs  322
The preposition /tər/ ‘'up to'’  323
The preposition
/leka/ ‘like’  324
Postpositions  325
Overview  325
The postposition /ta/ ‘to, for’  326
The postposition
/səra/ ‘with’  327

‫تر‬
‫لکه‬

‫ته‬
‫سره‬

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xix

xx 

9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.4.7
9.4.8
9.5
9.5.1
9.5.1.1
9.5.1.2
9.5.1.3
9.5.2
9.5.2.1
9.5.2.2
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.5.5
9.6
9.6.1
9.6.2
9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2
9.7.3
9.7.4
9.7.5

Contents

‫ضدی‬
‫و ړاندې‬
‫غوندې‬
‫باتدې‬

The postposition
/zidi/ ‘against’  327
The postposition
/wṛānde/ ‘before’  328
The postposition
/ɣunde/ ‘like’  328
The postposition
/bānde/  328
Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects  329
Circumpositions  329
Circumpositions with /də/  334
General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/  334
Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/, /e/  336
Complex circumpositions with /də/  337
General Pashto circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP simple circumpositions with /lə/  346
GP complex circumpositions with
/lə...na/  350
Circumpositions with /pə/  353
Circumpositions with /tər/  357
A Middle dialect circumposition with /wə/  359
Coalesced adpositional phrases  360
Pro-adpositional phrases  360
The adpositional phrase
/kara/ ‘at the home of’  361
Adposition usage  362
/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object  363
/də/ and strong pronoun objects  363
/pə/ and
/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction  363
Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions  364
Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics  365

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫د‬

‫له‬

‫له‬
‫نه‬...‫له‬

‫په‬
‫تر‬

‫و‬

‫کره‬

‫نه‬
‫د‬
‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

10
Other Lexical Elements  367
10.1
Particles  367
10.1.1
The existential particle
/šta/  367
10.1.2
Modal particles  369
10.1.2.1
The modal clitic /bə/  369
10.1.2.2
The modal particles
/de/ and
/bāyad/  372
10.1.2.3
The modal particle
/ṣāyi/ ‘may; must’  373

‫شته‬

‫به‬

10.1.2.4
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.1.6
10.2
10.2.1

‫دې‬
‫باید‬
‫ښایي‬
The optative particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/  373
Affirmation particles  374
The emphatic clitic
/xo/  375
Vocative particles  375
Interjections  376
Adverbs  377
Adverbs of time  378

‫خو‬

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Contents 

10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.3.1
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.2.8
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2

Adverbs of place  380
Adverbs of manner  382
The adverb
/səra/  385
Adverbs of degree  386
Adverbs borrowed from Arabic  387
Adverbial interrogatives  388
Adjectives as adverbs  391
Reduplication of adverbs  392
Reduplication  393
Full (morphological) reduplication  393
Partial reduplication: echo words  393

‫سره‬

11
Syntax  399
11.1
Overview  399
11.2
Phrasal syntax  399
11.2.1
Noun phrases  399
11.2.2
Adpositional phrases  400
11.2.3
Verb phrases  401
11.2.3.1
Light verb constructions  401
11.2.3.2
Elements in the verbal group  403
11.2.3.2.1 The verbal group in General Pashto  403
11.2.3.2.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects  405
11.2.3.2.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase  406
11.3
Main clause sentence types  410
11.3.1
Declaratives  411
11.3.1.1
Order of elements in declaratives  411
11.3.1.2
Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses  413
11.3.1.3
Locative alternation  413
11.3.1.4
Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics  414
11.3.1.5
Passive clauses  414
11.3.2
Interrogatives  417
11.3.2.1
Yes-or-no questions with the particle
/āyā/  417
11.3.2.2
Information questions with interrogative pronouns  418
11.3.2.3
Affirmation questions with the particle
/kə na/  419
11.3.3
Imperatives  419
11.3.3.1
The imperative verb form  419
11.3.3.2
The negative imperative particle
/má/  420
11.3.4
Generic and existential sentences with
/šta/  421
11.3.5
Other principles of word order in main clauses  421
11.3.5.1
Weak pronouns  421
11.3.5.2
Particles  424
11.3.5.3
Adpositional phrases in main clauses  424

‫آیا‬

‫که نه‬

‫مه‬

‫شته‬

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xxii  Contents

‫د‬

11.3.5.4
Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/  424
11.4
Some subordinate clause types  425
11.4.1
Relative clauses  425
11.4.2
Noun complement clauses  428
11.4.3
Verb complement clauses  429
11.4.3.1
Reported speech  432
11.4.4
Subordinate clauses as modifiers  434
11.4.4.1
Subordinate clauses with time reference  434
11.4.4.2
Conditional and counterfactual clauses with
/kə/ ‘if’  435
11.4.4.3
Subordinate clauses with
/ʣəka/ ‘because’  436
11.4.4.4
Subordinate clauses expressing result  438
11.4.4.5
Subordinate clauses expressing reason  439
11.4.4.6
Subordinate clauses expressing purpose  439
11.4.4.7
Subordinate clauses of concession  440
11.5
Periphrastic causatives  440
11.6
Conjunction  442
11.6.1
Coordinating conjunctions  443
11.6.1.1
/aw/ ‘and’  443
11.6.1.2
/yā/ ‘or’  444
11.6.1.3
/xo/ ‘but’  445
11.6.1.4
/(aw) byā/ ‘then’  446
11.6.2
Correlative conjunctions  446
11.7
Principles of case-marking and agreement  448
11.7.1
Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity  448
11.7.2
Agreement of conjoined items  450
11.7.3
Concordant adverbs  450
11.7.4
Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference  450
11.7.4.1
Four denominal verbs of sensation  450
11.7.4.2
Denominal
/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like, enjoy’  451
11.7.4.3
Three more expressions of preference  452
11.7.5
An unergative or middle voice construction  453
A
Structure of this Grammar  455
A.1
Overview  455
A.2
Audience  456
A.3
More on uses of this grammar  457
A.3.1
The grammar as a basis for computational tools  457
A.3.1.1
Building a parser and generator  458
A.3.2
The grammar as a description  460
A.4
Spell correction  461
A.5
Grammar adaptation  462
A.5.1
Manual grammar building  462
A.5.2
Automated grammar adaptation  463

‫ځکه‬

‫که‬

‫او‬
‫یا‬
‫خو‬
‫)او( بیا‬

-‫خوښېږ‬

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List of Tables 

A.6

Formatting the grammar for viewing  464

B
B.1
B.2

Sources of Pashto Data  467
Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  467
List of web pages mined for language data  474

Bibliography  477
Index  487

List of Figures

4.1
4.2

Pashto dialects  32
Waziri metaphony  39

List of Tables

‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’  3
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make, to do’  4

1.1
1.2

Class I, stem alternation:
Present continuous of

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

Pashto consonants  9
“Elegant,” or formal, consonants  10
Pashto vowels  10
Pashto diphthongs  11
Comparison among vowel transcription systems  12
Comparison among M vowel transcription systems  14
Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak  16
Pashto letters with dot below and dot above  17
Pashto affricate letters based on  17
Pashto letters based on  17
Pashto alphabet  19
Positional variants of letters  22

‫ی‬

‫ح‬

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xxiii

xxiv 

List of Tables

3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18

Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals  24
Short vowel diacritics  25
Word-initial vowels  26
Pashto initial digraphs  26
Word-internal vowels  27
Word-final vowels  28

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects  33
Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words  33
Four dialects of General Pashto  35
Tribal and geographical associations by dialect  36
Waziri metaphony  38
Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP  40
Alternative dialect codes  40
Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto  42
Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared  43
Three-dialect approach  44
Pronunciation of  44

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23

GP Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
Middle dialect Class I Masc. noun suffixes  53
GP Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
Middle dialect Class I Fem. noun suffixes  54
GP Class I Masc. animate—morphophonemic alternations  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/wextə́/ ‘hair’  56
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bandá/ ‘slave’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’  57
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/bāzú/ ‘arm’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  58
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/darzí/ ‘tailor’  59
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/plandár/ ‘stepfather’  60
GP Class I Masc. animate:
/pil/ ‘elephant’  60
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’  61
Waziri Class I Masc. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’  62
Class I Masc. inanimate—stem allomorphy  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣar/ ‘mountain’  63
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/daftár/ ‘office’  64
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’  65
GP Class I Masc. inanimate:
/psə/ ‘sheep’  65
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’  65

‫ژ‬

‫وېښته‬
‫بنده‬
‫ډاکو‬
‫بازو‬
‫میرزا‬
‫ماما‬
‫درزي‬
‫پلندر‬
‫پیل‬

‫غر‬
‫دفتر‬
‫غوږ‬
‫پسه‬

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List of Tables 

5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28

Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’  66
Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’  66
GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy  67
GP Class I Fem. animate:
/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’  68

5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
5.35
5.36
5.37
5.38
5.39
5.40
5.41
5.42
5.43
5.44
5.45
5.46
5.47
5.48
5.49
5.50
5.51
5.52
5.53
5.54
5.55

GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/bizó/ ‘monkey’  68
GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:
/brexnā/ ‘lightning’  69
GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy  69
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/áspa/ ‘mare’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/miāšt/ ‘mouth’  70
Class I Fem. inanimate:
/raṇā́/ ‘light’  71
Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’  72
Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’  72
GP Class IIa noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIb noun suffixes  74
GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy  75
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’  76
GP Class IIa inanimate:
/tanúr/ ‘oven’  77
GP Class IIa animate/inanimate:
/ɣal/ ‘thief’  78
GP Class IIa animate:
/melmá/ ‘guest’  78
GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy  79
GP Class IIb:
/duxmán/ ‘enemy’  80
GP Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  81
GP Class IIIa Fem. noun suffixes  82
GP Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIb Fem. noun suffixes  83
GP Class IIIa Masc. animate:
/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’  84
GP Class IIIa Masc. inanimate:
/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’  85
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’  86
GP Class IIIa Fem. animate:
/koranə́y/ ‘family’  86

5.56
5.57
5.58
5.59
5.60
5.61
5.62
5.63
5.64

‫خواښې‬

‫بیزو‬
‫برېښنا‬

‫اسپه‬
‫میاشت‬
‫رڼا‬

‫پالېز‬
‫پښتون‬
‫تنور‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫غل‬

‫دښمن‬

‫سپی‬
‫ګډی‬
‫سپۍ‬
‫کورنۍ‬
GP Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’  87
GP Class IIIb Masc.: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’  88
GP Class IIIb Fem.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’  89
Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc. noun suffixes  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-áy/  90
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-o/  91
Middle dialect Class III Fem. noun suffixes: /-yé/  91
Waziri Class IIIa Masc. animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’  91

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xxv

xxvi  List of Tables

5.65
5.66
5.67
5.68
5.69
5.70
5.71
5.72
5.73
5.74
5.75

Waziri Class III Masc. inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’  91
Waziri Class III Fem.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’  91
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’  92
Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’  92
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/mor/ ‘mother’  93
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’  94
Irregular Masc. kinship noun:
/zoy/ ‘son’  94
Irregular Fem. kinship noun:
/lur/ ‘daughter’  95
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’  96
Masc. Arabic loanword:
/mawzó'/ ‘topic’  96
Derived noun suffixes  98

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

GP Class I adjective suffixes  104
GP Class I, stem alternation:
/spək/ ‘light’  106
GP Class I,
/wár/ alternation:
/zṛawár/ ‘brave’  106
GP Class I,
/ján/ alternation:
/ɣamján/ ‘sad’  107
GP Class I, consonant-final adjective, no alternation:
/palwánḍ/
‘fat’  108
GP Class II adjective suffixes  109
GP Class II, -ə́-final adjective:
/terə́/ ‘sharp’  111
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/pox/ ‘cooked, ripe’  112
GP Class II, back vowel lowering:
/ṛund/ ‘blind’  112
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/tod/ ‘hot’; stem = /tawd/  113
GP Class II, back vowel breaking:
/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’; stem = /xwag/
or /xwaẓ/  114
GP Class II, Syncope II:
/sur/ ‘red’  114
GP Class II, Syncope II and epenthesis:
/trix/ ‘bitter’  115

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21
6.22
6.23
6.24
6.25
6.26

‫مور‬
‫وراره‬
‫زوی‬
‫لور‬
‫مجاهد‬
‫موضوع‬

‫سپک‬
‫زړهور‬
‫غمجن‬

‫ـور‬
‫ـجن‬

‫پلونډ‬

‫تېره‬

‫پوخ‬
‫ړوند‬
‫تود‬
‫خوږ‬

‫سور‬

‫تریخ‬

‫اوم‬

GP Class II, consonant-final adjective, no stem allomorphy:
/um/
‘raw, green’  116
GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes  117
GP Class IIIa:
/zalmáy/ ‘young’  117
GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes  118
GP Class IIIb:
/sə́way/ ‘burnt’  119
GP Class IV:
/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’  120
GP Class IV:
/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’  120
GP Class IV:
/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’  121
Waziri Class I adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class II adjective suffixes  122
Waziri Class III adjective suffixes  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’  123
Waziri Class III adjective with Fem. suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’  123

‫زلمی‬

‫سوی‬
‫ښایسنه‬
‫یوازي‬
‫هوسا‬

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List of Tables 

‫دا‬
‫دغه‬

6.27
6.28
6.29
6.30
6.31
6.32
6.33
6.34
6.35

Proximal demonstrative /dā/  124
Proximal demonstrative
/dáɣa/  126
Medial demonstratives  128
Distal demonstratives  129
GP /yaw/ ‘one’  133
Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’  134
GP
/dwa/ ‘two’  134
Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’  134
GP
/dre/ ‘three’  135

6.36
6.37
6.38
6.39
6.40
6.41
6.42
6.43

GP
/ʦalor/ ‘four’  135
Waziri plural forms of declinable number names  137
GP numerals and number names  138
Waziri number names that differ from GP forms  144
GP Class I:
/lasám/ ‘tenth’  145
Waziri irregular ordinal number names  146
GP interrogative adjectives  147
Waziri interrogative adjectives  147

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21

GP strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 1st and 2nd person  158
GP strong pronouns, 3rd person  158
Middle dialect strong pronouns, 3rd person  159
Distal 3rd person pronoun
/haɣá/  159
Possessive pronouns  164
GP weak pronouns  165
Middle dialect weak pronouns  165
Distribution pattern for weak pronouns  166
Oblique pronominal clitics  171
GP proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
Middle dialect proximal demonstrative /dā/  173
GP proximal demonstrative
/daɣá/  174
Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/  174
GP medial demonstrative
/haɣ-ə́/  175
Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/  175
GP distal demonstrative
/huɣ-ə́/  176
GP human interrogative pronoun
/ʦok/  177
Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/  177

8.1
8.2

Structure of weak (one stem) verbs  188
Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs  189

‫یو‬

‫دوه‬

‫درې‬
‫څلور‬

‫لسم‬

‫هغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫هوغه‬

‫څوک‬

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xxvii

xxviii 

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17
8.18
8.19
8.20
8.21
8.22
8.23
8.24
8.25
8.26
8.27
8.28
8.29
8.30
8.31
8.32
8.33
8.34
8.35
8.36
8.37
8.38
8.39
8.40
8.41
8.42

List of Tables

Stem shapes  190
GP verbs: personal suffixes  192
Waziri verbs: personal suffixes  193
Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes  193
Infinitives  195
Deictic verb prefixes  198
Non-productive verb prefixes  199
Examples of prefixed verbs  200
Behavior of denominal verbs  202
Examples of denominal verbs  203
GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases  205
GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases  206
Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs  208
Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense)  209
Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense)  211
Verbs and their stems: strong and weak  213
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive)  216
Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive)  216
Weak verb bases: second conjugation  217
Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems)  218
Strong suppletive verb, first conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems)  219
Strong verb bases:
/kawə́l/ ‘to do’  220
Strong verb bases:
/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’  221
Strong verb bases:
/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’  221
Strong verb bases:
/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’  221
Strong verb bases:
/kedə́l/ ‘to become’  222
Strong verb bases:
/tlə́l/ ‘to go’  222
Strong verb bases:
/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’  222
Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’  223
Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  223
Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  224
Strong verbs  224
Causative verbs  228
GP present continuous of to be  230
Waziri present continuous of to be  230
Dzadrani present continuous of to be  231
GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231

‫کول‬
‫وړل‬
‫بېول‬
‫ایښودل‬
‫کېدل‬
‫تلل‬
‫راتلل‬

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78 8.65 8. to do’  240 GP present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.44 8. to do’  245 Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.55 8.59 8.43 8.71 8.73 8. first conjugation (transitive)  250 Present continuous.79 8. first conjugation (intransitive)  250 Present continuous.69 8.56 8.68 8.45 8.70 8.62 8. to do’  240 Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.77 8.61 8.63 8.46 8. to do’  243 Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. first conjugation (intransitive)  252 Present aorist.81 8.48 8.54 8.67 8.74 8.50 8. to do’  245 Present participles  246 Present participle: declension  247 Past participles  248 Past participle: declension  248 Past participles built on aorist bases  249 Present continuous. to do’  239 Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.83 Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person)  231 Dzadrani present aorist of to be  232 GP past of to be  232 Waziri past of to be  233 Dzadrani past of to be  233 Imperative of to be  233 GP present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  234 Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 GP present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  235 Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  236 GP past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  237 Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 GP past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  238 Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’  239 GP present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.47 8. to do’  241 Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.80 8.189.72 8.58 8. third conjugation  251 Present aorist. second conjugation  251 Present continuous. to do’  243 GP past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.66 8.76 8. second conjugation  253 ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.49 8.64 8.75 8.List of Tables  8.57 8. to do’  244 Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’  242 GP past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.53 8.82 8.186. to do’  241 Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.52 8. first conjugation (transitive)  252 Present aorist.60 8. to do’  242 Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.51 8.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM xxix .

second conjugation  255 Past continuous.6 Element ordering in negative future constructions  407 Negative placement  409 GP additional interrogative adverbs  418 Case-marking pattern for nouns  449 Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns  449 Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns  449 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.5 11.90 8.4 10.3 11. third conjugation. first conjugation (transitive)  257 Past aorist.5 10.102 8.97 8.87 8.6 10.91 8.2 10.106 8.xxx  List of Tables 8.88 8.104 8. second conjugation  257 Past aorist. third conjugation  266 Past perfect  267 Present potential  268 Past potential  268 9.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:32 PM .1 9.99 8.2 11. first conjugation (intransitive)  254 Past continuous. third conjugation  261 Continuous optative forms  262 Aorist optative forms  264 Present perfect.4 11.93 8.94 8. third conjugation  256 Past aorist.105 8.2 Some GP simple circumpositions  331 Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP  333 10.95 8. first conjugation  259 Continuous imperative.107 8. negative  260 Aorist imperative. first conjugation (intransitive)  256 Past aorist. third conjugation  258 Continuous imperative. second conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative.108 Present aorist.86 8. second conjugation  259 Continuous imperative. first conjugation (transitive)  255 Past continuous. first and second conjugations  265 Present perfect.101 8.103 8. third conjugation  260 Continuous imperative.1 11.89 8.84 8.3 10.189.92 8. third conjugation  253 Past continuous.85 8.98 8. first conjugation (negative)  259 Continuous imperative.186.7 Some adverbs of time  379 Some adverbs of place  381 Some adverbs of manner  384 Some adverbs of degree  386 Arabic adverbs in Pashto  388 Some other interrogative words  389 Some doublets and their base stems  397 11. second conjugation  261 Aorist imperative.96 8. first conjugation  260 Aorist imperative.100 8.1 10.

and consultations with native speakers. For instance. asking for grammatical judgments about specific examples and more open-ended commentary on general issues. If no Middle-specific form of a particular feature is described. influence of other languages. we consulted a variety of sources. with their original spellings and word boundaries. In order to describe the wide range of Pashto dialects with precision. Morphological and some lexical features specific to the Middle dialects are given their own sections. or. 1. some writers orthographically treat forms we assert to be free forms as if they are bound forms (e. as a living language spoken in a politically volatile region.g. and our data collection strategy enabled us to include examples from a wide swath of dialectal situations. is constantly evolving. corresponding to their counterparts in General Pashto (the set of dialects that exist in contrast to the Middle dialects. Speakers were asked to provide complete paradigms and examples of usage. which may Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Pashto writing varies significantly according to a number of factors such as region. We were able to consult speakers about phenomena that were insufficiently or inconsistently described in the literature. Pashto.g. Additionally.2 Orthography Except for the fact that written Pashto always uses the Perso-Arabic script. and many words may have multiple widely-accepted spellings.1 Scope of this book This grammar covers the four standard dialects and the Middle dialects—including Waziri—of modern Pashto.165. in their syntax—only one description is given. by joining a preposition with the word it governs). Chapter 4 contains a more complete description of the differences among Pashto dialects. however. by separating an aorist prefix from its stem). Over the course of several sessions. apparent word boundaries can vary as well.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . as described in Chapter 4). each speaker was recorded pronouncing single word examples from prescribed lists. we presume that it conforms to General Pashto. We present all authentic written examples as we found them.126. including previously published grammars. After providing detailed personal language background information. we represent words as consistently as possible from one transcription and morpheme-by-morpheme gloss to the next. treat forms we believe to be bound forms as if they are free (e. Where Middle dialects (abbreviated as “M”) and General Pashto (“GP”) are not known to differ—for example.1 About this Grammar 1. and so on. publicly available data on the internet. the speaking tasks increased in complexity. conversely. with greatest emphasis on morphology. Native speakers from several dialect areas were consulted on issues ranging from basic pronunciation to the appropriate use of complex syntactic constructions.

165. we have not added it. Where no alternate forms are given. these are shown vertically. a standardized version of the Pashto script is presented in an accompanying footnote.126. • The masculine singular vocative form is the same as the masculine singular ablative. we have retained as much information as the original example provides.2.2 are examples showing these table layouts. or in which multiple words in the Pashto script are represented as a single word in the gloss. Where different dialect forms exist. To more easily represent widespread syncretism in Pashto grammatical forms.) In some instances. Where we have cited examples from other scholarly works.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . 1. A complete table of the transcription schema used in this book is given in Table 3. or if the form above it is separated with a horizontal line. Authentic spoken examples are represented in the dialect of the speaker and this dialect information is indicated in subscript. Where the authentic text represents variance from what we believe to be standard conventions of spelling or word boundaries. when known.1. Where there is no dialect information in the table title. the feminine singular ablative and vocative. and the feminine plural ablative and vocative forms are the same as the masculine plural oblique.2  About this Grammar result in examples in which a single word in the Pashto script is represented as multiple words in the gloss. with information about the dialect(s) concerned. the tables in this grammar use an empty cell to represent a form which is identical to the form above it (or. and the feminine plural oblique. identical to the form to its left). with the initial of the dialect name in subscript after the form. where relevant.3 Tables and examples Table titles are marked. the form in the table should be taken as applying to all dialects. if there is no form above it. this is more likely in Middle dialects than in General Pashto. the contents of that table are presumed to hold for all dialects (General Pashto and Middle dialects). Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and • The masculine plural direct form is the same as the masculine singular direct. Forms whose existence is uncertain are represented with a question mark. In Table 1. The complete absence of a form is denoted by a dash in the cell. • The masculine singular oblique form is the same as the masculine singular direct. In Table 1. • The masculine plural ablative and vocative. respectively. we have adapted the Romanization system or the morpheme glossing used by the author in order to elucidate the point at hand. the feminine singular oblique. Table 1.11. unless we were certain of their transcription system. (If such an example does not contain script.1 and Table 1.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM .PRS. stem alternation: spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Examples of Pashto words appear occasionally in text.126. and the translation of the sentence in the last line. with the Pashto script followed by the transcription in phonemic slashes and the gloss in single quotation marks: /spək/ ‘light’.DIR da be. ə∼o∼e Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 1. ‫سپک‬ (1. Some of these forms are spelled the same but pronounced differently from one dialect to the next.F ‘Building schools means growing our youth!’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1) !‫ انسان جوړونه ده‬،‫ښوونځی جوړونه‬ xuwəndz-ay joṛawəna-Ø insān-Ø joṛawəna-Ø school-M. the morpheme-by-morpheme gloss in the third. while other forms have different spellings as well as different pronunciations.Tables and examples  3 • The third person feminine singular form is the same as the third person masculine singular form.DIR building-F.165.1: Class I.DIR people-M. with the Pashto script in the first line. the transcription in the second.3SG. and • Both the third person plural forms are the same as the third person singular form.CONT.1 is a sample of an interlinear example. Examples of phrases and complete sentences appear in numbered four-line interlinear examples. 1.DIR building-F.

morpheme glosses in this grammar follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules. the term appears in bold type.126. to do’ When an interlinear example is used to illustrate a particular word or morphological concept.mpg. The transcription and morpheme gloss are always bolded in such instances. the Pashto script is never bolded.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.4  About this Grammar ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 1.eva. For ease of reading.php Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.¹ a set of formatting conventions widely adopted in the linguistics community.4 Abbreviations and symbols Where possible.165. Commonly used abbreviations in this grammar include the following: *: non-existent or unacceptable form ∼: variation in forms (within or across dialects) [ ]: non-overt element Ø: zero morpheme 1: first person pronominal clitic 1DVC: first person directional verbal clitic 2: second person pronominal clitic 2DVC: second person directional verbal clitic 3: third person pronominal clitic 1 http://www.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . 1. and the free translation may be bolded if the English words clearly correspond to the Pashto.2: Present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM 5 .126.165.Abbreviations and symbols  3DVC: third person directional verbal clitic ABL: ablative ADJ: adjective ADJZ: adjectivizer ANIM: animate AOR: aorist C: consonant COMIT: comitative COMP: complementizer CONT: continuous DIR: direct DZA: Dzadrani (dialect) E: Eastern (dialects) ECHO: echo word EMPH: emphatic EXT: existential particle F: feminine GP: General Pashto INF: infinitive IMP: imperative INSTR: instrumental LVC: light verb construction M: (as diacritic) Middle (dialect) M: (in glosses) masculine N: noun NE: Northeastern (dialect) NEC: modal of necessity or obligation NEG: negative particle NMLZ: nominalizer NW: Northwestern (dialect) OBL: oblique OPT : optative PL: plural PNG: person-number-gender POSS: possessive PRS: non-past PTCP: participle PST: past Q: question particle SE: Southeastern (dialect) SG: singular STR: strong Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

6  About this Grammar SW: Southwestern (dialect) V: vowel VOC: vocative W: Western (dialects) WAZ: Waziri (dialect) WAZ-L: Waziri (dialect).165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:54 PM . example comes from Lorimer WK: weak WOULD: modal of irrealis or habitual events Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

Babrakzai (1999) notes that most estimates of the number of Pashto speakers in available linguistic studies and encyclopedic descriptions are quite rough. Lockwood 1972. In Afghanistan it is predominantly spoken in the eastern (Nangarhar. Until recently. Logar. and available linguistic resources.126..2 Population of speakers Pashto is an Indo-Iranian language of the East Iranian branch. the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (including Waziristan). Lorenz 1982. including the city of Quetta.1 Background Pashto is considered to be the second-most important Iranian language.165. spoken primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Helmand. 2009). Directorate of Intelligence 2009b). Austin (2008) sets the range at 30–50 million speakers. Zabul). Khost. including demographic information. Paktiya. MacKenzie 1987. figures have tended to be outdated or otherwise underestimated.42% of Pakistan’s total population of 176 million (Directorate of Intelligence 2009a.¹ At the upper end of this range. ranging from 13 million (a figure widely quoted from Penzl 1955. Laghman. Wardak). Farah) regions. this appears to be a fairly sound figure when compared to the estimate of 41. Paktika). although there may be some attrition through marriage. Communities of Pashto-speaking migrant laborers from Afghanistan and Pakistan are reportedly found in Iran and the United Arab Emirates.Anne Boyle David 2 The Pashto Language 2. its official status in Afghanistan. linguistic classification. and in northeastern Balochistan. and its long literary tradition dating back to or before the 16th century (MacKenzie 1992.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . etc. 2. dialectal variation. MacKenzie 1992) to above 20 million (Inozemtsev 2001. This section provides an overview of the Pashto language.3 million speakers that can be derived from the World Factbook’s population projections and ethnic percentage figures: 42% of Afghanistan’s 33. immersion in non-Pashto speaking urban settings.g. and small populations of Pashto speakers have been documented in Tajikistan (Lewis. the numbers are probably more than offset by speakers of other languages who adopt Pashto as a second language. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Kunar). see e. so it is reasonable to expect that Pashtun ethnicity corresponds roughly with Pashto language acquisition. and western (Herat. Pashto is a relatively dominant language. Furthermore. Tegey & Robson 1996). southeastern (Ghazni. after Persian. Uruzgan. given its widespread use in Afghanistan and Pakistan. central (Kabul. Ethnologue tentatively reports 49.5 1 Though itself dominated by neighboring languages such as Dari and Urdu in some spheres. In Pakistan it is primarily spoken in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province).6 million inhabitants and 15. Skjærvø 1989). southwestern (Kandahar.

are replaced with other phonemes. Kurdish. and sometimes also the dental affricates.126. One result of this dialectal variation is the use of both Pakhto and Pashto as Romanized spellings of the language’s name. Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. which differ more from other dialects of Pashto than the other dialects do among themselves (Hallberg 1992. the retroflex fricatives. especially Ormuri and Parachi. /ç/.2. 2.4. in which case the World Factbook’s estimated 8% Pashto language use would be a more conservative indicator than the 15. there are competing views and descriptions regarding the exact subclassification of Pashto and the degree of affinity between Pashto and certain related languages. meaning it is closely related to other Iranian languages such as the Pamir languages (also in the East Iranian branch) and Persian. Beyond the classification of Pashto as an East Iranian language.1. and Balochi (in the West Iranian branch).42% ethnic population. a posthumously updated version of MacKenzie’s description in The World's Major Languages places the number at about 25 million (MacKenzie 2009.2. especially for the dialects classified as Middle (M) in Section 4. depending on dialect. Attrition is more likely in Pakistan. Lorimer 1902). The Southwest (Kandahar) dialect makes use of retroflex fricatives /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ and of the dental affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/.11 in Section 3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. where Pashto is a less dominant language. It is somewhat less closely related to the neighboring Nuristani languages and to Indo-Aryan languages such as Urdu. Punjabi. MacKenzie 1987). Another result is the assignment of several alternative values to the pronunciation of the relevant Pashto letters.165. shown in Table 3. Southwest /ṣ/ is elsewhere pronounced as /š/. and more distantly related to other Indo-European languages. cf. as described in more detail in Chapter 4. In other dialects.8  The Pashto Language million speakers of Pashto in all countries (Lewis. or /x/. On the lower end.2. For example.2. 2. 2009).2 Dialectal variation Pashto can be divided into numerous dialects.1 History and classification Pashto belongs to the East Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. Dialectal differences in Pashto are primarily phonological in nature.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 6:57 PM . and Sindhi. or varieties.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .Corey Miller and Anne Boyle David 3 Phonology and Orthography 3.126.1 Consonants 3. many educated speakers will approximate the Arabic pronunciations of those consonants. Tegey & Robson (1996) reported 41 years later that it does occur in some speakers’ formal speech. they may use what are sometimes called “elegant” consonants.165. Consonants not used by all speakers are parenthesized.1 Phonetics and phonology 3.2.1: Pashto consonants 3.Retroflex Palatal alveolar Velar pb td ṭḍ kg Stops Affricates (ʦ ʣ) čj š (ž) Fricatives (f) sz Nasals m n Lateral Approximants (ṣ ẓ) (ç ʝ) Glottal xɣ h ṇ l w r y ṛ   Table 3. The representation of these segments in the written language is discussed in Section 3. however. these are listed in Table 3.1.2.1 Inventory Pashto has consonants at seven possible places of articulation.1. as shown in Table 3.1. That is.1.1. Penzl (1955) did not seem to think that the voiced pharyngeal fricative was ever pronounced in Pashto.1.2 “Elegant” consonants Depending on how closely speakers wish to approximate Arabic sounds not otherwise present in Pashto. It is possible that this discrepancy is due Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Labial Dental Palato. when speaking in what they regard as a formal situation.

10  Phonology and Orthography Arabic consonant Educated. Elfenbein (1997: 742) notes that /h/ is often dropped and is only retained in some dialects as an “elegance”.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .2: “Elegant. consonants to an ongoing linguistic change under Arabic influence or to a difference between the dialects being reported on. formal Pashto Uneducated or informal Pashto ‫ ء‬glottal stop ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ع‬voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ or ʔ (not pronounced) ‫ ح‬voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ h (or not pronounced) ‫ ق‬voiceless uvular stop q k   Table 3.165.126.” or formal. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .4: Pashto diphthongs 3.3: Pashto vowels Front Central High Back uy Mid əy Low oy ay āy aw āw   Table 3.3 and Table 3.2  11 Vowels 3. who describes the Kandahari dialect. Front High i Mid e Low a Central Back u ə o ā   Table 3. and does not include /oy/ in his inventory. as shown in Table 3.Phonetics and phonology 3.165. 1992).1. Penzl.1 Inventory Most dialects of Pashto have seven vowels and seven diphthongs (Heston.2 Vowel transcription For the sake of comparison with other sources. makes a distinction between /ey/ for and /ei/ for .126.1. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ۍ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.5.1.3). Note that Tegey and Robson’s distinction between both /i/ and /ɪ/ (row 1) and /u/ and /ʊ/ (row 2) may correlate with the presence or absence of and respectively in the spelling of the word (see Section 3.2.2.1. we provide the corresponding transcriptions of the vowel sounds in Table 3.4.

ʊ e ‫ یې‬ye ‘you are’ e ee e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə e ə o ‫ اور‬or.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . ɪ u ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ u u u. wor ‘fire’ o oo o a ‫ لس‬las ‘ten’ a a a ā ‫ کال‬kāl ‘year’ ɑ aa ā uy ‫ دوی‬duy ‘they’ uj uy uy əy ‫ لکۍ‬lakəy ‘tail’ əj ey.165.5: Comparison among vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ei əy oy ‫ زوی‬zoy ‘son’ oj uy oy ay ‫ سړی‬saṛay ‘man’ aj ay ay āy ‫ ځای‬ʣāy ‘place’ ɑj aay āy aw ‫ یو‬yaw ‘one’ aw aw aw āw ‫ واوره‬wāwra ‘snow’ ɑw aaw āw   Table 3.12  Phonology and Orthography This grammar Example IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson i ‫ امتحان‬imtihān ‘test’ i i i.126.

by Septfonds (1994). we have provided Pashto script reflecting the General Pashto pronunciation. to our knowledge. and Hallberg (1992). aṇ. We have provided two examples of the /e/ vowel: one that shares an /e/ with other dialects of Pashto. There does not seem to be a reliable contrast in M between /o/ and /u/.4. One issue is the phenomenon described as “Waziri Metaphony” in Section 4.4 Middle dialect vowels The vowel inventory for the Middle dialects described in Chapter 4 differs slightly from that described in Section 3. despite the usual convention of not representing short vowels in Arabic scripts. respectively) are sometimes pronounced with long vowels by educated speakers. however. the short vowels /i/ and /u/ are now sometimes represented in Pashto writing with and . Lorimer also employs a sequence of two symbols. we compare three treatments of the M vowel system.6.Phonetics and phonology  13 3. As can be seen in Table 3.2. these may be called “elegant” vowels. In order to compare these treatments to each other. and another that represents the metaphony target corresponding with GP /o/. we provide example words representing each class of sounds. Septfonds distinguishes between /əy/ and /ay/.2.3). to indicate /ã/. Lorimer makes some additional distinctions compared to the others. In Table 3. While the objects of study in each of those works are slightly different. For these. and ö (presumably IPA /ø/) as a variant of /e/ may reveal that there existed “midway” points between the GP vowels and their metaphony targets (see Section 4.126.4).6.2. Lorimer’s use of ü (presumably IPA /y/) as a variant of /i/. Lorimer uses è as a variant of his é before /r/.2.3 “Elegant” vowels Persian or Arabic loanwords that contain an etymologically long /ī/ or /ū/ (spelled with mārufa ye and wāw. Like some consonants in Arabic loanwords.1. Lorimer and Hallberg distinguish between /a/ and /ā/.1.1. there exists no systematic representation of M pronunciation using Pashto script. Due to variation in pronunciation.165. whereas Lorimer does not.1 and Section 3. Lorimer (1902). Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ 3. For example. or speakers of the Northeastern dialect (Section 4. they all fall under the M rubric as described in Chapter 4.1. whereas Septfonds does not.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .

è.126. ö e ə ‫ زه‬zə ‘I’ ə ə e. ī. ü i e e é. ‫ مور‬mer ‘mother’ IPA Septfonds Lorimer Hallberg i i i. ê.6: Comparison among M vowel transcription systems Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ɑi.14  Phonology and Orthography This grammar i e Example ‫ لور‬lir ‘daughter’ ‫ ډېر‬ḍer ‘many’. u ʌ o ‫ پلار‬plor ‘father’ o o o o a a a ʌ ɑ a ā ɑ a ā ã əy ay aw ‫ سر‬sar ‘head’ ‫ میاشت‬myāšt ‘month’ ‫ وتپم‬wətapã ‘I ã ‫لمسۍ‬ əj əy ai ‫ سړی‬saṛay aj ay ai aw aw au close’ lmasəy ‘granddaughter’ ‘man’ ‫ پلو‬palaw ‘side’ aṇ   Table 3.165. ʌi .

Orthography  3. Pashto would fall somewhere near English on such a scale. the Pashto script is in theory an abjad (Daniels & Bright. as well as additions specific to Pashto. /e/ and several other sounds. In our transcription of Pashto. the letter alif. can be found at Appendix A. can be used to represent /w/. This is known as orthographic depth (Sproat.5). /u/. or easy to pronounce. Some words differ only by the placement of stress.10. For example. As with other Arabic-based writing systems. On a spectrum of depth. which is used to write both long /ā/ and an initial glottal stop in Arabic. /žə́ba/ ‘tongue’. though the difficulties of deducing pronunciation from spelling (and vice versa) are somewhat different.5. we indicate stressed syllables by putting an acute accent mark over the vowel portion: /saṛáy/ ‘man’. the Devanagari script in which Hindi is written. /i/. or when relevant to the discussion . as will be described below.¹ 3. Spanish may be considered fairly shallow.5. but numerals are written left to right. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and unlike. and ye. which writes both /y/ and /ī/ in Arabic.165.3 15 Stress Word stress in Pashto is assigned lexically. is also used in Pashto to represent the vowel /ā/.1. In this grammar we generally only indicate stress in paradigms and on particular lexical items in example sentences where its placement sheds light on meaning.2. The script is cursive. Like those scripts. However. which includes modifications made for Persian. and Chinese would be considered especially deep.126. The letter wāw. which can be seen in Table 3.2. the Pashto alphabet deviates from the strict definition of an abjad in that some letters can also be used to indicate vowel sounds. or continuous versus aorist forms among second and third conjugation verbs (Section 8. 1996).1 The script Pashto is written primarily in the Perso-Arabic script.4. can be used in Pashto for /y/. and letters may have ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ 1 More on issues that arise from a deep orthography.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .2. in which the letters represent only the consonants of the language. the Pashto script is written from right to left. ‫ژبه‬ 3. 2000: 6). which writes both /w/ and /ū/ in Arabic. /háɣə/ ‘that’. as with the pronouns /haɣə́/ ‘he/she/it’ vs.2 ‫سړی‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Orthography The languages of the world vary along a scale of the ease with which one may deduce pronunciation from orthography. Section A. or /o/ in Pashto. or the spelling from the pronunciation. for example. and even (with modification to the letter). in particular variations in spelling. like the Arabic and Persian scripts.4 and Section 8.

connected on both sides. To represent the retroflexes /ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ/. but other sounds elsewhere. The two letters in Table 3.126. but in others they have been simplified to the fricatives /s/ and /z/.165.9 are based on and represent the affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/ in some dialects. (See the tables of letters in Section 3.2.1 Letters unique to Pashto Due to its particular consonant and vowel inventory. as discussed in Chapter 4.16  Phonology and Orthography up to four allographs: the independent form.) Some letters do not connect to the letter to their left. (In most word processors. as shown in Table 3. without affecting the expected pronunciation. as displayed in Table 3. which is unconnected to other letters. Pashto employs a diacritic known as a /panḍak/ or /ɣaṛwanday/ ‘ring’ on the letters used for the dentals.2. the medial form.) 3. the initial form. Finally.2. Pashto employs a set of five letters based on . ‫پنډک‬ Letter ‫غړوندی‬ Sound ‫ډ‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ټ‬ ḍ ṇ ṛ ṭ   Table 3.7. connected only on the left. ‫ح‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. as are the medial and final forms. or may be used in place of the other forms. are discussed in Chapter 4. which have a range of phonetic and morphological values.1.10. and the final form. Pashto has innovated several letters not present in either Arabic or Persian. These letters represent retroflex sounds in the Kandahar (Southwest) dialect.7: Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak ‫ر‬ ‫س‬ Pashto has innovated two letters employing a dot above and below and . particularly in the Northwest dialects. Unicode rendering automatically displays the proper positional form. Note that in much text encountered on the internet and elsewhere. Further pronunciations of these letters. in these cases the initial and independent forms are the same. as expressed in Table 3. connected only on the right.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .1.8.

Northeast) ʣ (Southwest. Southeast). s (Northwest. ž Quetta (Southeast). g Peshawar (Northeast) ṣ Kandahar (Southwest). z (Northwest.10: Pashto letters based on ‫مسئله‬ ‫ی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Northeast)   Table 3. such as hatā ‘even’. This is known as alif maqsura.8: Pashto letters with dot below and dot above Letter ‫څ‬ ‫ځ‬ Sound ʦ (Southwest. Southeast). š Quetta (Southeast). x Eastern   Table 3.Orthography  Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Sound ẓ Kandahar (Southwest).165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 17 . y ‫ې‬ e ‫ۍ‬ əy word-finally in feminine nouns and adjectives əy word-finally in verbal forms not pronounced or ʔ word-medially in some Perso-Arabic borrowings such as masala ‘problem’ ‫ئ‬   Table 3.9: Pashto affricate letters based on ‫ح‬ Letter Sound Function/comments ‫ی‬ ay word-finally ā word-finally in some words derived from Arabic. ‫حتی‬ ‫ي‬ i.

The letter ye is also commonly used when referring to the letter ye in general. for example. and zā are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. representing /z/. or give more than one. The names for the letter include kəṛwāla and feli. is used in native Pashto words. The halwa he. the letters se and sād are found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary.165. /i/. we have indicated the most common pronunciations of the letters. the letter he may represent a vowel such as /a/ or /ə/.g.11.1. appears in Arabic loanwords which are spelled with this letter in Arabic. e. /e/. it would be called simply ye. reflecting the fact that its sound. emotional’. Finally.g. such as Shafeev (1964). zād. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫سؤال‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ه‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پرحرارت‬ ‫حرارت‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫س‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ظ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. was unknown in Arabic. The pronunciations listed in parentheses are the formal pronunciations described in Section 3. Letter names that end in a vowel or diphthong are grammatically feminine. the letter tā is found in the Arabic/Persian component of the vocabulary. and in borrowings from Persian in which one of the morphemes is Arabic: /purharārat/ ‘ardent. ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫ه‬ ً‫ا‬ Following are some remarks on particular letters. was known in Arabic. /taqriban/ ‘approximately’.g. tazkir meaning ‘masculine’. while sin is found in the native component as well. Where practical. while ze is found in the native component as well. we have listed a variety of possible Romanized names. The names for the letter include the words for ‘feminine’ (ṣəʣina tānis. The other /h/ sound. alif and he).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM ‫ص‬ ‫ؤ‬ .1. which is composed of a Persian prefix /pur/ ‘full’ and an Arabic root /harārat/ ‘heat’. These differences are due in part to regional variation in how the letters are pronounced and in part to variation in how the Pashto has been Romanized. where there is further variation we refer to the relevant sections.2 Tables of letters and numerals The full list of Pashto letters is given in Table 3. as in a section of a dictionary. while letter names that end in a consonant are grammatically masculine. The name majhula ye for the letter means ‘unknown ye’.2. meaning ‘verbal’. Sources differ on some of the names for Pashto letters. Some of the letters are used chiefly in Arabic loanwords. The letter wāw-hamza appears word-medially in Perso-Arabic borrowings such as /swāl. muanasa) and ‘heavy’ (saqila). It thus can be used to encompass . we list them separately here for ease of reference. Representing /t/. Note that some of the symbols listed here (e. the letters zāl. The letter wāw is also transcribed as /v/ in some sources.18  Phonology and Orthography 3. suwāl/ ‘question’.126. The name mārufa ye for the letter means ‘known ye’.1. Representing /s/. alif mad and hehamza) are not considered separate letters from their counterparts without diacritics (e. mārufa ye In this usage. When appearing word-finally. or in loanwords based on Arabic. To aid in letter identification. alef tanwin appears word-finally ً‫تقریبا‬ ‫و‬ in adverbs derived from Arabic. reflecting the fact that its sound. and saqila meaning ‘heavy’. as well as in Arabic and Persian loanwords which are spelled with this letter. while te is also found in the native component.2. he.

3 alif mad ɑ aa ā ā alif tanwin an an an an be b b b b pe p p p p te t̪ t t t ṭe ʈ tt ṭ ṭ se s s s s jim ʤ ʣh j j če/čim ʧ ʦh ch č ʣe/ʣim/ze ʣ/z ʣ ʣ ʣ/z ʦ/s ʦ ʦ ʦ/s he/halwa he Ø/h/(ħ) Ø/h/(h) Ø/h/(ɦ) Ø/h/(ħ) xe x kh kh x dāl d̪ d d d ḍāl ɖ dd ḍ ḍ zāl z z z z re r r r r ṛe ɻ rr ṛ ṛ ze z z z z že ʒ/ʤ/z zh zh/j/z ž/j/z ẓe/ge ʐ/ʒ/ʝ/g zz g ẓ/ž/ʝ/g sin s s s s šin ʃ sh sh š ʦe/ʦim/se Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.126.11: Pashto alphabet Unicode U+0627 U+0622 U+0627 | U+064B U+0628 U+067E U+062A U+067C U+062B U+062C U+0686 U+0681 U+0685 U+062D U+062E U+062F U+0689 U+0630 U+0631 U+0693 U+0632 U+0698 U+0696 U+0633 U+0634 Pashto script ‫ا‬ ‫ٓا‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar alif see Section 3.Orthography  Table 3.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 19 .165.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM h .2 ɣayn ɣ gh gh ɣ fe f f f f qāf/qaf k/(q) q q k/(q) kāf/kaf k k k k gāf g g g g lām l l l l mim m m m m nun n n n n ṇun ɳ nn ṇ ṇ wāw w/o/u w w/u/o w/u/o wāwhamza Ø/w he/hā h zxwāt/zwā U+0637 ‫ط‬ U+0638 ‫ظ‬ U+0639 ‫ع‬ U+063A U+0641 U+0642 U+06A9 U+06AB U+0644 U+0645 U+0646 U+06BC U+0648 U+0624 U+0647 ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ڼ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ه‬ Ø/w h h Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.3 and Section 3.20  Phonology and Orthography Table 3.1.2.165.1.1.11: (continued) Unicode U+069A U+0635 U+0636 Pashto script ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar ṣin/xin ʂ/x ss x ṣ/x sād/swād/ sxwāt/swā s s̤ s s zād/zwād/ z z̤ z z tā/twe/ txwe/ toy/twā t̪ t̤ t t zā/zwe/ zɣwe/ zoy/zwā z z̅ z z ʔayn/ayn (ʔ)/(ʕ) ’ ʔ see Section 3.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 21 .126.3) pasta ye (/yā) /majhula ye (/yā) e ee e e ṣəʣina ye (/yā) /saqila/ de tānis saqila ye (/yā) /muanasa saqila ye (/yā) əj ei əy əy kəṛwāla ye (/yā) /ye (/yā)hamza/ feli ye (/yā) /de tazkir saqila ye (/yā/) əj ey əy əy Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.10) saxtə ye (/yā) /klaka ye (/yā) /mārufa ye(/yā) i/y i/y i/y i/y (see Section 3.3) ye/yā/ mulayana ye (/yā)/prata ye (/yā) aj ay ay ay (see Table 3.Orthography  Table 3.2.1.165.2.11: (continued) Unicode Pashto script U+06C0 ‫ۀ‬ U+06CC ‫ی‬ U+064A ‫ي‬ U+06D0 ‫ې‬ U+06CD ‫ۍ‬ U+0626 ‫ئ‬ Name IPA Penzl Tegey and Robson This grammar he(/hā)hamza/ zwarakai ə e ə ə (see Section 3.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .22  Phonology and Orthography Positional variants for each letter are shown in Table 3.126. In addition to the positional variants of individual letters. . the initial-position form is on the right. The Eastern Arabic numerals.13. used for the sequence of lām + alif. are given in Table 3. the script includes an obligatory digraph.38.165. In keeping with the directionality of the script. Numeral forms of compound numbers are given along with the word-form number names in Table 6. ‫لا‬ Table 3. which are used in Pashto.12.12: Positional variants of letters Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ـپ‬ ‫ـپـ‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ـت‬ ‫ـتـ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ـټ‬ ‫ـټـ‬ ‫ټ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ـث‬ ‫ـثـ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ـج‬ ‫ـجـ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫ـچ‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ـځ‬ ‫ځ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫ـڅ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫د‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ـډ‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ـړ‬ ‫ړ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Orthography  Table 3.126.12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ـژ‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ـږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ـښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ـط‬ ‫ـطـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ـظ‬ ‫ـظـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ـک‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ـګ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ ـه‬or ‫ـہـ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ـی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 23 .

U+0660 U+06f1.13: Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numerals 2 This letter does not occur word initially. U+0667 U+06f8. but may take initial form after a nonjoining letter. U+0668 U+06f9. U+0661 U+06f2. U+0662 U+06f3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .12: (continued) Independent form Final position Medial position Initial position  ‫ي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ې‬² ‫ۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ـئ‬ Arabic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pashto (Eastern Arabic) numeral ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ۵ or ٥ ۶ or ٦ ۷ ۸ ۹ Unicode U+06f0. U+0663 U+06f4 or U+0664 U+06f5 or U+0665 U+06f6 or U+0666 U+06f7.165.24  Phonology and Orthography Table 3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. U+0669   Table 3.

it is often possible to find exceptions. writes long vowels but does not typically indicate short vowels. and its sound is /ā/. When an initial alif is followed by wāw. the vowel pairs /u/ and /o/.1. but (except for /ā/) usually pronounced with vowels that are not distinctively long. are now often represented in Pashto writing with wāw and forms of ye respectively. the combination is pronounced /i/ or sometimes /ay/.3. but sometimes it ‫ې‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Orthography  25 3. pex ‫ پیش‬peš ‫ ضمة‬zamma mis ‘copper’ zwar   Table 3. the short vowels are not written. as discussed in Section 3.1. Most varieties of Pashto. (Word initially. may occasionally be encountered in native dictionaries or in learning materials. digraphs may be employed to indicate vowels. Words with etymologically long vowels are written with their original long vowels.1 Word-initial vowels Words that begin with a vowel sound must begin with either alif.2. alif mad. as shown in Table 3.2. as indicated in Table 3. or ‫ا‬ ٓ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ayn. o ‫ ُپل‬pul ‘bridge’ ‫ پېښ‬peṣ.15. the combination is pronounced /e/. The short vowel diacritics. The following statements are general guidelines. The same symbols are used in Arabic in such contexts as well as in the Koran and some religious texts. and /i/ and /e/. In many cases. they may take on various vowel sounds. however. When ‫ ا‬alif or ‫ ع‬ayn begin a word. but these are not used in ordinary writing.) When an initial alif is followed by majhula ye. When an initial alif is followed by mārufa ye. Word-initially. ٓ‫ ا‬alif mad mostly occurs word-initially. ‫زور‬ ‫ فتحة‬fatha ِ◌ i ‫ِمس‬ ‫ زېر‬zer ‫ کسرة‬kasra ُ◌ u. Such vowels can potentially be indicated with diacritics placed above or below the consonant letters. upon which the Pashto alphabet is based.14: Short vowel diacritics 3.14 with examples from Shafeev (1964).3 Representation of vowels The Arabic script.165.1.126. mārufa ye is pronounced /y/. ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ Symbol Sound Example Pashto name Arabic name َ◌ a ‫ َبد‬bad ‘bad’ ‫ زبر‬zabar.2. For this reason. /ā/. distinguish only one long vowel. the combination is usually pronounced either /o/ or /u/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . Word-internal wāw and mārufa ye can each represent either a consonant. ‫ې‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ع‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. word-internal majhula ye is pronounced /e/.) Table 3.2 Word-internal vowels Vowels within words may be spelled with alif. o i e   Table 3.16: Pashto initial digraphs 3.126. mārufa ye. Initial digraph ‫او‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اې‬ Sound Example ‫ اوبه‬obə. a vowel. majhula ye. (Word initially wāw is pronounced /w/.17. wāw. as is characteristic of abjads. and word-internal ayn generally lengthens a preceding /a/ to /ā/. Word-internal alif is generally pronounced /ā/. or a diphthong.165.16 summarizes the most common pronunciation of these initial digraphs.15: Word-initial vowels ‫و‬ is pronounced /aw/.1.26  Phonology and Orthography Sound a e i o ‫ ا‬alif example ‫ ع‬ayn example ‫ ابر‬abr ‘cloud’ ‫ استونیا‬estoniyā ‘Estonia’ ‫ عدس‬adas ‘lentil’ ‫ علاوه‬elāwa ‘addition’ (uncommon) (uncommon) ‫ اداره‬idāra ‘management’ ‫ اتوریته‬otorite ‘authority’ ‫ علاج‬ilāj ‘cure’ ‫ اردو‬urdu ‘army’ ‫ عضوي‬uzwi ‘organic’ (uncommon) u   Table 3.2. or they may (with the exception of /ā/) be un- ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ې‬ written. or ayn. ubə ‘water’ ‫ ایران‬irān ‘Iran’ ‫ اېغ‬eɣ ‘sticking out’ u.3. as shown in Table 3.

165.126.Orthography  Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ خال‬xāl ‘birthmark’ ‫ و‬wāw o u w aw ‫ ي‬mārufa ye ( ‫ ـیـ‬in its internal SW i ‫ هیڅ‬hiʦ ‘nothing’ y ‫ پیاز‬piyāz ‘onion’ ay ‫ پیسې‬payse ‘money’ e ‫ تېل‬tel ‘oil’ form) ‫ ې‬majhula ye ( ‫ ـېـ‬in its internal ‫ ډوډۍ‬ḍoḍəy ‘bread’ ‫ موږ‬muẓ ‘we’ ‫ موافق‬muwāfiq ‘favorable’ ‫ پوځ‬pawʣ ‘army’ form) ‫ ع‬ayn lengthens preceding a to ā ‫ معلوم‬mālum.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM 27 . ‫ معروف‬māruf ‘known’   Table 3.17: Word-internal vowels Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Pashto examples are transcribed in this version of traditional Pashto transcription.165. In this grammar.28  Phonology and Orthography 3. as in the word tain’. A strict transliteration would also leave out the vowels that are unwritten in Pashto. except in the case of ayn. no simple transliteration can preserve Pashto orthography solely through the letters of the Roman alphabet.18 for other final vowels. 3. ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ع‬ Letter Sound Example ‫ ا‬alif ā ‫ هوا‬hawā ‘air’ ‫ ه‬he a ‫ ژبه‬žəba ‘tongue’ ə ‫ ته‬tə ‘you’ u ‫ غټو‬ɣaṭu ‘fat [oblique plural]’ o ‫ زانګو‬zāngo ‘cradle’ ‫ و‬wāw   Table 3.11 for the pronunciation of forms of ye. rather than a transliteration. wāw. we have chosen to use a broad phonemic transcription. its goal is to accurately represent how the language is pronounced.2. See Table 3. Several extra diacritics or other non-alphabetic characters would be necessary. the spoken word will end in the consonant with which it is written. If a written Pashto word ends in any other letter.18: Word-final vowels ‫ه‬ Note that a final he may also indicate a final /h/. its goal is to accurately represent the spelling of the language. all non-M dialects of Pashto are Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3 Word-final vowels If a Pashto word ends in a vowel sound. he.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . Accordingly.2. although this is rare. Transcription maps phones. and Table 3.10 and Table 3. slightly modified to adhere more closely to the IPA.126. leaving the pronunciation unclear. or ye. it will be written with a final alif. in which case the final sound is that of the previous letter.3.1.2 ‫ کوه‬/kuh/ ‘moun- Rationale for transcription system Pashto text may be rendered into Roman letters through transcription or transliteration. Because the Pashto script possesses several distinct letters for each of several segments. Transliteration is one-for-one mapping of a language’s characters (or character combinations) into corresponding Roman characters (or combinations).

Some authors use he-hamza (U+06C0. as it is in Persian and Urdu. ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ــہ‬ ‫ے‬ ‫ۀ‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫هغۀ‬ ‫ه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Although in this grammar we do make the /ə/-/a/ distinction in our transcription.Orthography  29 written in both the Pashto script and our transcription. 3. Note that these variants may occur in handwriting from various regions. and the letter he in word-final position may appear as (U+06C1). In Urdu. for example to distinguish the masculine direct singular demonstrative /haɣa/ ‘that’ from the masculine oblique singular /haɣə/.3 Orthographic variation ‫ګ‬ ‫گ‬ The Pashto letter /g/ gāf is sometimes represented as (U+06AF).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM . Examples in Waziri and other M dialects may not include Pashto script.165.126. and may be encountered in Pashto emanating from Pakistan. we use he for both in the Pashto text. since these dialects do not have independent orthographic representation.2. there are two letters whose forms appear differently word-finally from standard Persian and Afghan Pashto. The Pashto letter ye in word-final position may appear as (U+06D2) for /ay/ or /e/. referred to in the Unicode documents as “Heh with yeh above”) instead of the more usual Heh (U+0647) in final position to indicate /ə/ as opposed to /a/.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:02 PM .126.Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.

rather than the Middle or M dialect. we may refer to Middle or M dialects. In this way. According to Elfenbein (1997: 739). Northeast (NE) and Middle (M).1 Introduction In this chapter. We also compare our proposal with other approaches that have come up with smaller numbers of dialects. for any given dialect.. “geographical classification alone does not— cannot—take enough account of tribal distinctions.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . there may well be many subdialects. since there may be several speech varieties sharing the general characteristics of Middle Pashto.” 4.126. noting that we have not exhausted the description of dialect differences for this language.Corey Miller 4 Pashto Dialects 4. Waziri (WAZ) and Dzadrani (DZA) are two subdivisions of Middle Pashto for which we have the most information.1.. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.classification by tribe alone fails to take into enough account the essential geographical facts. others are discussed below.165. Here we seek to provide a convenient partition of the data that recognizes salient and reliable distinctions that correlate with geography. as well as the marking of dialect forms in this text. Southeast (SE). The general locations of these dialect areas are illustrated in Figure 4. Note that Pashto dialects are connected to both geographical facts and tribal identity. in the following sections. we describe a set of five dialects of Pashto in order to establish certain generalizations as a matter of convenience. Northwest (NW). whose details we are not yet in a position to describe. We explain the details of these dialects. So.2 Characterizing Pashto dialects The approach we take in this work assumes five dialects: Southwest (SW).

Note that these represent characteristic pronunciations rather than the only possible pronunciations for these words in these regions. for example. For specific pronunciations of individual words in many cities. the second person singular verbal suffix /e/ contrasts in Southwest with the third person singular /i/. in the second person plural suffixes for verbs: /‑āst/ in certain present tense forms and all past tense forms in Southwest and /‑əy/ elsewhere (see Table 8. according to Elfenbein (1997: 747).126.4). there is a tendency for final unstressed /e/ to be realized as /i/ in Southwest.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . ‫کړل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ـاست‬ ‫ـئ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. for example. We have observed the following examples of this phenomenon in closed-class items. We also see dialectal variation in suffixes.2.1: Pashto dialects Table 4. see Hallberg (1992). Note that this process tends not to occur where it would eradicate distinctions.32  Pashto Dialects Figure 4.1 summarizes the major differences among the five dialects. as in variable use of two different stems /kṛəl/ and /kawəl/ for the verb do (Septfonds. which are often accompanied by the distinct spellings shown in Table 4.165. As an example of variation in the realization of vowels. 1989). Dialectal variation in morphology has also been documented. from which many of these forms were gathered.

NE ‫ پوري‬pori ‘to’ ‫ پورې‬pore ‘to’ ‫ باندي‬bāndi ‘on’ ‫ باندې‬bānde ‘on’ ‫ کي‬ki ‘in’ ‫ کې‬ke ‘in’ ‫ لاندي‬lāndi ‘under’ ‫ لاندې‬lānde ‘under’ ‫ مي‬mi ‘I.2: Correspondence between /i/ and /e/ in closed-class words Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. me’ ‫ مې‬me ‘I.165.1: Phonological variation among major Pashto dialects SW NW.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 33 .126. me’ ‫ دي‬di ‘you’ ‫ دې‬de ‘you’ ‫ تاسي‬tāsi ‘you’ ‫ تاسې‬tāse ‘you’   Table 4. tsok ‫‘ پنځه‬five’ pɪnʣə pɪnʣə pinzə pinzə pinzə ‫‘ لاس‬hand’ lās lās lās lās los ‫‘ لور‬daughter’ lur lur lur lur lir   Table 4.Characterizing Pashto dialects  Pashto word SW SE NW NE M ‫‘ پښتو‬Pashto’ paṣto pašto paçto paxto pašto ‫‘ شپږ‬six’ špaẓ špəž špəg špag špež ‫‘ څوک‬who’ ʦok ʦok sok sok tsek.

and English translations.1. In such cases.5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. in contrast to M. SE. and Pashtoon (2009) indicates when particular words are Eastern or Western (see Section 4. we indicate the dialect of the speaker who provided the example. With regard to lexis. These are generally attested examples. as are /u/ and /ū/. In the sections covering General Pashto. standing for Eastern and Western.165. that means either that the form is acceptable in both WAZ and DZA. For example. Some discussions of Middle dialects use the more specific notation. This does not necessarily mean that the example is only acceptable or natural for that dialect. and when possible. readers will encounter the notation E or W.1 Dialect marking in tables In those sections covering General Pashto. Note that in some cases. NW. or with example forms mentioned in the text. 4.34  Pashto Dialects Another area where variation in vowels has been noted is in the realization of /i/ and /u/.4 for additional dialect abbreviations within M). while Western refers to Southwest and Southeast. we have observed numerous differences across Pashto dialects. if a form is known to be acceptable in only DZA or WAZ. SE. ‫غماشه‬ 4. Eastern generally refers to both Northwest and Northeast. our tables of morphological forms are restricted to the four non-M dialects SW. Elfenbein (1997: 750–751) notes that in the Northeast. M—as described in Table 4. that means that to the best of our knowledge the form is acceptable in all four dialects. we have not been able to ascertain a more specific dialect attribution. In such tables. /i/ and /ī/ are separate phonemes.1. /ɣomāšə/ ‘mosquito’ SW exists alongside /miāšə/ ‘mosquito’ NW . we refer to the four dialects SW.2. or we do not have sufficient information to attribute it to one or the other. NW.126. and in this grammar we represent only /i/ and /u/. and NE.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. when no dialect is mentioned. In some cases.2 Dialect marking in interlinear examples In this book.1 ‫میاشه‬ Dialect marking in this work Where possible. In those sections covering the Middle dialects. When no dialect is mentioned. When we know that a form is only acceptable or natural for a subset of those dialects.2.1 on the use of these terms). 4. Hallberg (1992) provides examples of many basic words that differ by region. interlinear examples include Pashto script (except for some M-dialect examples). SE. it is so labeled.1. we aim to associate Pashto forms with one of the five dialects—SW. such as WAZ (for Waziri) and DZA (for Dzadrani) when differences within Middle dialects can be or need to be specified (see Section 4. MacKenzie (1987: 551) observes that this distinction has been lost in most dialects. phonetic transcription. the dialects associated with that form are specified. NE. morpheme glosses. NW and NE as General Pashto (GP).

Quetta.The four dialects of General Pashto  35 when interlinear examples are derived from written textual material. resulting in the pronunciations /š/ and /ž/.165. Southeast. and Northeast. based on MacKenzie and its reprise by Skjærvø (1989).3. Hanifi 2001). which he associates with Quetta. while Southeast and Northeast appear to be in Pakistan. Pakistan. The Southeast dialect is characterized by a loss of retroflexion in and with respect to the Southwest dialect. and Northeast di- Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. “Central” Ghilzai may refer to the members of the tribe in those provinces. 4. such as may be found on the internet.126. The remaining dialect in MacKenzie’s model is Southeast. Thus they are pronounced identically to the way the letters and are pronounced in the Southeast dialect. lays out the principal phonological characteristics of the four dialects comprising this approach. MacKenzie calls the Northwest dialect Central Ghilzai. Table 4. after the name of a tribe mainly found in the vicinity of Ghazni and Zabol provinces (Frye 2010. It is useful to note that Southwest and Northwest appear to be in Afghanistan. respectively. and Northeast Yusufzai.3 The four dialects of General Pashto MacKenzie (1959) provided an influential four-dialect analysis using the cardinal points: Southwest. using the name for the tribe centered in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly Northwest Frontier) province. He calls Southwest Kandahar. Henderson (1983) similarly presents a ‫ښ‬ ‫ش‬ Letter ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Southwest (SW) Southeast (SE) Northwest (NW) Northeast (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ š ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ ž ʝ g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s s ‫ځ‬ ʣ ʣ z z ‫ژ‬ ž ž ž j   Table 4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . as well as Elfenbein (1997). rather than to those living in the northern provinces of Faryab and Badakhshan. Northwest. Peshawar. referring to the Kandahar. Note that Kieffer (1974) associates this characteristic with Ghazni in Afghanistan. we have generally chosen to transcribe them as they might be spoken in the Northeastern dialect.3: Four dialects of General Pashto four-dialect approach.

Herat South Ghilzai SE southern NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Yusufzai.126.4 presents the tribal and geographical associations for each of these four dialects according to Elfenbein (1997). Baluchistan (includes Quetta) Sherani. Note that we have seen some variation in the description of the sounds corresponding to the letter . we may expect to see both /ʝ/ and /g/ for in dialects labeled Northwest in our dialect schema. northeast Ghilzay. Wanetsi NW east and northeast Afghanistan.165. Henderson’s Northeast is akin to MacKenzie’s Northwest. Elfenbein (1997: 744) provides a substantial amount of information on the quality of vowels and diphthongs across several dialects. Table 4. part of Nangarhar province (Afghanistan). Farah. Orakzay. some Afridi   Table 4. Skjærvø (1989: 386) notes that in Northeast. Bangash. In the area of word choice.3. even though the two variants are pronounced similarly. while the diphthong /əy/ is pronounced /ay/. while in Pakistan it can be spelled . a feature mentioned in Penzl. Henderson’s Northeast has /g/ for .3. Tarin. Tegey & Robson (1996) have associated /z/ with the Northwest dialect. It is also compatible with the Eastern dialect described in Penzl (1955) and with the Central dialect described in Tegey & Robson (1996). the diphthong /ay/ is monophthongized to /ɛː/. in addition to the more distinctive Pashto convention for expressing thanks. Therefore. Jalalabad (?) central Ghilzai. Bannu. Hazara. with /ʝ/ restricted to Wardak province. Kakari. For example.1 International differences In her grammar. /mənə́nə/ ‘gratitude’ ‫زوی‬ ‫زوے‬ ‫مننه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. some Afridi NE Peshawar. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ژ‬ Dialect  Geography  Tribe SW Kandahar. Achakzai. northern parts of NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Shinwari.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .36  Pashto Dialects alects. in Afghanistan the Pashto word for son is spelled .4: Tribal and geographical associations by dialect 4. Waziri. Mohmand. while Elfenbein (1997: 744) describes some /z/ along with /j/ in the Northeast dialect. Heston (1992) sometimes distinguishes between Afghan and Pakistani Pashto from the perspective of orthography. As noted in Table 4. With respect to vowels and diphthongs.

5. or umlaut. succeeding chapters will describe its morphological and syntactic features. it raises to /o/. submission). which describes Waziri (WAZ). while in the cases of GP /o/ and Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Given the absence of neighboring vowels in the monosyllabic examples in Table 4. based on available descriptions.5. We distinguish two main variants of M. There are two phonetic processes that are involved in Waziri metaphony: raising and fronting. we use the term metaphony here in order to maintain a link with previous studies. there is another dialect group which Kieffer (1974) refers to as intermediary or central. the dialects of Afghanistan exhibit more loanwords and cognates from neighboring Persian/Dari and Turkic. the Dari/Tajiki and Urdu words share the same Arabic root. we describe the main vocalic and consonantal characteristics of M. Hallberg (1992) discusses a “Central Group” of dialects that correspond to M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . whereas Pakistani Pashto speakers are more inclined to use /šukríya/.3. In the case of GP /ā/.126. The term metaphony for this phenomenon has been used at least since Kieffer (1974). This phenomenon involves certain deviations from the vowel qualities attested in the other dialects as described in Table 4. the Dari/Tajiki word for thanks. In general. We refer to this collection of “middle” dialects as M. ‫شکریه‬ 4. ‫منځنۍ‬ 4.4 The Middle dialects Apart from the four dialects discussed in Section 4. and the Bannu District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly NorthWest Frontier Province. Miran Shah (MIR) in North Waziristan.4. These dialects are primarily noted for differences in the pronunciation of vowels with respect to the GP dialects. In this case. which describes Dzadrani (which we abbreviate DZA).” along the lines of processes described by Labov (1994) and others. Bannu (BAN) and Karak (KAR). it seems to be a bit of a misnomer. However.1 Middle dialect vowels The Middle dialects are characterized by a phenomenon known as Waziri metaphony. He provides fieldwork data for Wana (WAN) in South Waziristan. while the dialects of Pakistan exhibit more loanwords from Urdu. Afghan Pashto speakers tend to use /tašakúr/. is generally taken to be the modification of one vowel due to the influence of a neighboring vowel (perhaps with intervening consonants).165. given that metaphony. also using the Pashto term /manʣanəy/ ‘middle’. a more apt term might be “vowel shift. and three sites in adjoining areas of the NWFP: Lakki Marwat (LAK). The other is Septfonds (1994). the Urdu word. In this section.The Middle dialects  37 ‫تشکر‬ (literally compliance. spoken in the southwestern part of Khost Province (Paktiya at the time of Septfonds’ writing) in Afghanistan. One of these descriptions is Lorimer (1902). or NWFP). a dialect spoken in North and South Waziristan in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).

For some words. for this word.2. Examples include /mer. while /y/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /u/ and /i/.126.165. it may be optional (subject to sociolinguistic variation). SE. Lorimer occasionally employs the symbols ü and ö. Kieffer (1974) also describes several intermediate points between the metaphony targets that have been observed in different locations in the Middle dialect area.5: Waziri metaphony /u/. which we believe correspond to IPA /y/ and /ø/ (see Figure 4. Lorimer (1902) provides good examples of all of these observations. respectively.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . SW) Waziri metaphony (M) ā∼o ‫ پلار‬plār ‘father’ plor o∼e ‫ مور‬mor ‘mother’ mer u∼i ‫ لور‬lur ‘daughter’ lir   Table 4. As noted in Section 3. such as /myāšt/ ‘month’. ‫میاشت‬ ‫مور‬ ‫شپون‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.38  Pashto Dialects Correspondence GP (NE.2). He employs the symbol /ā/ in some words. NW. miāni/ ‘long purse’.5. As mentioned in Table 4. respectively. they front to /e/ and /i/. so none of these sources indicates that metaphony has occurred in this word.1.5. Indeed. Three important observations with regard to metaphony should be made: there may be words where it does not occur. and some speakers or locales may use intermediate vowel realizations between segments identified as GP and the metaphony targets described in Table 4. Lorimer (1902) provides two pronunciations. such as /mioni. /e/ is the metaphony target of GP /o/. indicating that metaphony may be optional in particular words. mør/ ‘mother’ and /špyn/ ‘shepherd’. Along the same lines. Septfonds (1994) uses /a/ and Hallberg (1992) uses /ɑ/.4. in words that in General Pashto would contain /u/ and /o/. /i/ is the metaphony target of GP /u/. while /ø/ appears to represent an intermediate point between /o/ and /e/.

Kieffer (1974: 25) mentions that other possibilities exist for Middle dialects. In contrast. while words spelled with are pronounced with /ž/.4. Pashtoon (2009) has identified the “standard” or GP terms as Eastern and the “M” terms as Western. we have provided these indications in the table.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.The Middle dialects  39 Figure 4. but we can infer from his vocabulary that words spelled with are pronounced with /š/ in the Waziri dialect. So this pattern aligns with the Southeast dialect. In some cases. is pronounced as a palatal /ç̣/. Where relevant. a pattern that aligns with the Northwest dialect. thus aligning those dialects with the Northeast dialect. including /x/ for and /g/ for . while is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/. ‫ږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.6. in Dzadrani.2: Waziri metaphony 4. Lorimer does not provide Pashto script. based on data from Septfonds (1994) and Lorimer (1902). indicating that these phenomena may not be exclusive to the Middle dialect area. For example. they pattern differently with respect to the consonantal distinctions that distinguish the other dialects.126.2 Middle dialect consonants While the two Middle subdialects Waziri and Dzadrani share certain characteristics with each other that are not seen in the other Pashto dialects. illustrates some other consonantal features of the Middle dialects. Table 4.

north and south.5 Other approaches One will encounter other less granular models of Pashto dialectology and it is useful to be familiar with their terminology and how they are associated with the approach described here. 2009) recognizes the following codes: pbt (Southern).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .7: Alternative dialect codes 4.5. For example the ISO 639–3 standard (Lewis. pbu (Northern). mudda ‘time’ minda palatalization ‫ لار‬lār ‘road’ lyar. B. Darmesteter (1888) describes two dialects. C and D. These codes are compared to our approach in Table 4. NW A pbu (Northern) M B pst (Central) SW. and pst (Central).126. and Kieffer (1974) uses the letters A. based on the pronunciation of the letters and ‫ښ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. wegā n∼l ‫ نمر‬nmar ‘sun’ (Eastern) lmar (Western) epenthetic n after m ‫ مده‬moda. lyār   Table 4. SE C. This book Kieffer ISO 639–3 NE. D pbt (Southern)   Table 4.40  Pashto Dialects Phenomenon GP M b∼w ‫ بېګا‬begā ‘last night’ wega.1 Two dialects Earlier approaches recognized only two dialects.165.6: Middle dialect consonantal deviation from GP 4.7. For example.

8 summarizes some of the different names used for these two dialects. 12 miles south of Kalat-i Ghilzai to just north of Maruf. Among more contemporary scholars. Grierson (1921: 7) refers to a northeastern and a southwestern dialect. Interestingly. For example. and the southern with the tribes of the west and south.. so as to give the Waziris and Khataks to Pashto. including C and A. while the southwestern one is spoken by all Afghans south of this line and westwards towards Herat. Shafeev (1964) refers to an eastern dialect centered in Peshawar.126. He notes that the most important nonstandard forms are the varieties of the northeastern dialect spoken by the Ghilzais and the Afridis. He associates the northern dialect with the tribes of Kabul. Peshawar. and Southwestern (Pishin and Kandahar).Other approaches  41 ‫ږ‬. and thence north of the Lowana country to the Kundil-Kundar confluence. fol- lowing his account. but the Afghan dialect of the neighborhood is the Northeastern Pakhto. In and around the city of Ghazni the people speak Persian. we may take the southern limit of the great Ghilzai tribe as the line in Afghanistan proper. Note that the name of the language itself reflects one of these distinctive alternations: in the north it is /paxto/ ‘Pashto’. northern has /j/..165.. and a western dialect centered in Kandahar. For the southern dialect. Darmesteter does not note the distinction between the southeastern palatal and southwestern retroflex pronunciations of and .139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Waziri (Waziristan). Ghilzais speak the northeastern dialect. In the north. although the two dialects probably overlap to a certain extent. and the Ghilzai tribe has /z/. This is the same terminology employed by Raverty (1859: viii). again distinguishing on the basis of the pronunciation of the letters and . while in the south. Table 4. The presence of distinct phonemes corresponding to distinct letters in the Southwestern dialect leads to two questions: which is the most prestigious dialect. they are pronounced /š/ and /ž/. Geiger (1895) also identifies two dialects that he calls northern and southern. and then along the Kundar to the boundary line running in a northeasterly direction up to near Peshawar. and Swat. Most adherents of the two-dialect approach focus primarily on differences in the pronunciation of the letters and . where southern has /ž/. respectively. and which is the most conservative? Penzl (1955: 9–10) cites a few sources implying that Kanda- ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. In fact. while in the south it is /paṣto/ ‘Pashto’. He notes the same contrasts as Darmesteter. and a rather detailed description of their boundary: ‫ښ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫پښتو‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ . while Anderson (1975: 576) says they speak a hard dialect. as subsequent researchers do (see Table 4. Caroe (1958: xvi) says the Ghilzai speak a soft dialect. these are pronounced /x/ and /g/. as explained above.. Grierson provides a colored map with the two dialects—northeastern and southwestern—distinguished.3). It is said to run from a stone bridge (Pul-e-Sang) at Asia Hazara. Waziri is distinct enough from Northeastern and Southwestern that he provides a standard word list for three varieties of Pashto: Northeastern (Peshawar). like the Durranis. implicit proponents of a two-dialect approach as “hard” and “soft” differ on their characterization of Ghilzai. and the variety of the southwestern dialect spoken by the Waziris. but also adds that for the letter .

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . the Middle dialects. ‫ ږ‬g Southern Northern Western Eastern Southwestern Northeastern Pashto Pakhto soft hard C A   Table 4.42  Pashto Dialects ‫ ښ‬ṣ. /x/ and /g/. and that the Northeastern tribes were probably the creators of Pashto literature. 1932) that at the time of the creation of the current alphabet in the 16th century. with a central dialect serving as intermediate between eastern and western. Northeastern dialects pronounced and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ as well. respectively. The difference between such an approach and the two-dialect approach discussed in Section 4.2 Three dialects ‫ګ‬ There are two principal ways in which the Pashto-speaking regions have been divided into three main dialects. The other maintains the distinction between eastern and western and introduces a third category. are shared with the letters and . and Kandahar. One of these treats the three dialects as a continuum. in contrast to Northeastern where the pronunciations of those letters. Eastern.165.8: Names for components of a two-dialect analysis of Pashto hari (Southwestern) is the most prestigious. and then goes on to call it “the cradle of the Pashto alphabet” due to the correspondence between letters and phonemes. which are distinctive in ways beyond the treatment of individual consonants. However.1 is that the Eastern dialects of the two-dialect approach have been further subdivided along the Pakistan/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫ ږ‬ẓ ‫ ښ‬x. ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ 4.126. particularly and with the retroflex /ṣ/ and /ẓ/ (which are in fact only represented by those letters).5.5. Penzl (1955: 8) distinguishes the following “main types which approach regional standards:” Peshawar. MacKenzie (1959: 233) cites Morgenstierne’s hypothesis (Morgenstierne.

in Wardak. using our dialect labels: ‫ښ‬ ‫څ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫شم‬ ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. For example. Penzl notes a few additional variants within the Eastern dialect. Tegey and Robson ascribe their Central dialect to the provinces of Kabul. In Logar. and in the verb to be is /s/.9: Eastern and Peshawar dialects compared as an intermediate step in a continuum from Kandahar to Peshawar. For example. I can’ (see also Section 8. rather than /š/: /šəm. the Eastern dialect can be seen Letter Kandahar (SW) Eastern (NW) Peshawar (NE) ‫ښ‬ ṣ ç x ‫ږ‬ ẓ g g ‫څ‬ ʦ ʦ s ‫ځ‬ ʣ z z   Table 4.165. corresponding to our NE and NW. as it is in Kandahar. They refer to a Kabul or Central dialect and a Nangarhar or Eastern dialect. while Penzl’s Eastern dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Central dialect. In some ways.9. Like Penzl. Ghazni. However.126.10 summarizes the three-dialect nomenclature of Penzl and Tegey and Robson. and Parwan. respectively. and the Eastern pronunciation of as a palatal can be seen as an intermediate step between the retroflex /ṣ/ of Kandahar and the velar /x/ of Peshawar.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . they divide the other two slightly differently from Penzl.11.8. Table 4. So where Penzl subdivides the two-dialect approach’s Eastern dialect along the Afghanistan/Pakistan border (a roughly north/south line). and Peshawar to our NE. Logar. Based on the features associated with these. the voiced counterpart to /ç/. They note that their Eastern dialect includes both the northeastern sections of Afghanistan and the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan (now called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Tegey & Robson (1996) also note a three-way dialect distinction for . we can see that Penzl’s Peshawar dialect is similar to Tegey and Robson’s Eastern dialect. Tegey and Robson subdivide it along an east-west line within Afghanistan. which we elaborate in Table 4. the preservation of /ʦ/ in the Eastern dialect is akin to Kandahar Pashto.Other approaches  43 Afghanistan border into Peshawar and Eastern (Afghanistan). is /s/ as in Peshawar. Kandahar corresponds to our SW dialect.2. Tegey & Robson (1996) also posit a three-dialect system. səm/ ‘I am. is pronounced as a palatal /ʝ/. they refer to a Kandahar or Western dialect. These are shown in Table 4.1).

44  Pashto Dialects This book Penzl Tegey and Robson SW Kandahar Kandahar.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Western NE Peshawar Eastern.10: Three-dialect approach SW NE NW ž j z   Table 4.11: Pronunciation of ‫ژ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165. Nangarhar NW Eastern Central   Table 4.

grammatical descriptions are in disagreement over the extent to which the organization of a class system should be based on the noun’s plural formation. regardless of the noun’s ending.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Scholars usually try to categorize Pashto nouns into inflectional classes. the direct singular word-form. Our system differs from previous treatments in that we base it solely on the suffixes each noun takes and treat stem allomorphy separately (see Section 5.Alina Twist and Anne Boyle David 5 Nouns 5. or its case-marking patterns. So nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are grammatically feminine. the gender of a noun may often be distinguished by the ending of the noun in its citation form. we present a system of inflectional classes for nouns that largely coincides with that presented for adjectives in Chapter 6.126. while pronouns and verbal agreement markers reflect gender and number. its phonological shape (especially the stem-final sound). number. Broadly speaking. others unpredictable. number (singular and plural).1.) For example: Typical masculine noun endings (direct singular)  any consonant ‫ ی‬ay (stressed or unstressed) Typical feminine noun endings (direct singular) ‫ ه‬a or ə ‫ ۍ‬əy ‫ې‬e There are.165. Agreement is found on determiners and modifying adjectives. ablative. which agree in gender. see Section 5. Following a review of the basic inflectional categories in the first three sections of this chapter. and vocative). oblique. grammatical gender is usually determined by biological sex. however. many exceptions to this pattern—some predictable by other criteria.1.2). ‫لور‬ ‫مور‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. even though they end in consonants.1 Gender Pashto nouns are categorized grammatically as either masculine or feminine. and case.1 Inflection Pashto nouns are inflected to show gender (masculine and feminine). 5. For animate nouns.2. (Regarding case forms. however.3 and also Chapter 8. and case (direct.

in coreferential pronouns. ‫پیشی‬ ‫غټ بیزو‬ ‫بیزو‬ ‫قاضي‬ whereas /i/-final nouns denoting abstract concepts and inanimate objects are typically feminine (e. Certain mass nouns or collective nouns like /obə́/ ‘water’ and /gdən/ ‘millet’ govern plural agreement in verbs. ‫کب‬ ‫پیشو‬ ‫غڼه‬ ‫بیزو‬ Nouns like /pišó/ ‘cat (female)’ and /bizó/ ‘monkey’ are grammatically feminine by default.1. number is often reflected in agreement on modifying adjectives.g. ‫سړی‬ ‫شاګرد‬ ‫غواي‬ ‫ښځه‬ ‫شاګرده‬ ‫غوا‬ ‫غڼې‬ ‫ کبان‬/kəbā́n/). /ɣwā/ ‘cow’ Many small animals and insects. as in /ɣaṭ bizó/ ‘big monkey (male)’. al- ‫اوبه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫دښمني‬ 5. as in /pišay/ ‘cat (male)’. although nouns like /mor/ ‘mother’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ look masculine because they end with consonants. /qāzí/ ‘judge’).2. are associated with an invariable grammatical gender assigned more or less arbitrarily (see Rishtin 1994. or the agreement patterns elsewhere in the utterance may reflect masculine as opposed to feminine gender. and the word for ‘fish’ is always masculine: /kəb/ (pl. Additional semantic clues may be helpful for a noun whose grammatical gender cannot be predicted by the sex of its denotational class or by its final sound.3 and onwards. For example. for example. for example. but the shape of the adjective indicates that the noun has masculine reference. their plurals. cited in Khan 2006). however.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫ږدن‬ . /ɣəṇé/).46  Nouns Predicting grammatical gender based on sex primarily works for nouns that denote humans or animals whose sex is culturally important and readily apparent. although nouns ending in /i/ can be either masculine or feminine.2 Number Pashto has several ways to form regular plurals. such words may be inflected with a distinct opposite gender form. In rare circumstances. As with gender. and in agreement markers on verbs. and there is no strong cultural motivation to distinguish between male and female counterparts.g. /duxmaní/ ‘enmity’). /šāgə́rdə/ ‘student (female)’ /ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ vs. For example. /səṛáy/ ‘man’ vs. Plural formation is one of the ways to distinguish feminine from masculine nouns. where /bizó/ does not change. consonant-final masculine nouns that denote types of fruit or trees generally do not take any special plural suffixes. masculine nouns ending in /i/ denote professions (e. So. /máynde/ ‘moth- ‫مور‬ ‫لور‬ ‫مېندې‬ ‫ لوڼې‬/lúṇe/ ‘daughters’. as a general rule. on the other hand. Similarly. rather than the ‫ ـان‬/‑ā́n/ or ‫ ـونه‬/‑úna/ suffixes that are characteristic of ers’ and consonant-final masculine nouns.126. as may be seen in the tables in Section 5. show the ‫ ـې‬/‑e/ suffix that is typical of many feminine plurals. /ṣə́ʣa/ ‘woman’ /šāgə́rd/ ‘student (male)’ vs.165. the word for ‘spider’ in Pashto is often feminine: /ɣəṇá/ (pl.

M.1.DIR 1SG. as illustrated in 5.‫ما اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG.5) .WK AOR-eat.F ‘I drank water.F.M ‘I ate many mulberries.M.PST-PST. In most instances.‫ډېر توتان مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-ān me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.STR.‫ما ډېرې اوبه وڅکلې‬ mā ḍer-e ob-ə wə́-čək-əl-e 1SG.M ‘I ate many mulberries. These are described individually in the following subsections.’ (NW) 5.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST. or vocative.STR. Pashto nouns take one of four morphosyntactic cases: direct.PST-PST.3PL.3) .M ‘I ate millet.STR.’ (5.DIR water-PL.3PL. (5.1) .3PL.Inflection  47 ‫ـان‬ though the plural suffix /‑ān/ may be added in some cases. by stem vowel ablaut.M.3PL.WK AOR-eat.DIR 1SG.OBL water-PL. Note that the verb is plural in both sentences.F ‘I drank a lot of water.M.126.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.F.3 Case Case is marked in Pashto by suffixes and.M.2) .DIR mulberry-PL.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tut-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL. whether or not the noun has a plural suffix.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .‫ما ږدن وخوړل‬ mā gdən-Ø wə́-xoṛ-əl 1SG.DIR mulberry-PL.OBL millet-PL.3PL. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR AOR-eat.2.1 and 5.’ (5.F. in some instances. ablative.165.OBL much-PL.’ (NW) (5.’ (NW) (5.PST-PST.4) . oblique.

In the present tense.1 Direct case The direct case form is used for noun phrases that fulfill nominative.126.48  Nouns case assignment criteria are identical across dialects.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . however. accusative. the circumposition /lə .. na/ ‘from’ (see Chapter 9).. Accordingly.3.165.2.. and Chapter 8. and finally. we present separate class information for Waziri corresponding to each class paradigm for General Pashto. See also Chapter 7. with subjects preceding objects. Available data extends only for Waziri. the combination of inflectional patterns with certain nouns. ‫له‬ 5. plus any circumposition consisting of a postposition and one of these two prepositions. in accordance with split ergativity. subject noun phrases appear in the oblique case form. For feminine nouns. or any circumposition or complex adposition that contains one of these prepositions.1. ‫له‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. originating from’. plural forms of nouns. or absolutive functions. ‫ته‬ ‫سره‬ ‫د‬ ‫په‬ ‫ نه‬.3. grammatical function is indicated by word order.. For masculine nouns.3..1. which assigns oblique case to its object.. and verbal agreement markers justifies the identification of the four classes named above. and only to the direct and oblique cases. the prepositions /də/ ‘of’ and /pə/ ‘at’.3 Ablative case The ablative case (sometimes also called Oblique II or Prepositional) is used when the noun is an object of the prepositions /pə/ ‘with’ in the instrumental usage. The oblique case is used for objects of most adpositions. so we do not include examples for ablative and vocative for the Waziri dialect. pronouns. /lə/ ‘from’ or /tər/ ‘from. including the postpositions /tə/ ‘to’ and /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’. it is usually identical to both the oblique and vocative forms.2 Oblique case In past-tense sentences. Note that because of this overlapping of forms and because ablative forms are relatively ‫تر‬ ‫په‬ ‫له‬ ‫ نه‬. Nouns that exist in both General Pashto and Waziri usually belong to analogous inflectional classes. respectively. the ablative form is almost always identical to the vocative form. see Section 5. 5. na/ ‘from’. on exceptions involving first and second person pronouns.. Marking of case is not always visible or consistent in all domains in Pashto.5. in present-tense and past-tense sentences.. adjectives.3. 5. except for the circumposition /lə . as outlined in Section 9.1.1. but the case assigned by adpositions may differ in the Middle dialects. though the inflectional suffixes for each class differ between General Pashto varieties and Waziri.

an informant of ours did not have this.SG ‘Man.1. The vocative plural form is always identical to the other non-direct plural forms. the vocative singular form of feminine nouns is identical to the oblique and ablative singular forms.7) ‫د زلمي کتاب‬ də zalm-i kitāb-Ø of Zalmay-M. not * /salur uxa/. ‫څومره ميله‬ ‫لس کاله‬ ‫دوه هلکه‬ ‫څلور اوښه‬ ‫څلور اوښان‬ 5. except for those ending in /u/. /dwa halə́ka/ ‘two boys’. stop!’ (NW) (5. /las kā́la/ ‘ten years’. for example. stop!’ (NW) (5.OBL book-M. /i/. some grammatical descriptions—Tegey and Robson’s. the vocative singular suffix in all noun classes is /a/ or /ə/.126. According to Lorenz (1982) and Heston (1992).OBL book-M. ‫و‬ (5.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.9) ‫د پلوشې کتاب‬ də palwaš-e kitāb-Ø of Palwasha-F. for example—do not recognize the ablative as a separate case in Pashto.DIR ‘Zalmay's book’ (NW) (5. or by some other quantifier: /somra míla/ ‘how many miles?’ NE . With some exceptions (mainly kinship terms).6) ‫ي‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ا‬ !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫سړیه‬ saṛ-aya wə́-dar-eg-a man-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . /salur uxān/ ‘four camels’ NW . however. giving.165. the ablative case can also be used for consonant-final masculine nouns when they are modified by a cardinal number greater than one.4 Vocative case For masculine nouns.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP. the vocative singular form is identical to the direct singular form.8) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫پلوشې‬ palwaš-e wə́-dar-eg-a Palwasha-F.Inflection  49 infrequent.DIR ‘Palwasha's book’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3.SG ‘Palwasha. or /ā/ in the direct case form: in those nouns.

12 shows direct case-marking of and verbal agreement with the nominative argument. for example.DIR mulberry-PL.‫زه ډېر خوندور توتان خورم‬ za ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG. 5.5 Split ergativity Pashto exhibits nominative-accusative alignment in the non-past tenses and ergativeabsolutive in the past tenses.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1. This distinction mostly affects which plural suffixes a noun takes.STR.13 illustrate this split.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP.M ‘I ate a lot of tasty mulberries.OBL many-PL.M.STR.M.M.M.DIR wə́-xoṛ-əl AOR-eat.DIR tasty-PL.165.DIR many-PL. while 5.’ (NW) (5.11) ‫د خور کتاب‬ də xor-Ø kitāb-Ø of sister-F.OBL book-M.M.10) Nouns !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫خورې‬ xor-e wə́-dar-eg-a sister-F.’ (NW) 5. stop!’ (NW) (5.DIR Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.3. and most other things are not. Most humans and some animals are represented by animate nouns.M.50  (5.13) . (5.13 shows oblique case-marking of the subject and verbal agreement with the direct object.DIR mulberry-PL.12 and 5. consonant-final masculine nouns (Class I) that denote living beings typically take the plural suffix ‫ـګان‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.1.DIR ‘sister's book’ (NW) 5.3PL.PST-PST.‫ما ډېر خونده ور توتان وخوړل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwandawər-Ø tut-ān 1SG.PRS-1SG ‘I am eating a lot of tasty mulberries.SG ‘Sister.4 Animacy Another category involved in noun inflection is animacy.DIR tasty-PL.12) . Sentences 5.

Our information on the Middle dialects is of variable reliability: the Waziri forms. This approach is in contrast to most other descriptions of Pashto. may not reflect the actual biological status of the noun’s denotatum. which come from Lorimer. the Dzadrani forms have been extracted from Septfonds and have not been confirmed. A striking feature of Pashto morphology is the fluidity of noun class membership. treats animacy as a grammatical. depending on the speaker and the dialect. whose plural forms show greater uniformity (see Chapter 6). This section describes the forms of affixes by class. Whether a noun takes animate or inanimate markers can also vary with the dialect. which may be zero.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .Inflectional affixation  51 ‫ـونه‬ /‑gān/. ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ان‬ 5. as mentioned in Section 5. This grammar. However. were confirmed through elicitation.2. whereas those that denote inanimate objects are more likely to take /‑úna/. however. The basis for these class groups is more apparent for adjectives. for example. /plār/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’ are both inflected as inanimates. rather than semantic. Although the above-mentioned plural suffix /‑gān/ occurs only in Class I.4.2 Inflectional affixation 5. therefore. actual animacy of the denotational class is not a sure predictor of grammatical animacy in Pashto. others on the plural forms. In many instances. and. there is no obvious solution nor clear consensus for classifying Pashto nouns and adjectives.165. The classification of Pashto inflectional classes presented in this grammar focuses on the last two items in that it aims to build a unified inflectional class system for nouns and adjectives and to provide a clearer understanding of the association between formally related masculine and feminine classes. Some resources focus on the endings of nouns. the same word can be inflected with different suffixes and hence grouped by grammatical descriptions under different noun classes.126. category. the sequence /ān/ (with or without additional sounds such as initial /g/ as above) appears to be strongly associated with living (especially human) denotata: several nouns denoting living beings in other inflectional classes have variant plural forms containing the sequence /ān/ in their suffix.1. Due to considerable gaps and overlap among inflectional patterns. still others on apparent connections between male and female counterparts and parallels between noun and adjective inflection.1 Introduction The properties listed in the previous section are marked in the inflected forms of nouns by a single suffix. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

They are predictable in some cases from the last sound of the stem. These differences are specified in Table 5.5.2 Nouns Stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic alternations Many Pashto nouns undergo morphophonemic alternations when they inflect. These alternations include stem allomorphy.52  5.3. but instead describe stem allomorphy and other morphophonemic patterns for each class in the following sections.165. animate or inanimate. as can be seen in Table 5.1 Overview Class I includes the majority of nouns in both General Pashto and Waziri.3. as well as patterns involving both the stem and suffix.2. In some instances.1 and Table 5. We depart from most other descriptions in that we do not consider stem allomorphy when classifying Pashto nouns. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. however. Most of them end in a consonant.2.126.3 Class I 5. 5. which give a broad overview of the inflectional suffixes that distinguish this class. Nouns of this class can be masculine or feminine. which suffix a Class I noun takes is determined by whether the stem ends in a vowel or a consonant.2. their occurrence can be erratic in other cases.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . or from other information about the form or meaning of the noun.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 53 . noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct -Ø Inanimate ‫ــګان‬ ‫ـونه‬ ‫ـګانو‬ ‫ـونو‬ -gā́n Oblique -úna -gā́no -úno E ‫ـو‬ -ó W Ablative -Ø (vowel-stems) ‫ـه‬ -a (consonant-stems) Vocative   Table 5.126.2: Middle dialect Class I Masc.1: GP Class I Masc. noun suffixes Singular Plural Animate Direct Oblique Inanimate -Ø ‑ún WAZ -ā́ WAZ ‑yún WAZ ‑ina -ə́ DZA -ón DZA -í DZA -yón DZA -í DZA ‑úne WAZ ‑ine WAZ ‑yúne WAZ -a WAZ -óne DZA -ə DZA -yóne DZA   Table 5.

126.3: GP Class I Fem. noun suffixes Direct ‫ـوو‬ Singular Plural -a WAZ -e -e WAZ -we DZA -Ǿ WAZ -o DZA Oblique   Table 5.4: Middle dialect Class I Fem.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .54  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Plural Inanimate Animate ‫ـګانې‬ -Ø -gā́ne Inanimate ‫ـوې‬ -we W (after /ā́/ or /ó/) ‫ـې‬ -e (elsewhere) Oblique -Ø -Ø (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـې‬ ‫ـګانو‬ -gā́no -wo W (after ā́ or ó) ‫ـو‬ -e (elsewhere) -o (elsewhere) Ablative Vocative   Table 5.165. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

the latter when the second part of a consonant cluster. • GP plural suffix ‫ ـګان‬/‑gā́n/ ‫ـګان‬ The plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑gā́n/.3.2. However. /ā́/. either possible form is allowed (e. whereas /‑úna/ and /‑úno/ are used for inanimate masculine nouns. or /yé/. ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـې‬ the latter derived from feminine nouns in /ā́/ or • • ‫ـي‬ ‫ و‬/ó/. shown in Table 5. /xārejí/ ‘foreigner’ ‫ډولچي‬ . although there are also many ending in /ə́/ or /á/.3. either becoming a glide or deleting.2.2. for example: ‫ـې‬ ‫ غواي‬/ɣwāyí/ ‘bull’ < ‫ غوا‬/ɣwā/ ‘cow’ ‫ پیشې‬/pišé/ ‘cat [male]’. The subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/. but for others only one or the other occurs. or /í/.3. However. in the top left cell of each table.g.22. /ā́/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫پلندر‬ .g. ‫ بنګي‬/bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ).3.1 Masculine animate nouns in General Pashto Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings. ‫ډاکوان‬ ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ـګان‬ ‫ډاکوګان‬ • Sample paradigms Table 5. a rare variant form < ‫ پیشو‬/pišó/ ‘cat [female]’. These morphophonemic alternations apply to all nouns whose citation form ends in /i/ or in a consonant.12.6 through Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2 Class I masculine nouns Most masculine nouns in this class end in a consonant. is mostly composed of words that denote professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the denoted class (e.4). /ə́/. The plural of Class I masculine animate nouns is formed with the suffix /‑gā́n(o)/.14. and to some of those ending ‫ګـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ in /á/. suffix-initial /g/ frequently undergoes lenition. In some cases the stem undergoes changes as well. ‫ـونه‬ (‫ـګان)و‬ ‫ونو‬- 5. indicating stem allomorphy. and a few in /é/. or /ú/ . those ending in /u/—are extremely fluid in the application of this /g/-deletion: for many.126. /ú/. described in Section 5. /ḍolčí/ ‘drummer’ . ‫خارجي‬ Note from the variant forms shown in Table 5. as can be seen in Table 5.Inflectional affixation  55 5. as shown in Table 5. Table 5.13 for the plural of this item that /plandár/ ‘stepfather’ can also be inflected as a Class IIb noun (Section 5. /ḍākú/ ‘bandit’+ /-gān/> /ḍākugā́n/or /ḍākwā́n/ ‘bandits’).19 through Table 5. Certain nouns—for example. /yí/.2.6 through Table 5.2.5 outlines these rules for Class I masculine animate nouns.165.14 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun. if any. the derivation of masculine nouns from feminine ones is much rarer than the reverse process.

some plurals ‫ه‬ ə or a → Ø/ [-stress] ‫وېښته ـګان ← وېښتان‬ wextə-gā́n → wextā́n hairs 2.6: GP Class I Masc.56  Nouns Final stem sound(s) Suffix/Stem change Forms affected C Cg→ CØ all plurals Example ‫پیل ـګان ← پیلان‬ pil-gā́n → pilā́n elephants ‫ ه‬ə or a 1. Cg→ CØ ‫و‬u ug → w some plurals ‫ډاکو ـګان ← ډاکوان‬ ḍāku-gā́n → ḍākwā́n bandits ‫ا‬ā g → y/ā_ā some plurals ‫میرزاګان ← میرزایان‬ mirzā́-gān → mirzāyā́n clerks ‫ي‬i ig → y ‫درزي ـګان ← درزیان‬ all plurals darzí-gān → darzyā́n tailors   Table 5. animate: ‫ وېښته‬/wextə́/ ‘hair’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. animate—morphophonemic alternations ‫ ه‬ə or a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫وېښته‬ ‫وېښتان‬ wextə́ wext-ā́n ‫وېښتانو‬ Oblique wext-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.5: GP Class I Masc.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 57 .8: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ ډاکو‬/ḍākú/ ‘bandit’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. animate: ‫ بنده‬/bandá/ ‘slave’ ‫ و‬u∼w Singular Plural Direct ‫ډاکو‬ ‫ډاکوان‬ ḍākú ḍākw-ā́n ‫ډاکوګان‬ ḍāku-gā́n ‫ډاکوانو‬ Oblique ḍākw-ā́no ‫ډاکوګانو‬ ḍāku-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.165.Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بنده‬ ‫بندهګان‬ bandá banda-gā́n ‫بندهګانو‬ Oblique banda-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.7: GP Class I Masc.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .9: GP Class I Masc.10: GP Class I Masc.126.165. animate: ‫ بازو‬/bāzú/ ‘arm’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫میرزا‬ ‫میرزایان‬ mirzā́ mirzā-yā́n ‫میرزایانو‬ Oblique mirzā-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5. animate: ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.58  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫بازو‬ ‫بازوګان‬ bāzú bāzu-gā́n ‫بازوګانو‬ Oblique bāzu-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.

12: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ ماما‬/māmā́/ ‘maternal uncle’ ‫ ي‬i∼y Singular Plural Direct ‫درزي‬ ‫درزیان‬ darzí darzy-ā́n ‫درزیانو‬ Oblique darzy-ā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 59 .11: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ درزي‬/darzí/ ‘tailor’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Inflectional affixation  no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫ماما‬ ‫ماماګان‬ māmā́ māmā-gā́n ‫ماماګانو‬ Oblique māmā-gā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.

126.165.60  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫پلندر‬ ‫پلندران‬ plandár plandər-ā́n ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r Oblique ‫پلندر‬ plandə́r ‫پلندرانو‬ plandar-ā́no ‫پلندرو‬ plandə́r-o Ablative ‫پلندره‬ plandár-a Vocative   Table 5.14: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ پیل‬/pil/ ‘elephant’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.13: GP Class I Masc. animate: ‫ پلندر‬/plandár/ ‘stepfather’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پیل‬ ‫پیلان‬ pil pil-ā́n ‫پیلانو‬ Oblique pil-ā́no Ablative ‫پیله‬ píl-a Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

2. /xorejí/ ‘foreigner’ .Inflectional affixation  61 5. • Waziri plural suffix /‑ún/.15: Waziri Class I Masc. respectively.3. animate: /šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ no stem change Singular Plural Direct mirzā́ mirzā-yún mirzā-yúne Oblique   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .17. /bangí/ ‘hash-smoker’ ). is mostly composed of words that express professional titles or similar designations of a characteristic activity of the referent (e. /-yún/ The direct plural suffix for animate Class I masculine nouns is /‑ún/ for nouns that end in a consonant or /‑yún/ for those that end in a vowel. animate: /mirzā́/ ‘clerk’ As in General Pashto. shown in Table 5.g.2. The corresponding oblique plural suffixes are /-úne/ and /‑yúne/.16 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine animate noun in Waziri.165. /kazí/ ‘judge’ . the subset of Class I nouns ending in /í/.15 through Table 5. no stem change Singular Plural Direct šāgə́rd šāgərd-ún šāgərd-úne Oblique   Table 5.126. • Sample paradigms Table 5. These nouns exhibit a stem allomorphy between the final /í/ of the uninflected form and /y/ in the inflected form.16: Waziri Class I Masc.2 Masculine animate nouns in Waziri Most nouns in this sub-group denote living beings. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

giving plural forms /nikəgā́n/.22 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun. similarly to the pattern in Table 5. For example. giving the plural form /nikún/. multisyllabic nouns are included as well (as in /ṭaɣár/ ‘rug’).62  Nouns i∼y Singular Plural Direct kazi kazy-ún kazy-úne Oblique   Table 5. with the plural suffix /-ū́n/. ‫ټغر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. For instance. in the top left cell of each table.2. inanimate masculine nouns can also undergo stem allomorphy before suffixes are added. In Waziri.165. and /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’and (distinctive to Waziri) /plúr/ ‘father’.3 Masculine inanimate nouns in General Pashto and Waziri As stated above.e. /nikəgā́no/. In General Pashto. Class membership for Pashto nouns varies widely across dialects. giving plurals /meṛúna/. i.2. animate: /kazí/ ‘judge’ 5.19 through Table 5. /meṛúno/. The first three tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns. and the last one illustrates vowel-final nouns. however. ‫نیکه‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫نیکهګان‬ ‫وراره‬ ‫تره‬ ‫نیکهګانو‬ ‫مېړه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫میړونه‬ ‫میړونو‬ • Stem allomorphy Like animate masculine nouns of Class I. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’.18.3. included within this group are kinship terms /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’. the word /meṛə́/ ‘husband’ can be inflected by some speakers with a stem change.19. the word /nik/ ‘fingernail’ can be inflected like either a Class I animate noun with a plural form of /nikún/ or as a Class I inanimate noun.e. in General Pashto. with the plural suffix /-ā́n/.17: Waziri Class I Masc. if any. ‫ور‬ The majority of nouns represented by Table 5. /nikə́/ ‘grandfather’ can alternatively be inflected like a Class I animate noun with no stem allomorphy. In Waziri. indicating stem allomorphy..19 are monosyllabic (as in /war/ ‘door’). • Sample paradigms for GP Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5. where the stem vowel /a/ is dropped.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . although it does also include a few nouns that denote living beings. this form can similarly be inflected as a Class I animate noun. i. this subset of Class I comprises a greater number of nouns with inanimate denotation. as shown in Table 5. yielding a plural form of /nikína/. /meṛə́/ ‘husband’..126.

inanimate: ‫ غر‬/ɣar/ ‘mountain’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.19: GP Class I Masc.18: Class I Masc.Inflectional affixation  Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Comment VC a→Ø all plurals mostly monosyllabic words a→ə ‫ ه‬ə́ or a ‫غرـونه ← غرونه‬ ɣar-úna → ɣrúna mountains ‫← دفترونه‬ ‫دفترـونه‬ oblique singular.165. all plurals V→Ø Example daftar-úna → daftərúna office ‫پسه ← پسونه‬ ‫ـونه‬ all plurals psə–úna → psúna sheep   Table 5.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 63 . inanimate—stem allomorphy a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غر‬ ‫غرونه‬ ɣar ɣr-úna ‫غرونو‬ Oblique ɣr-úno Ablative ‫غره‬ ɣár-a ɣr-ə Vocative   Table 5.

indicating stem allomorphy.19) can also be heard as /ɣr-ə/. ‫غره‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫غر‬ a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ daftár daftər-úna ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r Oblique ‫دفتر‬ daftə́r ‫دفترونو‬ daftər-úno ‫دفترو‬ daftə́r-o Ablative ‫دفتره‬ daftár-a Vocative   Table 5. For example. and the last two illustrate vowel-final nouns.4).3. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.20: GP Class I Masc.23 through Table 5.126.165.26 give paradigms for each type of Class I masculine inanimate noun.3. the oblique form of /ɣar/ ‘mountain’ (Table 5. in the top left cell of each table. if any.20) has variant forms that would put it in Class IIb. Patterns of stem allomorphy are described in Section 5.2.2.64  Nouns Some of the nouns in this set can also be inflected as Class II nouns (Section 5. /daftár/ ‘office’ (Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Likewise.2. inanimate: ‫ دفتر‬/daftár/ ‘office’ • Sample paradigms for Waziri Class I masculine inanimate nouns Table 5. The first two tables give the patterns for consonant-final nouns.

Inflectional affixation 

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫غوږ‬

‫غوږونه‬

ɣwəg

ɣwəg-úna

‫غوږونو‬

Oblique

ɣwəg-úno

Ablative

‫غوږه‬

ɣwə́g-a

Vocative

 
Table 5.21: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

‫ غوږ‬/ɣwəg/ ‘ear’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫پسه‬

‫پسونه‬

psə

ps-úna

‫پسونو‬

Oblique

ps-úno

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.22: GP Class I Masc. inanimate:

Direct

‫ پسه‬/psə/ ‘sheep’
Singular

Plural

taɣə́r

taɣər-ína
taɣə́r-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.23: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /taɣə́r/ ‘rug’

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65

66

Nouns

a∼ə

Singular

Plural

Direct

daftár

daftər-ína,
daftər-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.24: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /daftár/ ‘office’

ə∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

pəsə́

pəs-ína
pəs-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.25: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /pəsə́/ ‘sheep’

a∼Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

ɣar

ɣr-ína
ɣr-íne

Oblique

 
Table 5.26: Waziri Class I Masc. inanimate: /ɣar/ ‘mountain’

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Inflectional affixation 

67

5.2.3.3 Class I feminine nouns in General Pashto and Waziri
Most Class l feminine nouns end in (unstressed) /a/ or /ə/, although some also end
in /á/, /e/, /ó/, /ā́/, or a consonant. Some of those ending in /a/ or /ə/ are formed by
adding this sound to the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart, in which
case it reflects biological sex; for example:
/soy/ ‘hare [male]’ >
/sóya/ ‘hare [female]’
/mal/ ‘friend [male]’ >
/mla/ ‘friend [female]’
/špun/ ‘shepherd’ >
/španá/ ‘shepherdess’
As can be seen in the second and third examples, sometimes there is a stem change
as well.

‫ه‬

‫سوي‬
‫مل‬
‫شپون‬

‫سویه‬
‫مله‬
‫شپنه‬

5.2.3.3.1 General Pashto Class I feminine animate nouns
Animate feminine nouns of Class I have the same form for all case forms in the singular,
as can be seen in the list of suffixes in Table 5.3, as well as in the paradigms in Table
5.28 through Table 5.30.
• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.27 describes the changes that take place for plural animate feminine nouns
of Class I.

Final stem
sound(s)

Suffix/Stem change

e

Forms affected

all plurals
1. g → Ø
2. e → y/_ā

Example

‫خواښې ← خواښیانې‬
‫ـګانې‬
xwāxe-gā́ne →
xwāxyā́ne
‘mothers-in-law’

 
Table 5.27: GP Class I Fem. animate—stem allomorphy

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.28 through Table 5.30 show examples of animate Class I feminine nouns.
Class I feminine nouns that end in /ó/ or /á/ show some variability in plural suffixes,
as can be seen in Table 5.29 and Table 5.30. Penzl (1955) reports that the /w/ forms
are more common in Kandahari Pashto, although not exclusive to that dialect. Note

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68

Nouns

e∼y

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫خواښې‬

‫خواښیانې‬

xwāxe

xwāxy-ā́ne

‫خواښیانو‬

Oblique

xwāxy-ā́no

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.28: GP Class I Fem. animate:

‫ـوې‬

‫ خواښې‬/xwāxe/ ‘mother-in-law’

‫ـوو‬

that in taking the
/‑we/ or
/‑wo/ suffixes, the nouns are switching categories,
from animate to inanimate, and would decline exactly like the feminine inanimate
noun
/raṇā́/ ‘light’ in Table 5.34.

‫رڼا‬

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫بیزو‬

‫بیزوګانې‬

bizó

bizo-gā́ne

‫بیزووې‬

bizo-we

‫بیزوګانو‬

Oblique

bizo-gā́no

‫بیزوو‬

bizo-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.29: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ بیزو‬/bizó/ ‘monkey’

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Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫برېښنا‬

‫برېښناګانې‬

brexnā́

69

brexnā-gā́ne

‫برېښناوې‬

brexnā́-we

‫برېښناګانو‬

Oblique

brexnā-gā́no

‫برېښناوو‬

brexnā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.30: GP Class I Fem. animate/inanimate:

‫ برېښنا‬/brexnā/ ‘lightning’

5.2.3.3.2 General Pashto Class I feminine inanimate nouns
Inanimate feminine nouns in Class I behave similarly to animate ones in the singular
when they end in /ā́/ or /ó/; that is, all singular forms are identical (see Table
5.3). Those that end in any other sounds have one form for the singular direct form
and another for the singular oblique, ablative, and vocative forms, as in Table 5.32 and
Table 5.33.

‫ا‬

‫و‬

• Stem allomorphy
Table 5.31 describes stem allomorphy for inanimate feminine nouns of Class I.

Final stem sound(s)

Stem change

Forms affected

‫ ه‬ə́ or a

V→Ø

oblique singular, all
plurals

Example

‫اسپه ـې ← اسپې‬
áspa-e → áspe
‘mares’

 
Table 5.31: GP Class I Fem. inanimate—stem allomorphy

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70 

Nouns

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.32 through Table 5.34 show examples of inanimate Class I feminine nouns.

ə́ or a ∼ Ø

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫اسپه‬

‫اسپې‬

áspa

Oblique

‫اسپې‬
ásp-e

ásp-e

‫اسپو‬

ásp-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.32: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ اسپه‬/áspa/ ‘mare’

no stem change

Singular

Plural

Direct

‫میاشت‬

‫میاشتې‬

miāšt

Oblique

‫میاشتې‬
miā́št-e

miā́št-e

‫میاشتو‬

miā́št-o

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.33: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ میاشت‬/miāšt/ ‘mouth’

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Inflectional affixation 

Direct

Singular

Plural

‫رڼا‬

‫رڼاوې‬

raṇā́

71

raṇā́-we

‫رڼاوو‬

Oblique

raṇā́-wo

Ablative
Vocative

 
Table 5.34: Class I Fem. inanimate:

‫ رڼا‬/raṇā́/ ‘light’

5.2.3.3.3 Waziri Class I feminine nouns
Most Waziri Class I feminine nouns end in /a/, although some also end in /á/, /e/,
or a consonant. Some of those ending in /á/ or /ə/ are derived by adding this sound to
the direct singular form of the masculine counterpart; for example:
/šāgə́rd/ ‘student [male]’ > /šāgərdá/ ‘student [female)]’
Regular inanimate and animate feminine nouns of Class I behave similarly. However, many animate feminine nouns, particularly those that are kinship terms, are irregular, as they are in General Pashto. These are addressed in Section 5.2.6.1. Stem allomorphy applies in Waziri as it does in General Pashto (see Table 5.31), that is, nouns
ending in an unstressed vowel lose the vowel when the inflected suffix is added. If the
final vowel carries stress in the uninflected form, the stress will remain with the suffix
in the inflected form, as shown in Table 5.37.

‫ه‬

• Sample paradigms
Table 5.35 through Table 5.37 show examples of Class I feminine nouns.

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72 

Nouns

stem = wradz-

Singular

Plural

Direct

wradz

wradz-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.35: Waziri Class I Fem., consonant-final: /wradz/ ‘day’

stem = jə́rga

Singular

Plural

Direct

jə́rga

jə́rg-e

Oblique

 
Table 5.36: Waziri Class I Fem., unstressed-vowel-final: /jə́rga/ ‘council’

stem = žanḍā́

Singular

Plural

Direct

žanḍā́

žanḍ-é

Oblique

 
Table 5.37: Waziri Class I Fem., stressed-vowel-final: /žanḍā́/ ‘flag’

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Inflectional affixation 

5.2.4

73

Class II

5.2.4.1 Overview
General Pashto’s Class II has no feminine nouns. It consists of two declension patterns,
subdivided according to these two patterns into Classes IIa and IIb. There is no animacy distinction in Class IIb, or, viewed another way, all Class IIb nouns are animate.
A comparison of the animate suffixes of IIa with IIb suffixes shows that they differ in
only two respects: first, in their oblique singular/direct plural suffixes (/-ə/ versus -Ø),
and second, in the presence or absence of stress in the vocative singular suffixes.
Nouns in Class IIa can end in either a consonant or a stressed /a/. Most of those
that end in /á/ appear to be nouns derived from the suffix
/‑bá/ ‘master, keeper’, as
in
/uxbá/ ‘camel driver’, from
/ux/ ‘camel’. These /-bá/ derived nouns, as
well as the noun
/melmá/ ‘guest’ (Table 5.45), have alternate /-ānə́/ and /-anó/
suffixes in the plural. Suffixes for this class are given in Table 5.38.
Class IIb nouns all end in consonants. Most, perhaps all, of the nouns in this class
can also be declined according to other noun classes. Suffixes for this class are given
in Table 5.39.
We have not identified a distinct set of Class II nouns in Waziri. Most of the masculine nouns whose General Pashto forms are Class IIa nouns behave like Class I nouns,
like /pālíz/ ‘kitchen garden’, plural /pāliz-ína/, and /tanúr/ ‘oven’, plural /tanurína/. At least one masculine noun that belongs to Class IIb in General Pashto may be
inflected in Waziri like a Class IIb noun, namely /žənawár/ ‘animal’, plural /žənawə́r/.
Another noun expected to belong to the same class, /mənžəwár/ ‘shrinekeeper’ is inflected in Waziri as a Class I animate noun, plural /mənžəwar-ún/. Feminine nouns
that belong to Class II in General Pashto typically behave like Class III nouns in Waziri,
e.g. /koranə́y/ ‘family’, plural /koran-ej/. The data are too sparse to determine whether
Class II nouns simply do not exist in Waziri, or if an inflection pattern similar to that
of GP Class II may be an option for some nouns.

‫وښبه‬

‫مېلمه‬

‫وښ‬

‫ـبه‬

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74  Nouns

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate

‫ـه‬

‫ـونه‬

‑ə́

‑úna

‫ـانه‬

‑ānə́

(variant for
á-stem only)
Oblique

‫ـه‬

‑ə́

‫ـو‬

‫ـونو‬

‑ó

‑úno

‫انو‬

‑ānó

(variant for
á-stem only)
Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑á

Vocative

 
Table 5.38: GP Class IIa noun suffixes

Singular

Plural

Animate
Direct

Inanimate
―—

‫ـو‬

Oblique

‑o

Ablative

‫ـه‬

‑a

Vocative

 
Table 5.39: GP Class IIb noun suffixes

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42) can also be declined as Class I nouns. ablative.40: GP Class IIa—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5.45. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected Noun type Example ‫ و‬o/u + C V→ā oblique singular and direct plural animates ‫پښتون ـه ← پښتانه‬ V→a ə/a + C á ‫پښتون ـو ← پښتنو‬ oblique.2 General Pashto Class IIa • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIa nouns are given in Table 5. Some IIa nouns with the o/u ∼ ā alternation (Table 5.126.165. and vocative plurals V → ə or no change all plurals V→Ø all plurals a→Ø pəxtún-ə́ → pəxtānə́ ‘Pashtuns’ pəxtún-ó → pəxtanó ‘Pashtuns’ inanimates ‫تنور ـونه ← تنرونه‬ tanur-úna → tanərúna ‘ovens’ all monosyllables everywhere but direct singular mostly -bá derived nouns ‫غل ـونه ← غلونه‬ ɣal-úna → ɣlúna ‘thieves’ ‫مېلمه ـه ← مېلمه‬ melmá-ə → melmə́ ‘guests’   Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.4.41 through Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2.Inflectional affixation  75 5.40.

41: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پالېز‬/pālez/ ‘kitchen garden’ o/u ∼ ā/a Singular Plural Direct ‫پښتون‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتانه‬ ‫پښتنو‬ pəxtún Oblique pəxtān-ə́ Ablative pəxtān-ə́ pəxtan-o ‫پښتونه‬ pəxtún-a Vocative   Table 5.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.42: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ پښتون‬/pəxtún/ ‘Pashtun’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.76  Nouns no stem change Singular Plural Direct ‫پالېز‬ ‫پالېزونه‬ ‫پالېزه‬ ‫پالېزونو‬ pāléz Oblique pālez-ə́ Ablative pālez-úna pālez-úno ‫پالېزه‬ pālez-á Vocative   Table 5.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.43: GP Class IIa inanimate: ‫ تنور‬/tanúr/ ‘oven’ All nouns of the type illustrated in Table 5.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 77 .44 have monosyllabic stems.126.Inflectional affixation  o/u ∼ ə Singular Plural Direct ‫تنور‬ ‫تنرونه‬ tanúr tanər-úna ‫تنورونه‬ tanur-úna Oblique ‫تنوره‬ ‫تنرونو‬ tanur-ə́ tanər-úno ‫تنورونو‬ tanur-úno Ablative ‫تنوره‬ tanúr-a Vocative   Table 5.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.45: GP Class IIa animate: ‫ مېلمه‬/melmá/ ‘guest’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.78  Nouns ə/a ∼ Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫غل‬ ‫غله‬ ɣal ɣl-ə ‫غلونه‬ ɣl-úna Oblique ‫غله‬ ‫غلو‬ ɣl-ə ɣl-o ‫غلونو‬ ɣl-úno Ablative ‫غله‬ ɣál-a Vocative   Table 5.44: GP Class IIa animate/inanimate: ‫ غل‬/ɣal/ ‘thief’ a∼Ø Singular Plural Direct ‫مېلمه‬ ‫مېلمه‬ melmá melm-ə́ ‫مېلمانه‬ melm-ānə́ Oblique ‫مېلمه‬ melm-ə́ ‫مېلمو‬ melm-ó ‫مېلمانو‬ melm-anó Ablative ‫مېلمه‬ melm-á Vocative   Table 5.165.

46. or /‑zan/ decline according to this class when used with nominal function. and most. Class IIb has no animate/inanimate distinction and includes the nouns in the list below.3 General Pashto Class IIb This class is different from the others: it contains only a few nouns. It is particularly indeterminate.2.47.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . but in our view there are enough to form a declension class: /xaṭgár/ ‘plasterer’ (also Class I masculine animate) /bazgár/ ‘peasant’ (also Class I masculine animate) /sxar/ ‘stone’ /naxtár/ ‘pine tree’ /moṭár/ ‘car’ (also Class I masculine or feminine inanimate) /dardmán/ ‘sensitive one’ (also Class I masculine animate) /wākmán/ ‘ruler’ (also Class I masculine animate) /mayán/ ‘lover’ /topák/ ‘gun’ (also Class I masculine inanimate) /xaʣunák/ ‘hermaphrodite’ /mlax/ ‘locust’ (also Class I masculine animate) The loanword /moṭár/ ‘car’ was probably put into this class by some speakers on the analogy of the other Class IIb nouns that end in /ár/.46: GP Class IIb—stem allomorphy • Sample paradigms The paradigm of a Class IIb noun is given in Table 5.165. the consonant is most often /n/ or /r/.126. /‑an/. of its members belong to Class I for some speakers. if not all. Some authors treat these nouns as irregular. The words in this class all end in /aC/.4.Inflectional affixation  79 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Adjectives whose final syllables are /‑gar/. it can also be either masculine or feminine. ‫ـګر‬ ‫خټګر‬ ‫بذګر‬ ‫سخر‬ ‫نښتر‬ ‫موټر‬ ‫دردمن‬ ‫واکمن‬ ‫مین‬ ‫توپک‬ ‫ښځونک‬ ‫ملخ‬ ‫ور‬- ‫ن‬- ‫ـزن‬ ‫موټر‬ • Stem allomorphy Patterns of stem allomorphy for Class IIb nouns are given in Table 5. in that as a Class I noun. all plurals Example ‫دښمن ـ ← دښمن‬ duxmán-Ø → duxmə́n ‘enemies’   Table 5. Final stem sound(s) Stem change Forms affected a+C a→ə oblique singular. /‑war/.

They are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: In General Pashto.165.1. ‫ی‬ ‫ۍ‬ ‫ې‬ 5.52 and Table 5. Another distinguishing feature of GP Class III nouns is that their direct singular forms take a suffix. for masculines. depending on whether the primary stress falls on the ultimate or the penultimate syllable.2. Table 5.1 Overview In both General Pashto and Waziri. which means that the stem is not identical to the direct singular form. and for feminines.126. unlike other Pashto nouns. while Section 5.1.4 summarizes the situation for Waziri.2.1 Subclassification of Class III in General Pashto The inflectional patterns of Class III nouns differ noticeably.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .5.2. IIIa and IIIb. Table 5. and Table 5.5.2. Hence the class is divided into two subgroups.80  Nouns a∼ə Singular Plural Direct ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمن‬ ‫دښمنو‬ duxmán Oblique duxmə́n duxmə́n duxmə́n-o ‫دښمنه‬ Ablative duxmán-a Vocative   Table 5.50. the stem can look rather odd.54).5. this sound is /ay/. The suffixes for GP Class III nouns are shown in Table 5. or /yé/.47: GP Class IIb: 5. Class III nouns exhibit no stem allomorphy. described in the following sections. and for feminines. for masculines. as with the words for both male dog and female dog (see Table 5.1 through Section 5.5 ‫ دښمن‬/duxmán/ ‘enemy’ Class III 5. this sound is /ay/.5.2.5. /o/. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /i/. Section 5. it is either /áy/.48.51. it is either /əy/ or /e/. and in fact.2.3 detail the facts for Class III in General Pashto. In Waziri.49.

165.48: GP Class IIIa Masc.126.Inflectional affixation  Singular Plural Animate Direct ‫ـی‬ ‑áy Inanimate ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‑í ‫ـیان‬ ‑iā́n Oblique ‫ـي‬ ‑í ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‑ó ‑ío ‑ó ‑ío ‫ـیانو‬ ‑iā́no Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑áya Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 81 . noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

82  Nouns Singular Animate Direct Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـي‬ ‑ə́y ‑í Plural Animate Inanimate ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‫ـیانې‬ ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑iā́ne -yā́ne ‑ə́y ‑ə́y ‫ـۍګانې‬ ‑əygā́ne ‫ـۍ‬ Oblique ‑ə́y ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‫ـیانو‬ ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no ‫ـۍګانو‬ ‑əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‑ə́yo ‑iā́no -yā́no .126.49: GP Class IIIa Fem.165. noun suffixes Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

57). noun suffixes 1 Penzl (1955) has the ending /-e/ for the Class IIIb masculine vocative singular in Kandahari (see Table 5. This is the only source to suggest an alternative to the /-ya/ ending above.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـي‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑ay Oblique ‑i ‑i ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative ‫ـیه‬ ‑ya Vocative ¹   Table 5.51: GP Class IIIb Fem.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 83 . noun suffixes Direct Singular  Plural ‫ـې‬ ‫ـې‬ ‑e Oblique ‑e ‫ـو‬ ‑o ‫ـیو‬ ‑yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5.126.50: GP Class IIIb Masc. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.

2.52 and Table 5. stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپی‬ ‫سپي‬ sp-áy sp-í ‫سپیان‬ sp-iā́n Oblique ‫سپي‬ sp-í ‫سپو‬ sp-ó ‫سپیو‬ sp-ío ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative ‫سپیه‬ sp-áya Vocative   Table 5.52: GP Class IIIa Masc. it occurs among inanimate nouns as well as animate.5.165.53.2. animate: ‫ سپی‬/spáy/ ‘dog [male]’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .49. Among Class IIIa feminine nouns. As with other noun classes described earlier.5.1 Masculine Class IIIa nouns • Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical masculine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5. primarily with nouns denoting animate objects. as seen in Table 5.56. ‫ـان‬ ‫اپریدی‬ 5.84  Nouns 5. the sequence /ā́n/ is optionally used in plural formation. Animate denotations in this class include ethnic or tribal denominations such as /apridáy/ ‘Afridi’.126.2.2 Class IIIa Nouns of Class IIIa are inflected for case-marking as noted in Table 5.48 and Table 5.

• Sample paradigms Paradigms of some typical feminine Class IIIa nouns are given in Table 5.5.53. yet there is no clear rule for which form is preferred. inanimate: ‫ ګډی‬/gaḍáy/ ‘feast’ 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .52 and Table 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. The various plural alternatives mentioned here are not always freely interchangeable.2.53: GP Class IIIa Masc.126.2 Feminine Class IIIa nouns Note the wide variance in possible plural forms for Class IIIa feminine nouns.Inflectional affixation  stem = stor- Singular Plural Direct ‫ګډی‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګډي‬ ‫ګيو‬ gaḍ-áy Oblique gaḍ-í gaḍ-í Ablative 85 gaḍ-ó ‫ګډیه‬ gaḍ-áya Vocative   Table 5.2.

animate: ‫ کورنۍ‬/koranə́y/ ‘family’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.86  Nouns stem = sp- Singular Plural Direct ‫سپۍ‬ ‫سپۍ‬ sp-ə́y sp-ə́y ‫سپیانې‬ sp-iā́ne ‫سپیو‬ Oblique sp-ə́yo ‫سپیانو‬ sp-iā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.126. animate: ‫ سپۍ‬/spə́y/ ‘dog [female]’ stem = koran- Singular Plural Direct ‫کورنۍ‬ ‫کورنۍ‬ koran-ə́y koran-ə́y ‫کورنیانې‬ koran-yā́ne ‫کورنۍګانې‬ koran-əygā́ne ‫کورنیو‬ Oblique koran-ə́yo ‫کورنیانو‬ koran-yā́no ‫کورنۍګانو‬ koran-əygā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.54: GP Class IIIa Fem.55: GP Class IIIa Fem.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

3 Class IIIb Compared to Class IIIa nouns. there is little variation among plural Class IIIb nouns. There is also no animacy distinction among Class IIIb nouns. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. 5.5.5.1 Masculine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5.50 and Table 5.51.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.Inflectional affixation  stem = čālāk- Singular Plural Direct ‫څالاکي‬ ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-í 87 čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیانې‬ čālāk-yā́ne Oblique ‫څالاکۍ‬ čālāk-ə́y ‫څالاکیو‬ čālāk-ə́yo ‫څالاکیانو‬ čālāk-yā́no Ablative Vocative   Table 5.57 gives a sample paradigm for a masculine Class IIIb noun.126. as reflected in Table 5.3.56: GP Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: ‫ څالاکي‬/čālāki/ ‘trickiness’ 5.2.

: ‫ ملګری‬/malgə́ray/ ‘friend [male]’ 5. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .88  Nouns stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګری‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګري‬ ‫ملګرو‬ malgə́r-ay Oblique malgə́r-i malgə́r-i malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative ‫ملګریه‬ malgə́r-ya Vocative   Table 5.3.2 Feminine Class IIIb nouns • Sample paradigms Table 5.57: GP Class IIIb Masc.58 gives a sample paradigm for a feminine Class IIIb noun.165.5.

• Sample paradigms Abbreviated paradigms of some typical Class III nouns are given in Table 5.64 through Table 5. Lorimer (1902) divides masculine nouns in this class into two subgroups. Nouns of this class ending in /o/ or /yé/ take the same ending throughout the direct and plural cases.58: GP Class IIIb Fem.59 through Table 5. but the subdivisions do not seem to be related to stress patterns as they are in General Pashto. it is either /áy/. /o/.68. this sound is /ay/.5. Direct singular forms ending in /í/ take the /-áy/ suffix in direct plural and oblique singular and plural. so we are unable to support Lorimer’s subdivision. and for feminines. Waziri Class III nouns are distinguished by the endings of their direct singular forms: for masculines. following the pattern of /-áy/-final nouns.Inflectional affixation  stem = malgə́r- Singular Plural Direct ‫ملګرې‬ ‫ملګرې‬ malgə́r-e 89 malgə́r-e ‫ملګرو‬ Oblique malgə́r-o ‫ملګریو‬ malgə́r-yo Ablative Vocative   Table 5.4 Class III in Waziri As in General Pashto. We call Lorimer’s subgroups Class IIIa and Class IIIb. We have found only one form of the direct plural suffix and do not have any examples of Class III nouns in the oblique plural. regardless of number.: ‫ ملګرې‬/malgə́re/ ‘friend [female]’ 5.63. We include only the direct case for the masculine nouns. depending on the form of the plural suffixes.165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /i/. or /ye/. Feminine Class III nouns distinguish themselves by being mostly invariable. as these are the only forms we have been able to verify with native speakers.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126. The suffixes for Class III nouns as described by Lorimer (1902) are shown in Table 5.

61: Middle dialect Class III Fem.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . noun suffixes Direct Oblique Singular  Plural ‑áy WAZ ‑ay WAZ -í -əy DZA -ay WAZ -əy DZA   Table 5. noun suffixes Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑íon WAZ -i DZA Oblique ‑í ‑ioné WAZ -ye DZA   Table 5.60: Middle dialect Class IIIb Masc.126.165. noun suffixes: /-áy/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.59: Middle dialect Class IIIa Masc.90  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‑áy ‑í -ína DZA Oblique ‑í ‑áy WAZ ‑yé WAZ -ə́y DZA   Table 5.

animate: /xusáy/ ‘calf’ stem = pat- Singular Plural Direct pat-áy pat-í   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 91 .64: Waziri Class IIIa Masc.62: Middle dialect Class III Fem.126.65: Waziri Class III Masc. inanimate: /patáy/ ‘star’ stem = šaṛ- Singular Direct šaṛ-ay Plural Oblique   Table 5. noun suffixes: /-o/ Singular Direct Plural ‑yé Oblique   Table 5.Inflectional affixation  Singular  Direct Plural ‑o Oblique   Table 5. noun suffixes: /-yé/ stem = xus- Singular Plural Direct xus-áy xus-í   Table 5.165.: /šaŗay/ ‘woolen jacket’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.66: Waziri Class III Fem.63: Middle dialect Class III Fem.

3. Other nouns in Pashto follow entirely irregular patterns. or Class IIb. ‫موټر‬ ‫موټرونه‬ ‫موټرې‬ ‫موټر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2. and the acceptability of one alternative over another is not always predictable. In addition to such variation in the use of plural and oblique forms. with plural form /moṭərúna/ ‘automobiles’ (by virtue of the consonant-final form).67: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. the noun /moṭə́r/ ‘automobile’ can follow three different inflectional patterns. vary in gender assignment. presented in the following subsections.2. depending on the speaker: Class I masculine inanimate. some nouns. A large number of these come from kinship terms and Arabic borrowing. as mentioned in Section 5. with plural form /moṭə́re/ ‘automobiles’ (presumably by association with the gender of the same noun in Urdu. The class membership of certain nouns is also not fixed. with plural form /moṭə́r/. especially loanwords.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . As mentioned in Section 5. Class I feminine inanimate. inanimate: /xamto/ ‘cloth’ stem = gut- Singular Direct gut-yé Plural Oblique   Table 5. For example.68: Waziri Class IIIa Fem. inanimate: /gutyé/ ‘ring’ 5.1.6 Irregular nouns and irregular patterns in General Pashto Pashto has many irregular morphological patterns among its nouns. from which it was borrowed).165.4. with some nouns optionally following the full inflectional paradigm of more than one class.126.92  Nouns stem = xamt- Singular Direct xamt-o Plural Oblique   Table 5. many nouns that follow the patterns of one particular declension class can also have alternative plural forms.

/zoy/ ‘son’ and /lur/ ‘daughter’ are also all irregular. as shown in Table 5.69: /mor/ ‘mother’. The following feminine kinship terms have different stems in the singular and plural and follow the pattern illustrated in Table 5.69: Irregular Fem.6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. plural stem /ngáynd-/ ‫پلار‬ ‫تره‬ ‫مور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫ترور‬ ‫نګور‬ Direct Singular Plural ‫مور‬ ‫مېندې‬ mor máynd-e ‫مېندو‬ Oblique máynd-o Ablative ‫مورې‬ mór-e Vocative   Table 5. This section describes the more irregular Pashto kinship terms. and Table 5. especially culturally significant ones. plural stem /máynd-/ /xor/ ‘sister’. While several kinship terms do fit within the regular noun class paradigms—for example. Table 5.2.Inflectional affixation  93 5. Class I nouns /plā́r/ ‘father’ and /trə́/ ‘paternal uncle’— even these exhibit some oddity in that they represent a fairly exceptional set of nouns that denote humans but that take inanimate suffixes.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .72.71.165.1 Kinship terms Perhaps due to their frequent use and cultural importance. kinship noun: ‫وراره‬ ‫ مور‬/mor/ ‘mother’ ‫زوی‬ ‫لور‬ The nouns /wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’. plural stem /xwáynd-/ /tror/ ‘paternal aunt’. plural stem /tráynd-/ /ngor/ ‘daughter-in-law’.126. many kinship terms in Pashto have irregular forms. One explanation for this phenomenon is that words used most often.70. tend to retain morphological or phonological patterns that have been lost elsewhere in the language.

94  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫وراره‬ ‫ورېرونه‬ wrārə́ wrer-úna ‫ورېرو‬ Oblique wrer-ó ‫ورېرونو‬ wrer-úno Ablative Vocative   Table 5. kinship noun: Direct ‫ وراره‬/wrārə́/ ‘brother's son’ Singular Plural ‫زوی‬ ‫زامن‬ zoy zāmə́n ‫زامنو‬ Oblique zāmə́n-o Ablative ‫زویه‬ zoy-a Vocative   Table 5.70: Irregular Masc.126. kinship noun: ‫ زوی‬/zoy/ ‘son’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .71: Irregular Masc.165.

139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫دفتر‬ .20 (with plural form /daftər-úna/.Inflectional affixation  Direct Singular Plural ‫لور‬ ‫لوڼې‬ lur 95 lúṇ-e ‫لوڼو‬ Oblique lúṇ-o ‫لورې‬ Ablative lúr-e Vocative   Table 5.2 Arabic borrowings Another common source of irregular inflectional forms comes from Arabic borrowings (or nouns perceived by speakers as Arabic).126. kinship noun: ‫ لور‬/lur/ ‘daughter’ 5. Although the suffix /-ā́t/ is a feminine inflectional form in Arabic. Three major plural patterns are associated with such Arabic loanwords: /‑ín/. can also occur with the Arabic broken plural form /dafā́tar/ ‘offices’. ‫ـین‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫ـات‬ ‫دفتر‬ ‫دفترونه‬ ‫دفاتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. For example.2. the inflectional patterns may either employ the Arabic plural forms or may be adapted to one of the regular Pashto noun classes described in Section 5.6.73 and Table 5.72: Irregular Fem.3 through Section 5. /‑ā́t/. whose paradigm as Class I noun appears earlier in Table 5.5.2.2. as illustrated in Table 5. the word /daftár/ ‘office’. and the Arabic broken plural.74.165. In many cases. the class of abstract nouns to which it applies is treated as masculine in Pashto. in which the Arabic plural form is borrowed as well. /daftə́r/).

165.73: Masc. Arabic loanword: Direct ‫ مجاهد‬/mujāhíd/ ‘fighter’ Singular Plural ‫موضوع‬ ‫موضوعات‬ mawzó' mawzo'-w-ā́t ‫موضوعاتو‬ Oblique mawzo'-w-ā́t-o Ablative Vocative   Table 5. Arabic loanword: ‫ موضوع‬/mawzó'/ ‘topic’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.74: Masc.96  Nouns Direct Singular Plural ‫مجاهد‬ ‫مجاهدین‬ mujāhíd mujāhid-ín ‫مجاهدینو‬ Oblique mujāhid-ín-o ‫مجاهدو‬ mujāhíd-o Ablative ‫مجاهده‬ mujāhíd-a Vocative   Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.

if the conjoined nouns are of different genders. but in the plural. (5.’ However.3PL.F ‘I bought a black book and a black notebook. then the corresponding verb is usually masculine and plural when in non-past tense.’ Similarly.15) .‫سنا او مدینه لېونیانې دي‬ sanā-Ø aw madin-a lewan-iāne Sana-F.DIR book-M.3 97 Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns When nouns are conjoined.165.DIR and black-F.DIR dance-PST-PST.PRS. the verb agrees in gender. (5.16) . but is plural: (5.OBL CONT-laugh-PST. when a verb agrees with two conjoined nouns.DIR and Mahmoud-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . then an adjective which modifies (or is predicated of) the conjoined nouns will be in the same gender.3PL. then if the nouns are of the same gender.DIR kitābča-Ø w-ā́xist-a notebook-F. if the conjoined nouns are of different genders. the verb is conjugated to agree in gender with the last of the objects mentioned. but may be declined to agree in gender and number with the last item in the list when in past tense.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.ANIM. if they are both of the same gender. then the adjective must be repeated and inflected to agree with the gender of each noun individually.‫ما تور کتاب او توره کتابچه واخیسته‬ mā tor-Ø kitāb-Ø aw tor-a 1SG.CONT.F ‘Sana and Madina are crazy.126.17) .M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing.OBL black-M.DIR di be.‫احمد او محمود ګډېدل‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø gəd-̣ed-ə́l Ahmad-M.‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F.’ However. In example 5.3PL.DIR crazy-PL.F.PST-PST.14) .DIR AOR-buy.15 and 5.Inflection and agreement of conjoined nouns  5.3SG.17.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud danced.DIR and Madina-F.STR. (5.OBL and Abaseen-M.

4.1.1 Nouns derived with suffixes The examples in this section do not necessarily contain nouns of note. They instead highlight the relationship between derivational affixes and their stems. including verbal nouns and adjectives xowun(a) ‘teaching’ ‑ʣāy (‫ښوون)ه‬ ‫عبادت‬ ibādat ‘worship’ ‫ـتوب‬ state of being ‑tob nouns and adjectives ‫ ماشوم‬māšum ‘child’ ‫خوندي‬ xwandi ‘safe’ ‫ـتون‬ place of ‑tun nouns and adjectives ‫پوه‬ poh ‘expert’ ‫ وړکی‬woṛəkay ‘small’ Derived form ‫ ښوونځای‬xowunʣāy ‘school’ ‫عبادتځای‬ ibādatʣā́y ‘place of worship.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Pashto has both more productive and less productive derivational affixes. or other nouns.98  Nouns 5. Table 5.126.4. mosque. adjectives. temple’ ‫ ماشومتوب‬māšumtob ‘childhood’ ‫ هوندیتوب‬xwanditob ‘safety’ ‫پوخنتون‬ poxantun ‘university’ ‫وړکتون‬ woṛəktun ‘kindergarten’ ‫ وړکي‬woṛəki ‘boy’ ‫ـتیا‬ ‑tiyā abstract noun native Pashto adjectives ‫ پراخ‬prāx ‘vast’ ‫پراختیا‬ prāxtyā ‘development’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. which may be verbs.1 Derivational morphology of nouns This section discusses some derivational affixes in Pashto and a few of the nouns derived from them.4 Derivational morphology and loanwords 5. 5.75: Derived noun suffixes Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫ـڅای‬ place of nouns.165. church.

abstract noun Dari adjectives agent nouns ‫ـوال‬ ‑wāl owner or occupant nouns ‫جوړښت‬ joṛəxt ‘construction’ ‫اورښت‬ orəxt ‘precipitation’ ‫شرمنده‬ šrəmandə ‘ashamed person’ ‫ هنرمند‬honarmand ‘artist’ ‫ تجربهکار‬tajrabakār ‫ادا‬ ‫ اداکار‬adākār ‘actor’ ‫اسوده‬ awsoda ‘peaceful’ ‫ګنده‬ ‑gar ‫ کمښت‬kaməxt ‘lack’ ‘expert’ ganda ‘rotten’ ‫ـګر‬ ‫نيمګړینیا‬ nimgəṛitiyā ‘insufficiency’ tajraba ‘experience’ adā ‘performance’ ‫‑ ـګي‬gi Derived form ‫ ژرنده‬žranda ‫ اسوده ګي‬awsoda gi ‘peace’ ‫ ګندهګي‬gandagi ‘trash’ ‫ ژرندګر‬žrandagar ‘mill’ ‘miller’ ‫ خټه‬xaṭa ‘mud’ ‫ خټکر‬xaṭgar ‘mason’ ‫ هټي‬haṭi ‘shop’ ‫هیواد‬ haywād ‘country’ ‫هټیوال‬ haṭiwāl ‘shopkeeper’ ‫ هیوادوال‬haywādwāl ‘citizen’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Derivational morphology and loanwords  Table 5.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem ‫نیمګړی‬ nimgəṛay ‘insufficient’ ‫ـښت‬ state of being ‑əxt adjectives.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 99 . including verbal adjectives ‫ کم‬kam ‘less’ ‫ جوړه‬joṛa ‘built’ ‫ اورېدل‬oredəl ‘to fall’ ‫ـمند‬ ‑mand experiencer /possessor Dari nouns ‫شرم‬ šrəm ‘shame’ ‫ هنر‬honar ‘art’ ‫ـکار‬ agent nouns ‑kār ‫تجربه‬ -ness.165.126.

‫ کموالی‬kamwālay small’ ‫‑ یه‬ya abstract noun Arabic nouns ‫نظر‬ nazar ‘perspective’ ‫عمل‬ amal ‘action’ ‫یت‬ ‑iyat abstract or plural noun nouns and adjectives ‫مامور‬ māmur ‘official’ ‫ مصون‬masun ‘safe’ ‫‑ ي‬i abstract noun nouns ‫مشر‬ mašər ‘leader’ ‫دښمن‬ duxman ‘enemy’ ‫خپلواک‬ state of being verbs verbs ‫ مصونیت‬masuniyat ‘security’ ‫مشري‬ mašri ‘leadership’ ‫ دښمني‬duxmani ‘animosity’ ‫ خپلواکي‬xpəlwāki ‫ ګراني‬grāni ‘inflation’ ‫لارښوول‬ lārxowəl ‘to direct’ agent ‫ ماموریت‬māmuriyat ‘duty’ ‫ګران‬ look’ ‑unkay ‫عملیه‬ amalya ‘implementation’ ‘independence’ ‫ کتل‬katəl ‘to ‫ـونکی‬ ‫نظریه‬ nazarya ‘opinion’ xpəlwāk ‘independent’ grān ‘expensive’ ‫‑ ـنه‬na ‘reduction’ ‫ښوول‬ xowəl ‘to teach’ ‫چلول‬ čəlawəl ‘to manage’ ‫لارښوونه‬ lārxowəna ‘direction’ ‫ کتنه‬katəna ‘sight’ ‫ ښوونکی‬xowunkay ‘teacher’ ‫چاوونکی‬ čəlawunkay ‘manager.165.100  Nouns Table 5.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to ‫ـوالی‬ scope.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . volume nouns and adjectives ‑wālay Stem ‫ ډیر‬ḍer ‘big’ Derived form ‫ډیروالی‬ ḍerwālay ‘increase’ ‫ کم‬kam ‘short.126. driver’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

Derivational morphology and loanwords  101 Table 5.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .OBL beat-INF-PL.DIR šu-Ø become. Some examples of compound nouns built from Pashto words are: • • • ‫ ورلړونی‬/orlaṛunay/ ‘poker’ ( ‫ ور‬/or/ ‘fire’ + ‫ لړل‬/laṛəl/ ‘to stir’) ‫ سپینږیری‬/spinžiray/ ‘old man’ ( ‫ سپن‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫ ږره‬/žira/ ‘beard’) ‫ لمرخاته‬/lmarxātə/ ‘east’ ( ‫ لمر‬/lmar/ ‘sun’ + ‫ خاته‬/xātə/ ‘rising’) More examples of compounds can be found in Section 6.OBL time-M. mostly from Persian.M ‘He was beaten to death. 5.OBL write-INF-PL.8. These reduplicated nominals denote an event in either a causative (5.’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2 Reduplication of nouns Pashto nouns denoting events can undergo reduplication to express duration or intensity of the event.’ (NW) (5.M.18.165.AOR.1.OBL dead-M.‫په لیکلو لیکلو وخت را نه تېرشو‬ pə lik-əl-o lik-əl-o waxt-Ø rā na INSTR write-INF-PL.M.3SG.‫په وهلو وهلو مړ شو‬ pə wəh-əl-o wəh-əl-o məṛ-Ø INSTR beat-INF-PL.75: (continued) Affix Meaning Applies to Stem Derived form ‫کمېدل‬ ‫کمېدونکی‬ kamedəl ‘to lessen’ kamedunkay ‘decline’ (n. 5.2 Compounds Many of Pashto’s noun compounds originate from loanwords.20) relationship to that denoted by the finite verb.M ‘I was so busy writing that I lost track of time.4.PST-PST.19) .18) .PST-PST.M.3.AOR.) 5.3SG.M.DIR 1 from tér-Ø šu-Ø passed-M.126.DIR become. (5.19) or a circumstantial (5.4.

and others from Russian or English.3 Loanwords In addition to the irregular inflectional forms described in Section 5.PRS-IMP.CONT.21) .2.PST-PST-3PL.’ (SW) 5. which are borrowed directly into Pashto and treated as if they were native Pashto words in terms of inflection.CONT.M. 'Don't go to the movies.4. ‫ سماوارونه‬/samāvāruna/ ‫ اینجنیر‬/injinir/ ‘engineer’ (English).DIR be.PL. Pashto has many words originating in Arabic.'’ Nouns not derived from or related to verbs can also be repeated to indicate plurality or variety: (5. ‫ میرزایان‬/mirzāyān/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. pl. For example: • • • ‫ سماوار‬/samāvār/ ‘samovar’ (Russian).OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell. pl..‫زموږ په مکتب کي رنګ رنګ خلک دي‬ zmuẓ pə maktab-Ø ki rang-Ø rang-Ø 1PL.POSS in.OBL to NEG ʣ-a go.‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځه‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M.2..DIR xalək-Ø di people-PL.OBL .OBL laugh-F.20) .STR.DIR color-M. Persian.6. ‫ اینجنیران‬/injinirān/ ‫ میرزا‬/mirzā/ ‘clerk’ (Persian).DIR INSTR laugh-F.102  Nouns (5.165.M COMP cinema-F... pl. or Urdu.PRS.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .in color-M.M ‘In our school there are all kinds of people [our school is very diverse].SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me. school-M.

Classes III and IV comprise ‫ـه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and number. the use of adjectives as nouns.1 Introduction This chapter describes the morphology of Pashto lexical noun modifiers—that is. Pashto adjectives precede the nouns they modify and are generally inflected to agree with those nouns in gender.5).1 Inflectional classes of General Pashto adjectives Classes I and II include all adjectives that end in consonants in their citation form (masculine direct singular). although some adjectives and other noun modifiers are never inflected. it is usually identical with the vocative form. All such adjectives are stressed on the final syllable in this citation form.2 Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri As with nouns (Section 5. Pashto adjective paradigms generally have fewer forms than noun paradigms. Class II also includes those that end in /‑ə́/. see Chapter 11.165.2. Other authors group the adjectives in four to seven categories.1.2). number terms. based on the ending of the masculine direct singular form and the alternation between the masculine direct singular and the masculine oblique singular (which usually resembles the masculine direct plural form). We group the adjectives into four classes.1. the inflectional patterns of Pashto adjectives have received widely varying descriptive treatment. we consider it separately and classify nouns and adjectives based solely on their inflectional suffixes. Demonstrative determiners can represent two or three degrees of proximity.126. and the adverbial use of adjectives—including a discussion of the typologically unusual feature of adverbial concord with nouns. determiners. The ablative case (sometimes called oblique II or prepositional) seldom has a unique form: when it differs from the oblique form. 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . comparison. A few Class I adjectives take animate suffixes when modifying animate nouns (see Section 6.) It ends with a section on usage—attribution and predication. 6. case. depending on the features considered to be diagnostic. Our analysis has four inflectional classes of adjectives and largely corresponds with that presented for nouns in Chapter 5. (For phrasal modifiers of nouns such as relative clauses. adjectives. and interrogative adjectives—covering both casemarking and derivation. depending on the dialect: proximal/distal or proximal/medial/distal.2. Previous descriptions of inflectional classes (for both nouns and adjectives) have usually included stem allomorphy among their diagnostic features.Melissa Fox and Alina Twist 6 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6.

1.165. which includes diphthongs. and keep the stress on the final syllable of the stem.104  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers adjectives ending in stressed and unstressed vowels other than /ə́/. as in /təš/ ‘empty’ or /neɣ/ ‘straight. Adjectives in Classes II-IV are frequently regularized toward Class I by many speakers.1: GP Class I adjective suffixes This is the most populous adjective class.2 Stem allomorphy In the Western dialects.2.1.126. They are declined using the suffixes in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. 6.1. Class I adjectives with certain stem shapes will undergo one of two processes of vowel mutation: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1 Case-marking suffixes Class I adjectives are consonant-final in their citation form.1.1 General Pashto Class I 6. 6. direct’.1. This regularization is a major source of dialectal variation. ‫تش‬ ‫نېغ‬ Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular ‫ـه‬ -Ø -a Plural ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـي‬ -i W ‫ـو‬ Oblique -o ‫ـې‬ -e E ‫ـو‬ -o ‫ـي‬ -i W Ablative ‫ـه‬ -a Vocative   Table 6.1.2.

irrespective of gender. Vowel Harmony ə → o/_Co ‫پلن‬ Class I adjectives with the stressed stem vowel /ə́/ (W).1. Centralization á → ə́/_C# Class I adjectives for which the last syllable in the masculine direct singular form is /‑wár/. 6.4 show paradigms for the adjectives /zṛawár/ ‘brave’ and /ɣamján/ ‘sad’. ‫دنګ‬ 2.2.2.2 shows the Western dialect’s Vowel Harmony rule.126. undergo regressive harmony in the feminine direct plural and in both oblique plural forms—when the suffix vowel is /o/—as shown in Table 6.2. see Section 5. such as /plən/ ‘broad’ or /dəng/ ‘tall’.1. /‑ján/.3 Class I forms with stem allomorphy The paradigm for the adjective /spək/ ‘light’ in Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  105 1. undergo a different vowel alternation: the vowel /á/ of the final syllable centralizes to /ə́/ in feminine non-direct singulars and in all plural forms.3. Table 6. so those speakers’ dialect lacks the alternation. /‑gár/.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . ‫سپک‬ ‫زړهور‬ ‫غمجن‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. as shown in Table 6.3 and Table 6. or /‑mán/.4) reports that some Kandahari speakers have the /ə/ vowel in all case forms.) ‫ـور‬ ‫ـګر‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـجن‬ ‫ـمن‬ In other dialects these vowels do not mutate.4. illustrating the centralization rule for the Western dialect. as well as ordinal numbers ending in /‑ám/.3 and Table 6.4. Penzl (1955: 69. (To compare this stem allomorphy to that of Class IIb nouns.

stem alternation: a∼ə spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W Masculine ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár ‫سپکو‬ spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫ سپک‬/spək/ ‘light’ Singular Direct ‫سپکې‬ Feminine Plural ‫زړهور‬ zṛawár E zṛawə́r W Singular ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Plural ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W ‫زړهورو‬ Oblique zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W ‫زړهورې‬ zṛawár-e E ‫زړهوري‬ zṛawə́r-i W Ablative ‫زړهوره‬ zṛawár-a Vocative   Table 6.2: GP Class I.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫زړهورو‬ zṛawár-o E zṛawə́r-o W .106  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ə∼o Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫سپک‬ Singular ‫سپکه‬ spak E spək W spák-a E spə́k-a W Plural ‫سپکې‬ spák-e E ‫سپکي‬ spə́k-i W ‫سپکو‬ Oblique Ablative Vocative spák-o E spə́k-o W spók-o W ‫سپکه‬ spák-a E spə́k-a W   Table 6. ‫ ـور‬/wár/ alternation: ‫ زړهور‬/zṛawár/ ‘brave’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.3: GP Class I.

165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. ‫ ـجن‬/ján/ alternation: ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ 6.2.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  a∼ə Masculine Singular Direct ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján 107 Feminine Plural ‫غمجن‬ ɣamján E ɣamjə́n W Singular ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Plural ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ɣamjə́n-i W ‫غمجنو‬ Oblique ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ‫غمجنې‬ ɣamján-e E ‫غمجني‬ ‫غمجنو‬ ɣamján-o E ɣamjə́n-o W ɣamjə́n-i W Ablative ‫غمجنه‬ ɣamján-a Vocative   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .4: GP Class I.1.5.4 Class I forms without stem allomorphy The paradigm for Class I adjectives lacking stem allomorphy is shown in Table 6.126.1.

subject to the changes described in Section 5.).108  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Feminine Plural Singular ‫پلونډ‬ Direct Plural ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډو‬ Oblique palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډې‬ palwánḍ-e E ‫پلونډو‬ palwánḍ-o ‫پلونډي‬ palwánḍ-i W ‫پلونډه‬ Ablative palwánḍ-a Vocative   Table 6. or /‑āno/ (obl. as in examples 6.1 for stems ending in a consonant (which all adjectives have).1) ‫مشران وروڼه‬ məšr-ān oruṇa elder-PL.DIR ‘older brothers’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. some Class I adjectives may take the animate plural suffixes of Class I nouns.1.M. consonant-final adjective.2.).5 Animacy in Class I adjectives When modifying animate nouns.M.126.3. no alternation: ‫ پلونډ‬/palwánḍ/ ‘fat’ 6.2.DIR brothers.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .).2.1.5: GP Class I.dir.165. /‑āne/ (fem.dir.2. that is: g → Ø/C_ Therefore the animate plural suffix on adjectives is realized as /‑ān/ (masc.1 and 6. ‫ـانې‬ ‫ـان‬ ‫ـانو‬ (6.

Adjectives as Nouns.M.2. for further discussion of animate suffixes on adjectives.2. Except for the masculine singular ablative and vocative suffixes. the suffixes of Class II are inherently stressed.6. ‫ـه‬ 6.M.6: GP Class II adjective suffixes 1 Standardized version of 6.M.165.1 Case-marking suffixes The Class II suffixes are shown in Table 6. 6.2 General Pashto Class II Class II adjectives can end in either a consonant or a stressed schwa ( /‑ə́/).126. These stressed suffixes are the chief difference between Class I and Class II.2.VOC elder-PL.1. both young and old!’¹ See Section 6.9.2. Whether a consonant-final adjective belongs to Class I (stem-stressed) or Class II (suffix-stressed) is a property of the lexeme and is not predictable. Masculine Singular Direct -Ø Plural ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Ablative Singular ‫ـه‬ -ə́ Oblique Feminine -á ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ -ó -é Plural ‫ـې‬ -é ‫ـو‬ -ó ‫ـه‬ - Vocative   Table 6.VOC younger-PL.2: !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملګرو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.VOC ‘Pashtoon friends.2) 109 !‫پښتنو مشرانو کشرانو ملکرو‬ paxtan-o məšr-āno kəšr-āno malgər-o Pashtoon-PL.VOC friend-PL.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  (6. although there are a few differences in suffix shape as well.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .M.

as well as those that undergo Monophthongization.9. as in Table 6. The rules are: 1.126. It is not possible to predict which rule. Back Vowel Lowering V-stress] [+back. applies to a given consonant-final adjective.165. If both are stressed.8 and Table 6. • wa[+stress] → V-high] [+back. those sequences simplify to /o/ when stressed.10 and Table 6. all of them stress-conditioned. Note that rules (2)—(4) must be ordered as stated above in order to account for the resulting allomorphy.8 and Table 6. This rule is illustrated in Table 6. as in Table 6.110  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. /o/.10 and Table 6. 2. 3. according to rule 4. This rule affects those adjectives that undergo Back Vowel Lowering. Lowering affects only back vowels.9. the rest affect the stem vowels of consonant-final Class II adjectives (which either lower or delete when unstressed). /u/ lowers to /a/ when unstressed. the unstressed vowel deletes.11. but not all of them. any remaining /a/ is lengthened when the following syllable contains /ə́/.11.7. This rule applies to vowel-final adjectives.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . → V[-high] / #C_ ‫ـو‬ In most Class II consonant-final adjectives with non-initial back vowels. as seen in Table 6.2. Lengthening a → ā /_(C)Cə́ Short /a/ lengthens to long /ā/ when the syllable following it contains /ə́/. Back Vowel Lowering or Syncope II. The first.2. 4. Following application of this rule. Monophthongization • a[+stress] w → V-high] [+back.1. the first vowel deletes. In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in the stem.2 Stem allomorphy Some GP Class II adjectives undergo stem allomorphy processes upon inflection. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. affects the final vowels of /ə́/-final Class II adjectives. An example of each can be seen in Table 6. Syncope I. Syncope I • V2 → Ø/ V́1 _ • V́1 → Ø/ _V́2 If suffixation results in two adjacent vowels and only one is stressed.

6.1. dusty’. it will undergo vowel lowering in unstressed position. followed by lengthening Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Note that ordering matters with these rules. Rule 2 feeds Rule 4.2.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  111 5.7 for /terə́/ ‘sharp’. ‫ـه‬ ‫سپېره‬ ‫تېره‬ Masculine Singular Direct ‫تېره‬ terə́ Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫تېره‬ ‫تېره‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ‫تېرې‬ ‫تېرو‬ ter-ə́ ter-á ter-ó ter-é ter-é ter-ó Ablative Vocative   Table 6. 6.2. while Rule 3 bleeds it.7: GP Class II.2.13. Syncope II V[-stress] → Ø In a few consonant-final adjectives the stem vowel is deleted when not stressed. see also Table 6. -ə́-final adjective: ‫ تېره‬/terə́/ ‘sharp’ ‫ـو‬ In most consonant-final adjectives where the stem vowel is a back vowel. /u/. The final stem-vowel of these adjectives undergoes one or other of the morphophonemic rules of Syncope I in Section 6. /o/. as shown in Table 6.1.126. Epenthesis Ø → a/C_CC If syncope results in a triple consonant cluster. an /a/ is inserted after the first consonant.2.12. no other class has adjectives ending in /-ə́/. as in Table 6. These can be reliably identified from this citation form as belonging to Class II.2.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .3 Class II forms with stem allomorphy Vowel-final adjectives that end in stressed /‑ə́/ in their citation form include /sperə́/ ‘light grey.

126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ṛand-é ṛand-ó .8: GP Class II. back vowel lowering: u∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Singular Plural ‫ړوند‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړنده‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړانده‬ ‫ړندو‬ ‫ړندې‬ ‫ړندو‬ ṛānd-ə́ ṛānd-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural ṛund Oblique ‫ پوخ‬/pox/ ‘cooked. back vowel lowering: ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.9: GP Class II. ripe’ ṛand-ó ṛand-á ṛand-é ‫ړونده‬ ṛúnd-a Vocative   Table 6.165.112  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼ā∼a Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫پوخ‬ ‫پاخه‬ pox Oblique pāx-ə́ ‫پاخه‬ ‫پخو‬ pāx-ə́ Ablative Feminine pax-ó Singular ‫پخه‬ Plural ‫پخې‬ pax-á pax-é ‫پخې‬ ‫پخو‬ pax-ó pax-é ‫پوخه‬ póx-a Vocative   Table 6.

8 for /pox/ ‘cooked. back vowel breaking: ‫ تود‬/tod/ ‘hot’. The Eastern /sor/ ‘astride’ and /xor/ ‘scattered’ both follow this pattern.11 also reflects the East—West dialectal correspondence g∼ẓ. rather than lowering.11.8 and Table 6. underlying stems vary from dialect to dialect. On the other hand. the Eastern realization of the consonant as [g] is so entrenched that the words may be spelled with instead of the standard . declines in both dialects according to the example shown in Table 6. some consonant-final adjectives unpredictably undergo rule 5. also.10 and Table 6. ripe’ ‫سور‬ ‫خور‬ ‫سپور‬ ‫خپور‬ ‫پوخ‬ and Table 6.11. ripe’ and /ṛund/ ‘blind’.13. the vowel-glide combination simplifies to /o/ in stressed position. as in Table 6. as expressed in Rule 4 and exemplified in Table 6. Where this results in a three-consonant cluster.8 and Chapter 4). In adjectives with /aw/ or /wa/ in their stem.165. Syncope II in unstressed position. epenthesis of /a/ applies. respectively).9 for ‫ ړوند‬/ṛund/ ‘blind’. but in the Western dialects these words (spelled and pronounced /spor/ and /xpor/) decline according to the pattern shown in Table 6. like ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’.than Western-dialect adjectives undergo the monophthongization in Table 6.10: GP Class II. ‫پوخ‬ ‫ړوند‬ o∼āw∼aw Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫تود‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫توده‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تاوده‬ ‫تودو‬ ‫تودې‬ ‫تودو‬ tod Oblique Feminine tāwd-ə́ tāwd-ə́ tawd-á tawd-ó tawd-é tawd-é tawd-ó ‫توده‬ Ablative tód-a Vocative   Table 6. more Eastern.126. In both /koẓ/ and /xoẓ/. bent’.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  113 when the next syllable contains /ə́/ (as shown in Table 6. The patterns of stem allomorphy discussed above are lexical properties of particular adjectives. as in Table 6. Table 6. For example. stem = /tawd/ Finally. ‫کوږ‬ ‫خوږ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ګ‬ ‫ږ‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . indicating that their underlying stems contain /aw/ or /wa/ rather than /o/.11. ‫ کوږ‬/koẓ/ ‘crooked. traditionally represented in both dialects by the letter (see also Table 3.12.9 for the adjectives /pox/ ‘cooked.

11: GP Class II.165.114  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers o∼wā∼wa Masculine Singular Direct Plural Plural ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږه‬ ‫خوږې‬ xoẓ W xwāẓ-ə́ W xwaẓ-á W xwaẓ-é W ‫خواږه‬ ‫خوږو‬ ‫خوږې‬ ‫خوږو‬ xwāẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwaẓ-é W xwaẓ-ó W xwāg-ə́ E xwāg-ə́ E Ablative Singular ‫خوږ‬ xog E Oblique Feminine xwag-ó E xwag-á E xwag-é E xwag-é E xwag-ó E ‫خوږه‬ xóg-a E xóẓ-a W Vocative   Table 6.126. Syncope II: ‫ سور‬/sur/ ‘red’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. stem = /xwag/ or /xwaẓ/ sr-ə sr-o sr-a sr-e ‫سوره‬ súr-a Vocative   Table 6. back vowel breaking: u∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct Plural Singular Plural ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سره‬ ‫سرو‬ ‫سرې‬ ‫سرو‬ sr-ə Ablative Feminine ‫سور‬ sur Oblique ‫ خوږ‬/xoẓ/ ‘sweet’.12: GP Class II.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM sr-e sr-o .

Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  i∼Ø Masculine Singular Direct ‫تریخ‬ trix Oblique ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ Ablative 115 Feminine Plural ‫ترخه‬ tarx-ə́ ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó Singular ‫ترخه‬ tarx-á ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é Plural ‫ترخې‬ tarx-é ‫ترخو‬ tarx-ó ‫تریخه‬ tríx-a Vocative   Table 6.165.1.13: GP Class II.126.2.14.4 Class II forms without stem allomorphy Class II forms that do not have stem allomorphy are declined according to the pattern illustrated in Table 6. Syncope II and epenthesis: ‫ تریخ‬/trix/ ‘bitter’ 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

² ‫زلمی‬ 2 The word ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ also occurs in Pashto as a masculine first name. in their citation form. according to stress position.3 General Pashto Class III Class III adjectives in General Pashto end in what is etymologically a participial suffix.3. thus these adjectives can be divided into two subclasses.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. such as ‫ګړندی‬ ‫زړغی‬ /zəṛɣáy/ ‘vacillating’. little’.126. the masculine direct singular (see Section 8. /‑ay/. and /gaṛandáy/ ‘quick’.1. consonant-final adjective.2.165.2.2.9). This suffix may be stressed or unstressed.1 Class IIIa Class IIIa contains adjectives in which the suffix ‫کمکی‬ ‫ـی‬ /‑ay/ is stressed. and the stress does not shift in inflected forms. green’ 6. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6.14: GP Class II.116  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct ‫اوم‬ um Oblique ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ Ablative Feminine Plural Singular ‫اومه‬ ‫اومه‬ um-ə́ um-á ‫اومو‬ ‫اومې‬ um-ó um-é Plural ‫اومې‬ um-é ‫اومو‬ um-ó ‫اومه‬ úm-a Vocative   Table 6.1. /kamkáy/ ‘small. no stem allomorphy: ‫ اوم‬/um/ ‘raw. and the declension is exemplified in Table 6.15. ‫ـی‬ 6.16 for /zalmáy/ ‘young’.

W -í -ó E.15: GP Class IIIa adjective suffixes Masculine Singular Direct ‫زلمی‬ zalm-áy Oblique ‫زلمي‬ zalm-í Feminine Plural ‫زلمي‬ Singular ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-í zalm-ə́y Plural ‫زلمۍ‬ zalm-ə́y ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ ‫زلمیو‬ zalm-ío W zalm-ío W zalm-ó E.165.W zalm-ə́yo E zalm-ó E.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 117 .16: GP Class IIIa: ‫ زلمی‬/zalmáy/ ‘young’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.W -ə́yo E -ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -áya   Table 6.126.W zalm-ə́yo E Ablative Vocative ‫زلمیه‬ zalm-áya   Table 6.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Plural ‫ـی‬ ‫ـي‬ -áy Oblique Singular Plural ‫ـۍ‬ ‫ـۍ‬ -ə́y -í ‫ـي‬ Feminine -ə́y ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیو‬ -ío W -ío W -ó E.

126. writing about Kandahari (Western).17: GP Class IIIb adjective suffixes The masculine vocative singular form in GP Class IIIb varies by region: Heston (1992: 1568). it is easy to see that /sə́way/ ‘burnt’. such as /piyāwə́ṛay/ ‘courteous. most Class IIIb adjectives are more transparently related to verbs than those in Class IIIa. gives it as /‑e/.1. but both occur and both are understood. While all Class III adjectives have this historically participial suffix. ‫ـی‬ ‫ستړی‬ ‫شونی‬ Masculine Singular Direct Feminine Plural ‫ـی‬ -ay ‫پیاوړی‬ Singular Plural ‫ـي‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـیې‬ ‫ـیو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـې‬ ‫ـو‬ -e -i -əy SW -e NE Oblique ‫ـي‬ -yo E -i -ye E -o W -e W -yo E -o W Ablative Vocative ‫ـیه‬ -ya E -o -e -o ‫ـې‬ -e W   Table 6. The suffixes for these adjectives are shown in Table 6. able. while Penzl (1955: 72. is related to /swəl/ ‘burn’. /stə́ṛay/ ‘tired’.17.165. ‫سوی‬ ‫سول‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. or /šúnay/ ‘possible’. strong’.2 Class IIIb Class IIIb contains adjectives in which the suffix /‑ay/ is not stressed. even in the east.118  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. for example. well-bred.2. presented in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The latter form may be more ‫ـې‬ ‫ـیه‬ frequent.18.3). writing about Eastern dialects. gives it as /‑ya/.3.

and Table 6. Examples are shown in Table 6. Many adjectives borrowed from Arabic and Persian.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫سوی‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سوې‬ ‫سوي‬ ‫سویو‬ ‫سویې‬ sə́w-ay sə́w-i 119 sə́w-i Plural sə́w-e sə́w-yo E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o W ‫سویو‬ sə́w-ye E sə́w-yo E ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ sə́w-e W sə́w-o W ‫سوې‬ ‫سوو‬ Ablative ‫سویه‬ Vocative sə́w-ya E ‫سوو‬ sə́w-o sə́w-e sə́w-o ‫سوې‬ sə́w-e W   Table 6. but some speakers use the oblique plural suffixes /‑o/. ‫بلبلي‬ ‫بوالا‬ ‫ مصنوعي‬/masnu'í/ ‘artificial’. and ‫ معنوي‬/ma'nawí/ ‘moral.165. This is likely a result of regularization of the oblique /‑o/ suffix by these speakers. /‑wo/ on these adjectives as they do in the other classes. such as /balbalí/ ‘glamorous. as adjectives ending in stressed /ə́/ are Class II).4 General Pashto Class IV (non-declining adjectives) Class IV adjectives end in simple vowels.20.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . in which event it is never stressed. /buālā́/ ‘obvious’. Table 6.19. and may be stressed on the final vowel or earlier in the word (unless the final vowel is /ə/.21. These adjectives generally do not decline.18: GP Class IIIb: ‫ سوی‬/sə́way/ ‘burnt’ 6. sparkling’. are members of this class.126. spiritual’. ‫ـو‬ ‫ـوو‬ ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.

W xāyistáwo E.W ‫ښایستو‬ ‫ښایستو‬ xāyistó W xāyistó W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.165.120  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایسته‬ ‫ښایسته‬ xāyistá xāyistá ‫ښایستوو‬ ‫ښایستوو‬ xāyistáwo E.20: GP Class IV: Plural ‫ یوازي‬/yawā́zi/ ‘alone’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W .126.19: GP Class IV: ‫ ښایسنه‬/xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ Masculine Singular Direct Oblique Feminine Plural Singular ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازي‬ yawā́zi ‫یوازو‬ yawā́zo W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.

an /e/ .2 ‫ هوسا‬/hosā́/ ‘comfortable’ Inflectional classes of Waziri adjectives Waziri adjectives can be divided into classes based on the ending of their citation form.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .W hosā́o W Ablative Vocative   Table 6.W hosā́o W hosā́wo E. or an /a/ in their citation form.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Direct Oblique 121 Feminine Plural Singular Plural ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوسا‬ hosā́ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساوو‬ ‫هوساو‬ ‫هوساو‬ hosā́wo E.126. The inflection patterns for Class I are shown inTable 6. Most of the information below comes from Lorimer (1902). but we make no claim that the classes should be viewed as analogous. These adjectives end in a consonant.22.2. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.2.21: GP Class IV: 6.165.1 Waziri Class I Class I includes the majority of Waziri adjectives.2. 6. This section presents Waziri adjectives in four classes based on their similarity to the GP adjective classes. but these classes do not align well with their GP counterparts.

24 shows the typical suffixes for adjectives of this type.22: Waziri Class I adjective suffixes 6. or they may exhibit an invariable form that adds the /-yé/ suffix directly to the /-ay/ suffix. They may retain the /-ay/ suffix invariably.2. Table 6.2.23: Waziri Class II adjective suffixes 6. as shown in Table 6. in which they take the suffix /-e/ for both genders.165. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. They retain this ending in all cases except the plural oblique. Masculine Singular Direct Plural Feminine Singular Plural -i Oblique -e -i -e   Table 6.122  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Singular Plural Feminine Singular Direct -Ø -Ø -a -a Oblique -Ø -a -e -e Plural -e   Table 6. as shown in Table 6.2 Waziri Class II Class II adjectives end in /í/ in the masculine direct singular.3 Waziri Class III Class III adjectives end in /ay/ in the masculine direct singular.25.2.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .126.2. Class III feminine adjectives may also follow one of two alternative patterns.26.

25: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem.Inflectional classes in General Pashto and Waziri  Masculine Singular Plural Direct -ay -i Oblique -i -ye Feminine Singular Plural -ye   Table 6.165. suffix /-ay/: /léwanay/ ‘mad’ Masculine stem = meran- Singular Feminine Plural Direct meran-ay meran-i Oblique meran-i meran-ye Singular Plural meran-ay-ye   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 123 .24: Waziri Class III adjective suffixes Masculine stem = lewan- Singular Feminine Plural Direct lewan-ay lewan-i Oblique lewan-i lewan-ye Singular Plural lewan-ay   Table 6. suffix /-yé/: /meranay/ ‘matrilineally related’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.26: Waziri Class III adjective with Fem.

27: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دا‬/dā/ ‫دا‬ The following examples of /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner with masculine. number. Demonstratives are inflected for gender. alone or in combination. whereas final stress can indicate either contrastive or anaphoric function. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number but does inflect for case. the possessive determiner phrase is discussed in Section 9. his examples include /hamdáɣa/ ‘this [very]’ and /hamáɣa/ ‘that [very]’.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .3  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Determiners and definiteness In this section we treat only the lexical determiners. and plural nouns illustrate the direct case form: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.124 6. may convey indefinite specificity or nonspecificity. as they do in General Pashto.3. to different degrees. it remains unclear whether demonstrative determiners decline differently than demonstrative pronouns. For the Middle dialects. and the other based on /dáɣa/. Penzl (1955: 80.5. the use of the number term /yaw/ ‘one’.27. one based on /dā/. Determination of Pashto nouns is optional.5) remarks on a set of compound demonstratives which are found in both Eastern and Western dialects (the latter only in writing) in which the emphatic morpheme /ham/ is prefixed or procliticized to the demonstrative determiners. singular. Two forms are used to express the proximal demonstrative.165. and case. and distal.126. It appears that they are used either anaphorically or exophorically. Some Pashto dialects differentiate three levels of proximity: proximal. so we do not describe them separately here. Demonstrative determiners are used to convey definiteness as well as relative proximity. ‫دغه‬ ‫دا‬ ‫دا‬ Direct ‫ دا‬dā Oblique/Ablative ‫ دې‬de   Table 6. The two inventories consist of segmentally identical items that differ in stress placement: disyllabic Pashto demonstrative determiners usually have initial stress.1 Demonstrative determiners This section covers demonstratives acting as determiners. as in Table 6. ‫یو‬ 6. demonstrative pronouns are discussed in Section 7.3. feminine. medial.

9) ‫په دې باغونو کي‬ pə de bāɣ-uno ki in.OBL .OBL book-M.OBL .4) ‫دا نجلۍ‬ dā njəl-əy this.DIR girl-PL.in ‘in this notebook’ (SW) (6.OBL ...DIR ‘this boy’ (SW) (6.6) ‫دا نجوني‬ dā njun-i these.. this.DIR ‘these girls’ (SW) The following examples of oblique case form. these....8) ‫په دې کتابچې کي‬ pə de kitābč-e ki in.DIR boy-M.in ‘in this book’ (SW) (6.165. this..DIR people-PL..126.DIR ‘these people’ (SW) (6.3) 125 ‫دا هلک‬ dā halək-Ø this. /de/: (6.DIR girl-F.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .OBL garden-PL.OBL notebook-F..7) ‫دې‬ ‫په دې کتاب کي‬ ‫دا‬ /dā/ as a demonstrative determiner illustrate the pə de kitāb-Ø ki in.5) ‫دا خلک‬ dā xalk-Ø these.F..Determiners and definiteness  (6..in ‘in these gardens’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M.M..DIR ‘this girl’ (SW) (6.

DIR pen-M.F.OBL room-PL.29 have initial stress.DIR ‘this pen’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. but not in the plural.10) ‫په دې کوټو کي‬ pə de kot-̣o ki in. does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case form.11) ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ in its direct case ‫دغه قلم‬ dáɣə kalam-Ø this.126  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers (6. there is a difference between masculine and feminine in the singular.. /dáɣa/.165. ‫دغه‬ ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ dáɣa dáɣə də́ɣə ‫دغې‬ Oblique ‫دغو‬ dáɣe E dáɣo də́ɣe E də́ɣo ‫دغي‬ dóɣo də́ɣi W ‫توغو‬ dúɣu W   Table 6.OBL . Note that the proximal demonstrative /dáɣa/ and the medial demonstrative /háɣa/ in Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .28: Proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/dáɣa/ These phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner forms: (6..126. as described in Section 7.2.. as shown in Table 6..28. They contrast with similar forms having final stress that serve as alternative strong pronouns. these. In the oblique case form.in ‘in these rooms’ The other proximal demonstrative.

OBL ‘of this man’ (6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR pen-PL.165.13) ‫دغه قلمونه‬ dáɣə kalam-una these.OBL woman-F.16) ‫د دغې ښځي‬ də dáɣe ṣəʣ-e of this.OBL ‘of these girls’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.14) ‫دغه پیالې‬ dáɣə piyāl-e these.18) ‫د دغو نجونو‬ də dáɣo njun-o of this.M.F.M.F.17) ‫د دغو هلکانو‬ də dáɣo halək-āno of this.12) 127 ‫دغه پیاله‬ dáɣə piyāla-Ø this.DIR ‘this cup’ (SW) (6.DIR ‘these cups’ (SW) The following phrases illustrate the demonstrative determiner oblique case forms: (6.OBL ‘of this woman’ (6.OBL man-M.DIR cup-F.OBL girl-PL.OBL boy-PL.15) ‫دغه‬ /dáɣa/ in its ‫د دغه سړي‬ də dáɣa saṛ-i of this.ANIM.OBL ‘of these boys’ (6.Determiners and definiteness  (6.126.DIR cup-PL.DIR ‘these pens’ (SW) (6.

/húɣə/ and /hā́ɣə/. and between /a/ and /ə/.30. The presence or absence of /h/ in some forms may reflect the variation noted by Elfenbein 1997. The multiple forms represent the considerable variation found in descriptions of these demonstratives in the literature. as shown in Table 6.1. ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ háɣə háɣa áɣa áɣə hə́ɣə Oblique ‫هغه‬ ‫هغو‬ áɣe E áɣo ‫هغي‬ hə́ɣo háɣə háɣo ‫هوغو‬ hə́ɣi W húɣu W háɣi W   Table 6.1. and case (Table 6.29: Medial demonstratives ‫هوغه‬ ‫هاغه‬ The distal demonstrative has two variants.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The variation between /o/ and /u/. as has the /i/ ending characteristic of Western dialects.128  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دغه‬ The medial and distal demonstratives exhibit the same patterning as /dáɣa/ with respect to gender.29). has been noted throughout this grammar. see Section 3.2.126.165. number. Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /dáɣa/ and /háɣa/.

30: Distal demonstratives Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.165.Determiners and definiteness  Singular Masculine Direct Plural Feminine ‫هوغه‬ húɣə úɣa hóɣə ‫هاغه‬ hā́ɣə hā́ɣa Oblique ‫هوغې‬ ‫هوغو‬ húɣe húɣo úɣe úɣo ‫هاغې‬ hā́ɣe ‫هاغو‬ hā́ɣo ‫هوغي‬ húɣi W   Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 129 .

PRS-PRS.F] ‘A family can open up an account at the bank.M.AOR. The morphology of /yaw/ ‘one’ is discussed in Section 6. as in the following .‫نا معلومو وسلوالو په خوست کې د یو کورنۍ ټول غړي وژلي‬ nāmālum-o waslawāl-o pə khost-Ø ke də yaw unknown-PL. and as is the case for other languages.19) ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ serves as an indefinite determiner.165..3[SG.DIR all-PL. ‫یو‬ 6.DIR do.DIR Ø-waž-ə́l-i CONT-kill-PST-PTCP.DIR family-F.1 The quantifier ‫ ټولـ‬/ṭol-/ ‘all’ ‫ټولـ‬ The quantifier /ṭol-/ ‘all’ appears to be multifunctional as both a noun and a determiner. and none exist in Pashto.’ (6..130  6.3[SG. Its use in our data is predominantly as a Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.M.in account-M. Babrakzai (1999: 27–28) asserts that /yaw/ ‘one’ may compose with an indefinite quantifier to render a quantified indefinite noun phrase. Khost-M .126.2 Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers The indefinite determiner The number term sentences: (6. 6. every.20) .‫یوه کورنۍ کولای شي په بانک کې حساب پرانیزي‬ yaw-a koran-əy kaw-ə́l-ay one-F..139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .. When functioning as a noun.’ ‫یو‬ Note that the determiner may or may not be inflected.CONT-PST-OPT š-i become. bank-M .DIR ‘Unknown armed individuals killed all members of a family in Khost.PL.DIR AOR\open.OBL armed-PL.. it triggers verb agreement and can function as the complete object of an adposition.PRS-PRS.M.4.21. these quantifiers may also exist in construction with items other than nouns.M.3. as we see in example 6.OBL in..5.in of one koran-əy ṭol-Ø ɣəṛ-i family-F. It appears that under those conditions.4 Non-numerical noun quantifiers Noun quantifiers equivalent to English all..F] pə bank-Ø ke hisāb-Ø prā́niz-i in.M. its holonym may precede it..DIR member-PL.

/ar/ ‘every’ ‫ هر‬/har/.F] and of child-M.DIR be.Non-numerical noun quantifiers  131 determiner.DIR up.F. where it precedes its noun and is the target..M.in meeting-F.AOR.3[PL..PRS.F.M.OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.CONT. of agreement morphology.F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature. rather than the trigger.2 The quantifier As shown in 6.to.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . preceding the noun ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ .3 usage-F.DIR WOULD in.M.OBL path-PL.M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də ..AOR-OPT become.M. /ar/ ‘every’ patterns as an adjective.’ (6.AOR.3SG.’ (WAZ) 6.OBL path-F.126.23.22) .DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.DIR council-F.DIR reader-PL.OBL 15 day-PL.CONT-PRS.M.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F.‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F.. it modifies: (6.PRS-PRS.23) ‫ هر‬/har/.DIR of sake-M.‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations.DIR nation-PL. every-PL.DIR do.3[SG.21) . This can be seen in 6.M.DIR of all-PL.165.PST-PTCP.to some all-PL. (6.PL.4.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.OBL of development-F.3[SG.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS.22.

56 and following.’ Notice the concordant negative in the main clauses of both examples.³ to our knowledge these data comprise the most complete picture of Pashto number names collected thus far.AOR. as shown in examples 7.3SG. They include both additive and subtractive forms.DIR gone-M. Pashto number names show great complexity and variation in formation of the number names over ten.38 are based on original fieldwork.DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon.’ (NW) It can also quantify other nominals. The terms in Table 6.24 and further exemplified in Section 7.7: (6.PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone. as shown in 6.PST-PST.5 Number names As is typical of many languages in northern South Asia. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG. one based on 10 and one based on 20. 6.25) .STR.126.3 The quantifier ‫ هیڅ‬/heʦ/ ‘none’ ‫هیڅ‬ Similarly. the quantifier /heʦ/ (also pronounced /hits/) can combine with the indefinite pronouns. as shown in 6. as well as two systems of formation.DIR WOULD 3SG. 6.132  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers It can combine with the indefinite pronouns to express the effect of everyone or everything.M ‘No one was gone.25: (6. 3 These forms were elicited by Michael Marlo in 2010 with native speaker informants resident in the US.24) .‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who.165.4.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .STR.DIR NEG become.

5.26 and 6. while Table 6. as can be seen in sentences 6.31. For example.1 133 Cardinal numbers in Pashto 6. ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫یو‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126. where four takes a feminine plural direct suffix in the first example but is uninflected in the second. some sources report that only /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’ encode gender and case. (Note these are nominal. while our data show this to be erroneous. and Table 6.34 contrast the Waziri suffixation forms with those of General Pashto. Table 6. Previous descriptions of number name inflection are not comprehensive and contradict each other in places.28. while common. Table 6. where both tokens of four are uninflected while one is inflected. they hold for both adjectival and nominal uses of number names.31: GP ―— ―— ‫ یو‬/yaw/ ‘one’ Inflectional suffixes.36 show the optional inflectional suffixes for numbers one through four in General Pashto. The tables and statements in this section are a summary of what our data reveal.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .35 .5. Table 6. ‫یو‬ Direct ‫دوه‬ Masculine Feminine ‫یو‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یوه‬ ‫یوه‬ yaw yaw yawə́ yawá ‫یو‬ Oblique yaw ‫یوه‬ yawá ‫یوې‬ yawé Ablative Vocative   Table 6.1.1 Morphology Number names all end in either stressed /ə́/ or a consonant and are difficult to sort into the regular nominal and adjectival classes. are optional on number names.165.32 and Table 6. Inflection tends to be more frequent with /yaw/ ‘one’ and /dwa/ ‘two’: compare the forms for four and one in sentence 6. not adjectival.) The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ takes singular suffixes and all other number names take plural ones.27.33. uses.Number names  6.

33: GP ―— ―— Masculine Feminine Direct dwa dwé Oblique dwé dwé ‫ دوه‬/dwa/ ‘two’   Table 6.32: Waziri /yaw/ ‘one’ Direct dwa du dwa dwe ‫دو‬ du Oblique ‫دوه‬ dwa ‫دو‬ du ‫دوو‬ dwo Ablative Vocative   Table 6.34: Waziri /dwa/ ‘two’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.134  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Masculine Feminine Direct yo yawá Oblique yawá yawé Masculine Feminine ‫دوه‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫دوې‬   Table 6.165.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .

35: GP ―— ―— ‫ درې‬/dre/ ‘three’ Direct Masculine Feminine ‫څلور‬ ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ʦalor ‫څلورې‬ ʦalore Oblique ‫څلور‬ ʦalor ‫څلورو‬ ʦaloro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.126.Number names  Masculine Feminine ‫درې‬ Direct dre ‫درې‬ Oblique dre ‫درو‬ dro Ablative Vocative   Table 6.36: GP ―— ―— ‫ څلور‬/ʦalor/ ‘four’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 135 .

DIR head to CONT-deliver-PRS. all-F..F.3[SG. Waziri number names are difficult to categorize into regular nominal or adjectival classes.M] COMP lānde ʦalor-e bansaṭiz-e dand-e sar ta below four-PL...in nine of poliyo pex-e sabt šúw-e Polio event-PL.28: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫ذهن څلور دندې سرته رسوي‬ zahən-Ø ʦalor dand-e sar ta Ø-rasaw-í brain-M. Farah-F province-M .DIR four task-PL.PRS.DIR basic-PL. while /dwa/ ‘two’ is inflected only for gender.F.136  (6.DIR head to wə́-rasaw-i AOR-deliver-PRS. which are declined as masculine nouns as shown in Table 6.in in.PST-PTCP.DIR in.F.M] ‘The brain performs four tasks. four were in Kandahar. of which four were in Helmand.F COMP four 3.PRS.DIR task-PL..3SG.F ‘So far this year.DIR registration become.in da be.F.F.PL.3[SG.. nine cases of polio have been recorded in the region.CONT-PST-OPT become....’ (6. kandahār-Ø aw yaw-a pə farāh-Ø walāyat-Ø ki Kandahar-M and one-F..AOR. and /zǝr/ ‘thousand’..‫ څلور په كندهار او یوه په فراه ولایت كي ده‬، ‫یي په هلمند‬ pə rawān-Ø kāl ki pə ṭul-a hawza-Ø ki nəha də in.M] ‘A computer can perform the four basic tasks below. and one was in Farah.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ..CONT.37..CONT.DIR area-F.3[SG.OBL year .‫کمپیوټر کولای شي چې لاندې څلورې بنسټیزې دندې سرته ورسوي‬ kompyuṭar-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay š-i če computer-M..CONT.WK in.DIR do.’⁴ As in General Pashto.PRS-PRS.28) ‫په روان كال كي په ټوله حوزه كي نهه د پولیو پیښي ثبت سوي دي چي څلور‬ . The number name /yaw/ ‘one’ is inflected for both gender and case. /sǝl/ ‘hundred’. current-M.DIR di če ʦalor ye pə helmand-Ø ʦalor pə be..‫ څلور په کندهار او یوه په فراه کي ده‬،‫چې څلور یې په هلمند‬ 4 Standardized version of 6.126.26) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers . Helmand-M four in. Other declinable cardinal number names are /šǝl/ ‘twenty’.3PL.. ‫په روان کالو کي په ټوله حوزه کي نهه د پولیو پېښې ثبت شوي دي‬ .27) .165.DIR ..F.’ (6.

for example. a form of the relevant single number combined phrasally with /derš/ ‘thirty’. multiples of 20 may have this alternate ‫شپږ‬ -score form. may use /dwa šəle/ ‘two score’ NE ( ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫دو دېرش‬ ‫دري دیرش‬ ‫شپږ‬ ‫شپږ اویا‬ ‫سوه‬ ‫دوه دېرش‬ ‫سل‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ or ‫ دوې شلي‬/dwe šəli/ ‘two score’ ‫دوه شلې‬ SE ).2 Inventory The words for two through ten.165. instead of (or as an alternative to) /ʦalwext/ ‘forty’.). a different form.126. above one hundred. ‫دېرش‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫پنځوس‬ Between 11 and 19 and between 21 and 29. 30. Variants on this basic system exist. and so on. and one or another special form ‫نېمي شلي‬ for ninety.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . a form of the relevant single number plus. The word /səl/ ‘hundred’ has an irregular plural /séwa/ ‘hundreds’. must simply be learned. some speakers also have half-score forms for multiples of 10. ‫ویشت‬ ‫لس‬ ‫ شل‬/šəl/ • for numbers 31 and above.5. either ‫ این څلور نیمي شلي‬/en ʦalor nimi šəli/ ‘four and a half score’ or ‫لس‬ ‫ کم سل‬/ləs kəm səl/ ‘ten less [than a] hundred’. /wišt/ ‘twenty’. 40. Between 31 and 69. /špəg awyā́/ ‘seventy-six’. but other “ones” do not change. /dre/ ‘three’ but /dri derš/ ‘thirty-three’). /špag/ ‘six’ undergoes a vowel change in compounds. number names are combined without further irregularity. and all the tens afterward (20. Above 20. a form of the relevant single number name plus a form of /las/ ‘ten’.1.Number names  Direct šǝl ‘twenty’ sǝl ‘hundred’ zǝr ‘thousand’ šǝl-ina saw-a zǝr-gina saw-e zǝr-gine 137 sǝl-gina Oblique šǝl-ine sǝl-gine   Table 6. etc. between 71 and 99. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. alternate forms of two and three may be used (so. rather than ‘twenty’. Compound number names are usually constructed as follows: • for numbers 11—19. /dwa/ ‘two’ but /du derš/ ‘thirty-two’ or /dwa derš/ ‘thirtytwo’. • for numbers 21—29. /ʦalwéxt/ ‘forty’.37: Waziri plural forms of declinable number names 6. the “ones” part of the compound often undergoes some change. /panʣós/ ‘fifty’. such as /špəg nemi šəli/ ‘six and a half score’ (130). Many speakers of Pashto.

138  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers In further variations of the basic counting system. notice that although Pashto words are written right to left. ۷۱ Table 6. previously shown in Table 3. Further research will be required to identify which groups of Pashto speakers use which counting systems and under what circumstances. for example. Finally. so ‘71’ and ‘17’. larger numbers ending in -nine are often given as. 98).5. going from /špəg ‫شپږ دېرش‬ ‫درې کم څلوښت‬ derš/ ‘thirty-six’ to /dre kam ʦalwəxt/ ‘three less [than] forty’. Some speakers have this subtractive form as far back as numbers that end in -seven.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ۱۷ . Some forms of Waziri that contrast with those of General Pashto are given in Section 6.165.38 shows the number names through 20 and some of the variation in larger number names for General Pashto.38: GP numerals and number names Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ or ٤ ‫یو‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫درې‬ ‫څلور‬ 5 ۵ or ٥ ‫پنځه‬ 6 ۶ or ٦ ‫شپږ‬ ۷ ۸ ۹ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نهه‬ ‫لس‬ ‫یوولس‬ 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 ۱۰ ۱۱ Subtractive and 20-based forms yaw ‘one’ dwa ‘two’ dre ‘three’ ʦəlór ‘four’ W səlór E pinzə́ ‘five’ pinʣə́ SW špəẓ ‘six’ W špəg E uwə́ ‘seven’ atə́ ‘eight’ nə́ ‘nine’ W nə́hə E las ‘ten’ yəwə́las ‘eleven’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.13. /yo kəm panʣos/ ‘one less [than] fifty’ ‫نه څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم پنځوس‬ rather than as /nə ʦalwext/ ‘forty-nine’. Table 6. numbers with more than one digit are written from left to right. It also includes the numerals in Pashto script. some large number names can be given in terms of which large round number they exceed.1.2. as in /naha də pāsa səl/ ‘nine above a hundred’ for 109 (or even /atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi səli/ ‘eight above four and ‫نهه د پاسه سل‬ ‫انه د پاسه ځلور نیمی شلي‬ a half score’— that is.126.

NW ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرش‬ ‫یو کم‬ ‫دېرس‬ yo kəm derš ‘one less [than] thirty’ yo kəm ders ‘one less [than] thirty’ SE derš ‘thirty’ ders SE yaw-derš ‘one [and] thirty’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 12 ۱۲ ‫دولس‬ 13 ۱۳ ‫دیارلس‬ 14 ۱۴ ‫څورلس‬ 15 ۱۵ ‫پنځلس‬ ۱۶ ۱۷ ‫شپاړس‬ ‫اوولس‬ 18 ۱۸ ‫اتلس‬ 19 ۱۹ ‫نونس‬ ۲۰ ۲۱ ‫نولس‬ ‫شل‬ ‫یوویشت‬ ۲۹ ‫نههویشت‬ 16 17 20 21 29 Additive and 10-based forms ‫نه ویشت‬ ‫نویشت‬ 30 31 ۳۰ ۳۱ ‫دېرش‬ ‫دېرس‬ ‫یودېرش‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms dwə́las ‘twelve’ W dólas E duolas SW dəwolas SE dyā́rlas ‘thirteen’ ʦwárlas ‘fourteen’ pinzə́las ‘fifteen’ pinʣə́las SW špā́ṛas ‘sixteen’ owə́las ‘seventeen’ atə́las ‘eighteen’ núnas ‘nineteen’ W núlas E šəl ‘twenty’ ‘[one] score’ yə́-wišt ‘one [and] twenty’ W yə́wiš E nəhə-wišt ‘nine [and] twenty’ nə́-wišt SE.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 139 .Number names  Table 6.126.

140  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.126.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral 37 ۳۷ ‫اوهدېرش‬ 38 ۳۸ ‫اتهدېرش‬ 39 ۳۹ ‫نههدېرش‬ 40 ۴۰ ‫څلوېښت‬ 49 ۴۹ ‫نههڅلوېښت‬ ۵۰ ۶۰ ‫پنځوس‬ ‫شپېته‬ ۷۰ ۸۰ ‫اویا‬ ‫اتیا‬ 88 ۸۸ ‫اته اتیا‬ 89 ۸۹ ‫نهه اتیا‬ 50 60 70 80 Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms wə-derš ‘seven [and] thirty’ ‫درې کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ atə-derš ‘eight [and] thirty’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ nəhə-derš ‘nine [and] thirty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ʦalwext ‘forty’ ‫دوه شلي‬ nəhə-ʦalwext ‘nine [and] forty’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫پنځوش‬ ۹۰ ‫نوي‬ dwa kəm ʦalwext ‘two less [than] forty’ yo kəm ʦalwext ‘one less [than] forty’ dwa šəli ‘two score’ yo kəm panʣos ‘one less [than] fifty’ panʣos ‘fifty’ špetə ‘sixty’ ‫درې شلي‬ dre šəli ‘three score’ awyā ‘seventy’ atyā ‘eighty’ atə-atyā ‘eight [and] eighty’ nəhə-atyā ‘nine [and] eighty’ ‫څلور شلي‬ nəwi ‘ninety’ ʦalor šəli ‘four score’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلې‬ dwa kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘two less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یو کم‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yo kəm ʦalor nimi šəli ‘one less [than] four and a half score’ ‫یوولس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 90 dre kəm ʦalwext ‘three less [than] forty’ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ yəwoləs kəm səl ‘eleven less [than a] hundred’ ʦalor nimi šəli ‘four and a half score’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.

38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫لس کم‬ ‫سل‬ 98 ۹۸ ‫اته نوي‬ atə-nəwi ‘eight [and] ninety’ ‫دوه کم‬ ‫سل‬ ‫اته د پاسه‬ ‫څلور نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ 99 ۹۹ ‫نهه نوي‬ 100 ۱۰۰ ‫سل‬ 101 ۱۰۱ ‫یو سلو یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 110 ۱۱۰ ‫یو سلو لس‬ ‫لس د پاسه‬ ‫سل‬ 120 ۱۲۰ ‫یو سلو شل‬ 121 ۱۲۱ ‫یو سلو‬ ‫یوویشت‬ 129 ۱۲۹ ‫یو سلو نهه‬ ‫ویشت‬ nəhə-nəwi ‘nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم سل‬ las kəm səl ‘ten less [than a] hundred’ dwa kəm səl ‘two less [than a] hundred’ atə də pāsa ʦalor nimi šəli ‘eight above four and a half score’ yo kəm səl ‘one less [than a] hundred’ səl ‘[a] hundred’ yo səlu yo ‘one hundred one’ yo də pāsa səl ‘one above a hundred’ yo səlu las ‘one hundred ten’ las də pāsa səl ‘ten above a hundred’ yo səlu šəl ‘one hundred twenty’ yo səlu yaw-wišt ‘one hundred one [and] twenty’ yo səlu nəhə-wišt ‘one hundred nine [and] twenty’ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫شپږ شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫سلو دېرش‬ špəg šəli ‘six score’ yo də pāsa špəg šəli ‘one above six score’ yo kəm yo səlu derš ‘one less [than] thirty and a hundred’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.Number names  141 Table 6.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .165.

126.165.000 yo səl nəhə-nəwi ‘one hundred nine [and] ninety’ ‫یو کم دوه‬ ‫سوه‬ yo kəm špəg nimi šəli ‘one less [than] six and a half score’ špəg nimi šəli ‘six and a half score’ yo kəm yo səlu ʦalwext ‘one hundred [and] one less [than] forty’ yo kəm uwə šəli ‘one less [than] seven score’ yo kəm dwa səwa ‘one less [than] two hundred’ dwa səwa ‘two hundred’ (yo) zər ‘(one) thousand’ yo zər yo ‘one thousand one’ yo də pāsa zər ‘one above a thousand’ dwa zəra ‘two thousand’ las zəra ‘ten thousand’ səl zəra ‘[a] hundred thousand’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .000 ۱۰۰۰۰ ‫لس زره‬ ۱۰۰۰۰۰ ‫سل زره‬ 100.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms Subtractive and 20-based forms ‫یو کم شپږ‬ ‫نیمي شلي‬ 130 ۱۳۰ ‫یو سل‬ ‫دېرش‬ 139 ۱۳۹ ‫یو سل‬ ‫نههدېرش‬ yo səl derš ‘one hundred thirty’ yo səl nəhə-derš ‘one hundred nine [and] thirty’ ‫شپږ نیمي‬ ‫شلي‬ ‫یو کم یو‬ ‫شلو‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫یو کم اووه‬ ‫شلي‬ 199 ۱۹۹ ‫یو سل نهه‬ ‫نوي‬ 200 ۲۰۰ ‫دوه سوه‬ 1000 ۱۰۰۰ ‫)یو( زر‬ 1001 ۱۰۰۱ ‫یو زر یو‬ ‫یو د پاسه‬ ‫زر‬ 2000 ۲۰۰۰ ‫دوه زره‬ 10.142  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Table 6.

In Middle dialects as in General Pashto.1. as in /dre kam owa šǝla/ ‘three less than seven score [137]’ or /špəz bondi owa šǝlạ/ ‘six over seven score [146]’.165.000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫لس لکه‬ 10.000 ۱۰۰۰۰۰۰۰ ‫یو کرور‬ ‫سل لکه‬ Subtractive and 20-based forms yo lak ‘one hundredthousand’ las laka ‘ten hundredthousand’ yo kror ‘one ten-million’ səl laka ‘[a] hundred hundredthousand’ The inventory of Waziri cardinal number names is very close to that of GP dialects described in Section 6.5. the number /šǝl/ ‘twenty’ can be used to count by scores.39.126.000. it denotes some unspecified large number. Forms that differ are listed in Table 6. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. is not used to express an exact number. The word /šǝl/.2.Number names  143 Table 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . meaning ‘hundred thousand’ in General Pashto.38: (continued) Arabic numeral  Pashto numeral Additive and 10-based forms ‫یو لک‬ 1. rather.000.

(Penzl 1955: 76.1.2 and shown in Table 6.2. however.126.5. /nə́həm/ ‘ninth’ (but /nə́hə/ ‘nine’) /nəm/. as ‫څلور‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫څلورم‬ in /ʦalór/ ‘four’: /ʦalorám/ ‘fourth’. dwahám/ ‘second’ /dre/ ‘three’: /dreyám. or the Arabic /awál/. as well as case.39: Waziri number names that differ from GP forms 6. are formed by adding the suffix /-ám/ ( /-ə́m/ in the Western dialect) to the cardinal number name. as discussed in Section 6. ordinals inflect for number and gender. /nəhám/ ‘ninth’ ‫لسم‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتم‬ ‫دوه‬ ‫دویم‬ ‫درې‬ ‫درېیم‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نهم‬ ‫نههم‬ ‫ اویا‬/awyā/ ‘seventy’: ‫ اویایم‬/awyāyám/ ‘seventieth’ ‫ نوي‬/nə́wi/ ‘ninety’: ‫ نویم‬/nəwiyám/ ‘ninetieth’ ‫نهه‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ The ordinal first is entirely irregular. this vowel is dropped before the suffix is added— /atə́/ ‘eight’: /atám/ ‘eighth’—but the vowels on a few number names are not dropped.40 for /lasám/ ‘tenth’. drehám/ ‘third’ /nə/ ‘nine’: /nəm/ ‘ninth’. If the cardinal number name ends in a vowel.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM ‫اول‬ . an epenthetic glide or sometimes an /h/ is added: /dwa/ ‘two’: /dwayám. it may appear as /wṛumbáy/. /lumṛáy/.1.144  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Number  General Pashto ‫یو‬ ‫اووه‬ ‫اته‬ ‫اتلس‬ ‫نونس‬ ‫څلوېښت‬ ‫اویا‬ 1 7 8 18 19 40 70 Waziri yaw ‘one’ yo uwə́ ‘seven’ owa atə́ ‘eight’ wota. Each of these declines as a regular member of Class IIIa (in the case of /wṛumbáy/ and /lumṛáy/) or Class I (in the case of /awál/).2 Ordinal numbers in General Pashto and Waziri According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 83). there is no conventional way to express ordinal numbers using numerals. Ordinal number names.2creports in addition the allomorphs /yəm/ and /həm/ f. instead. They decline according to the special vowel-stem alternation paradigm in Class I.) Unlike most cardinals. ‫اول‬ ‫وړمبی‬ ‫لومړی‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165. otan atə́las ‘eighteen’ wotalas núnas ‘nineteen’ W ninas ʦalwext ‘forty’ ʦalwešt awyā ‘seventy’ avia   Table 6.

Number names  Masculine Singular Direct ‫لسم‬ lasám Feminine Plural ‫لسم‬ lasám E Singular ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Plural ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ lasə́m W lasə́mi W ‫لسمو‬ Oblique lasámo E lasə́mo W ‫لسمې‬ lasáme E ‫لسمي‬ ‫لسمو‬ lasámo E lasə́mo W lasə́mi W Ablative ‫لسمه‬ lasáma Vocative   Table 6.165.126.40: GP Class I: ‫ لسم‬/lasám/ ‘tenth’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM 145 .

M. As in Pashto.ANIM.126.M ‘The students came in threes.165. the Waziri ordinals for first. as does ninth.41: Waziri irregular ordinal number names 6.146  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Ordinal numbers in Waziri are formed as in General Pashto. these are shown in Table 6. and third show irregular forms.M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR Ø-gərzaw-ə́m CONT-carry-1SG ‘I always carry five pens. (6.DIR three three come. second.3PL.30) .5.’ (NW) (6. with a few exceptions.3 Reduplication of number names The full reduplication of number names denotes iteration of individuals or groups (see Babrakzai 1999: 48).‫زه هر وخت پنځه پنځه کلمان ګرزوم‬ za har waxt pinʣə pinʣə kalam-ān 1SG.PST-PST.AOR.STR.ANIM.DIR every time five five pen-PL.29) .‫شاګردان درې درې راغل‬ šāgərd-ān dre dre rā́ɣ-əl student-PL. Masculine Feminine awwal awwala dwayam dwayama dweyam dweyama dwawam dwawama third dreyam dreyama ninth nem nemma first second   Table 6.’ (SW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.41.

43. the fifth one).6 147 Interrogative adjectives The interrogative adjectives that occur in Pashto are shown in Table 6. kim or kima (feminine) ‘which?’ ʦowəm. question would focus on some attribute (e. The answer to a ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ Pashto has two words corresponding to English which?: ‫څووم‬ /ʦowəm/.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .Interrogative adjectives  6. the brown one). ‫ کوم‬kum or ‫ کومه‬kumə (feminine) ‫ څووم‬ʦowəm (masculine) ‫ څوومه‬ʦowəmə (feminine) ‫ څه‬ʦə ‫ څو‬tso ‫ څومره‬ʦumra.43: Waziri interrogative adjectives ‫ کوم‬/kum/ ‘which?’ and /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’. The interrogative ‫کوم‬ /kum/ ‘which?’ is optionally invariant Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ question would include an ordinal num- ‫څووم‬ ber (e.g. sura ‘how much?’   Table 6.. ʦomra ‘which?’ ‘which [number]?’ ‘what?’ ‘how many?’ ‘how much?’ ʦona   Table 6. sowəm (masculine) ʦowəmə. They do not inflect for case or number. Only the first two forms show gender concord. while the answer to a /ʦowəm/.165. Interrogative adjectives of Waziri are described in Table 6.g.42: GP interrogative adjectives Waziri Translation kim (masculine).126. and /kum/ ‘which?’ does so optionally. ‫کوم‬ GP Translation ‫ کوم‬kum (masculine).. so ‘how many?’ ʦura.42. sowəmə (feminine) ‘which [number]?’ tso.

WK AOR-see. /sowəm/ ‘which [number]?’ has the feminine form /ʦowəmə/.165.WK AOR-eat.3PL.PST-2SG ‘What catastrophe happened to you?’ (SW) Pashto interrogative adjectives distinguish between count nouns and mass nouns.33) ‫په څه بلا اخته شوی؟‬ pə ʦə balā-Ø axtə šə́w-i INSTR what catastrophe-F.WK need be.many dog-PL.DIR 2.DIR [number] person-M. /sumra/ ‘how much?’.DIR 2.F. while /ʦowəm/.F ‘How much rice did you eat?’ (NW) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.148  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫کومه‬ with respect to gender or may take the feminine form /kumə/ ‘which?’ (feminine).139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .35) ‫څومره وریجې دې وخوړې؟‬ sumra wrij-e de wə́-xwaṛ-e how.126. Some examples of their use are shown in sentences 6.PST-PST.32) ‫څووم کس دې پکار دی؟‬ sowəm-Ø kas-Ø de pəkār day which-M. /sowəmə/ ‘which [number]?’ (feminine).CONT.3PL.M.AOR.OBL affected become.M ‘Which [number] person do you need?’ (NW) (6.M ‘Which dog did you see?’ (NW) (6.PST-PST. /so/ ‘how many?’.31) ‫څوومه‬ ‫کوم سپی دې ولید؟‬ kum-Ø sp-ay de wə́-lid-Ø which-M.3SG.PRS.DIR dog-M.M ‘How many dogs did you see?’ (NW) (6.35. ‫څووم‬ (6.31 through 6. ‫څو‬ (6. The former is /tso/.WK AOR-see.PST-PST. The latter is /tsumra/.DIR 2.DIR 2.much rice-PL.3SG.34) ‫څومره‬ ‫څو سپي دې ولیدل؟‬ so sp-i de wə́-lid-əl how.

M.AOR-PRS.M.3[PL.M.DIR and of work-M.PST-PTCP.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . The adjective may be declined to reflect the default value of masculine plural.‫خوندی ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوی برابر کړي‬ čārwāk-i Ø-wāy-í če də kunaṛ-Ø official-PL. (6. or it may be declined to agree with only the last item of the set.3[PL.126.OBL offended-PL.OBL walāyat-Ø čārwāk-i bə yawdzāy province-M.OBL brothers. the adjectival portion may be inflected in various ways when it governs conjoined objects of different genders.M.PL.AOR.M] COMP of Kunar-M.PRS-PRS.DIR do. as in example 6.DIR do-INF-PL.‫وروڼو ته خوندي ژوند او د کار کولو آسانتیاوې برابر کړي‬ 5 Standardized version of 6.Inflection of conjoined adjectives  6.OBL to xwandi žwand-Ø aw də kār-Ø kaw-ə́l-o safe life-M.36: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL WOULD together šúw-io marawər-o oruṇo tə become.OBL āsāntiyā-we barābár-Ø kṛ-i facility-PL.M.DIR CONT-tell.OBL official-PL.M] ‘Officials say that Kunar officials will provide the reunited offended brothers with a safe life and facilities for working. as seen in example 6.M.37.M.36) ‫چارواګي وایی چې دکنړ ولایت چارواګي به یوځای شویو مرورو وروڼو ته‬ .DIR prepared-PL.7 149 Inflection of conjoined adjectives In the present aorist form of denominal verbs based on an adjectival root.’⁵ ‫چارواکی وایی چې د کنړ ولایت چارواکی به یوځای شویو مرورو‬ .F.36.165.

DIR of drink-INF-PL. ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته په کار دی چې‬ .M.OBL ʣāy-Ø də ʦək-əl-o lə pār-a sahi place-M.CONT. 6.. usually with nouns..37) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers ‫دهستوګنې‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.M.OBL facility-PL.8.‫د څـښلو لپاره صحي اوبه او د صحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫هستوګنې ځاې‬ 6 Standardized version of 6.M] ‘Western nations need to provide them with education. and health facilities. clean drinking water.DIR barābár-e kṛ-i prepared-PL. haɣwi tə de talim-Ø də astogən-e COMP .165.STR. The examples below are arranged by class.126.8 Derivation of adjectives Pashto has several derivational suffixes and two prefixes that can be used to derive adjectives from nouns or verbs.F.OBL country-PL.37: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR and of health-M.3[PL. as seen in the examples below..PRS.F. problematic.DIR of residence-F.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .1... to derive a new adjective.DIR do.‫دڅـښلولپاره صحي اوبه اودصحت آسانتیاوې برابرې کړي‬،‫ځاې‬ ɣarb-o hewād-uno tə pəkār day west-PL..OBL to necessary be.M če .. 6.. They can affix to either native or borrowed words. 3PL. Descriptions and examples of all of these derived forms follow.3SG.AOR-PRS. ‫غریبو هیوادونو ته پکاردي چې‬ .OBL from sake-M.M.8.ABL healthy oba-Ø aw də sahət-Ø āsāntiyā-we water-F. Adjectives can also form compounds.OBL to NEC education-M.1 Some Class I derivational suffixes • /‑man/ ‫ـمن‬ ‫ ستونځه‬/stundza/ ‘problem’ → ‫ ستونځمن‬/stundzman/ ‘troublesome. a place of residence.1 Derivational suffixes Adjectives formed by the addition of suffixes vary as to which declension class they belong to.’⁶ 6.150  (6. difficult’ ‫ واک‬/wāk/ ‘power’ → ‫ واکمن‬/wākmán/ ‘powerful’ ‫د‬،‫ هغوي ته دې تعلیم‬.

education’ → ‫ پوهنیز‬/pohə́niz/ ‘academic’ ‫ ـین‬/‑in/ This suffix applies most often to nouns denoting a material.165.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . noble’ • ‫ ـوال‬/‑wāl/ ‫ وسله‬/waslá/ ‘weapon’ → ‫ وسله وال‬/waslawā́l/ ‘armed’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. • ‫ پشم‬/pašm/ ‘wool’ → ‫ پشمين‬/pašmín/ ‘woolen’ ‫ زر‬/zar/ ‘precious metal.5. mercy’ → ‫ همتناک‬/himmatnā́k/ ‘magnanimous.2 for more detail.Derivation of adjectives  • • 151 ‫ قدر‬/qádar/ ‘quantity. gilded’ ‫ ـم‬/‑ám/ ‫ ـم‬/‑ə́m/ E W This suffix forms ordinal number names from cardinals. force’ → ‫ زورور‬/zorawár/ ‘strong’ ‫ خوند‬/xwand/ ‘taste’ → ‫ خوندور‬/xwandawár/ ‘tasty’ ‫ خوله‬/xwulá/ ‘mouth. gold’ → ‫ زرين‬/zarín/ ‘golden. risk’ → ‫ خطرناک‬/xatarnā́k/ ‘dangerous’ ‫ همت‬/himmat/ ‘[Arabic] magnanimity. • • • • ‫ پنځه‬/pinzə́/ ‘five’ → ‫ پنځم‬/pinzə́m/ ‘fifth’ ‫ ـجن‬/‑ján/ ‫ زهر‬/zahr/ ‘poison’ → ‫ زهرجن‬/zahrján/ ‘poisonous’ ‫ غم‬/ɣam/ ‘sorrow’ → ‫ غمجن‬/ɣamján/ ‘sad’ ‫ ـدار‬/‑dā́r/ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘water’ → ‫ آبدار‬/ābdā́r/ ‘watery’ ‫ سرمایه‬/sarmāyá/ ‘capital’ → ‫ سرمایه دار‬/sarmāyadā́r/ ‘wealthy’ ‫ ـور‬/‑(a)war/ ‫ زور‬/zor/ ‘strength. merit’ → ‫ قدرمن‬/qadarmán/ ‘esteemed’ ‫ ـیز‬/‑iz/ ‫ سوله‬/sóla/ ‘peace’ → ‫ سوله ييز‬/sólayiz/ ‘peaceful’ ‫ پوهنه‬/pohə́na/ ‘knowledge. honor. lips’ → ‫ خوله ور‬/xwulawár/ ‘eloquent. sharp-tongued’ ‫ ـناک‬/‑nāk/ ‫ خطر‬/xatár/ ‘[Arabic] danger.126. See Section 6.

however.3.126. -less’ This prefix. ‫ جاپان‬/jāpān/ ‘Japan’ → ‫ جاپانی‬/jāpānáy/ ‘Japanese’ 6. the two morphemes function as a single word. /be‑/ is generally.3 for a description and some examples of this usage). urgency’ → ‫ بیړبی‬/biṛnáy/ ‘urgent. dishonored’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. from Persian. • ‫ دایم‬/dāím/ ‘permanence [Arabic]’ → ‫ دایمي‬/dāimí/ ‘permanent’ ‫ نېشه‬/nešá/ ‘intoxication’ → ‫ نېسه یي‬/nešayí/ ‘addictive’ ‫ امریکا‬/amrikā/ ‘America’→ ‫ امريکاي‬/amrikāí/ ‘American’ ‫ ـوالا‬/‑wālā/ ‫ پانګه‬/pānga/ ‘wealth’ → ‫ پانګوالا‬/pāngwālā/ ‘wealthy’ 6. written as a separate word. • ‫ بېـ‬/be‑/ ‘without. these derived adjectives can further form Class IIIa nouns (see Section 5.2 Some Class IIIa derivational suffixes • /‑(a)náy/ ‫ـنی‬ This suffix is usually affixed to words having to do with time or location.4. but not always.2 Negators The first of these negators are prefixes.8.3 Some Class IV (non-declining) derivational suffixes • /‑í/ ‫ـي‬ This suffix is added to nouns—often loanwords. ‫بېـ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ آب‬/āb/ ‘honor’ → ‫ بې آب‬/beā́b/ ‘shameless.8. • ‫ بیړه‬/bíṛa/ ‘haste. reflecting its origins as an adposition (see Section 9.8.1). emergency [ADJ]’ ‫ کال‬/kāl/ ‘year’→ ‫ کالنی‬/kālanáy/ ‘annual’ ‫ ـی‬/‑áy/ This suffix is usually affixed to place names to describe a denizen of that place.165. is affixed to nouns. the resultant form is an adjective often translatable into a phrase governed by without or into an English adjective with the suffix -less. Adjectives formed in this way can fall in either Class I or Class IV. With the addition of the /‑i/ suffix.1.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .152  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 6. as in the first example below—or names of countries.1.

Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. the resulting form usually inflects as a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6. un-’ This prefix attaches to adjectives and negates them. /plār/ ‘father’ + /məṛ/ ‘dead’ → /plārmə́ṛay/ ‘fatherless.4.4) can govern an adpositional phrase that can be used attributively or predicatively to modify nouns: (6. adjectives thus derived remain in the same declension class. The order of the elements in the compound can be either noun—adjective or adjective—noun.DIR both-PL. /beplā́ra/ ‘fatherless’.8.3PL.165.3.) ‫پلار‬ ‫مړ‬ ‫بې پلاره‬ ‫ سپين‬/spin/ ‘white’ + ‫مخ‬ ‫پلارمړی‬ /məx/ ‘face’ → honest.F.8.38) .F ‘These events are both contrary to Islam.DIR di be. see Babrakzai 1999: 48) intensifying the quality denoted.2.4 Reduplication of adjectives Full reduplication of adjectives in Pashto may quantify over events rather than (or in addition to. which uses the negative prefix /be‑/. 6.Derivation of adjectives  153 ‫ اولاد‬/awlā́d/ ‘[Arabic] child’ → ‫ بې اولاده‬/beawlā́da/ ‘childless’ ‫ کور‬/kor/ ‘house’ → ‫ بې کوره‬/bekóra/ ‘homeless’ ‫ شک‬/šak/ ‘doubt’ → ‫ بې شکه‬/bešaka/ ‘irrefutable’ • ‫ ناـ‬/nā‑/ ‘not.‫دا دواړه اسلامي ضدی پديدي دي‬ dā dwār-a islāmi zidi padid-e this. anti-’ (see Section 9.CONT.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM . innocent’ ‫سپين مخی‬ ‫بېـ‬ /spinmə́xay/ ‘white-faced. and they may be written separately. acceptable’ → ‫ ناروا‬/nārawā́/ ‘not allowed.DIR Islamic against phenomenon-PL.PRS. orphaned’ (Cf.’ 6. improper’ ‫ دوستانه‬/dostāná/ ‘friendly’ → ‫ نادوستانه‬/nādostāná/ ‘unfriendly’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against.3 Compound adjectives Adjective and noun pairs can combine into a single compound adjective.2).126.1. ‫ روا‬/rawā/ ‘permitted.

DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST.‫ما خواږه خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā xwāg-ə xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.9 Usage 6.STR.M ‘I had very good friends.ANIM.1 Attributive and predicative adjectives Adjectives may be used attributively or predicatively.39) Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers .3PL.STR.M ‘My older brothers arrived.3PL.DIR sweet-PL.DIR sweet-PL.M.3PL.DIR friend-PL. so they always appear in the direct case form.M. .154  (6.DIR near be.‫پوهنتون نژدې دئ‬ pohantun-Ø nəžde dəy university-M. but they do agree in gender and number with the subject of the intransitive construction in which they appear.AOR.M ‘The university is nearby.DIR 1SG.’ (W) Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫مشران وروڼه مې راغلل‬ məšr-ān wruṇa me rā́ɣl-əl older-PL.PST-PST.3SG.CONT.165.40) ‫ ډېر‬/ḍer/ ‘much’.M.DIR friend-PL.‫ما ډېر خواږه یاران لرل‬ mā ḍer-Ø xwāg-ə yār-ān 1SG.DIR Ø-lar-ə́l CONT-have-PST.126.41) . Predicative adjectives are always used in intransitive constructions.ANIM.M.DIR brothers.M.WK come.M.OBL much-PL. (6.42) .M.’ (NW) To intensify an adjective.’ (NW) 6.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .M.PRS.M ‘I had many good friends. usually with a form of the verb to be.OBL sweet-PL.’ (6. Pashto also uses (6.9.

‫ـان‬ ‫ ـانو‬/‑āno/ (obl.F big-F.AOR-PST.DIR be.AOR-PST.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .DIR big-F.dir.165.DIR pulled do.WK AOR-buy.126.CONT.F.OBL bull-M.PST-PST-PST.3SG.’ (6.OBL cart-F.DIR big-M.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR pulled do. When this occurs the adjective may be declined normally. or.PRS.9./abl.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.’ (6.PST-PST-PST.dir.3PL.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart.3SG.3SG. it may be declined as if it were a noun.‫هغه غټې کراچي کشه کړه‬ háɣa ɣaṭ-e karāč-i kašá kṛ-a this. as if there were a noun present.).3SG.F ‘This big [one] pulled the cart.45) .DIR 2.46) .43) 155 .’ (6.F ‘Which cows did you buy? I bought a big [one]./voc.47) .WK AOR-buy.CONT. /‑āne/ (fem.’ 6. when they denote animates: (6. Class I adjectives used nominally may take the animate plural suffixes /‑ān/ (masc. For example.Usage  (6.OBL big-F. in which event it will take the suffixes of the noun class most closely resembling the adjective class to which it originally belonged.F ‘The cow is big.).44) .‫کوم غواوي دې واخیستلې؟ غټه مې واخیستله‬ ‫ـانې‬ kum ɣwā-we de w-ā́xist-əl-e ɣaṭ-a which cow-PL. reflecting a gradual nominalization of such an adjective by speakers.2 Zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives Pashto adjectives may be used as if they were nouns.).‫غویی غټ دی‬ ɣway-ay ɣaṭ-Ø day bull-M.DIR be.M ‘The bull is big.DIR me w-ā́xist-əl-a 1SG.‫غوا غټه ده‬ ɣwā-Ø ɣaṭ-a da cow-F.OBL cart-F.3SG.PRS.

..M ‘The most tired guest of all arrived.. ʦexa/... /də . na/.2.. however.3SG. all-PL. See Section 9.5.DIR rā́ɣl-o come.156  Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers Adjectives in the vocative case form can be used on their own.126.from more-M.PST-PST... The superlative uses the phrase from/of all. from..5 and Section 9.165. ‫ده‬ ‫ټولو‬ (6.DIR guest-M..‫له ټولو نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə ṭol-o na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:03 PM .‫له هغه نه ډېر ستړی مېلمه راغلو‬ lə haɣə́ na ḍer-Ø stəṛ-ay melm-a from. both of which are Persian borrowings.3.4 Adjectives as adverbs Sometimes adjectives are used verbal or sentential modifiers.. vocative adjectives are uninflected.DIR rā́ɣl-o come.7 for more discussion and some examples.3 !‫ړوند سړیه‬ Comparatives and superlatives Adjectives in Pashto do not have derived comparative or superlative forms.AOR.49) . or /tər/ ‘up to.’ (6. See Section 10. These are /behtar/ ‘better’ and /batar/ ‘worse’. than’.. na/.AOR.. ‫له‬ ‫ټول‬ . When used adverbially. /də . formed by using one of the comparative phrases and adding /ṭolo/ ‘all’ or /ṭol/ ‘whole’.3SG. Both are used with the ordinary predicative form of the adjective..⁷ Comparison is accomplished with the use of adpositional phrases such as /lə .. as noted above: /ṛúnda/ ‘blind [one]!’ When used in a noun phrase. they still show concord with the absolutive argument.OBL .M ‘The guest more tired than him arrived. that. 7 There are two special comparative adjectives in Pashto.2.DIR tired-M.PST-PST.DIR tired-M. ‫ نه‬. and the nouns take the vocative form: /ṛund saṛáya/ ‘blind man!’ !‫ړونده‬ 6.from more-M.9..9.OBL .’ 6.. ‫ده‬ ‫ څخه‬. ‫بهتر‬ ‫بتر‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.48) ‫تر‬ ‫ نه‬. without nouns.1 for more discussion of comparative and superlative adpositional phrases.M...DIR guest-M..

and these singular forms are also the same in the masculine singular oblique. where they are known. (See Section 7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. and plural oblique each have their own forms.1 Overview In all varieties. but not in the plural. plural direct. which appear in the direct case in this position. following Tegey & Robson (1996: 65ff. but unlike them it has final stress.165.) 7. Tables of Middle dialect forms. As in many languages. the forms below can be assumed to be common to both Waziri and Dzadrani.3 for more details.5. only the direct and oblique cases are distinguished. number.1 Forms in General Pashto and Middle dialects Called simply personal pronouns by Penzl (1955). Feminine singular oblique. the plural second person forms are also used for formal second-person address. Only the third person singular forms distinguish gender. the strong personal pronouns appear in the oblique case in the direct object of present tense sentences. which we term strong and weak. An additional pronoun. Unless otherwise indicated in the table title or next to the form itself. Pashto has two sets of personal pronouns. with the function of third person personal pronouns being filled by a subset of the demonstratives. while weak pronouns may only occur in functions where they do not agree with the verb. /haɣá/ does not inflect in either gender in the singular direct.126. gender. and case. It is related to the medial demonstratives described in Section 7.). follow the corresponding GP tables. /haɣá/. The cases are used slightly differently in pronouns than in nouns and adjectives: unlike nouns.Anne Boyle David 7 Pronouns 7.2 Strong personal pronouns 7.2. In the singular first and second persons. Pashto pronouns generally inflect for person. ‫هغه‬ ‫هغه‬ 1 Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) analyze personal pronouns as only occurring in the first and second persons. strong personal pronouns¹ distinguish between direct and oblique case in the singular. but differ somewhat in form. can be used with distal third person reference. not the direct case form. Shafeev (1964). pronominal direct objects take the oblique. The pronouns of the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of General Pashto. unlike nouns. and Heston (1992). Strong pronouns are not restricted in their occurrence.

1st and 2nd person Singular Masculine Direct ‫دا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫دې‬ day Oblique də Plural Feminine ‫دی‬ dā Plural ‫دوی‬ duy ‫دیو‬ dío de   Table 7.1: GP strong pronouns.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . 3rd person Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3: GP strong pronouns.2: Middle dialect strong pronouns. 1st and 2nd person 1st Singular Direct zə Oblique mo 2nd Plural Singular miž miž(a) DZA tə tós(e) E to   Table 7.158  Pronouns 1st 2nd Singular Plural ‫مونږ‬ ‫زه‬ Direct tā́se E ‫تاسي‬ tā́si W mug E muẓ W ‫تاسو‬ ‫تا‬ ‫مونږه‬ mā ‫تاسې‬ tə ‫موږ‬ ‫ما‬ Plural ‫ته‬ mung E munẓ W zə Oblique Singular tā́su tā́so tā mungə E munẓə W   Table 7.165.126.

5: Distal 3rd person pronoun ‫ هغه‬/haɣá/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.165.4: Middle dialect strong pronouns. 3rd person Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣə́ haɣá həɣə́ aɣá aɣə́ Plural ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغې‬ haɣé aɣé ‫هغوی‬ haɣúy aɣúy ‫هغو‬ haɣó aɣó   Table 7.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 159 .Strong personal pronouns  Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Direct day do Oblique də di de dəy derde WAZ doy DZA   Table 7.

41. /daɣá/. consider 7.2: ‫دغه‬ (7.. or wishes to conceal it. that-M.4 illustrate final-stressed anaphoric pronouns: (7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . perhaps the speaker cannot remember the name of the person or thing intended. forms with initial stress can be said to be anticipatory.DIR 1SG.40 and 7.1 and 7.3) ‫پس له هغه‬ pas lə haɣ-ə́ after from that-M. while the demonstratives are stressed on the first syllable. For forms that are segmentally identical we have said that the strong pronouns are stressed on the last syllable. demonstratives and strong pronouns have many overlapping forms.DIR 1SG.. or exophoric. for example.PST-PST. Forms with final stress can be said to be anaphoric.M ‘That is what I was going to say.2...‫دغه مي ویل‬ daɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l this. In contrast.2) .WK CONT-tell.165.to ‘to that place’ In contrast.PL.4) ‫و هغه ځای ته‬ wə haɣ-ə́ ʣāy-Ø tə to.’ In 7. Forms with /daɣá/ may also serve as discourse-anaphoric elements. emphatic.126. which show initial-stress indexical usage: they introduce something new. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) provide an additional perspective on this stress alternation. In contrast.‫هغه مي ویل‬ haɣə́ mi Ø-way-ə́l that. Examples 7..OBL place-M.160  Pronouns ‫دغه‬ ‫هغه‬ Another pronoun..’ As mentioned... inflects just like /haɣá/. in 7.PST-PST.1) .3 and 7. as in 7.WK CONT-tell.1.OBL ‘after that’ (7. It appears to connote something about information status.PL.M ‘I was saying. the speaker is not really focusing on what he was going to say.OBL . the speaker is communicating specifically about what he was going to say: (7.

F.DIR be.1.7: (7.1SG ‘I'm American.‫زه وږی نه یم خو دی وږی دئ او دا تږی ده‬ zə wəẓ-ay ná yəm xu 1SG.F ‘I'm not hungry. as in 7.6.PRS. either 7.CONT.DIR from chair-F. Strong pronouns distinguish direct and oblique case forms.’ (SW) In accordance with split ergativity.CONT.5.8) . For example.CONT.165.3.’ (7. or 7.’ (7. direct case forms are used for subjects in present tense sentences.3SG. strong pronouns can carry redundant information.PRS.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. without one.1SG ‘I'm American. or for emphasis.7) . and with the direct object or intransitive subject in past tense sentences. with an explicit pronoun.OBL tall-become.5) .‫امريکاي یم‬ amrikāyi yəm American be.STR. and for direct objects in past tense sentences: (7.5.DIR thirsty-F.STR. Since Pashto verbs show person agreement. Including the pronoun might be done when starting a conversation or otherwise introducing new information.5 and Chapter 8.1SG but day wəẓ-ay dəy aw 3SG.M.6) .PRS.3SG. is correct.‫زه له څوکی جګېدم‬ zə lə ʦawk-əy jəg-éd-əm 1SG.126.DIR be. the Pashto verb agrees with the subject in the present tense.DIR NEG be. As with nouns.DIR hungry-M.Strong personal pronouns  161 7.STR.STR. see Section 5.M and dā təẓ-əy də 3SG.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . context will usually determine whether or not to omit the pronoun.CONT. as shown in 7.CONT.DIR hungry-M.PRS.‫زه امريکاي یم‬ zə amrikāyi yəm 1SG American be.CONT. and may therefore be omitted when they agree with the verb.2 Usage Pashto is known as a pro-drop language.2.PST-1SG ‘I was getting up from the chair. but he is hungry and she is thirsty.PRS.

’ (SW) The third person strong personal pronouns take the direct case form when serving as accusative arguments in present tense sentences.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .165.DIR AOR-see.9) .STR. as shown by the ungrammatical example 7.162  Pronouns In past tense transitive sentences.13) .‫تا زه ولیدم‬ tā zə wə́-lid-əm 2SG. the subject takes the oblique case form and the direct object takes the direct case form: (7.STR.10) .‫* زه ولیدم‬ zə wə́-lid-əm 1SG.’ Note that the direct object pronoun. where direct objects take direct case suffixes: (7. Note that this use of the oblique case for a direct object is particular to these strong personal pronouns and does not occur in nouns or adjectives. which is the trigger of agreement.126.STR.‫تا وینم‬ tā Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.OBL 1SG.DIR AOR-see.‫ما ځوروې‬ mā Ø-ʣəwraw-é 1SG.STR.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.’ The oblique case form of the first and second persons in the singular is also used for the direct object in present tense sentences.12) .11: (7.’ But the subject argument cannot.‫تا ولیدم‬ tā wə́-lid-əm 2SG.10: (7.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.STR.’ (SW) (7. This reflects the normal behavior of the direct case in Pashto: Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. can be omitted from sentence 7.STR.OBL CONT-distress-2SG ‘You disturb me.PST-1SG ‘You saw me.11) .OBL AOR-see.OBL CONT-see.

1. the /də/ is lenited to a fricative and assimilated in the first and second persons.CONT.CONT.PRS.‫دا زما کتاب دئ‬ dā zmā kitāb-Ø dəy this.2.14) 163 .18. See Section 9. These forms may appear in any position that would admit the corresponding phrase with /də/. the strong form can be used for emphasis while the weak form cannot.CONT. In most dialects. so that /s/ appears before /t/ and /z/ appears before /m/. 1999: 30).PRS-2SG ‘You see him.’ (SW) An alternative way of expressing possession with strong pronouns (and the only way. in some dialects) is to use the construction /də/ + Strong Pronoun.STR. all dialects but their Central or Kabul group).DIR CONT-see.‫زما موټر بیرون ولاړ دئ‬ zmā moṭər-Ø birun wəlāṛ-Ø dəy 1SG.3.STR.126. Since there is no third person form.Strong personal pronouns  (7.15) ‫د‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ . ‫د‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.‫ته دی وینې‬ tə day Ø-win-é 2SG.POSS book-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .DIR be.PRS. (7.1 for more discussion.M ‘My car is standing outside.165.’ 7.DIR where be.28. these forms may appear unreduced with a /di/ or /də/.M.17) .STR.PRS. as in 7. These forms exist only for the first and second person and appear to derive historically from the preposition /də/ followed by the oblique forms of the pronouns (Babrakzai. according to Tegey & Robson 1996: 70.3SG.POSS house-M. In the Eastern dialects (or.M ‘This is my book.3SG.3 Strong possessive pronouns There is a paradigm of strong personal pronouns that serve genitive functions. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ (7.M ‘Where is your home?’ (SW) Compare 7.DIR be.17 with the weak pronoun in 7. including as the object of what otherwise would be a circumposition containing /də/ (see 8.DIR 3SG. although either a weak or a strong pronoun is possible.16) ‫ستا کور چېرته دئ؟‬ stā kor-Ø čerta dəy 2SG.DIR outside standing-M.’ (SW) (7.STR.POSS car-M. strong possessive pronouns do not distinguish gender.3SG.STR.22 for an example).DIR 1SG.

164

Pronouns

1st

Singular

Plural

‫زما‬

‫زمونږ‬

zmā

zmung E
zmunẓ W

‫زموږ‬

zmug E
zmuẓ W

‫زمونږ‬

zmungə E

‫ستا‬

2nd

stā

‫ستاسې‬
stāse E

‫ستاسي‬

stāsi W

‫ستاسو‬

stāsu E
stāso W

 
Table 7.6: Possessive pronouns

(7.18)

‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬
də de
num-Ø
ʦə
dəy
of 3SG.F.STR.OBL name-M.OBL what be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘What is her name?’ (SW)

7.3 Weak personal pronouns
7.3.1 Forms
The weak personal pronouns are also called uninflected pronominal particles (Penzl,
1955: 87) and enclitic pronominal particles (Heston, 1992: 1574). They are unstressed
pronouns that do not inflect for case and cannot govern agreement with the verb, a
constraint that restricts where they may occur (see Section 7.3.2 for more discussion
and examples). Note that the third person uses the same form for singular and plural,
and the first and second person plural each use a single form.

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Weak personal pronouns 

1st

Singular

Plural

‫مې‬

‫مو‬

‫مي‬

‫مو‬

me E

mo E
mu W

mi W

‫ام‬

am W

2nd

‫دې‬

de E

‫دي‬

di W

3rd

‫یې‬

ye

 
Table 7.7: GP weak pronouns

Singular

Plural

1st

me DZA
be DZA
mi WAZ

(ə)m DZA

2nd

de DZA
di WAZ

3rd

(y)e

 
Table 7.8: Middle dialect weak pronouns

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165

166

 Pronouns

7.3.2 Usage
Weak pronouns may not appear in positions in which they would agree with the verb.
From this fact it follows that (1) they never occur with intransitive verbs, and (2) with
transitive verbs, they only occur in an accusative role in the present tense and an ergative role in the past. Thus they do not occur in either the nominative or absolutive slot.
Table 7.9 summarizes the positions in which weak personal pronouns may occur or
not; this pattern parallels the case-marking pattern exhibited by strong pronouns, as
outlined by Table 11.6. Sentences in Section 7.3.2.1 (some of which come from Tegey &
Robson 1996) illustrate these restrictions.²

Non-past tenses

Transitive Subject

DOES NOT OCCUR

Intransitive Subject
Direct Object

Past tenses

MAY OCCUR

DOES NOT OCCUR
MAY OCCUR

 
Table 7.9: Distribution pattern for weak pronouns

With the above occurrence restrictions, weak pronouns are used for subjects, direct objects, and (without further marking) possessive determiners, but not as objects
of adpositions, and they do not inflect for case. In contrast with nouns, which will be
in the direct case when the object of a present tense sentence and in the oblique case
when the subject of a past tense transitive sentence, the weak pronouns will have the
same form in these two positions.
Weak pronouns are second-position clitics - see Section 11.2.3.2 and Section 11.3.5.1
for discussion. Section 11.3.5.1 also gives examples of various positions of weak pronouns in a clause.

7.3.2.1 Occurrence restrictions
The example in 7.19 shows that a weak personal pronoun may express an accusative
argument in the present tense, but the unacceptable sentences in 7.20 and 7.21 shows
that it may not be in the nominative slot.

2 Roberts (2001a: 127–153) offers a different analysis.

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Weak personal pronouns 

(7.19)

167

‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬
wali me
mač-aw-í
why 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW)

(7.20)

.‫* مچولم یې‬
ye
mač-aw-í
mi
3.WK kiss-do.CONT-PRS.3[SG.M] 1SG.WK
‘He is kissing me.’

(7.21)

.‫* نن یې ګډیږي‬
nən
ye
Ø-gəḍ-íg-i
today 3.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Today he is dancing.’ (NW)

The sentence in 7.22 shows the acceptability of a weak pronoun as a subject in the
past tense:
(7.22)

.‫مچولم یې‬
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘He was kissing me.’

On the other hand, the unacceptable sentences in 7.23 and 7.24 show that a weak
personal pronoun may not express an intransitive subject or a direct object:
(7.23)

.‫* پرون مي مچولم یې‬
parun
mi
mač-aw-ə́l-əm
ye
yesterday 1SG.WK kiss-do.CONT-PST-1SG 3.WK
‘Yesterday he was kissing me.’ (SW)

(7.24)

.‫* پرون یې ګډېده‬
parun
ye
Ø-gəḍ-éd-ə
yesterday 3.WK CONT-dance-PST-PST.3SG.M
‘Yesterday he was dancing.’ (SW)

Published sources (Tegey & Robson, 1996: 156) and our research indicate that
weak pronouns cannot be the objects of adpositions. Example 7.25 shows a phrase
where the weak pronoun is simply omitted. Example 7.26, which is unacceptable, and

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168

 Pronouns

7.27, which is acceptable, show that the weak pronoun cannot appear as the object of
an adposition.
(7.25)

.‫تر پوري ولاړم‬
tər
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (SW)

(7.26)

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬
pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

(7.27)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬
pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR.OBL CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

7.3.2.2 Possessive constructions
Weak pronouns are also used in possessive constructions (except in conditions of coreference; see Section 7.9), so long as the weak pronouns do not occur in sentence-initial
position:
(7.28)

.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬

mi
kitāb-Ø
dəy
this.DIR 1SG.WK book-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘That is my book.’ (SW)

(7.29)

.‫زوی مي ګډېږي‬
zuy-Ø
mi
Ø-gəḍ-éẓ-i
son-M.DIR 1SG.WK CONT-dance-PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘My son is dancing.’ (SW)

In possessive constructions with weak pronouns, the pronouns are sometimes
written attached to the word they follow, and the /y/ in
/ye/ may be elided in pro-

‫یې‬

nunciation (Tegey & Robson, 1996):

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Deictoids:

(7.30)

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

169

‫کتابې‬
kitāb-Ø
e
book-M.DIR 3.WK

‘his book’³
This pronunciation is in fact standard in the spoken dialects of the Northeast, and
before recent reforms in orthography, the pronoun was regularly spelled with a hamza
instead of a ye; in fact, it still is by some speakers. Furthermore, many speakers when
asked for the pronoun in isolation will offer a spelling pronunciation based on the
hamza, pronouncing it with a glottal stop: [ʔe].
Possessive constructions are also formed with strong personal pronouns, as discussed in Section 7.2.3.

7.4 Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Pashto has three sets of deictic morphemes that closely resemble each other formally
and semantically, to the extent that most authors classify these forms under one rubric.
They are variously called pronominal prefixes (Penzl, 1955: 87–88), directive pronouns
(Shafeev 1964: 33 and Babrakzai 1999: 33), directional particles (Lorenz 1982: 66 —
Richtungspartikels—and Skjærvø 1989: 393), independent pronominal particles (Heston,
1992: 1574) and verbal clitics (Roberts, 2000: 105ff). In addition to being homophones
or near-homophones, these sets of forms share two other qualities: first, they encode
either personal or directional deixis; and second, they are bound to some extent, either as clitics or as prefixes. Some authors specifically refer to at least some of them as
“proclitics” (Roberts 2000: 106; Pate 2012: 17, 19); however, more research is required
before definitive statements of their morphological status can be made.
In recognition of the fact that these morphemes are so frequently and so easily
conflated (and also of their probable diachronic relationship), we refer to them with
the umbrella term deictoids, which we use to signify that these forms can be either
person-deictic or spatial-deictic. Then adapting two different, binary distinctions from
Tegey (1977) and Pate (2012) respectively, we divide them into three types, which we
describe in the following sections.
Both Tegey (1977: 105ff.) and Penzl (1955: 87) report two forms for the second and
third person:
/dər, dar/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər, war/ ‘him/her/it/them’. Tegey
specifies that the forms in ə are what he calls deictic preverbs (corresponding to, we
believe, both our oblique pronominal clitics and our directional verbal clitics). Those
in a are what he (and we) call the deictic prefixes. Because the ə/a distinction only
holds for stressed vowels (and two of the three types of deictoids never bear stress),

‫در‬

3 Standardized version of 7.30:

‫ور‬

‫کتاب ې‬

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170

 Pronouns

and because most descriptions do not mention these different forms for the deictoids,
we cannot be sure how real or how general this vowel variation is.

7.4.1 Oblique pronominal clitics

‫را‬

‫در‬

‫ور‬

As oblique pronominal clitics, the forms /rā/ ‘me/us’,
/dər/ ‘you (sg/pl)’, and
/wər/ ‘him/her/it/them’ occur as objects of postpositions in place of strong pronouns
or noun phrases. They distinguish person, but not number or gender (and thus are
glossed only by a person numeral—1, 2, or 3). In this role, Tegey (1977) considers them
to be a type of weak personal pronoun and sometimes refers to them as weak oblique
pronouns or (see also Pate 2012) oblique clitic pronouns. They cannot take stress, and
they occur only with postpositions—not with prepositions or circumpositions:
(7.31)

.‫اسد پېښور ته را سره ځي‬
asad-Ø
peṣawar-Ø
tə rā səra
ʣ-í
Asad-M.DIR Peshawar-M.OBL to 1 COMIT go.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Asad is going to Peshawar with me.’ (SW)

(7.32)

.‫کتاب مي در نه واخیست‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
dər na
w-ā́xist-Ø
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 2
from AOR-take.PST-PST.3SG.M
‘I took the book from you.’ (SW)

(7.33)

.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬
kitāb-Ø
mi
wər bāndi iṣ-áy
book-M.DIR 1SG.WK 3
on
CONT\put.PST-PTCP.M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘I put the book on it.’ (SW)

These sorts of adpositional phrases almost always directly cliticize to the verb. If
the postposition is monosyllabic, the adpositional phrase bears no stress, but if it is
disyllabic and the phrase is in construction with unstressed forms of the copula, the
second syllable of the postposition will be stressed:
(7.34)

.‫را سره ده‬
rā sará da
1 with be.CONT.PRS.3SG.F
‘It's with me [lit. I have it].’

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Deictoids:

‫ را‬/rā/, ‫ در‬/dər/, and ‫ ور‬/wər/

Person

Form

1st

‫را‬

171

2nd

‫در‬

dər

3rd

‫ور‬

wər
wur E

 
Table 7.10: Oblique pronominal clitics

7.4.2 Directional verbal clitics
Directional verbal clitics can occur with a variety of verbs, although usually ones that
indicate movement (see Section 8.2.4.3) or transport/transfer of an object, often with
a locative goal of here (near me), there (near you), or there (yonder; near him, her, or
them). They never receive stress: if the verb they are in construction with expresses the
aorist aspect, the aorist is encoded with the /wə́‑/ prefix. This is the chief difference
between directional verbal clitics and deictic prefixes.

‫وـ‬

(7.35)

.‫زه یې راغواړم‬

ye

Ø-ɣwāṛ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3.WK 1DVC CONT-want.PRS-1SG
‘I send for him.’

(7.36)

.‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬
kə rā́š-e
za

album-Ø
dər-ṣkārá
if come.AOR.PRS-2SG 1SG.STR.DIR WOULD album-M.DIR 2DVC-clear
kṛ-əm
do.AOR-1SG
‘If you come I will show you the album.’ (SW)

The following sentence, from Tegey (1977: 46), illustrates the functional difference
between oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics. In it,
/wər/ is in

‫ور‬

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172

 Pronouns

‫را‬
‫را‬
.‫خوشل یو توپک ور ته راولېګه‬

‫ور‬

the role of the former, and /rā/ the latter. Note that /wər/ unambiguously denotes
a person, and /rā/ denotes a location that is indexed deictically to a person.
(7.37)

xušal-Ø
yaw topak
wər ta rā-wə́-leg-ə
Khoshal-M.DIR one gun-M.DIR 3
to 1DVC-AOR-send.PST-PST.3SG
‘Khoshal sent him a gun where I am [lit. here/to me].’

7.4.3 Deictic prefixes
Deictic prefixes also occur with verbs, but only the four verbs or verb stems in the list
below. Furthermore, they behave like bound morphemes with respect to their verbs,
rather than like clitics: they take the stress that encodes aorist forms, and only clitics
and negative particles may intervene between them and the verb stem.

‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’
‫ تلل‬/tləl/ ‘to go’;
for example, ‫ درـتلل‬/dar-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’
‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make; to do’;
for example, ‫ ورکول‬/war-kawə́l/ ‘to give to him’
‫ ـوست‬/-wast/;
for example, ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wastə́l/ ‘to transport here/to me’
These forms usually express a deictic goal. See Section 8.2.4.3 for more about them.

7.5 Demonstratives
As described in Section 6.3.1, there is significant formal overlap between demonstrative
pronouns and demonstrative determiners in Pashto, with the only difference being
in stress placement: demonstrative pronouns have final stress. They are covered in
this section; Section 6.3.1 contains examples of demonstrative determiners. To express
the proximal demonstrative, there are two forms, one based on /dā/, and the other
based on
/daɣá/. /dā/ does not inflect for gender or number, but does differ by
case, as illustrated in Table 7.11, reproduced from Table 6.27 in Section 6.3.1.
The following examples show the use of these forms as a demonstrative pronoun
in the direct and oblique cases, respectively:

‫دغه‬

‫دا‬

‫دا‬

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Demonstratives 

173

‫دا‬

Direct

‫دې‬

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.11: GP proximal demonstrative

‫ دا‬/dā/

Direct

(d)ā

Oblique

de

 
Table 7.12: Middle dialect proximal demonstrative

(7.38)

‫ دا‬/dā/

.‫دا ښه دئ‬

ṣə
dəy
this.DIR nice be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘This is nice.’

(7.39)

‫پس له دې‬
pas lə
de
after from this.OBL

‘after this’
The other proximal demonstrative,
/daɣá/, does not have distinct forms showing gender or number in the direct case. In the oblique case, there is a difference
between the masculine and feminine forms in the singular, but not in the plural, as
shown in Table 7.13.
Note that the proximal demonstrative pronouns
/daɣá/ and the medial demonstrative
/haɣá/ in Table 7.16 have final stress. They contrast with similar forms with
initial stress that serve as demonstrative determiners as described in Section 6.3.1.
The medial and distal demonstratives illustrate the same patterning with respect
to gender, number, and case as
/daɣá/; this is shown in Table 7.16.

‫دغه‬

‫دغه‬

‫هغه‬

‫دغه‬

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15: Dzadrani proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.14: Waziri proximal demonstrative /daɣa/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ-a Oblique daɣ-e deɣ(-e) daɣ-ə Plural Feminine daɣ-e deɣ-e daɣ-e deɣ-e   Table 7.165.13: GP proximal demonstrative ‫ دغه‬/daɣá/ Singular Masculine Direct daɣ(-a) Oblique daɣ(-a) Plural Feminine daɣ-e daɣ-e   Table 7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .174  Pronouns Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫دغه‬ daɣ-á daɣ-ə́ dəɣ-ə́ ‫دغې‬ daɣ-é E dəɣ-é E ‫دغي‬ ‫دغو‬ daɣ-ó dəɣ-ó doɣ-ó dəɣ-í W   Table 7.126.

16: GP medial demonstrative ‫ هغه‬/haɣ-ə́/ Singular Masculine Direct (h)aɣ-a Oblique (y)aɣ-a haɣ Plural Feminine (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e (y)aɣ-e haɣ-e   Table 7.165.17: Waziri medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Singular Masculine Direct aɣ-a aɣ-ə Oblique aɣ-ə Plural Feminine yeɣ-e yeɣ-e   Table 7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM 175 .Demonstratives  Singular Masculine Direct Oblique Plural Feminine ‫هغه‬ haɣ-ə́ haɣ-á aɣ-á aɣ-ə́ həɣ-ə́ ‫هغې‬ haɣ-é E aɣ-é E ‫هغي‬ ‫هغو‬ haɣ-ó aɣ-ó həɣ-ó həɣ-í W haɣ-í W   Table 7.18: Dzadrani medial demonstrative /aɣə/ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.126.

SG ‘Look at that! [referring to feminine thing.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM . etc.165.]’ ‫هوغه‬ The General Pashto distal demonstrative has two variants. ‫دغه‬ Singular Masculine Direct ‫هوغه‬ Oblique ‫هاغه‬ Plural huɣ-ə́ uɣ-á hoɣ-ə́ hāɣ-ə́ E hāɣ-á E ‫هوغې‬ huɣ-é uɣ-é hāɣ-é   ‫هاغه‬ Feminine ‫هاغې‬ Table 7. like a rug.126. Both of these inflect in a manner similar to /daɣá/ and /haɣá/. /huɣə́/ and /hāɣə́/.19: GP distal demonstrative ‫هغه‬ ‫هوغو‬ huɣ-ó uɣ-ó ‫هاغو‬ hāɣ-ó ‫ هوغه‬/huɣ-ə́/ 7.176  Pronouns The following (from Tegey & Robson 1996) are illustrations of the General Pashto demonstrative pronoun in its various word forms. an insect. like a rock. non-human attribute of the potential referent.OBL AOR-step-IMP.40) !‫پر هغه وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-ə́ wə́-xej-a on that-M. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216. etc.41) !‫پر هغې وخېجه‬ pər haɣ-é wə́-xej-a on that-F.6 Interrogative pronouns The set of Pashto interrogative pronouns reflects the usual human vs.]’ (7. bridge. Note that the gender of the understood yet absent noun affects the gender of the pronoun: (7.OBL AOR-step-IMP.SG ‘Step on that! [referring to masculine item.

for General Pashto and for the Middle dialects respectively.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .42) ‫څوک راغی؟‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who.165.21: Middle dialect human interrogative pronoun /ʦok/ The direct case form is used for nominatives and accusatives of present tense sentences. but not for number or gender.M. Case Form Direct ‫څوک‬ ʦok Oblique ‫چا‬ čā   Table 7.20 and Table 7.Interrogative pronouns  177 Table 7. Questions in Pashto do not use a different word order than statements.126. This pronoun inflects for case. (7.AOR.PST-PTCP.DIR come. and for direct objects in past tense sentences.DIR ‘Who came?’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.21 show the forms for the human interrogative and indefinite pronoun.20: GP human interrogative pronoun ‫ څوک‬/ʦok/ Case Form Direct ʦok WAZ ʦik DZA ʦek MIR Oblique čā   Table 7.

/ʦə/ ‘what’ is used. appearing ‫څه‬ ‫څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.OBL who.46) ‫چا ته وایې؟‬ čā tə Ø-wāy-é who.3SG. or number.OBL AOR-see. gender.PRS-2SG ‘Whom are you talking to?’ (SW) (7. As noted in Section 7.CONT.DIR come.178  Pronouns (7.OBL to CONT-talk. the personal pronoun that agrees with the verb is generally dropped.45) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M.M ‘Whose book is that?’ For nonhuman referents.3.46) or the object (as in the past tense example at 7. whether it be the subject (as in the present tense example at 7.47): (7.DIR be.PRS. /ʦə/ can act pronominally.3[SG.DIR AOR-hit-PST. It is invariant: it has the same form regardless of case.CONT.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) (7.M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ The oblique case form is used for objects of adpositions and subjects of transitive verbs.2.PRS-PRS.44) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who.M] ‘Who is coming?’ (NW) (7.126.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .DIR of who.3SG.47) ‫چا ولیدم؟‬ čā wə́-lid-əm who.165.43) ‫څوک راځی؟‬ ʦok rāz-í who.PST-1SG ‘Who saw me?’ (SW) The possessive interrogative whose? is expressed by using the oblique form /čā/ ‘who’ with the preposition /də/ ‘of’ (example from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7.OBL book-M.48) ‫د‬ ‫هغه د چا کتاب دی؟‬ ‫چا‬ aɣá də čā kitāb-Ø day that.DIR CONT-see.

‫څوک راغی‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یو څوک‬ ʦok rā́ɣ-ay who.49.M.49) ‫د دې نوم څه دئ؟‬ də de num-Ø ʦə dəy of 3SG.53) .’ (7. In order to distinguish sentences with indefinites from questions.33 of Section 6.CONT.DIR come.50 the word order reflects the requirement that weak pronouns appear in second position.PRS. indefinite pronouns are identical in form to interrogative pronouns (examples 7.3PL.AOR-IMP.52) ‫یو څه‬ . (7.F.’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.STR.Indefinite pronouns  179 alone as in 7. to yield /yaw ʦok/ ‘someone’ and /yaw ʦə/ ‘something’.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .CONT.3SG.WK AOR-do.PST-PTCP.51) ‫تا څه اروېدلي دی؟‬ tā ʦə Ø-arw-ed-ə́l-i di 2SG. so a verb agreeing with it will often be in the plural: ‫څه‬ (7. appearing with a noun as in 6.STR.‫کتاب چا ته ورکه‬ kitāb-Ø čā tə wárk-a book-M.6. (7. or adjectivally.M ‘What is her name?’ (SW) (7.AOR-PST.PL.DIR what be.OBL what CONT-hear-PST-PTCP.50) ‫څه مې وکړه؟‬ ʦə mi wə́-kṛ-ə what 1SG.126.OBL name-M.M ‘What did I do?’ (SW) While /ʦə/ does not inflect for number.AOR.52 and following from Tegey & Robson 1996). /yaw/ ‘one’ may be added.DIR who.DIR be. it tends to be interpreted as plural.DIR ‘Someone came.7 Indefinite pronouns In Pashto.SG ‘Give the book to someone.165.OBL to give.M.3SG.M ‘What [things] have you heard?’ (SW) 7.PRS. In 7.

STR.PRS.56) . ‫هر یو‬ (7.AOR-PTCP. as in 7.DIR xoṛ-ə́l-o pər waxt-Ø wə́rɣ-ay eat-INF-PL.56 and 7.M.PST-PST.DIR what 1SG.DIR AOR-see.CONT.’ (NW) The phrase /har ʦə/ can also express an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘whatever.WK NEG be.AOR-PTCP.3PL.’ (SW) (7. anything and everything’: ‫هر څه‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.PST-PTCP.DIR di be.OBL house-M.DIR one-M.54) .OBL on time-M come.165.OBL to of food-F.PST-PST.‫هر څوک راغلل‬ har-Ø ʦok rā́ɣl-əl every-PL.M.CONT.3PL.OBL every-M.M.55) .AOR.AOR.3SG. the combination can mean everyone.M ‘Everyone came.57 (after Tegey & Robson 1996).180  Pronouns (7.PL. A similar meaning can also be conveyed by /har yaw/ ‘each one’.M ‘I saw each one.‫څه مې نه دي کړي‬ ʦə me ná di kə́ṛ-i what 1SG. /ar/ ‘every’ precedes the indefinite pronouns.M.DIR ‘I haven't done anything.3PL. everything.M do.57) .‫ما هر یو ولیده‬ mā har-Ø yaw-Ø wə́-lid-ə 1SG.M ‘I have done everything.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .M.’ (7.M.58) .DIR ‘Someone showed up at my friend's house during mealtime.126.DIR of friend-M.WK do.PRS.DIR who.’ ‫هر‬ When /har/.‫هر څه مې کړي دي‬ har-Ø ʦə me kə́ṛ-i every-PL.DIR come.PL.’ (SW) (7.‫یو څوک د ملګري کورته د ډوډۍ خوړلو پر وخت ورغی‬ yaw tsok də malgər-i kor-Ø ta də ḍoḍ-əy one who.

Expressions of coreference  (7. 1979) /xpəl/ ‘own’ (masculine).9 Expressions of coreference Pashto uses two kinds of items for expressing coreference: the emphatic adjective (Tegey.’ (NW) 7.1.3SG.M ‘I didn't see anything.3SG.DIR what AOR NEG see.DIR what 3.165.‫ما هیڅ څه و نه لیده‬ mā heʦ-Ø sə wə́ ná lid-ə 1SG.59) 181 !‫هر څه یې سمومه نه سمېږي‬ har-Ø ʦə ye sam-aw-ǝ́ma ná every-M.60) .STR.WK correct-do.DIR gone-M. ‫هیڅ‬ (7. ‫خپل‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپله‬ ‫ځانه‬ ‫ځان‬ ‫خپل‬ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.3[PL.2.‫هیڅوک مې و نه لیده‬ hets tsok-Ø me wə́ ná lid-ə none who. This is discussed at greater length in Section 11. The verb is also negated.8 Relative pronouns ‫څوک‬ ‫څه‬ The interrogative/indefinite pronouns /ʦok/ and /ʦə/ can be employed with the complementizer /čə/ to form relative clauses (as in 11.CONT.‫هېڅوک ولاړ نه شو‬ hets tsok wlā́ṛ-Ø ná šo-Ø none who.126. and the reflexive pronoun /ʣān/ ‘self’ (oblique form /ʣāna/).M] ‘However much I [try and] straighten them out.AOR. while /ʣān/ inflects for case only.PRS-PRS.1. ‫چه‬ 7.M ‘I didn't see anyone.PST-PST.62) .M ‘No one was gone.’ (NW) (7.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .PST-PST. they just don't straighten!’ The negative indefinites (analogous to no one/anyone.CONT-1SG NEG sam-ég-i correct-become.WK AOR NEG see.3SG.PST-PST.1).’ (NW) (7.78).OBL none-M.4.DIR NEG become.DIR 1SG. nothing/anything) are formed using /heʦ/ ‘any’ with the indefinite pronoun. /xpəl/ inflects as a Class I adjective (Section 6. /xpələ/ ‘own’ (feminine).61) .

DIR book-M.DIR book-M. these examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996): (7.M ‘Ahmad brought his [own] book [here].63) .165.64) .’ (7.M.OBL own-M.‫مریم خپل کتاب راووړ‬ maryam-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Maryam-F..‫پرون په جومات کي هر چا خپل خپل جای نمازونه راوړي وه‬ When reduplicated. be expressed Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR own-PL.DIR rāwəṛ-i wə bring.66) . .’ (7.’ In keeping with the item’s grammatical category of adjective.CONT.M ‘Maryam brought her [own] book.DIR AOR\bring..182  Pronouns The emphatic adjectives function as possessives in conditions of coreference.DIR AOR\bring.PST-PTCP..DIR AOR\bring. in complementary distribution with the weak pronouns (see Section 7.3PL.3SG.M.’ ‫ خپل‬/xpəl/ expresses distributed possession. but need not.OBL own-F. the adjective (7..M.OBL xpəl-Ø xpəl-Ø jāy-Ø namāz-una own-PL.PST.in every-M.PST-PST. not with the possessor: (7.OBL .DIR AOR\bring.PST-PST.3SG.‫احمد خپل کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-Ø kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M.3SG.OBL 3. and may appear in direct object and adpositional object positions.‫احمد یې کتاب راووړ‬ ahmad-Ø ye kitāb-Ø rā́woṛ-Ø Ahmad-M.WK book-M.65) . person information may.PST-PST.DIR prayer-PL.70) signals coreference with another nuclear term.3.OBL own-M.CONT.67) parun pə jumāt-Ø ki har-Ø čā yesterday in.PST-PST.DIR notebook-F. the gender of the emphatic possessive agrees with the object possessed.’ (SW) ‫ځان‬ The item /ʣān/ (/ʣon/ in Waziri: see 7.DIR be.PL.M.M ‘Yesterday each person in the mosque brought his own prayer rug.F ‘Ahmad brought his [own] notebook.DIR place-M.3SG.126.OBL who.M ‘Ahmad brought his [another's] book [here]. As shown in the examples that follow. mosque-M.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .‫احمد خپله کتابچه راووړه‬ ahmad-Ø xpəl-ə kitābča-Ø rā́wṛ-a Ahmad-M.

(7.DIR AOR-take.AOR.M ‘He disguised himself.DIR 3.WK changed-M.PST-PST.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself.DIR up. but all of the examples we have found show the order emphatic > weak pronoun.SG self-M.DIR 1SG.SG.Expressions of coreference  183 in the form of a weak pronoun (see also examples 8.OBL INSTR haste-F.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .PST-PST.‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M.DIR rupee-F.OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.‫هغه په بیړه ځان تر شیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.PRS-IMP.165.M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.3SG.DIR self-M.’ (7.126.’ The emphatic and reflexive may appear in combination: (7.M.71) .’ (WAZ-L) (7.DIR do.to Shiranai-M.3SG.68) .69) .AOR.DIR also AOR-take.72) ‫د خپل ځان دپاره‬ də xpəl-Ø ʣān-Ø də pār-a of own-M.’ (7.12 and 8.‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this.OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.STR.CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together. Tegey (1979) suggests that the weak pronoun precedes the emphatic.DIR self-M.42).ABL ‘for oneself’ Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.DIR from sake-M.70) dzon-Ø ye badál-Ø k-ə self-M.WK NEG become.PRS-IMP.

or by the shorter /yaw bəl/ ‘one other’.3PL.2.11 Other pro-forms See Section 9.184  Pronouns 7. the reciprocal can also be expressed by /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’. Brought to you by | New York University Authenticated | 216.1.’ (SW) Pashto has at least one other strategy for conveying reciprocal reference—see Section 10.M] ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud see each other.ABL angry di be.3. Case inflection does occur.2.6 for a description of some other pro-forms in Pashto.OBL to COMIT Ø-gur-í CONT-look. Another way of expressing reciprocal relationships can be found in Section 10.74) .73) ‫یو له بله‬ ‫یو له بله‬ .126.1.DIR and Mahmoud-M.10 Reciprocal pronouns ‫یو او بل‬ In Pashto.DIR one from other-M.PRS-PRS.DIR and Mahmoud-M.’ (SW) (7.CONT. as the word /bələ/ ‘other’ in /yaw lə bələ/ ‘one from other’ is in the ablative case.PRS. the reciprocal relationship can be expressed by /yaw aw bəl/ ‘one and other’.M ‘Ahmad and Mahmoud are angry at each other. 7. Depending on context.DIR one other-M.3[PL.165. These reciprocal expressions do not inflect for person or gender.3.139 Download Date | 5/26/14 7:04 PM .‫احمد او محمود یو له بله خفه دي‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw lə bəl-ə xafa Ahmad-M. ‫یو بل‬ ‫بله‬ (7.‫احمد او محمود یو بل ته سره ګوري‬ ahmad-Ø aw mahmud-Ø yaw bəl-Ø tə səra Ahmad-M.

2.177. Probably for this reason. infinitives are not marked for any of the above features. See Section 8.2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. In doing so. plural) • gender (masculine. not all verb constructions are marked for all properties. but a modal one. however. to some degree.1 for more discussion of what it conveys.2. descriptions of Pashto verbs vary widely both in the way they analyze and explain verbal forms and also in the data they present. For example.5. as do the verb to be and the verbalizers. we have also reorganized.1 Properties of verbs As Grjunberg (1987: 111) observes.1. • mood (indicative. The differences are covered in Section 8. We agree with Penzl (1955: 93) that the clitic /bə/ is not strictly a future clitic. optative) • person (first. supplementing it with advice from Pashto language experts and data obtained from native speakers we have interviewed. past) Pashto has no morphological future tense. Section 8. Some suffixes show variant forms. taking from each approach the aspects that we believe have the strongest empirical foundation. In this chapter we try to reconcile the data and information in those descriptions. the way Pashto verbs have been presented previously. See Section 10. and Section 8. ‫به‬ • aspect (continuous.8.3.8. imperative. aorist) What we call continuous and aorist are usually called imperfective and perfective in other descriptions of Pashto.2. feminine): but only in: (1) third person past tense forms of all verbs and (2) third person singular (past and present) forms of the verb to be These features are encoded in verb forms by means of affixes or stress placement.228.1.2.1 for an explanation of our change in terminology. The morphology of verbs in the Middle dialects does not differ significantly from that of General Pashto verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2.2. second.1. Pashto verbal morphology is uncharacteristically complex compared to the verbs of other Iranian languages. Verb constructions in Pashto encode the following categories morphologically: • tense (present.Anne Boyle David and Sarah Goodman 8 Verbs 8. third) • number (singular. Section 8.1 Overview 8. among others.8. and participles for only some of them.2.

expression of future events. a Pashto verb can be classified in three ways. whether the stem is simplex or complex (i.5) 2..e. which vary in shape according to two parameters: tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). new verbs enter the language via light verb constructions of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb.4.2.2.3.e. and gender (which we abbreviate to PNG in this grammar) are features that mark agreement with noun phrases in the clause.4 and Section 11.6) 3.5 and Section 11.186  Verbs Person.1. because in our description.177.1).2.6. see Section 8. 8. Pashto verbs are a closed class. morphological structure. with the use of particles or auxiliary verbs. We use the broader term complex verb.1. whether it has stem allomorphy (i.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .7. Which noun governs this agreement is determined in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity. which is discussed in more detail in Section 5. Tegey & Robson (1996).2 Classifying verbs Based on its morphological and syntactic behavior.1. • present continuous (= present imperfective or present I/1 in some grammars) • present aorist (= present perfective or present II/2 in some grammars) • past continuous (= past imperfective or past I/1 in some grammars) • past aorist (= past perfective or past II/2 in some grammars) These four base types are described and exemplified below in Section 8.2. stem class-class—weak or strong. There are also several functions or modalities encoded periphrastically.. These include negation. (see Section 8. a passive-like construction.e. this group also includes verbs with separable prefixes. how it forms the aorist (i. see Section 8.. As is common in the South Asian linguistic area. according to 1. and expressions of ability.228. conjugation class. some of these light verb constructions have become partly lexicalized.3. As will be described below.2. number. what they call derivative verbs are a subset of what we call complex verbs. called bases in this grammar.2. and Pashtoon (2009) refer to derivative verbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Pashto verbs are all built on one of four possible building blocks. see Section 8.4)¹ 1 The standard descriptions of Pashto verbs set out by Shafeev (1964).

The analysis of Grjunberg (1987: 111–193) is the most detailed: his carefully thought-out system incorporates all three of the above criteria. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) arrive at their five-way classification of verbs using our (2) and (3)—allomorphy and morphological structure. 2 Although they are not explicit about it. 3 With complications introduced by morphologically complex verbs such as denominal verbs.2. Parentheses around column heads indicate that morphemes in that column may or may not appear on a given verb construction. However.³ as can be seen in Table 8.2. and some aspects of verbal usage.2 Verb components This section describes the structure of Pashto verbs and all the building blocks for forming Pashto verb constructions. 2. 8.1 Structure of the verb Pashto verbs are largely agglutinative. or 3. the three ways of categorizing Pashto verbs.228. every verb also has to have at least one suffix from among suffixes 1.Verb components  187 Previous descriptions of Pashto do not clearly distinguish among the above verb groupings. 8. chiefly in that he gives primacy to morphological structure of the stem rather than to conjugation class. no verb form can consist of only a stem. We follow Tegey & Robson (1996) (as well as grammatical tradition) in focusing primarily on conjugation class as a way of classifying verbs. These tables cover both inflectional and derivational morphology. and whether a verb is simplex or complex—and if complex. the only component that is part of every construction is the stem. Tegey & Robson (1996) classify verbs into three groups. as well as one we do not take into account (the /‑ég-/ and /‑ed/ tense markers of intransitive first conjugation verbs) but differs from ours in a number of ways.² Conjugation class and stem class membership both reflect morphological behavior. ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.1 and Table 8. according to a combination of our (1) and (3)—aorist formation ( /wə́‑/ prefixation versus stress shift) plus one element of morphological structure (prefixed versus denominal verbs).177. The following sections of the grammar describe the parts of the various Pashto verbal constructions and how these constructions are formed.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2. what type of complex verb it is—determines its syntactic behavior. paradigms of inflected verbs. but a thorough analysis of Pashto verbs requires that we take all three into account. The difference between weak and strong verbs lies in whether they exhibit stem allomorphy (Section 8. but also make reference to stem allomorphy and morphological structure where relevant. which illustrate Pashto verb structure for weak and strong verbs respectively.6).

) (Suffix 3) 188  Verbs . SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.) ‫ـوـ‬ (Suffix 1) Stem Table 8.1: Structure of weak (one stem) verbs ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.17) ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM   CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ ―— (See Table 8.2.6.228.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- PRESENT: -Ø Transitive (often optional—see Section 8.3 for possible stem shapes.4.2.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal base ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l INFINITIVE: ‫‑ ـېدل‬ed-ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.+ Class IIIb adjectival suffixes (see Table 6. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers) ‑āy SW.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـېدـ‬ed(-ə́l-) ‫ـېږـ‬ PRESENT: ‑ég- Intransitive (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫ـونکـ‬ PRESENT PARTICIPLE: -unk.6.

3 for possible stem shapes) Table 8. SE (PL) ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ OPTATIVE: (for all persons and numbers): ‑āy SW.E or stressed derivational prefix CONTINUOUS: Øor unstressed derivational prefix Prefix Verbal Base ‫ـوـ‬ CAUSATIVE: ‑aw‑ (Suffix 1) ‫ـل‬ INFINITIVE: ‑ə́l (often optional—see Section 8.17) ‫‑ ـونک‬unk + Class IIIb PRESENT PARTICIPLE: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ‫ـاست‬ IMPERATIVE: ‑a (SG) ‑əy (PL) ‑āst SW.1) PAST: ‫‑ ـلـ‬ə́l- (Suffix 2) PAST PARTICIPLE: Class IIIb adjectival suffixes adjectival suffixes (see Table 6.4) (Suffix 3) Verb components  189 .2: Structure of strong (more than one stem) verbs   ‫وـ‬ AORIST: wə́‑ u.177.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM Stem ―— (See Table 8.228. SE ‑ay NW ‑e NE PNG (see Table 8.2.

177.3: Stem shapes Note in Table 8. VCCVC ‫ الوت‬alwut ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ climb over’   Table 8.1 and Table 8.2 that the suffixes for past and infinitive are identical. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.190  Verbs Verb stem shapes and examples are given in Table 8. Stem shape Examples Stem Infinitive C ‫ک‬k ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ CC ‫ تل‬tl ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ CVC ‫ تړ‬taṛ ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ VC ‫ اود‬ud ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave. knit’ VCC ‫ ایست‬ist ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull (out)’ VCVC ‫ ایښود‬ixod ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to put’ CVCC ‫ غوښت‬ɣuṣt ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l to ‘want’ CCVC ‫ درومېد‬drum ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ CCVCC ‫ نغښت‬nɣəṣt ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ CVCVC ‫ رانیو‬rāniw ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy (up)’ CVCVCC ‫ پېژند‬pežand ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ VCVCC ‫ اوښت‬awuxt ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn.3) is the citation form of the verb.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Note that Pashto verb stems cannot be vowel-final.228. The infinitive (Section 8.2.3.

Kopris 2009. the realizations differ. the stem and any suffixes (see Section 11.2). PNG suffixes differ between the tenses only in the third person. The derivational prefixes mentioned in column 1 of Table 8. and Dzadrani. Note also that despite the orthographic similarity of the past singular suffixes for masculine and feminine forms ( ). where meter determines which whether the monosyllabic or bisyllabic allomorph is used.2 Personal suffixes The suffixes in Table 8.’ It is frequent because /kawə́l/ forms part of so many third conjugation verbs.4 through Table 8. Table 8.) reports the Waziri second person plural suffix as /-ay/ (/-ai/ in his Romanization). the masculine being /ə/ and the feminine being /a/.1 and Table 8.8 and Table 8. 3. PNG suffixes can be attached to the bases described in Section 8. With the exception of the irregular verb to be.2.2. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.5 and Table 8.6: ‫ـه‬ ‫ـمه‬ 1. Kopris & Davis 2005. David 2011).6.6 give the personal suffixes for verbs in General Pashto. 2. with some exceptions to be described below. while heard frequently in both Waziri and Dzadrani. while present tense ones do not. The Waziri and Dzadrani first person singular suffixes /‑əm/ and /‑əma/ are in free variation. Notes on Table 8.Verb components  191 Under some conditions. the root /k-/ of the verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make. They occur in both poetic and non-poetic contexts. that is. only occurs on one verb.177. meter determines which form is used in the poetic contexts. where the suffix /‑əma/ occurs more often in poetry. which predate phonological theory. Waziri. some Pashto verbs are separable into two parts: certain particles may occur between the prefixed components (of Column 1 in Table 8. This discrepancy could be due to the vowel /a/ having changed to /ə/ over the past hundred years or to Lorimer’s transcription methods. Lorimer (1902: 18ff. but it is not uncommon in spoken General Pashto. “the melody of discourse” can play a role in which form is used. The first person singular suffix /‑əma/ is heard most often in poetry. PNG suffixes are not inherently stressed. but it does not occur in any of our field data. but can carry stress in the past tense. The third person present suffix /-o/. as described below.9.228. As in GP. and gender (PNG suffixes). as can be seen in Table 8.1 and Table 8. 8. as the past tense third person suffixes encode gender and person.6 to form finite verbs.2 can be seen in Table 8. in contrast with GP dialects.3. Certain instances of this phenomenon are the reason for the claim that Pashto is one of the few languages that has endoclisis (Kaisse 1981. to do. but Septfonds (1994: 81) speculates that even in non-poetic speech.4 are those that reflect the categories of person. number.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2) and the rest of the verb.4 through Table 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.192  Verbs 1st Singular Plural  ‫ـم‬ ‫ـو‬ ‑əm ‑u ‫ـمه‬ ‑əm(a) SW ‫ـې‬ 2nd present ‑e ‫ـئ‬ ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst (verb bases ending in y SW ) ‫ی‬ ‫ـئ‬ 2nd past ‑əy ‫ـاست‬ ‑āst SW 3rd present M ‫ـي‬ ‑i F 3rd past M ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـئ‬ ØE ‑ə ‑ə ‑əy SW ‫ـو‬ -o NE ØE F ‫ـه‬ ‑a ‫ـې‬ ‑e   Table 8.228.4: GP verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.5: Waziri verbs: personal suffixes ‑oy 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑Ø ‑ə(l) ‑ə ‑ay F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e   Table 8.Verb components  193 1st Singular Plural ‑ã ‑i ‑əm(a) 2nd ‑e ‑əy (-ay) 3rd present M ‑i ‑o F 3rd past M ‑ə ‑əl -Ø F ‑(əl)a ‑(əl)e Singular Plural 1st ‑əm(a) ‑i 2nd ‑e ‑əy   Table 8.177.6: Dzadrani verbs: personal suffixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

3 The infinitive The infinitive in Pashto is the citation form of the verb and formally equivalent to the verb’s past continuous base (see Section 8. The third person past masculine suffix /-ay/ of Dzadrani only occurs on a few verbs: for example.2. Examples of infinitives from all three conjugation classes are in Table 8. 5. certain second conjugation verbs containing the roots /tləl/ ‘to go’ and /çwəl/ ‘to place’.2. both because it is traditional Pashto grammatical practice. 8.⁴ It can be used as a noun and takes masculine plural agreement on the verb. such as Tegey & Robson (1996).6). we use the infinitive. the third person suffixes encode tense. the present base is not always obvious. Formation: past continuous stem + /‑ə́l-/ The stress is always on the final syllable.228. arguing that because of stem allomorphy. and because this is the form used as headword in dictionaries.7. use the present continuous base as the citation form. As in General Pashto. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 4 Some grammars. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.194  Verbs 4.177. However.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . with /‑ə́l-/.

throw’ ‫ خوړل‬xwaṛə́l ‘to eat’ ‫ درېدل‬daredə́l ‘to stop’ ‫ ګرځېدل‬gərʣedə́l ‘to walk’ ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour.7: Infinitives Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. to ‫ ننوت‬nəna-wat‑ ‘enter’ ‫ راتل‬rā-tl‑ ‘come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ازادېد‬azād-éd‑ ‘go free’ ‫ ازادو‬azād-aw‑ ‘set free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go free’ ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ښایسته کېد‬ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ xāyista k-ed‑ ‘become pretty’ throw’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’   Table 8.Verb components  195 Conjugation First Second Third Contracted Uncontracted Past continuous stem Infinitive ‫ خوړـ‬xwaṛ‑ ‘eat’ ‫ درېدـ‬dar-éd‑ ‘stop’ ‫ ګرځېدـ‬gərʣ-éd‑ ‘walk’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‘pour.

3) ‫ راوړل‬/rā-wṛə́l/ ‘to bring here/to me’ = ‫ راـ‬/rā‑/ ‘here.228. to do’ These three groups correspond closely—but not entirely—to the three conjugation classes (Section 8.2.3. but probably < Proto-Iranian *ā-staH.2. while complex verbs have a base with two morphemes (or what were once two morphemes). with base /wah‑/+ infinitive suffix /‑ə́l/.2) ‫ استوـ‬/astawə́l/ ‘to send’ (not synchronically bi-morphemic.. 8.2. this distinction is not to be confused with the distinction between simple and compound verb constructions (Section 8. that is.196  Verbs 8. they resolve into two parts. Cheung 2007) • prefixed verbs (Section 8. to me’ + ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ • denominal verbs (Section 8. All three types of complex verb will be discussed in the following sections.1 Overview Pashto verbs may be either simplex or complex. it does not include 5 Note that simplex is used to mean the opposite of complex.4.177. and denominal verbs the third.4) ‫ ازادول‬/azād-awə́l/ ‘to set free’ = ‫ ازاد‬/azād/ ‘free’ + ‫ کول‬/(k)awə́l/ ‘to make.3 and Section 8.2.4. such as: /wahə́l/ ‘to hit’.4).4.2.2.5): prefixed verbs comprise the second conjugation.4 Simplex and complex verbs 8.⁵ The chief difference between simplex and complex verbs is a morphosyntactic one: unlike simplex verbs.2. This crucial difference illustrates why it is important to recognize this second way of classifying verbs: Pashto verbs may cluster in one way based on their inflectional behavior.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . with certain restricted classes of words intervening between them (see Section 11. under some conditions. the greater part of it consists of simplex verbs. complex verbs are separable.2 a-initial verbs Most verbs that begin with /a/ fall into the class of complex verbs known as a-initial verbs. There are only about a dozen or so members of this class. There are three kinds: ‫وهل‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ل‬- • a-initial verbs (Section 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.4. The only difference is that a-initial verbs form only a small part of the first conjugation. but in another way based on their morphosyntactic behavior.2). Simplex verbs are all those verbs whose base consists of a single morpheme.4.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . for example.PST-PST-3PL.’ 6 Most likely the initial /a/ was once a prefix historically. even though /a/ is not a morpheme in the usual sense of the word.228. not separated: (8. since it is not meaningful by itself.’ versus non-initial stress.3) .2). as can be seen in what we believe to be a comprehensive list of a-initial verbs. where initial stress is obligatory. separated:⁷ ‫اڼول‬ ‫وـ‬ (8.⁶ These verbs are also unusual.M 1SG. /aṇawə́l/ ‘to gather’.‫ا خیستله مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy.WK buy. We consider these a-initial verbs complex because their syntactic behavior resembles that of prefixed verbs: the initial /a/ can separate from the rest of the verb as though it were a prefix. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.WK buy.2) .4.WK ‘I was buying them. a-initial verbs differ in that they take the prefix /wə́‑/ for aorist forms. With initial stress. presented in Table 8. In each instance this separation occurs only in the presence of certain clitics or the negative morphemes (Section 11.3.4) whose complement happens to have an initial /a/.14 as part of our discussion of the first conjugation. 2011).’ In the aorist: (8. in that—unlike most other Pashto verbs—their stress is variable in the continuous aspect: it can be either initial or non-initial. nevertheless do not fall into this special class. although they have initial /a/.2.1) .2.Verb components  197 denominal verbs (Section 8. 7 Examples taken from Kopris (2009).2). and for this reason it still behaves like one (David.‫ا مې خیستله‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG.PST-PST-3PL. The following sentences illustrate the separability of a-initial verbs.PST-PST.M ‘I bought them. This inflectional feature places them in the morphological class of first conjugation (Section 8.2.177. they can separate either when the initial /a/ is optionally stressed in the continuous or in the aorist aspect. which otherwise comprises only simplex verbs. Most verbs cannot have initial stress in continuous forms.‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG.3PL. While morphosyntactically similar to prefixed verbs. and there are a few other verbs that.M ‘I was buying them.

either the first or the second of these does not appear in any other context in the language..2. The derivational prefixes are shown in Table 8.4. /déra-ɣləm(a)/ ‘I joined you’.3 Prefixed verbs Prefixed verbs.9.8 correspond historically and semantically to the oblique pronominal clitics and directional verbal clitics described in Section 7. and /wər‑/ of Table 8. with Tegey & Robson (1996) and Grjunberg (1987). They occur with only four verb stems (see Section 7.5. as elements of complex verbs. although in a few instances. as with the a-initial verbs. into the verb of which they are a part. The prefixes /rā‑/. /ro/. dar- dar- der- 'there. to me' 2 ‫ درـ‬dər‑. However. called doubly irregular verbs by Tegey & Robson (1996: 114).2.4).) 8.177. because these pseudo-prefixed verbs behave like other prefixed verbs. and we therefore refer to them in this context as deictic prefixes. However.8 and Table 8.198  Verbs As mentioned earlier.4. Kopris 2009. to you' 3 ‫ ورـ‬wər‑. coincide with our second conjugation (Section 8. this separating behavior of a-initial verbs has led some linguists to assert that Pashto is among a handful of languages in the world that undergo endoclisis.4. we have chosen.3) and frequently incorporate meanings of to me/to him. etc. They take the form of a derivational prefix plus a verb base. In the Dzadrani forms. the first person deictic prefix is reduced to /r/ in the continuous aspect (i. in the aorist (when it is stressed).228. both synchronically and diachronically. war- war- wer- 'there (yonder). their role is not pronominal. /dər‑/. when it is unstressed) and appears in its full form. hence we class them all as what we call deictoids. and David 2011 for attempts to account for it. Kopris & Davis 2005. to group them all under the same category. Past aorist forms of /der-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to you’ and /wer-tlə́l/ ‘to go there/to him/her/it/them’ have an epenthetic a between the prefix and the stem in Dzadrani.8: Deictic verb prefixes Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫راـ‬ ‫درـ‬ ‫ورـ‬ Person GP prefix Waziri prefix Dzadrani prefix Gloss 1 ‫ راـ‬rā‑ rā- r(o)- 'here. here/there. to him/her/it/them'   Table 8. (See Kaisse 1981..e. for example.

.. on' ‫ پراـ‬prā‑ ‫ پرېـ‬pre‑ 'off. and in the sentences 8..5. not as synchronic glosses.4 the prefix is separated from the verb stem by a second position clitic.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . on' kši. Prefix Gloss of etymon ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ E 'in.‫ور یې کړه‬ wə́r ye kṛ-á give.2.10 in their infinitival forms (see Section 8.4 and 8.give. they do not necessarily have meanings that are synchronically separable from the verbal lexeme of which they are a part.9: Non-productive verb prefixes Some examples of prefixed verbs can be seen in Table 8.SG ‘Give it to her/him/them.9 exist in the same position class as the deictic prefixes. 3.W ‫ کښيـ‬kxi‫ کېـ‬ke‫ کيـ‬ki- W E W ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ 'into' ‫ پوریـ‬pori‑ 'across.4) .228. (8.AOR-IMP. over. and are subject to the same rules of stress movement to encode aorist aspect.. In sentence 8.3). as well as to separation from the rest of the verb by negative morphemes and second position clitics.177.Verb components  199 Although the prefixes in Table 8.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.WK . The glosses given should therefore be thought of as the glosses of their etymons. away' ‫ تېرـ‬ter‑ 'past'   Table 8.

complex. while the verbalizer carries categories such as PNG.4. depart’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ کښېوتل‬kxewatə́l ‘to fall or drop into. We refer to the adjective or noun as the complement and to the verb as the verbalizer. on’ ‫̄ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave. We can therefore speak of contracted and uncontracted denominal verb constructions. deriving its semantics from the complement. compound. depart’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to leave. denominal verb encodes a single event. As a light verb.5) . ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ 8 These forms are variously referred to in other grammars of Pashto as derivative.OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you.1 for more on light verb constructions in Pashto.10: Examples of prefixed verbs (8. or denominative verbs.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . In the uncontracted one. to slip or slide’   Table 8.STR. to do’ (to form transitives).4 Denominal verb constructions Denominal verbs are light verb constructions⁸ of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb.’ 8.⁹ (See Section 11. with the verb occurring in its full form as a separate word from the substantive that gives the overall construction its meaning. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3.STR. where the verb is either /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ (to form intransitives) or /kawə́l/ ‘to make.2. tense.200  Verbs Prefix Verb Prefixed verb ‫ راـ‬rā‑ ‘here’ ‫ ننهـ‬nəna‑ ‘into’ ‫ کښېـ‬kxe‑ ‘in.‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG. but see Butt (2003) for a clear differentiation between light verbs and auxiliary verbs.DIR after from 2SG. 9 Most other Pashto grammars use the term auxiliary. the difference between them has to do with the degree to which the verb fuses phonologically with its noun or adjective complement in the continuous aspect.) There are two versions of this construction. the verbal construction is always a two-word phrase. and so on.177.228.2.

while the majority of Pashto nouns are vowel-final.177. as summed up in Table 8.11. the verbal construction usually does not contract. Generally speaking. they allow a separate direct object. If the first element is a vowel-final adjective or if it is a noun of any sort. or /‑awə́l/ (transitive). this contraction only occurs when the complement is a consonant-final adjective. but this is a tendency only. since it applies to C-final adjectives and some C-final nouns. It therefore appears that /k/-deletion reflects a tendency against the sequence /Ck/. are the least so. while those with a vowel-final noun complement (column 4). to phrase-like.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . However. but remains two separate words throughout the paradigm.7. when negated they must be preceded by the negative marker. as well as all aorist forms (column 5). Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228. Among denominal verbs with adjective complements. color’) ‫ حسابول‬/hisābawə́l/ ‘to account. So we see a spectrum of behavior among third conjugation verbs. • Adjective complements are uninflected in the continuous aspect (whereas adjective complements in the aorist aspect. it cannot occur between the complement and verb. count’) Note that both these nouns are consonant-final. from word-like. This is described and exemplified in Section 6. • Also unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. The small number of contracted verb forms that have noun complements fall in between the contracted adjectival and the uncontracted nominal third conjugation verbs in their morphological and syntactic behavior: • Unlike uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements. The forms with a consonantfinal adjective complement (column 2) are the most lexicalized. calculate’ (from the noun ‫ حساب‬/hisāb/ ‘calculation. there are a few contracted verb forms with nouns as the first element. In written Pashto.Verb components  201 In a contracted denominal verb. and all noun complements—in both aorist and continuous—may inflect for case). the k is deleted in continuous forms. because the adjectival and verbal components of the construction together behave as one word. both the contracted and the uncontracted constructions behave like single words: • Continuous forms do not allow other words—such as negatives or weak pronouns— between the adjective and verbalizer. contracted verbal constructions are represented as single words. or lexicalized. for example: ‫ـېدل‬ • • ‫ـول‬ ‫ رنګول‬/rangawə́l/ ‘to paint’ (from the noun ‫ رنګ‬/rang/ ‘paint. leaving the verb in a shortened form: /‑edə́l/ (intransitive).

” at all. they can take morphological material on the end of the complement. if there is one. Adjective complements that inflect for case usually do so as Class I adjectives. the adjective agrees with the undergoer of the action. but rather remain “form-identical to a main verb.202  Verbs • However. that light verbs do not “enter the grammaticalization cline.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .11 summarizes the morphosyntactic behavior of the different types of denominal verbs. this contracted/uncontracted distinction only holds in the continuous aspect: among aorist forms. however. and with the subject if there is none.228. namely. which behaves like a Class III adjective. David & Goodman (2012) discusses these points at length. all third conjugation verbs are fully separate from their noun or adjective complement. like uncontracted denominal verbs with noun complements.177. The contracted denominal verbs contradict the claim by Butt & Lahiri (2002) and Butt (2003) about light verbs and grammaticalization.11: Behavior of denominal verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Table 8. The situation is complex and suggests that what we are seeing is a change in progress. ‫ستړی‬ ‫ستړی کول‬ CONTINUOUS AORIST C-final adjective complement V-final adjective complement Noun complement Verb in full form? N Y Y Y Intervening lexical material permitted? N N Y Y Inflected complement permitted? N N Y Y   Table 8. it is optional. exhaust’. the adjective complement /stәṛay/ ‘tired’ in /stәṛay kawә́l/ ‘to tire. in both present and past tenses. for example. With all types of denominal verbs. In denominal verbs formed from adjectives.” These Pashto forms instead provide additional evidence for the argument in Bowern (2008) that complex predicates “aren’t necessarily stable” but can in fact lenite phonologically and are subject to reanalysis. unless they end in /ay/.

and. transitive contracted denominals do conjugate identically with causatives. those in the second and third rows are contracted.177. and third conjugation verbs— denominal constructions all—through stress shift to the complement. rather than a noun or adjective.2). But in the continuous aspect. but a few—the a-initial verbs—are complex.Verb components  203 Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2. first conjugation verbs form the aorist through the addition of the prefix /wə́‑/. unlike transitive denominals. Contracted transitive denominals (those in /‑awə́l/—column 3) formally resemble historical causatives (Section 8. there is a phonologically conditioned rule that changes /wə́‑/ to /ó‑/ when followed by a bilabial consonant.5 Conjugation classes 8. there are two differences: causatives have a verb stem.2. while all second and third conjugation verbs are complex (Section 8. Most descriptions of ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. causatives form aorists according to first conjugation rules.1).228.5.2. Before describing these classes in detail. plus use of the irregular aorist form of the verbalizer.2. For General Pashto as well as the Middle dialects. as their first element. with a /wə́‑/ prefix (Section 8.4).5. as in: /ó-be-gərʣi/ ‘we will walk’ Most first conjugation verbs are simplex. an explanation is called for as to why we use the term aorist rather than the more common perfective. to beautify’ ‫ ازاد‬azād ‘free’ ‫ ازادېدل‬azādedə́l ‘to go ‫ ازادول‬azādawə́l ‘to set free’ ‫ ژوبل‬žobəl ‘wound’ ‫ ژوبلېدل‬žobledə́l ‘to be ‫ ژوبلول‬žoblawə́l ‘to injure’ ‫ښایسته کېدل‬ free’ injured’ Verb (transitive) ‫ښایسته کول‬   Table 8. however.12: Examples of denominal verbs 8.2. In Dzadrani. The one in the first row is uncontracted.1 Overview of conjugation classes Pashto verbs can be classified into three conjugation classes according to how they inflect for the aorist aspect. Likewise. second conjugation verbs through stress shift to the first syllable.2.7).5.12 gives some examples of denominal verbs. ‫ـول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ـېدل‬ Substantive base Verb (intransitive) ‫ ښایسته‬xāyista ‘pretty’ xāyista kedə́l ‘to become pretty’ xāyista kawə́l ‘to make pretty. intransitive contracted denominal verbs (those in /‑edə́l/ ‘to become’—column 2) conjugate identically with intransitive first conjugation verbs (Section 8.

the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ coalesces with the /a/ to form a prefix /wā́‑/. The usual terms in those descriptions for the two categories are imperfective and perfective. from the Indo-European grammatical tradition and refers to a simple event. subsequent syllables are unstressed General Pashto first conjugation verbs consist of all simplex verbs. appropriately.228. In a-initial verbs. Note that denominal verbs beginning with /a/ do not belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8. aorist is also a better gloss of traditional Pashto grammarians’ Pashto terms for this category. as can be seen in their General Pashto ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫واـ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. 2. they belong to the first conjugation. as in Table 8. As for our term for the aspect contrasting with continuous. etc. comes. that is.4). We have decided the following facts justify a change in terminology: 1. because they form the aorist with the prefix /wə́‑/. use for another verbal category. The reason for using continuous is probably clear enough: both imperfective and continuous suggest the verb’s action is unfinished or ongoing.2).2.177. As independent verbs.2 First conjugation class in General Pashto Aorist formation: add stressed prefix /wə́‑/. and Septfonds (1994) uses the numerals 1 and 2. which begin with the prefix /wə́‑/.14.5. is continuing.204  Verbs Pashto recognize an aspectual dichotomy reflected in both the morphology and the semantics of Pashto verbs.4. but not all. but we reject their terminology as liable to confusion and not descriptive enough. which most descriptions of Pashto. however.2. We believe aorist. as it often does in other linguistic descriptions. as shown in Table 8. We have instead decided on the terms continuous and aorist. we are not the first to have misgivings over the aptness of those words. without specifying whether it was completed. In addition to following Khan (2002)’s terminology. Most. Aorist. They can be recognized by their aorist forms. which connotes completion. plus the ainitial verbs (see Section 8. with its sense of indeterminate.13. The verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. from a Greek word meaning without boundaries or indeterminate. to confusion with the different term perfect.4. without reference to internal structure. first conjugation verbs with initial /a/ are of this type. is a more accurate term for the Pashto verbal category under discussion than perfective.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . one possible substitute for perfective might have been non-continuous. ‫مطلق‬ ‫مجرد‬ 3. /mutláq/ or /mujarad/ as they are reported in Penzl (1951). which carries an inherent stress. including our own. Use of the terms imperfective and perfective could lead. Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) both substitute the Roman numerals I and II respectively. but our use of the term aorist follows the twentieth-century Pashto grammarian Khan (2002)’s usage as cited by Penzl (1951). 8. to do’ have two sets of aorist forms.2.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .8). to do’ ‫ لېږـ‬leg‑ ‫ پېچـ‬peč‑ ‫ ګډـ‬gaḍ‑ ‫ بولـ‬bol‑ ‫ ښیـ‬xəy‑ ‫ ګورـ‬gor‑ ‫ شـ‬š‑ ‫ ک)ړ(ـ‬k(ṛ)‑ ‫ ولېږـ‬wə́leg‑ ‫ وپېچـ‬wə́peč‑ ‫ وګډېږـ‬wə́gaḍég‑ ‫ وبولـ‬wə́bol‑ ‫ وښیـ‬wə́xəy‑ ‫ وګورـ‬wə́gor‑ ‫ وشـ‬wə́š‑ ‫ وک)ړ(ـ‬wə́k(ṛ)‑ 205   Table 8. However. for example. ‫وکړم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3.13: GP first conjugation verbs: present tense stems and aorist bases ‫زه باید دا‬ forms in the last two rows of Table 8.2.2. as discussed in Section 8.2.2 and Section 8. in the sentence /zə bā́yad dā wə́k(ṛ)əm/ ‘I must do this’.8.13 and.Verb components  Verb (Present) stem Aorist base ‫ لېږل‬legə́l ‘to send’ ‫ پېچل‬pečə́l ‘to wind. when acting as verbalizers in denominal verbs (see Section 8. they form the aorist irregularly.228.8.177. to twist’ ‫ ګډېدل‬gaḍedə́l ‘to dance’ ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to consider’ ‫ ښودل‬xodə́l ‘to show’ ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.

to throw’ ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to buy. climb over’ ‫ اچوـ‬ačaw‑ ‫ اخلـ‬axl‑ ‫ ارتـ‬arat‑ ‫ اور)ېږ(ـ‬awr(eg)‑ ‫ اړاوـ‬aṛāw‑ ‫ ازميـ‬azmey‑ ‫ استاوـ‬astāw‑ ‫ اخږـ‬axg‫ اغوندـ‬aɣwand‑ ‫ الوزـ‬alwaz‑ ‫ الوزوـ‬alwuz-āw‑ ‫ الوویـ‬alwoy‑ ‫ اناوـ‬anāw‑ ‫ اوړـ‬awṛ‑ ‫ واچوـ‬wā́čaw‑ ‑‫ واخیست‬wā́xist‑ ‫ وارتـ‬wā́rat‑ ‫ واروېدـ‬wā́rwed‑ ‫ واړاوـ‬wā́ṛāw‑ ‫ وازميـ‬wā́zmey‑ ‫ واستاوـ‬wā́stāw‑ ‫ واخښـ‬wāxx‫ واغوستـ‬wā́ɣust‑ ‫ والوتـ‬wā́lwut‑ ‫ والوزوـ‬wā́lwuzaw‑ ‫ والوویـ‬wā́lwoy‑ ‫ واناوـ‬wā́nāw‑ ‫ واوښتـ‬wā́wuxt‑   Table 8. seize’ ‫ ارتل‬aratə́l ‘to break wind’ ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ اړول‬aṛawə́l ‘to move.206  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base ‫ اچول‬ačawə́l ‘to pour.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . take. to pacify’ ‫ اوښتل‬awuxtə́l ‘to overturn.14: GP a-initial verbs (first conjugation): aorist bases Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. turn over’ ‫ ازمیل‬azmeyə́l ‘to test’ ‫ استول‬astawə́l ‘to send’ ‫ اخښل‬axxə́l ‘to knead’ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to put on (clothing)’ ‫ الوتل‬alwutə́l ‘to fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuzawə́l ‘to make fly. blow up’ ‫ الوویل‬alwoyə́l ‘to burn’ ‫ انول‬anawə́l ‘to compel (someone).228.177.

thus leading to the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ being taken as part of the verb stem. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as reported by Hallberg.3 First conjugation class in Middle dialects The morphology of the first conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects is similar to that of first conjugation verbs in the General Pashto dialects. our data are sparse. with a few exceptions. We find four initial syllables among these verbs: /a/. nor can we supply a full list of corresponding forms. to buy’ and /woɣestə́l/ ‘to put on (clothing)’).177. In one instance —Waziri ‘to hear’—we provide forms from the Miran Shah dialect (MIR) of northern Waziri and the Wana dialect (WAA) of southern Waziri. What we are able to say is that the initial syllables in the forms we do have differ from General Pashto forms. /o/. and /wo/. A dash in the cell indicates that we do not have an attested form. and the Dzadrani forms are from Septfonds (1994). The latter comes from Lorimer and with two exceptions ( /woxestə́l/ ‘to take. Other than those. The two verbs whose citation forms begin with /wo/ are perhaps examples of metaphony (/ā/ ∼ /o/) plus typical Waziri insertion of a /w/ glide before an initial /o/.15 and Table 8. /ā/.16. While it is clear that both dialects do have verbs that correspond to the a-initial verbs of the General Pashto dialects.228. appears to be due to his misinterpreting some aorist forms as continuous.Verb components  207 8.5. The Waziri and Dzadrani counterparts of the so-called a-initial verbs differ from those of General Pashto. the Waziri forms are from Lorimer (1902) and/or our native speaker.2. so we cannot offer a full description.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . These are noted below. The forms for which we have data are in Table 8.

to buy’ wəx(ə)l‑ wóxest‑ arwedə́l ‘to hear’ arwed‑ wórwed‑ owred‑ MIR warwed‑ WAA āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (intrans)’ wovṛ- wuṛew- owaṛ‑ woṛawwiweššt- āṛawə́l ‘to overturn (trans)’ woɣestəl ‘to put on (clothing)’ āṛaw- wu-āṛaw- woṛāw- woṛaw- woɣund- wóɣest‑   Table 8.228. overturn (trans)’ aṛaw- wu-āṛaw- (o)ɣwəstə́l ‘to dress’ (o)ɣwənd‑ (ó)ɣwest‑ (o)wəxtə́l ‘to cross.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . catch’ (o)x(wə)l‑ óxwəst‑ (o)r(w)edə́l ‘to hear’ (o)r(w)‑ órwed‑ (a)ṛawə́l ‘to reverse.15: Waziri verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base čawə́l ‘to throw’ ―— o-čowwə-čowwə-čaw- (o)xostə́l ‘to take. go to’ (o)wəṛ‑ ówəxt- woṛaw-   Table 8.16: Dzadrani verbs: forms corresponding to GP a-initial verbs Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.208  Verbs Verb Present continuous base Past aorist base āčawə́l ‘to throw’ ačaw‑ wočaw‑ woxestə́l ‘to take.

177. to you’. They are sometimes written as one word and sometimes as two.2. Pashto second conjugation verbs form the aorist by shifting the stress to their prefix.8).5. ‫را‬ ‫در‬ ‫ور‬ ‫کېدل‬ 10 We differ from both Penzl (1955) and Heston (1992) in not grouping /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the stress goes on the first syllable. to him/her/them’. and they can be separated from the stem by a second-position clitic or the negative morpheme (Section 11. when they occur as verbalizers (see Section 8. Verb ‫پورې وهل‬ ‫پرېمینځل‬ ‫درکول‬ Stem pore-wahə́l ‘to push’ pre-mindzə́l ‘to wash’ dər-kawə́l ‘to give to you’ Present aorist base ‫پورې وه‬ ‫پرېمینځ‬ ‫درکړ‬ pore-wah pre-mindz ‫پورې وهـ‬ ‫پرېمینځـ‬ ‫درکړ‬ dər-kṛ póre-wah‑ prémindz‑ də́r-kṛ‑   Table 8.2).228.4 Second conjugation Aorist formation: shift stress to prefix Second conjugation verbs in Pashto are complex verbs (Section 8. although not all of those so-called prefixes have a recognizable meaning.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and /wər/ ‘there. second conjugation verbs in the Middle dialects behave similarly to those of the GP dialects.17: Second conjugation verbs: aorist bases (present tense) There are two kinds of prefixed verbs: those formed with one of the three deictic prefixes (see Section 7.Verb components  209 8.5.2. as in Table 8. and those with other types of prefixes. /dər/ ‘there.2). to do’ with the prefixed verbs under one conjugation class. they do not fit into any conjugation class because they form the aorist irregularly.4) /rā/ ‘here. they are all of the form prefix + stem.2.4).2.¹⁰ Although the forms may differ. their aorist formation puts them with first conjugation verbs. If the prefix has more than one syllable.3.2. We call them all prefixes because they all behave the same way morphosyntactically: they undergo stress shift to form the aorist.2.17. Our reason is that they do not fit our criteria: when they occur as independent verbs (see Section 8. to me’.

4.3 for these aorist forms.228.5 Third conjugation 8. there are some that are less lexicalized and form the aorist with /wə́‑/.5. in aorist constructions.5.) The forms in Table 8.2.2 and Section 8.2. they therefore belong to the first conjugation.8. the complement is always separate from the verbalizer.18 illustrate some separated aorist forms of contracted denominal verbs.177.1 Forming the aorist in third conjugation verbs Aorist formation: shift stress from verb to complement and use irregular aorist forms of /kawə́l/ or /kedə́l/ (All forms are uncontracted in the aorist aspect.4)—all of those with adjective complements and most of those with noun complements.2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2. They consist of the majority of denominal verbs (Section 8. however. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.) Third conjugation verbs are the most common and the most complicated of Pashto verb types. Among the denominal verbs whose complement is a noun.210  Verbs 8.5. Third conjugation verbs form the aorist by: ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ • shifting stress from the second element (the verbalizer) to the first element (the noun or adjective complement). according to the lexical stress of that complement • using the irregular aorist forms of the verbalizer (rather than the forms with ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/) Although many third conjugation verbs are contracted in the continuous aspect. (See Section 8.2.8.

gulped down’ payl-edə́l ‘to be begun’ tawd-awə́l ‘to make warm’ ihsās-awə́l ‘to feel.228.177.18: Contracted third conjugation verbs: aorist stems (present tense) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 211 . to sense’ ɣuṛap-awə́l ‘to swallow. be experienced’ ɣuṛap-edə́l ‘to be swallowed.) Present aorist (trans. drink’ payl ‘beginning’ tawd-edə́l ‘to become warm’ ihsās-edәl ‘to be felt. sensation’ ɣuṛap ‘mouthful. to drink in gulps’ payl-awə́l ‘to begin’ palwánḍ š‑ ihsā́s š‑ ɣuṛáp š‑ palwánḍ k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑ ihsā́s k(ṛ)‑ ɣuṛáp k(ṛ)‑ k(ṛ)‑   Table 8.) ‫ جوړ‬joṛ ‘whole’ ‫جوړېدل‬ ‫جوړول‬ ‫ جوړ شـ‬jóṛ š‑ ‫ جوړ کړـ‬jóṛ ‫ پلونډ‬palwánḍ ‫پالونډېدل‬ joṛ-edə́l ‘to be made/built’ joṛ-awə́l ‘to build’ k(ṛ)‑ ‘fat’ palwand-̣edə́l ‘to become fat’ ‫پلونډول‬ palwanḍ-awə́l ‘to fatten’ ‫پلونډ شـ‬ ‫پلونډ کړـ‬ ‫تود‬ ‫تودېدل‬ ‫تودول‬ ‫ تود شـ‬táwd š‑ ‫ تود کړـ‬táwd ‫احساس‬ ‫احساسېدل‬ ‫احساسول‬ ‫احساس شـ‬ ‫احساس کړـ‬ ‫غوړپ‬ ‫غوړپېدل‬ ‫غوړپول‬ ‫غوړپ شـ‬ ‫غوړپ کړـ‬ ‫پیل‬ ‫پيلیدل‬ ‫پيلول‬ ‫ پیل شـ‬páyl š‑ ‫ پیل کړـ‬páyl tawd ‘warm’ ihsās ‘feeling.Verb components  Noun or adjective Intransitive verb Transitive verb Present aorist (intrans.

as many of them share somewhat regular patterns in their formation.3. As can be seen in Table 8. as irregular also implies. ‫پزېدل‬ ‫غلېدل‬ 11 For example: the simplex verbs /pәzedə́l/ ‘to be wounded’.5.2.5. however. and the complex (denominal) verbs /azādedə́l/ ‘to be freed’ and /joṛedə́l/ ‘to be made/built’. For these reasons.¹¹ we see no reason to place infinitive + /kedə́l/ constructions in a special category.5. ‫ازادېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.212  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8. See Section 8.228. we call verbs with no stem allomorphy weak verbs. strike’ ‫ وهل کېدل‬/wahə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ وهلی کېدل‬/wahə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be beaten’ ‫ لیکل‬/likə́l/ ‘to write’ ‫ لیکل کیدل‬/likə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیکلی کیدل‬/likə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be written’ ‫ لیدل‬/lidə́l/ ‘to see’ ‫ لیدل کیدل‬/lidə́l kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ ‫ لیدلی کیدل‬/lidə́lay kedə́l/ ‘to be seen’ However. and those with stem allomorphy of any degree.5.5. For example sentences using this construction.2 A special case of third conjugation verbs: infinitive/past participle + /kedə́l/ Sometimes the complement of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ is an infinitive or a past participle.2. and furthermore. see Section 11. because these constructions parallel the structure of other third conjugation verbs and because there are many other Pashto intransitive verbs—both simplex and complex—that can be translated by the English passive. Some descriptions have referred to all Pashto verbs with stem allomorphy as irregular. we classify them as denominal verbs. strong verbs.1. because it is best translated with an English passive construction: ‫کېدل‬ • • • ‫ وهل‬/wahə́l/ ‘to beat. and /ɣuledə́l/ ‘to be deceived’.19. ‫کېدل‬ 8.6 Stem classes and the four bases Pashto verbs fall into two stem classes depending on how many stem allomorphs they have.177. strong Pashto verbs can have as many as four stems.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫جوړېدل‬ . their number is too large to consider them out of the ordinary.2 for discussion and examples. we feel this term is inaccurate. Drawing on Indo-European grammatical tradition. This construction is often referred to by other grammars of Pashto as the Pashto passive.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.19: Verbs and their stems: strong and weak Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  213 Stem class  Verb Present aorist stem Present continuous stem  Past continuous stem Past aorist stem Strong ‫بېول‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بیای‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بوت‬ bóz- biwə́l ‘to lead away’ ‫وړل‬ wṛəl ‘to carry’ ‫ختل‬ xatə́l ‘to rise’ Weak biw- bót- byā́y- ‫یوس‬ ‫وړ‬ yós- ‫یووړ‬ wr-̣ yówṛ- ‫خېژ‬ ‫خت‬ xež- xat- ‫تړل‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫رسېدل‬ ‫رس‬ taṛə́l ‘to tie’ taṛ- ras- rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫اچول‬ ‫اچو‬ ačaw- ačawəl ‘to throw’   Table 8.228.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and the continuous aspect by the absence of /wə́‑/ or stress on the verb itself rather than the prefix or complement. The aorist aspect is indicated by the stressed prefix /wə́‑/ or (in the case of complex verbs) by stress on the prefix or complement.2. we therefore acknowledge we are co-opting it for this new sense.4. there is no loss to the accurate description of Pashto in doing so. present continuous 2.4.3 for a more complete discussion of how past tense is encoded in the morphology. and the present tense either by the absence of this suffix (transitives). (See Section 8.2. In Pashto.6. The result of these two binary choices. the term base is frequently used as a synonym for root. We confine our use of stem to forms that include only (1) a plain verbal form or one with derivational affixes. however. First. the past tense of weak verbs is indicated by either the suffix /‑ə́l-/ (for transitive verbs)¹² or /‑ed(-ə́l-)/ (for intransitives). Two comments are pertinent here.1 and Section 8. the stem of a verb includes only derivational material. or (2) a nominal complement-verb construction.177. while the past tense of strong verbs is indicated by stem allomorphy. We do so in order to distinguish in our descriptions the more elemental stems from the partially inflected building blocks. but since. past aorist To these bases can be added either: • a PNG suffix 12 Although see Section 8.3). strictly speaking. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. one could probably speak theoretically of Pashto verb roots in addition to stems and bases—and certainly so in a historicalcomparative discussion—but the concept is not necessary to a synchronic description. while the building blocks also contain inflectional material—for tense and aspect—we prefer to avoid this looser terminology and instead refer to the latter as bases.2.3.2. as for example prefixed verbs (Section 8.1 The four verb bases Pashto verb bases are formed according to the two parameters of tense (present/past) and aspect (continuous/aorist). 8. present/past and continuous/aorist.) Most Pashto grammars extend the term stem to include these building blocks.214  Verbs These stems are the basis for the four morphological building blocks upon which all Pashto verbs are formed.228.1. is the following four-way contrast of bases: ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ 1.1. or by the suffix /‑ég-/ (intransitives). present aorist 3.4). past continuous 4.6. Second. in the case of contracted denominal verbs (Section 8.

177. Three of the four bases are also used as the base of participles (see Section 8. /‑ə́l-/ is usually present.2). Both present and imperative forms are formed on present bases. and infinitive forms are formed on past bases. The /‑ə́l-/ suffix of the past base is sometimes optional or even disallowed: it is required only in weak transitive verbs (see Section 8. in third plural masculine forms. intransitives and transitives have different. past. Conversely. Formation of bases for weak verbs. though predictable.2. Examples are given in Table 8. the past continuous base of any Pashto verb is formally identical to its infinitive.2 Weak verbs (one stem) Weak verbs have a single stem from which all four bases are predictable. shape: the bases of intransitive verbs have an extra affix after the stem. the /‑ə́l-/ suffix is optional in first and second person forms and is prohibited in third masculine singular forms.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .6. In a few cases of strong verbs with four stem allomorphs. and the PNG suffix is encoded therein.9).2.1 and Table 8. whose past continuous base would otherwise be identical to the present continuous base. See Table 8.20): • present continuous base = stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑əl-/(suffix obligatory) • present aorist base: • • Intransitive (see Table 8. optional • present continuous base: stem + • • elsewhere) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. whose past and present stems differ . Among weak verbs.2.6. Because they share an identical suffix.20 through Table 8. or • an adjectival suffix (to form a participle) The result is a fully inflected Pashto verb. one for present and one for past tense.22. The way the four bases are formed from the stems of the verb is described in the following sections. first conjugation: Transitive (see Table 8. For all other verbs.21): ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ present aorist base: ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + stem + ‫ ـېږ‬/‑eg/ past continuous base: stem + ‫ ـېد‬/‑ed/ (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.228.2 for a schematization of verb formation. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ 8. the stems and bases may coincide. optative.Verb components  215 • an imperative or optative suffix.

216  Verbs ‫ تړل‬taṛə́l ‘to tie’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫تړ‬ ‫تړ‬ ‫وتړ‬ ‫تړل‬ ‫وتړل‬ taṛ Past taṛ‑ taṛ-ə́l‑ wə́-taṛ‑ wə́-taṛ-əl‑   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.177.21: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.20: Weak verb bases: first conjugation (transitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasédəl ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫رس‬ ‫رسېږ‬ ‫ورسېږ‬ (‫رسېد)ل‬ (‫ورسېد)ل‬ arrive’ ras Past ras-eg‑ ras-ed(-ə́l)‑ wə́-ras-eg‑ wə́-ras-ed(-əl)‑   Table 8.

22): • present continuous base = stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + stem ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) past aorist base: stressed prefix + stem + ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/(suffix obligatory) • past continuous base: prefix + stem + • In the second conjugation.27.22: Weak verb bases: second conjugation 8. rather than the addition of the /wə́‑/ prefix.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . has /wə́xat-/ for a base in NE Pashto. Note that /wṛ-ə́l/ ‘to carry’ is weak when it is the stem of a prefixed verb and strong when it occurs alone. the verb /xatə́l/ ‘to rise’.2.177. Forms vary tremendously across dialects. furthermore. which has a strong aorist masculine singular base in most dialects ( /wə́xot-/). ‫ختل‬ ‫وخوت‬ ‫وخت‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. what is strong in one area may be weak in another. second conjugation (see Table 8. Formation of bases for weak verbs.3 Strong verbs (more than one stem) It is not feasible at this time to provide an exhaustive list of the Pashto strong verbs. ‫وـ‬ ‫وړل‬ ‫ راوړل‬rāwṛə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړ‬ ‫راوړل‬ ‫راوړ‬ bring (to me)’ rā́-wṛ Past rā́-wṛ rā́-wṛ rā-wṛ-ə́l rā́-wṛ-əl   Table 8. See Table 8. for example. aorists are formed by a shift of stress to the existing prefix.Verb components  ‫وـ‬ • past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + stem + optional elsewhere) ‫ـېد‬ /‑ed/( + ‫ـلـ‬ 217 /‑əl-/— prohibited in 3SGM.6.

2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .and -ed-) and Class III and to Heston’s second conjugation/irregular verbs.25. and past bases from the other.23): • present continuous base = present stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present stem past continuous base: past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM. second conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8. Examples are given in Table 8. others are simply suppletive (see Table 8.6.23 through Table 8. op- 13 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class II (excluding the intransitives with -eg.37). first conjugation (two stems) (see Table 8. although many can be grouped loosely together according to shared initial sound or sounds (see Table 8.1 Strong verbs with two stems¹³ These verbs have two different stems.177.228.3. optional ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to rise’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫خېژ‬ ‫خېژـ‬ ‫وخېژـ‬ ‫خوت‬ ‫خوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫وخوت)ل(ـ‬ xéž Past xot xéž‑ wə́-xež‑ xot(-ə́l)‑ wə́-xot(-əl)‑   Table 8. Formation of bases for strong verbs. present bases are predictable from one stem.24).23: Strong verb bases: first conjugation (two stems) Formation of bases for strong verbs. The two stems have no predictable similarity to each other.25): • present continuous base = present stem • present aorist base: stressed prefix + present stem • past continuous base: prefix + past stem (+ tional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. optional else- • present aorist base: • where) • past aorist base: elsewhere) ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + past stem (+ ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.218  Verbs 8.

the four bases are not predictable from each other.Verb components  ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫وین‬ ‫وینـ‬ ‫ووینـ‬ ‫لید‬ ‫لید)ل(ـ‬ ‫ولید)ل(ـ‬ win Past lid win‑ 219 wə́-win‑ lid(-ə́l)‑ wə́-lid(-əl)‑   Table 8. There are six simplex multi-stem verbs.3. first conjugation (two stems) • past aorist base: stressed prefix + past stem (+ optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/— prohibited in 3SGM.228. note that three of them form the base for deictic prefixed verbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6.25: Strong verb bases: second conjugation (two stems) 8. The prefixed verbs based on /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ use its irregular forms (listed elsewhere ‫تلل‬ ‫کول‬ 14 Equivalent to Penzl’s Class IV and Heston’s fourth conjugation/double verbs.2.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . ‫ پرېوتل‬pre-wat-ə́l ‘to Stem Continuous base Aorist base Present ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوزـ‬ ‫پرېوت‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ـ‬ fall’ pre-wə́z‑ Past wat pre-wə́z‑ pre-wat(-ə́l)‑ pré-wəz‑ pré-wat-(-əl)‑   Table 8.2 Strong verbs with three or four stems¹⁴ In verbs with three or four stems. The last table therefore gives the a paradigm of the combining forms for /tlə́l/ ‘to go’ when it forms the base of a prefixed verb with the deictic prefixes.24: Strong suppletive verb.

The first four verbs in these tables are transitive.8.26 through Table 8. the stem of the past tense reduces when taking /-ə/ as a suffix: /kṛ-/ → /k-/ and /šw-/ → /š-/. are also used as verbalizers (Section 8.2. • Present aorist base: • optional elsewhere) ‫وـ‬ • Past aorist base: /wə́‑/ + past aorist stem + ( optional elsewhere) ‫ـلـ‬ /‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM.2.220  Verbs ‫وړل‬ in Section 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .4). The parenthetical /ṛ/ in the present aorist base of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ indicates that it is frequently elided in speech.32): • Present continuous base = (present) continuous stem ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ + present aorist stem Past continuous base: (past continuous) stem + ( ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l-/—prohibited in 3SGM. use its weak stem (as illustrated by Table 8. Note that two of these seven verbs.2. their aorist forms are not formed with the first conjugation prefix /wə́‑/. The bases and stems for the six simplex members and one complex member of this class of multi-stem strong verbs are listed in Table 8.8.33 through Table 8. and those based on the otherwise multi-stem verb /wṛəl/ ‘to carry’.3).́ kaw-ə́l Table 8. /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. and when they are.36.22).26 through Table 8. Notice that in both Waziri and Dzadrani. The paradigms for these verbs in their verbalizer role are in Section 8. the remaining three are intransitive.26: Strong verb bases: Stem k(ṛ) kṛ wə́-k(ṛ)‑ wə́-kṛ-əl‑ ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to do’ The verb bases of /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ and /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the Middle dialects are in Table 8. ‫کول‬ ‫کېول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ Continuous Stem Present ‫کو‬ kaw Past Aorist Base   Base ‫کوـ‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړ‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کړ‬ ‫وکړل‬ kaw.228. Formation of bases for strong verbs (three or four stems) (see Table 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. but are irregular.177.32.4.

Verb components  ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to carry’ Continuous Stem Present Aorist Base ‫وړ‬ wṛ ‫یوس‬ ‫یوسـ‬ ‫وړلـ‬ ‫یووړ‬ ‫یووړلـ‬ yós wṛ-ə́l‑   Table 8.́ Past Stem ixod/kxéxod   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 221 .228.́ kxégd kxéxod kxégd‑ kxexod-ə́l‑ ixodə́l/kxéxod-əl ‫ ایښودل‬/ixodə́l/ ‘to put’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.27: Strong verb bases: Continuous away’ Stem Base ‫بیایـ‬ ‫بوز‬ ‫بوزـ‬ ‫بېو‬ ‫بېول‬ (‫بوت)ل‬ ‫بوت)ل(لـ‬   Table 8.177.29: Strong verb bases: (i)gd.28: Strong verb bases: byā́y‑ biw-ə́l‑ bóz bót(l) bóz‑ bót(l)-əl‑ ‫ بېول‬/biwə́l/ ‘to lead away’ ‫ ایښودل‬ixodə́l ‘to Continuous put’ Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫)اي(ږد‬ ‫)اي(ږدـ‬ ‫کښېږد‬ ‫کښېږدـ‬ / ‫ایښود‬ ‫کښېښود‬ / ‫ایښودل‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ ‫کښېښود‬ ‫کښېښودلـ‬ (i)gd Past Stem ‫بیای‬ biw Present yówṛ-əl‑ Aorist Base byā́y Past yówṛ yós‑ ‫ وړل‬/wṛəl/ ‘to carry’ ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead Present Base ‫وړـ‬ wṛ.

́ rātl-(ə́l-) rāš rā́ɣ ‫ راتلل‬/rātlə́l/ ‘to come’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.222  Verbs ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to Continuous become’ Stem Present Base ‫ش‬ ‫وشـ‬ ‫کېد‬ ‫کېدلـ‬ ‫شو‬ ‫)و(شولـ‬   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM rā́š‑ rā́ɣ-(əl-) .31: Strong verb bases: (w)lā́ṛ tl-(ə́l‑) (w)lā́ṛ š‑ (w)lā́ṛ (w)lā́ṛ-əl‑ ‫ تلل‬/tlə́l/ ‘to go’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ Continuous Stem Aorist Base Stem Base ‫راځ‬ ‫راځـ‬ ‫راش‬ ‫راشـ‬ ‫راتل‬ (‫راتل)ل‬ ‫راغ‬ (‫راغ)ل‬ rāʣ Past wə́-š‑ Continuous Stem Present š ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ تلل‬tlə́l ‘to go’ Past Base ‫کېږـ‬ ked Present Stem ‫کېږ‬ kég Past Aorist rātl   Table 8.32: Strong verb bases: rāʣ.30: Strong verb bases: kég‑ ked-ə́l‑ šw wə́-šw-əl‑ Aorist Base Stem Base ‫ځ‬ ‫ځـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړشـ‬ (‫ت)ل‬ ‫ت)ل(لـ‬ ‫)و(لاړ‬ ‫)و(لاړلـ‬ ʣ ʣ‑ tl   Table 8.228.

228.34: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kež- kež- š- š- ked- ked(-ə́l)- šw- šw(-əl)- Root Base š- wə́-š‑ šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 223 .Verb components  Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Present Past Aorist Base kaw- kaw- k- k- kaw- kaw-ə́l- kṛ- kṛ(-əl)- Root Base k- wə́-k‑ kṛ- wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.35: Waziri strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.33: Waziri strong verb bases: /kawə́l/ ‘to do’ Continuous kawə́l ‘to do’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present k- k- k- wə́-k‑ Past kr-̣ kṛ(-əl)- kṛ wə́-kṛ(-əl)-   Table 8.177.

36: Dzadrani strong verb bases: /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ 8. masc.37 shows some strong Pashto verbs. ‫ کنل‬kinə́l ‘to dig’ ‫ کني‬kíni ‫ وکنده‬wə́kində ‫ ایستل‬istə́l ‘to pull [out]’ ‫ باسي‬bā́si ‫ وایست‬wə́ist.3 List of strong verbs Table 8.224  Verbs Continuous kedə́l ‘to become’ Root Aorist Base Root Base Present š- š- š- wə́-š‑ Past šw- šw(-əl)- šw- wə́-šw(-əl)-   Table 8. past aorist ‫ الوتل‬alwotə́l ‘to fly [away]’ ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پوري وتل‬poriwatə́l ‘to cross’ ‫ ننوتل‬nənawatə́l ‘to enter’ ‫ وتل‬watə́l ‘to go out’ ‫ الوزي‬álwozi ‫ پرېوزي‬prewúzi ‫ پوري وزي‬poriwúzi ‫ ننوزي‬nənawúzi ‫ وزي‬wúzi ‫ والوت‬wā́lwot ‫ پرېووت‬préwot ‫ پوري ووت‬póriwot ‫ ننوت‬nə́nawot ‫ ووت‬wə́wot ‫ پېژندل‬pežandə́l ‘to know’ ‫ پېژني‬péžani ‫ وپېژاند‬wə́pežānd ‫ کیندل‬kində́l. pack’ ‫ پرېباسي‬prebā́si ‫ پرې ایست‬préist ‫ ننه ایستل‬nənaistə́l ‘to introduce’ ‫ ننه باسي‬nənabā́si ‫ ننه یوست‬nə́naist.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. nə́nayust 15 Adapted from Shafeev (1964).228.2.177. wúyust ‫ پرېیستل‬preistə́l ‘to throw.¹⁵ Table 8. pres.3. grouped according to similarity of morphological patterns. 3rd sg.37: Strong verbs Infinitive 3rd sg.6.

37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.228. knit’ ‫ اغوندي‬aɣundí ‫ اویې‬úwi. get’ ‫ اخلي‬áxli ‫ واخیست‬wā́xist ‫ راوستل‬rāwustə́l ‘to bring’ ‫ راولي‬rā́wəli ‫ راوست‬rā́wust ‫ لوستل‬lwastə́l ‘to read’ ‫ لولي‬lwáli ‫ ولوست‬wə́lwast ‫ ځغستل‬ʣɣastə́l ‘to run’ ‫ ځغلي‬ʣɣalí ‫ وځغاست‬wə́ʣɣāst ‫ راکښل‬rākṣə́l ‘to extract’ ‫ کښل‬kṣəl ‘to pull’ ‫ راکاږي‬rākā́ẓ̌i ‫ کاږي‬kā́ẓ̌i ‫ راوکیښ‬rāwúkiṣ ‫ وکیښ‬wə́kiṣ ‫ اغوستل‬aɣustə́l ‘to dress’ ‫ اودل‬udə́l ‘to weave. past aorist ‫ اوښتل‬awuṣtə́l ‘to turn over’ ‫ غوښتل‬ɣuṣtə́l ‘to want’ ‫ غښتل‬ɣəṣtə́l ‘to twist’ ‫ نغښتل‬nɣəṣtə́l ‘to wrap up’ ‫ اوړي‬awoṛi ‫ غواړي‬ɣwā́ṛi ‫ غړي‬ɣaṛí ‫ نغاړي‬nɣā́ṛi ‫ واوښت‬wáwuṣt ‫ وغوښت‬wə́ɣuṣt ‫ وغښت‬wə́ɣəṣt ‫ ونغښت‬wə́nɣəṣt ‫ اروېدل‬arwedə́l ‘to hear’ ‫ ایشېدل‬išedə́l ‘to boil’ ‫ اروي‬árwi ‫ ایشي‬íši ‫ وروېده‬wā́rwedə ‫ وایشېده‬wə́išedə ‫ برېښېدل‬breṣedə́l ‘to shine. úyi ‫ واغوست‬wā́gust ‫ واوده‬wə́udə ‫ ایښودل‬iṣodə́l ‘to lay down’ ‫ ایږدي‬íẓ̌di ‫ کښې ښود‬kṣéṣod ‫ بلل‬balə́l ‘to call.Verb components  225 Table 8. seize’ ‫ نیسي‬nísi ‫ ونیو‬wə́niw ‫ اخیستل‬axistə́l ‘to take. masc. count’ ‫ بولي‬bóli ‫ وباله‬wə́bālə appear’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ برېښي‬bréṣi ‫ وبرېښېده‬wə́breṣedə ‫ درومېدل‬drumedə́l ‘to march’ ‫ درومي‬drúmi ‫ ودرومېده‬wə́drumedə ‫ زېږېدل‬zeẓ̌edə́l ‘to be born’ ‫ زېږي‬zíẓ̌i ‫ وزېږېده‬wə́zeẓ̌edə ‫ اخښل‬axṣə́l ‘to mix up’ ‫ مښل‬muṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ اخږي‬axẓ̌í ‫ مږي‬muẓ̌í ‫ واخښه‬wə́axṣə ‫ ومښه‬wə́muṣə ‫ رانیول‬rāniwə́l ‘to buy [up]’ ‫ رانیسي‬rā́nisi ‫ رانیو‬rā́niw ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to take. 3rd sg. pres.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.

taste’ ‫ څکي‬ʦakí ‫ وڅکه‬wə́ʦakə ‫ ختل‬xatə́l ‘to ascend’ ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ خېژي‬xéži ‫ راځي‬rā́ʣi ‫ وخوت‬wə́xot ‫ راغئ‬rā́ɣəy ‫ رودل‬rudə́l ‘to suck [out]’ ‫ سکښتل‬skəštə́l ‘to cut [off]’ ‫ روي‬rə́wi ‫ سکڼي‬skəṇí ‫ وروده‬wə́rudə ‫ وسکښت‬wə́skəṣt ‫ سول‬swəl. 3rd sg. pres. masc.228.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.177. allow’ ‫ پیرودل‬perodə́l ‘to buy’ ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ ‫ پرېږدي‬préẓ̌di ‫ پیري‬píri ‫ ځي‬ʣi ‫ پرې ښود‬préṣod ‫ وپېرود‬wə́perod ‫ ولاړ‬wlāṛ ‫ چاودل‬čāudə́l ‘to split’ ‫ چول‬čawə́l ‘to blow up’ ‫ څکل‬ʦkəl ‘to smoke’ ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ چوي‬čawí ‫ څکي‬ʦki ‫ وچاود‬wə́čāud ‫ وچاوه‬wə́čāwə ‫ وڅکاوه‬wə́ʦkāwə ‫ څکل‬ʦakə́l ‘to drink. past aorist ‫ بېول‬biwə́l ‘to lead.226  Verbs Table 8. steal’ ‫ بیایي‬biā́í ‫ بوت‬bot ‫ پرانیتل‬prānitə́l ‘to open’ ‫ پرانیځي‬prā́niʣi ‫ پرانیت‬prā́nit ‫ پرېښودل‬preṣodə́l ‘to leave. ‫ سوځل‬swaʣə́l ‘to burn ‫ سوځي‬swaʣí ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ ښوول‬ṣowə́l ‘to show’ ‫ ښیي‬ṣáyi ‫ وښووئ‬wə́ṣow ‫ کتل‬katə́l ‘to look’ ‫ کښېکښل‬kṣekṣə́l ‘to rub’ ‫ کښېنستل‬kṣenastə́l ‘to sit [down]’ ‫ کوري‬góri ‫ کښېکاږي‬kṣekā́ẓ̌i ‫ کښېني‬kṣéni ‫ وکوت‬wə́kot ‫ کښېکښود‬kṣekṣod ‫ کښېنوست‬kṣénost ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to do’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ لرل‬larə́l ‘to have’ ‫ لیدل‬lidə́l ‘to see’ ‫ کوي‬kawí ‫ کېږي‬kéẓ̌i ‫ لري‬larí ‫ ویني‬wíni ‫ وکړ‬wə́kəṛ ‫ وسو‬wə́su ‫ درلود‬darlod ‫ ولید‬wə́lid ‫ میندل‬mində́l ‘to find’ ‫ مومي‬múmi ‫ ومینده‬wə́mində ‫ نښتل‬nṣtə́l ‘to stick to’ ‫ نښلي‬nṣə́li ‫ ونښت‬wə́nṣət [down]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

and in some cases. as can be seen in the fourth example in Table 8.37: (continued) Infinitive 3rd sg.) Since the outcomes of causative affixation are lexicalized. masc. a caused event can be expressed periphrastically rather than derivationally. some causative forms use the present and some the past stem.5. ‫ـوـ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2. we do not gloss it in our interlinear examples.2. execute’ ‫ وړي‬wṛi ‫ وژني‬wā́žni ‫ یووړ‬yuwúṛ ‫ وواژه‬wə́wāžə ‫ ویشتل‬wištə́l ‘to shoot’ ‫ ولي‬wə́li ‫ وویشت‬wə́wišt ‫ ویل‬wayə́l ‘to speak’ ‫ وایي‬wā́i ‫ ووایه‬wə́wāyə 8. to compel’ plus either an infinitive or present aorist form of the verb that represents the event being caused. The result is a verb with the meaning to make (someone/something) do X. In the case of verbs with more than one stem.2. Causative verbs belong to the first conjugation (see Section 8. pres.2).7 The causative morpheme As shown in Table 8. where do X is the original verb.177. both forms exist. 3rd sg. causative verbs consist of verb stem plus an affix /‑aw‑/.5. (See Section 11. The causative suffix is no longer productive.228. with a phrase that consists of a verb meaning ‘to force. past aorist ‫ وړل‬wṛəl ‘to take [away]’ ‫ وژل‬wažə́l ‘to kill. In modern Pashto. depending on the verb. Our data do not suggest a rule for which stem is used.38.1 and Table 8.Verb components  227 Table 8.

‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫وـ‬ ‫کول‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ are all used with other verbs to form morphologically complicated verb constructions. swing’ ‫ زنګـ‬zang‑ ‘rock.4.228. as they are irregular and are among the building blocks necessary to form verb constructions. The verbalizers have double sets of aorist forms: one with the aorist prefix /wə́‑/ and one without. because they are the forms used as verbalizers. When /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used as main verbs. The tables in this section list the irregular forms.177.38: Causative verbs 8. This grammar therefore adopts the term verbalizer for /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ when used as light verbs in denominal constructions. to explode’ climb’ make dress’ ‫ اغوستول‬aɣust-aw-ə́l ‘to make dress’ ‫ خاندـ‬xānd‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندـ‬xand‑ ‘laugh’ ‫ خندول‬xand-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ زانګـ‬zāng‑ ‘rock. they have regular aorist forms that take /wə́‑/.4).4). (See the second footnote of Section 8.8 The auxiliary to be and the verbalizers ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ The three Pashto verbs to be.2.g. to cause to read] fly. while /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ are used to form denominal verbs (Section 8. those without /wə́‑/.2. that is. but properly speaking.) The uses of these three verbs will be described later. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make.4.2..4. The verb to be is used in compound verb constructions (Section 8. Most Pashto grammars refer to all three as auxiliary verbs. swing’ ‫ زنګول‬zang-aw-ə́l ‘to rock laugh’ [e. only to be is an auxiliary.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . the stems remain identical.228  Verbs Present stem Past stem Causative ‫ لولـ‬lwal‑ ‘read’ ‑‫ لوست‬lwast‑ ‘read’ ‫ لولول‬lwal-aw-ə́l ‘to teach’ ‑‫ الوز‬alwuz‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوتـ‬alwut‑ ‘fly’ ‫ الوزول‬alwuz-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‫ خېژـ‬xež‑ ‘climb’ ‫ ختـ‬xat‑ ‘climb’ ‫ خېژول‬xež-aw-ə́l ‘to make ‑‫ اغوند‬aɣund‑ ‘dress’ ‑‫ اغوست‬aɣust‑ ‘dress’ ‫ اغوندول‬aɣund-aw-ə́l ‘to [lit. in a cradle]’   Table 8. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. for now we are only providing tables of their inflected forms.

8. Imperative forms of the verb to be are built from the present aorist base /š-/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . with the exception in General Pashto of the third person present form /wi/ ‘he/she/it is. the verb to be in Pashto is irregular.43 below. /šəy/ ‘be!’: ‫یم‬ ‫ی‬ ‫د‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫شئ‬ ‫شـ‬ ‫شه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. for example.177. The singular uses a special form.39 through Table 8. In addition. as in 8. /yəm/. There is no aspectual distinction in the past tense of to be of any of the dialects. Dzadrani does have distinct forms of to be for the present continuous and present aorist. Some authors describe the existential particle /šta/ as an alternative form of to be.2.5. /ša/ ‘be!’. /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. in General Pashto and Waziri. and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. while the plural uses the second person plural form.. i.1. ‫شته‬ 8.228. the verb to be does not even have a standard infinitive or citation form. to do’ in the same way as the General Pashto dialects do. there are no past aorist forms for to be. /y‑/ for first and second person present continuous forms.3).48.1.1 Forms of to be As is typical of Indo-European languages. or sometimes by its first person singular present continuous form. Tables of their respective paradigms are in the following sections. but some of the forms differ. It also has suppletive stems. The forms of to be are shown in Table 8. We treat it as a sentence-level operator: see Section 10. to be does not have separate aorist forms. but /d‑/ for third person present continuous. they are’. so in English it is commonly referred to by the infinitive of its English gloss. Indeed. In Pashto to be may act as the copula and also as an auxiliary verb in a compound tense construction (see Section 8. In the first and second person.e.Verb components  229 The Middle dialects use the three Pashto verbs to be. alone among Pashto verbs. to be. speakers will use either present continuous forms of to be or present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ where one might expect present aorist forms.

39: GP present continuous of to be to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi yã 2nd 3rd ye yā́stəy M day di F do   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.40: Waziri present continuous of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. də(W)   Table 8.230  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st ‫یم‬ ‫یو‬ ‫یې‬ ‫یاستئ‬ yəm 2nd ye yu yā́stəy ‫یئ‬ yəy (E) ‫یاست‬ yāst (S) 3rd ‫دی‬ M day (E) ‫دي‬ di ‫ده‬ da (E) ‫دئ‬ dəy (W) ‫ده‬ F da.177.

or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st ‫کېدل‬ 2nd 3rd Plural M ‫وي‬ wi F   Table 8. or present aorist forms of kedə́l ‘to become’ (see text) 1st 2nd 3rd Plural M wi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 231 .Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st yəm(a) yi 2nd ye yəy M day di F do 3rd   Table 8.228.43: Waziri present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.41: Dzadrani present continuous of to be to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be.42: GP present aorist of to be (= present continuous except in 3rd person) to be Singular Present continuous forms of to be.177.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .232  Verbs to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy wi ? (Septfonds is unclear on this form.) to be Singular Plural 1st ‫وم‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وې‬ ‫وستئ‬ 3rd M F   Table 8.228.45: GP past of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.44: Dzadrani present aorist of to be wəm 2nd we wu wastəy ‫وئ‬ wəy E ‫واست‬ wāst SW 3rd M ‫ؤ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وې‬ wə ‫ول‬ wəl wə F wa we wə SW   Table 8.177.

47: Dzadrani past of to be to be Singular Plural 2nd ‫شه‬ ‫شئ‬ ša šəy   Table 8.46: Waziri past of to be 3rd   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 233 .177.Verb components  to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi wã 2nd we wāstəy M wə wi F wa we to be Singular Plural 1st wəm(a) wi 2nd we wəy M wə wi F wa we 3rd   Table 8.48: Imperative of to be Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

54.228. Table 8.49. Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2.52.49: GP present continuous of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kéžəm(a) kéži kežã 2nd 3rd kéže M kéžəy kéži F   Table 8. and Table 8.50. ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېږم‬ ‫کېږو‬ ‫کېږې‬ ‫کېږئ‬ kégəm 2nd kége 3rd kégu kégəy ‫کېږی‬ M kégi F   Table 8.8.53.2 Forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ The present continuous forms of the intransitive verbalizer are shown in Table 8.177. They are often pronounced with an initial /s/ in ordinary speech in the Southwest dialect.51.234  Verbs ‫کېدل‬ 8.50: Waziri present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کېدل‬ The present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. and Table 8. although speakers may have /š/ in reading and careful Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

51: Dzadrani present continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شم‬ ‫شو‬ ‫شې‬ ‫شئ‬ šəm 2nd še 3rd M šu šəy ‫شي‬ ši F   Table 8.53: Waziri present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kégəm(a) kégi 2nd kége kégəy 3rd M kégi F   Table 8.228.52: GP present aorist of ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši šã 2nd 3rd še M šəy ši F   Table 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 235 .

1994: 141). which may not distinguish aspect. See Table 8. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.57. However. Our reading of Lorimer is that Waziri does not distinguish aspect for /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ in the past tense. Although Septfonds does not list any past forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ with the past tense affix /-əl-/.42). The past continuous forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8.236  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šəm(a) ši 2nd še šəy 3rd M ši F   Table 8. /-əl-/ is used in both General Pashto and Waziri forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. In General Pashto and Waziri.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . The past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ are shown in Table 8. he does say that it “serves only to relieve ambiguities” (Septfonds.55 and Table 8. Moreover. which implies that it may also appear in forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.228.56 for past forms of Waziri /kedə́l/ ‘to become’. so we have only past forms for that dialect (Table 8.58 and Table 8. in his discussion of Dzadrani verbs in general. we have no data to confirm this supposition. so we are not listing forms with /-əl-/ for Dzadrani.54: Dzadrani present aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ speech. the first and second person forms are identical to those of the present aorist forms of to be (Table 8.59.177. as can be seen elsewhere in this grammar.56).

56: Waziri past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .Verb components  237 ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫کېد)ل(م‬ ‫کېد)ل(و‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ‫کېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫کېده‬ (‫کېدل)ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ه‬ ‫کېد)ل(ې‬ ked(ə́l)ə́m 2nd ked(ə́l)é 3rd M kedə́ F ked(ə́l)á   Table 8.55: GP past continuous of ked(ə́l)ú ked(ə́l)ə́y kedə́l(ə́) ked(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šw(ə́l)əm(a) šw(ə́l)i sw(ə́l)ã 2nd 3rd šw(ə́l)e šw(ə́l)əy M šə šwəl F šw(ə́l)a šw(ə́l)e   Table 8.

58: GP past aorist of šw(ə́l)u šw(ə́l)əy šwə́l(ə́) šw(ə́l)é ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.57: Dzadrani past continuous of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st ‫شو)ل(م‬ ‫شو)ل(و‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ ‫شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫شه‬ (‫شول)ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ه‬ ‫شو)ل(ې‬ šw(ə́l)əm 2nd šw(ə́l)e 3rd M šə F šw(ə́l)á   Table 8.228.238  Verbs kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st kedə́m(a) kedi 2nd kede kedə́y M kedə́ kedə́(l) F keda kedé 3rd   Table 8.

177. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کوم‬ ‫کوو‬ ‫کوې‬ ‫کوئ‬ kawə́m 2nd kawé 3rd M kawú kawə́y ‫کوي‬ kawí F   Table 8.228. ‫کول‬ ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Table 8.3 Forms of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’. Table 8.61.8.2.62 illustrate the formation of the present continuous of the transitive verbalizer /kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . and Table 8. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb components  239 kedə́l ‘to become’ Singular Plural 1st šwəm(a) šwi 2nd šwe šwəy M šə šwə(l) F šwa šwe 3rd   Table 8.60: GP present continuous of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.59: Dzadrani past aorist of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ ‫کول‬ 8.60 .

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .240  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí 2nd kawé kawə́y 3rd M kawí F   Table 8.177. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.61: Waziri present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́m(a) kawí kawã 2nd 3rd kawé M kawə́y kawí F   Table 8.62: Dzadrani present continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.

64. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make. and Table 8. and are therefore best analyzed as fully inflected forms. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make.63. to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ kṛəm kṛu ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ kṛe kṛəy kəm 2nd ke 3rd M ku kəy ‫کړي‬ ki kṛi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Table 8.64: Waziri present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.63: GP present aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.177.228.Verb components  241 The aorist forms of the transitive verbalizer (used with denominal verbs) are irregular.65 illustrate them. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki kã 2nd 3rd ke M kəy ki ko F   Table 8. Table 8.

to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کولم‬ ‫کولو‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کولئ‬ kawə́ləm 2nd 3rd M kawə́lu kawə́le kawə́ləy ‫کوه‬ (‫کول)ه‬ kawə́ kawə́l(ə) ‫کاوه‬ kāwə́ F ‫کوله‬ ‫کولې‬ ‫کوه‬ ‫کوې‬ kawə́la kawá   Table 8. to do’ ‫ړ‬ The /ṛ/ in present aorist forms is usually written.66: GP past continuous of kawə́le kawé ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make. Table 8. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kəm(a) ki 2nd ke kəy 3rd M ko F   Table 8.242  Verbs kawə́l ‘to make.177.228. and is always pronounced in careful speech. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.68 illustrate the formation of the past continuous of the transitive verbalizer. but is unpronounced in ordinary speech in many dialects. and Table 8. Table 8.66. ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .65: Dzadrani present aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.67.

68: Dzadrani past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . since the personal suffixes differ from those in the present: past /-ə.67: Waziri past continuous of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. thus encoding tense without need of either ‫ ـلـ‬/‑ə́l‑/ or ‫ ړ‬/ṛ/. Although the past aorist forms of the General Pashto transitive verbalizer without the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix are orthographically identical to the present aorist forms. Table 8. In past third person forms. -a/ versus present /- ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ړ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـي‬ i/.Verb components  kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 243 kawə́lã 2nd 3rd M kawə́le kawə́ləy kawə́ kawə́l kowə́ F kawə́la kawə́le kawá kawé   Table 8. even the /ṛ/ can be dropped.228.177. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. In Waziri and Dzadrani. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kawə́ləm(a) kawə́li 2nd kawə́le kawə́ləy M kowə́ kawə́(l) F kawə́la kawə́le 3rd   Table 8. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the fact that in the present aorist the /ṛ/ is often not pronounced means that in speech the bases are often not identical—so the /‑ə́l‑/ suffix is not always required to differentiate the tense.69. to do’ Table 8.70. and Table 8.71 illustrate the formation of the past aorist of the transitive verbalizer.

to do’ 1st Singular Plural ‫کړم‬ ‫کړو‬ ‫کړلم‬ ‫کړلو‬ ‫کړې‬ ‫کړئ‬ ‫کړلې‬ ‫کړلئ‬ kṛəm kṛə́ləm 2nd kṛe 3rd M kṛə́lu kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy ‫کړ‬ ‫کړل‬ ‫که‬ ‫کړله‬ ‫کړه‬ ‫کړلې‬ kṛ kə F kṛu kṛa ‫که‬ ka ‫کړله‬ kṛəl kṛə́lə kṛə́le ‫کړې‬ kṛe kṛə́la   Table 8.69: GP past aorist of ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ ‘to make.244  Verbs ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.

kawə́l ‘to make.71 are rarer than the short forms.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.Verb components  245 the longer forms that show /-əl-/ in Table 8.70 and Table 8.70: Waziri past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make. to do’ kawə́l ‘to make. to do’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm(a) kṛi kṛə́ləm(a) kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛə(l) F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8. to do’ Singular Plural 1st kṛəm kṛi kṛə́ləm kṛə́li kṛe kṛəy kṛə́le kṛə́ləy M kə kṛəl F kṛa kṛə́le kṛə́la kṛe 2nd 3rd   Table 8.228.71: Dzadrani past aorist of /kawə́l/ ‘to make.

73.3.9 Participles There are two kinds of participles in Pashto. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـونک‬ Verb class Verb Present participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهونکی‬wah-unk-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوونکی‬bow-unk-ay Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ ‫خلاصېدل‬ xalās-edə́l ‘to become free’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to liberate’ ‫خلاصېدونکی‬ xalās-ed-unk-ay ‫خلاصوونکی‬ xalās-aw-unk-ay   Table 8. They are described in more detail in the sub-sections below. These participles are both formed on past bases and declined as Class IIIb adjectives (Section 6. present and past. Some examples are given in Table 8.3.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .72. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2.2).9.177.1 Present participle Formation: past continuous base (without /‑əl‑/) + /‑unk/ + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes The present participle is declined like a Class IIIb adjective (Section 6.1. 8.2).246  Verbs 8.2.72: Present participles An example of a declined present participle is given in Table 8.2.2.1.228.

1). Some examples are given in Table 8.228. They are used to form the perfect constructions for first and second conjugation verbs (see Section 8.73: Present participle: declension 8.2 Past participle Formation: • (First and Second conj.2. and an example of a declined past participle is given in Table 8. Past participles are then declined using the Class IIIb adjective suffixes (Section 6.2).177.75. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .4. + past aorist base of Class IIIb adjectival suffixes ‫کېدل‬ /kedə́l/ or ‫کول‬ /kawə́l/ + ‫ـلـ‬ In these forms.) Noun/Adj.) past continuous base + Class IIIb adjectival suffixes • (Third conj.Verb components  ‫ ډارول‬ḍārawəl ‘to Masculine 247 Feminine threaten’ Singular Direct ‫ډارونکی‬ ḍārawúnkay Oblique ‫ډارونکي‬ ḍārawúnki Plural Singular Plural ‫ډارونکي‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ‫ډارونکې‬ ḍārawúnki ḍārawúnke ḍārawúnke ‫ډارونکو‬ ‫ډارونکو‬ ḍārawúnko ḍārawúnko Ablative Vocative ‫ډارونکیه‬ ḍārawúnkaya   Table 8. the suffix /‑ə́l-/ may be dropped.2.3.74.1.9.

228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM tlə́lo tlo .74: Past participles Masculine ‫ تلل‬tləl ‘to go’ Singular Direct Plural Singular ‫تللی‬ ‫تللې‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلی‬ tlə́le tlə́le ‫تلې‬ ‫تلې‬ tle tle tlə́li ‫تللې‬ tlay tli ‫تللی‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تللو‬ ‫تلی‬ ‫تلو‬ ‫تلو‬ tlə́li tli tlə́lo tlo Ablative Vocative Plural ‫تللی‬ tlə́lay Oblique Feminine ‫تللیه‬ tlə́lya ‫تلیه‬ tlya   Table 8.75: Past participle: declension Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.248  Verbs Verb class Verb Past participle First Conjugation ‫ وهل‬wahə́l ‘to beat’ ‫ وهلی‬wah-əl-ay ‫ بوول‬bowə́l ‘to take ‫ بوولی‬bow-əl-ay ‫خلاصېدل‬ ‫ خلاص شوی‬xalās Second Conjugation Third Conjugation away’ xalās-edə́l ‘to be liberated’ ‫خلاصول‬ xalās-awə́l ‘to set free’ šə́way ‫ خلاص کړی‬xalās kə́ṛay   Table 8.

/dərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to you)’. The prefixed verbs built from /tlə́l/ ‘to go’— /rātlə́l/ ‘to come’.177.228. All of these atypical forms are shown in Table 8.2. and /wərtlə́l/ ‘to go (to him)’—also form their past participles from their past aorist base.3 Irregularities among past participles The verbs /kedə́l/ and /kawə́l/ (Section 8.2.76. to do’ ‫ کړی‬kə́ṛay ‫ راتلل‬rātlə́l ‘to come’ ‫ راغلی‬rā́ɣəlay ‫ درتلل‬dərtlə́l ‘to go (to you)’ ‫ درغلی‬də́raɣəlay ‫ ورتلل‬wərtlə́l ‘to go (to him)’ ‫ ورغلی‬wə́raɣəlay   Table 8.Simple verb constructions  249 8. 8.8) form their past participles from the past aorist base.3 Simple verb constructions Formation rules for each type of verb construction are given in terms of the verb components described above in Section 8. rather than the past continuous. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کول‬ ‫ورتلل‬ ‫تلل‬ ‫راتلل‬ ‫درتلل‬ Infinitive Aorist participle ‫ کېدل‬kedə́l ‘to become’ ‫ شوی‬šə́way ‫ کول‬kawə́l ‘to make.3. and these participles are used to form the perfect constructions for third conjugation (denominal) verbs.2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .1 Present continuous Formation: present continuous base + present PNG Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.76: Past participles built on aorist bases 8.9.

77: Present continuous.228.78: Present continuous. first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیسم‬ ‫نیسو‬ ‫نیسې‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisə́m 2nd nisé 3rd M nisú nisə́y ‫نیسي‬ nisí F   Table 8. first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.250  Verbs ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېږم‬ ‫رسېږو‬ ‫رسېږې‬ ‫رسېږئ‬ raségəm 2nd rasége 3rd M raségu raségəy ‫رسېږي‬ raségi F   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .177.

Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ prewə́zəm 2nd prewə́ze 3rd M prewə́zu prewə́zəy ‫پرېوزي‬ prewə́zi F   Table 8. second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawə́m 2nd roxānawé 3rd M roxānawú roxānawə́y ‫روښانوي‬ roxānawí F   Table 8.177.228.80: Present continuous.79: Present continuous.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 251 . third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

3.252  Verbs 8.82: Present aorist. first conjugation (intransitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ 1st Singular Plural ‫ونیسم‬ ‫ونیسو‬ ‫ونیسې‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisəm 2nd wə́nise 3rd M wə́nisu wə́nisəy ‫ونیسي‬ wə́nisi F   Table 8.177. first conjugation (transitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.81: Present aorist.2 Present aorist Formation: present aorist base + present PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېږم‬ ‫ورسېږو‬ ‫ورسېږې‬ ‫ورسېږئ‬ wə́rasegəm 2nd wə́rasege 3rd M wə́rasegu wə́rasegəy ‫ورسېږي‬ wə́rasegi F   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

228.84: Present aorist.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 253 .Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوزم‬ ‫پرېوزو‬ ‫پرېوزې‬ ‫پرېوزئ‬ préwəzəm 2nd préwəze 3rd M préwəzu préwəzəy ‫پرېوزي‬ préwəzi F   Table 8.177.83: Present aorist. second conjugation ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان ک)ړ(م‬ ‫روښان ک)ړ(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړ(ئ‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)ǝm 2nd roxā́n k(ṛ)e 3rd M roxā́n k(ṛ)u roxā́n k(ṛ)əy ‫روښان ک)ړ(ي‬ roxā́n k(ṛ)i F   Table 8. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

the past tense affix /-əl-/ does not occur uniformly throughout the paradigm: it is optional in any verbs with other morphological markers of tense. and gender.3 Past continuous Formation: Past continuous base + past PNG As mentioned earlier. These groups would include first and second person forms of first conjugation intransitive verbs. and likewise any strong verbs.3. because both types redundantly encode tense with the affixes /-eg-/ and /-ed-/. as they encode tense through allomorphic stems. and obligatory in third plural masculine forms. first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as the PNG suffix is the same for both: /-ə/.177. resulting in the tense affix becoming a portmanteau morpheme that encodes tense as well as person. The PNG suffix /-ə/ can thus be omitted in plural masculine forms. number. The past tense affix is prohibited in the third person masculine singular for all of the above classes.254  Verbs 8. These constraints prevent homophony between the singular and plural forms of masculine verbs.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . as well as those of third conjugation verbs.85: Past continuous. ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـېږـ‬ ‫ـېدـ‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫رسېد)ل(م‬ ‫رسېد)ل(و‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫رسېده‬ (‫رسېدل)ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ې‬ rased(ə́l)ə́m 2nd rased(ə́l)é 3rd M rasedə́ F rased(ə́l)á rased(ə́l)ú rased(ə́l)ə́y rasedə́l(ə) rased(ə́l)é   Table 8.

second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫نیو)ل(م‬ ‫نیو)ل(و‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ ‫نیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫نیوه‬ (‫نیول)ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ه‬ ‫نیو)ل(ې‬ niw(ə́l)ə́m 2nd niw(ə́l)é 3rd M niwə́ F niw(ə́l)ú niw(ə́l)ə́y niwə́l(ə́) niw(ə́l)á niw(ə́l)é   Table 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 255 .87: Past continuous. first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ prewat(ə́l)ə́m 2nd prewat(ə́l)é 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ prewót prewatə́ NE prewat(ə́l)ú prewat(ə́l)ə́y prewatə́l (‫پرېوت)و‬ prewát(ó) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ prewatə́la ‫پرېوتلې‬ prewatə́le   Table 8.228.86: Past continuous.177.

4 Past aorist Formation: Past aorist base + past PNG ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ورسېد)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(و‬ wə́rased(əl)u wə́rased(əl)əm 2nd ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېده‬ (‫ورسېدل)ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ه‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ې‬ wə́rased(əl)e 3rd M wə́rasedə F wə́rased(əl)a wə́rased(əl)əy wə́rasedəl(ə) wə́rased(əl)e   Table 8.3.89: Past aorist. first conjugation (intransitive) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. third conjugation 8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228.88: Past continuous.177.256  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښانوم‬ ‫روښانوو‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روبلوی‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ ‫روښانوې‬ ‫روښانوې‬ roxānawə́ləm 2nd roxānawə́le 3rd M roxānawə́ F roxānaw(ə́l)á roxānawəlu roxānawə́ləy roxānawə́l roxānaw(ə́l)é   Table 8.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 257 .Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 1st ‫ونیو)ل(م‬ ‫ونیو)ل(و‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ونیوه‬ (‫ونیول)ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ه‬ ‫ونیو)ل(ې‬ wə́niw(əl)əm 2nd wə́niw(əl)e 3rd M wə́niwə F wə́niw(əl)a wə́niw(əl)u wə́niw(əl)əy wə́niwəl(ə) wə́niw(əl)e   Table 8.90: Past aorist.228. second conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. first conjugation (transitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ Singular Plural 1st ‫پرېوت)ل(م‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(و‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ې‬ ‫پرېوت)ل(ئ‬ ‫پرېووت‬ (‫پرېوت)ل‬ préwat(əl)əm 2nd préwat(əl)e 3rd M ‫پرېوتۀ‬ préwot préwatə NE préwat(əl)u préwat(əl)əy préwatəl (‫پرېوت)و‬ préwat(o) NE F ‫پرېوت)ل(ه‬ préwatəla ‫پرېوتلې‬ préwatəle   Table 8.177.91: Past aorist.

5. which takes the primary stress for the verbal construction.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .96.228.3.92: Past aorist.96). placing the negative particle before the entire verb (Heston 1992: 1589). however. whereas other dialects place it between the prefix and the stem (Table 8.258  Verbs ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ 1st Singular Plural ‫روښان کړ)ل(م‬ ‫روښان کړ)ل(و‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ې‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫کړ)ل(ئ‬ ‫روښان کړ‬ ‫روښان کړل‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ه‬ ‫روښان‬ ‫ک)ړل(ې‬ roxā́n kṛ(əl)ǝm 2nd roxā́n kṛ(əl)e 3rd M roxā́n kəṛ F roxā́n kṛ(əl)u roxā́n kṛ(əl)əy roxā́n kṛəl roxā́n kṛ(əl)a roxā́n kṛ(əl)e   Table 8. third conjugation 8. and Table 8.) Imperative verbs do not encode the categories of person or tense.5. Imperatives are negated with the particle /má/. Note that NE Pashto treats negative forms differently for prefixed verbs. stress is located according to the lexical stress of the verb. they do have both continuous and aorist forms. ‫مه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. In continuous imperatives.177. The difference is illustrated below in Section 8. Only the continuous imperative is used in negation.5 Continuous imperative Formation: Present continuous base + -a (sg.2. Table 8.98.94. as illustrated in Table 8.)/-əy (pl.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM 259 . first conjugation ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه نیسه‬ ‫مه نیسئ‬ má nisa má nisəy   Table 8.93: Continuous imperative. second conjugation (negative) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.94: Continuous imperative.228.96: Continuous imperative. second conjugation ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ ‫مه پرېکوه‬ ‫مه پرېکوئ‬ pre má kawa má prekawa NE pre má kawəy má prekawəy NE   Table 8.Simple verb constructions  ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫نیسه‬ ‫نیسئ‬ nisá nisə́y   Table 8. first conjugation (negative) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ 2nd Singular Plural ‫پرېمهکوه‬ ‫پرېمهکوئ‬ prekawá prekawə́y   Table 8.95: Continuous imperative.177.

99: Aorist imperative.6 Aorist imperative Formation: Present aorist base + -a (sg. the continuous form is used.)/-əy (pl. To negate an imperative.97: Continuous imperative. third conjugation.177. negative 8.98: Continuous imperative. third conjugation ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫مه روښانوه‬ ‫مه روښانوئ‬ má roxānawa má roxānawəy   Table 8. first conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫ونیسه‬ ‫ونیسئ‬ wə́nisa wə́nisəy   Table 8.3.260  Verbs ‫روښانول‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښانوه‬ ‫روښانوئ‬ roxānawá roxānawə́y   Table 8.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .) Aorist imperative forms are used only in the affirmative.

101: Aorist imperative. ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.228.4 for examples). or /‑e/ (NE) Some examples of continuous optative verbs are shown in Table 8. Continuous ‫که‬ ‫کاشکې‬ ‫کېدل‬ optative forms can also be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning can X.3.2.Simple verb constructions  ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to Singular Plural 2nd ‫پرېکړه‬ ‫پرېکړئ‬ 261 cut’ prékṛa prékṛəy   Table 8. Optative forms occur after the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’ and the counterfactual particle /kāške/ ‘if only’.100: Aorist imperative.2. see Section 10. able to X (see Section 8. Optative verb forms do not show agreement.SE).4 for an example.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .7 Continuous optative ‫ـای‬ ‫ـی‬ ‫ـے‬ Formation: past continuous base + /‑āy/ (SW. third conjugation 8.5. second conjugation ‫روښانول‬ Singular Plural 2nd ‫روښان کړه‬ ‫روښان کړئ‬ roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ roxā́n kṛa roxā́n kṛəy   Table 8.102.8.177.1. /‑ay/ (NW).2 for the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ and Section 8.

SE NW NE Second (intransitive) ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬prewat(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬prewat(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬prewat(ə́l)e SW.177.228.SE NW NE First (transitive) ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ بیسو)ل(ای‬niw(ə́l)āy ‫ بیسو)ل(ی‬niw(ə́l)ay ‫ بیسو)ل(ے‬niw(ə́l)e SW. to mature’ ‫ پخېد)ل(ای‬paxed(ə́l)āy ‫ پخېد)ل(ی‬paxed(ə́l)ay ‫ پخېد)ل(ے‬paxed(ə́l)e SW.SE ‫ روښانو)ل(ی‬roxānaw(ə́l)ay ‫ روښانو)ل(ے‬roxānaw(ə́l)e   Table 8.SE NW NE Second (transitive) ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکو)ل(ای‬prekaw(ə́l)āy ‫ پرېکو)ل(ی‬prekaw(ə́l)ay ‫ پرېکو)ل(ے‬prekaw(ə́l)e SW.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM NW NE .SE NW NE Third (intransitive) ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.SE NW NE Third (transitive) ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫روښانو)ل(ای‬ roxānaw(ə́l)āy SW.102: Continuous optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.262  Verbs Conjugation Verb Continuous optative First (intransitive) ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ رسېد)ل(ای‬rased(ə́l)āy ‫ رسېد)ل(ی‬rased(ə́l)ay ‫ رسېد)ل(ے‬rased(ə́l)e SW.

Simple verb constructions  263 8. Therefore instead of the incorrect * ‫کېدل‬ ‫شي‬ ‫پوخ شوی‬ ‫ شي‬/pox šway ši/. /-ay/ (NW). however.3. was able to X (see Section 8.103.SE).8. we would see ‫ پوخ شي‬/pox ši/ ‘could ripen.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . could mature’.5. or /-e/ (NE) Some examples of aorist optative verbs are shown in Table 8. the light verb /šw-/ is omitted. Aorist optative forms can be used in combination with the aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to yield a verb construction meaning could X.177. in the case of third conjugation intransitive verbs. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.8 Aorist optative Formation: past aorist base + /-āy/ (SW.228.2.4).2 and Section 8.

SE NW NE Third conjugation.264  Verbs Verb type First conjugation. intransitive ‫ پرېوتل‬prewatə́l ‘to fall’ ‫ پرېوت)ل(ای‬préwat(əl)āy ‫ پرېوت)ل(ی‬préwat(əl)ay ‫ پرېوت)ل(ے‬préwat(əl)e NW NE SW.SE NW NE First conjugation.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . transitive ‫ نیول‬niwə́l ‘to catch’ ‫ وبیوای‬wə́niwāy ‫ وبیوی‬wə́niway ‫ وبیوے‬wə́niwe SW.SE NW NE Second conjugation. intransitive Verb Aorist optative ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ ‫ورسېد)ل(ای‬ wə́rased(əl)āy SW.228. transitive ‫ روښانول‬roxānawə́l ‘to enlighten’ ‫ پوخ کړای‬roxā́n kə́ṛāy ‫ پوخ کړی‬roxā́n kə́ṛay ‫ پوخ کړے‬roxā́n kə́ṛe SW. intransitive ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.103: Aorist optative forms Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SE NW NE Third conjugation.SE NW NE   Table 8. to mature’ (‫ پوخ )شوای‬pox (šwāy) (‫ پوخ )شوی‬pox (šway) (‫ پوخ )شوے‬pox (šwe) SW.177. transitive ‫ پرېکول‬prekawə́l ‘to cut’ ‫ پرېکوای‬prékawāy ‫ پرېکوی‬prékaway ‫ پرېکوے‬prékawe SW.SE ‫ ورسېد)ل(ی‬wə́rased(əl)ay ‫ ورسېد)ل(ے‬wə́rased(əl)e Second conjugation.

105 illustrate the forms of the present perfect.104: Present perfect. the construction expresses future perfect.1. seen in (Table 8. Dialectal variants can be inferred from the various dialectal forms of to be.4. forms of to be.1 Perfect constructions 8. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی یم‬ ‫رسېدلي یو‬ rasedə́lay yəm F 2nd M F 3rd M ‫رسېدلې یم‬ ‫رسېدلې یو‬ rasedə́le yəm rasedə́le yu ‫رسېدلی یې‬ ‫رسېدلي یئ‬ rasedə́lay ye rasedə́li yəy ‫رسېدلې یې‬ ‫رسېدلې یئ‬ rasedə́le ye rasedə́le yəy ‫رسېدلی دی‬ ‫رسېدلي دي‬ rasedə́lay day F rasedə́li yu rasedə́li di ‫رسېدلې ده‬ ‫رسېدلې دي‬ rasedə́le da rasedə́le di   Table 8. rather than present continuous.228. so they are not provided here.4 Compound verb constructions There are two kinds of compound verb construction: those that convey the perfect and those that convey a sense of potential or ability. 8.39).104 and Table 8.Compound verb constructions  265 8.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . first and second conjugations ‫به‬ With the addition of the modal clitic /bə/ and present aorist. Alignment is usually ergative in both present and past perfect constructions. it therefore appears to be governed by the matrix verb.1 Present perfect Formation: past participle + present continuous of to be Table 8. as in: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.4. which is built on a past stem.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .228. to mature’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫پوخ شوی یم‬ ‫پاخه شوي یو‬ ‫پخه شوې یم‬ ‫پخې شوې یو‬ pox šə́way yəm F paxa šə́we yəm 2nd ‫پوخ شوی یې‬ M F 3rd M paxe šə́we yu ‫پاخه شوي یئ‬ pox šə́way ye pāxə šə́wi yəy ‫پخه شوې یې‬ ‫پخې شوې یئ‬ paxa šə́we ye paxe šə́we yəy ‫پوخ شوی دی‬ ‫پاخه شوي دي‬ ‫پخه شوې ده‬ ‫پخې شوې دي‬ pox šə́way day F pāxə šə́wi yu paxa šə́we da pāxə šə́wi di paxe šə́we di   Table 8.177.266  Verbs ‫ پخېدل‬paxedə́l ‘to ripen.105: Present perfect. third conjugation Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . translatable as ‘can X.4.] will have arrived’ ‫ به رسېدلې وي‬/bə rasedə́le wi/ ‘she/they will have arrived’ 8.’ Future potential is expressed by means of the modal clitic /bə/ in construction with the present potential.2 Potential constructions These constructions express ability: the present potential.106 illustrates the forms of the past perfect. ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st M Singular Plural ‫رسېدلی وم‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wəm F 2nd M ‫رسېدلې وم‬ ‫رسېدلې وو‬ rasedə́le wəm rasedə́le wu ‫رسېدلی وې‬ ‫رسېدلي وئ‬ rasedə́lay we F 3rd M rasedə́li wəy ‫رسېدلې وې‬ ‫رسېدلې وئ‬ rasedə́le we rasedə́le wəy ‫رسېدلی وه‬ ‫رسېدلي وو‬ rasedə́lay wə F rasedə́li wu rasedə́li wə ‫رسېدلې وه‬ ‫رسېدلې وې‬ rasedə́le wa rasedə́le we   Table 8.Compound verb constructions  • • 267 ‫ به رسېدلی یم‬/bə rasedə́lay yəm/ ‘I [m.2 Past perfect Formation: past participle + past continuous of to be Table 8.228.1. was able to X.106: Past perfect 8. translatable as ‘could X.177.’ and the past potential.4. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. be able to X.

177.4.1 Present potential Formation: continuous optative + present aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st Singular Plural ‫رسېد)ل(ی شم‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شو‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شې‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شئ‬ rased(ə́l)áy šəm 2nd 3rd ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ rased(ə́l)áy šu rased(ə́l)áy še rased(ə́l)áy šəy ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ ‫رسېد)ل(ی شی‬ rased(ə́l)ay ši rased(ə́l)ay ši   Table 8.228.4.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .2.2.268  Verbs 8.108: Past potential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2 Past potential Formation: aorist optative + past aorist of ‫ رسېدل‬rasedə́l ‘to arrive’ 1st ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ ‘to become’ Singular Plural ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(م‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(و‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ې‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ئ‬ ‫ورسېد)ل(ی شو)ل(ه‬ (‫ورسېد)ل(ی شول)ه‬ wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əm 2nd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)e 3rd wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)ə wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)u wə́rased(əl)ay šw(əl)əy wə́rased(əl)ay šwəl(ə)   Table 8.107: Present potential 8.

DIR this.3SG.PST.1SG ‘A great sin of mine is that I am Pashtoon. 8.F ‘Nasima was home yesterday.CONT.STR.DIR be.in be.177.CONT.3SG.DIR be.STR.‫زما لویه ګنا دا ده چې پښتون یم‬ zmā loy-a ganā-Ø dā da 1SG...‫نسیمه پرون په کور کي وه‬ nasima-Ø parun pə kor-Ø ki wa Nasima-F.PRS. Lorenz (1982).’ (SW) (8. and also from data in Lorimer (1902). and Septfonds (1994).5.5 Verb usage Example sentences in this section come from our native speaker informants.PRS.DIR be..PRS.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M ‘Asad is a pilot.9) ‫تاسي دباندي واست؟‬ tāsi dabāndi wāst 2PL.6) . house-M .‫اسد پیلوټ دئ‬ asad-Ø piloṭ-Ø dəy Asad-M.’ (SW) (8.CONT.POSS large-F..F če paxtún-Ø yəm COMP Pashtoon-M.5.DIR pilot-M.7) .PST.8) .1.1 to be as a copula The verb to be is used in copular constructions in the present tense to represent a present and continuing state: (8.’ It is likewise used in copular constructions in the past tense to express past states: (8.2PL ‘Were you outside?’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT.Verb usage  269 8.CONT.DIR outside be.DIR yesterday in.DIR sin-F.1 Uses of the verb to be 8.228. the Internet.3SG.

’ (WAZ) (8.OBL also on sleep-M self-M.1.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP..’ (WAZ) (8.1): (8.10) miž šāy-ina Ø-ačaw-ə́l-i 1PL.3[SG..4.DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.CONT.177.3PL.228.F] ‘Australia is establishing a P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam] team in Afghanistan.13) .270  Verbs 8.DIR be.M.DIR fee-F..M ‘You can bet that tomorrow I won't pretend to sleep [lit.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .11) dzəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL.2 to be as an auxiliary verb The verb to be is used as an auxiliary verb with participles to form compound verb constructions we characterize as perfect (Section 8.M.DIR CONT-take.PRS.PST-PTCP.on much-F.5.3SG. that I won't have thrown myself into sleep].. Afghanistan-M .DIR .PST.1 Present continuous The present continuous form expresses the present tense.2.‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د )پي آر ټي ( ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də pi ar ṭi ṭim-Ø Australia-F. (8.DIR in.OBL on.DIR goods-PL.5.STR.OBL to mo a pə xeb-Ø dzon-Ø Ø-čaw-ə́l-ay 1SG.AOR.in of P R T team-M.12) pə wə́-ye man-a če bəl-a wredz-Ø ta on AOR-3.STR.DIR CONT-throw-PST-PTCP.5.F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that..CONT-PRS.F.DIR wi be.AOR. this.M.2 Simple verb constructions 8.DIR ná wi NEG be.SG COMP other-F. It covers states and conditions as well as ongoing actions.DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F.WK accept-IMP...3SG. both in progress and habitual.PL..OBL day-F.’ (DZA) 8.M ‘We've thrown the trash away/left the goods behind.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS.M.

PRS-1SG ‘I'm not using the gun now. TV..DIR CONT-see.‫ ډرامې او خبري چینلونه یې زه ګورم‬،‫پاکستاني سندرې‬ pākistāni sander-e ḍrām-e aw xabar-e Pakistani song-PL.DIR machine-M.DIR now NEG CONT\take.DIR and word-PL.228.‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M.M.DIR of world-F. gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde numerous-M number-M language-PL.STR.CONT-PRS.3[PL.OBL on.WK 1SG.DIR here near xarts-íž-i ka bahar ta sold-become.DIR do.DIR čanel-una ye zə Ø-gor-ə́m channel-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .F.16) .17) zə ṭipak-Ø wis ná wəxəl-ã́ 1SG.PRS-PRS.‫مګر د خپلو ناوړه او غلطو کارونو پړه په ما اچوې‬ magar də nāwaṛa aw ɣalat-o kār-uno but of improper and mistaken-PL.’ (WAZ) (8.’ (8.DIR goods-PL.15) .STR.F.OBL .DIR drama-PL.’ (8. and discussion channels.M.STR.F.CONT.OBL CONT-throw-2SG ‘But you're blaming me for the misdeeds.DIR on 1SG.PRS-1SG ‘I watch their Pakistani music.’ (8.177.M.OBL paṛa-Ø pə mā Ø-ačaw-é blame-F..F.OBL work-PL.PRS-PRS.M.3[PL..M] if outside to drim-i go.on xadmāt-Ø kaw-í services-PL.14) 271 .DIR 3..M] ‘Are these goods sold here or are they sent outside?’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR gun-M.3[SG.18) da mol-ina ile nəžde this.M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages.M.Verb usage  (8.CONT.

228.1.M.CONT.’ (WAZ) 8.1 Negation of present tense verbs The present tense is negated by placing /ná/ before the verb.PRS.DIR NEG CONT-have-1SG ‘Don't I need a wedding?’ (8.272  Verbs (8.F.21) ‫ولې په خوست کې دری ښوونځى نه جوړېږی؟‬ wali pə xost-Ø ke dari-Ø xuwunʣ-ay ná why in.STR.CONT-PRS.M] ‘Why isn't a Dari school being built in Khost?’ (8.5.CONT-2SG ‘Why don't you talk about such things with me?’ When an a-initial verb is negated.3PL.3[SG. Khost-M .DIR be.PRS. Note that the negative particle bears the stress of the verb phrase.DIR school-M.20) ‫واده ته اړتیا نه لرم؟‬ wād-ə tə aṛtiyā-Ø ná Ø-lar-əm wedding-M.OBL country-PL.177. For example: ‫نه‬ (8.WK ‘They bring and sell things that are cheap in other countries and expensive here.OBL for need-F..3PL.DIR why 1SG. ens to /ā/.DIR NEG kaw-e do.M.M 1-bring.19) de nor-e məlk-e áɣa šay-ina ce of other-PL.3[PL.PRS-PRS.M] and xarts-aw-í ye sold-do.in Dari-M.M] 3.AOR. ‫ ن‬/n/ is prefixed to the verb and the /a/ length- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3[PL.DIR thing-PL.2.AOR.OBL this.M.POSS with such word-PL.22) ‫ته ولې زما سره داسې خبرې نه کوې؟‬ ta wali zmā sərə dāse xabar-e ná 2SG..M here expensive-PL.M.DIR wi ro-oṛ-í aw be.PRS-PRS.CONT.STR.M.DIR COMP wole arzón-Ø wi ile grón-Ø there cheap-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ...DIR NEG joṛ-eg-i built-become.

and especially if words like tomorrow or next week are present or when the speaker is contrasting future actions.5.24) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ ‫به‬ In addition. particularly in the NE dialect.PRS-1SG ‘I feel these people’s sorrow.2. and I will eat [their] sorrow.PRS-1SG ‘I'll come to you at 3 o'clock. However.23: .WK Ø-xor-ə́m CONT-eat.1 for a more common way to express the future.228.M and sorrow-M.M.3SG. the modal clitic /bə/ may accompany the present continuous form to express a future event.CONT.]’ 16 Standardized version of 8. (8.OBL people-PL.‫موټر نه اخلم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the sorrow of these people is with me.‫موټر ناخلم‬ moṭər-Ø n-Ø-ā́xl-əm car-M.2 Present continuous for expressing future events The present continuous may be used to express a future event: (8.1.DIR WOULD 3.177.23) .‫د دې خلکو غم راسره دى او غم به یې خورم‬ də de xalk-o ɣam-Ø rā-sərə of this.‫درې بجې به درځم‬ dre badje bə dərdz-əm three o'clock WOULD arrive. and I am going to take care of it.PRS.PRS-1SG ‘I'm not buying a car.Verb usage  273 (8. [lit.2.DIR 1-COMIT day aw ɣam-Ø bə ye be.’¹⁶ 8. see Section 8.OBL sorrow-M.CONT.DIR NEG-CONT-buy.2.5.25) .

but is desired.PRS-1SG ‘I will grow old with him.27) yes ye deɣe sra be sar-Ø now COMIT.. required. [lit.. they express a variety of other events whose realization is not established in fact.. I will whiten my hair with him. by themselves or in construction with other modal particles.DIR spin-aw-éma white-do. and so on.F] ‘The council will be meeting every 15 days and will be looking at ways to develop children's literature. although we believe the term irrealis to be more apt.COMIT WOULD head-M.CONT-PRS.2 Present aorist According to Penzl (1955: 114).DIR WOULD in. what you will do! What you will not do!’ (DZA) 8.F. In construction with the modal clitic /bə/.M.” This is true. These uses for perfect aorist forms are described in the following two sections.3[SG.’ (8.F.]’ (DZA) (8.OBL .OBL ke ɣwaṇda-Ø kaw-í aw də māšum-Ø də .DIR do.28) tsə be Ø-k-é tsə be ná what WOULD CONT-do.228.F] and of child-M.in meeting-F.3[SG.177. present aorist forms express future events that are expected to occur. requested.26) Verbs ‫ ورځو کې غونډه کوي او د ماشوم د ادبیاتو د پراختیا‬۱۵ ‫دغه شوری به په هرو‬ . “in many of their occurrences present [aorist] forms express a subjunctive mood rather than a perfective aspect.DIR ECHO bə Ø-ʦeṛ-í WOULD CONT-investigate-PRS.PRS-2SG what WOULD NEG Ø-k-é CONT-do.5.OBL path-PL.. him. ‫به‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .CONT.274  (8.PRS-2SG ‘Oh.DIR council-F.OBL 15 day-PL..‫لارې چارې به څیړي‬ dáɣa šurā-Ø bə pə har-o 15 wraʣ-o this. every-PL..OBL of adabi-āto də prāxtiyā-Ø lār-e čāre literature-PL..M.OBL of development-F.2. doubted.

2 Other uses of the present aorist Present aorist forms are also used for wishes. see Section 10.F. ‫دې‬ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’.228. Otherwise speakers either default to present continuous forms or else use present aorist forms of /kedə́l/. some of these uses will be in construction with modals such as /de/.) ‫چه‬ ‫که‬ ‫وي‬ ‫کېدل‬ (8. curses.5. conjectures. probable.CONT-1SG COMP 2SG. and questions expressing doubt.29. which does not encode gender or number.2.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PRS-PRS.Verb usage  275 ‫به‬ 8.31 and 8.2.AOR.2.47 are from Shafeev 1964: 46.2. As mentioned earlier (Section 8. (Examples 8. ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ ‘must.1.‫دا به ښوونکې شي‬ dā bə xowúnk-e s-i 3SG.DIR do. The sentences below give examples of some of these uses of present aorist forms. For more examples of expressing the future. as in sentence 8.DIR š-e become.1 Expressing the future with present aorist plus /bə/ Pashto does not have a morphological future tense.’ (SW) 8.5. gentle commands.43 below. (8.2. or usual events.AOR. as in 8. the present aorist form of the verb expresses an unrealized event that is expected to happen.1). the present aorist is used in subordinate clauses beginning with the complementizer /čə/ (when that clause expresses an event with irrealis semantics) or the conditional particle /kə/ ‘if’.STR.29) ‫به‬ . customary.STR.DIR WOULD teacher-F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2. there is only one unique present aorist form of to be: the third person form /wi/.30) .36 and 8. should’ and so on.177.3[SG.1.F] ‘She will become a teacher.‫اوس هیله کوم چې ته غلی شې‬ os hila-Ø kaw-ə́m če ta ɣə́l-ay now hope-F.8. When used with the modal clitic /bə/. Most frequently of all.DIR quiet-M. expressions of necessity.PRS-2SG ‘I hope you'll be quiet now.DIR become.

‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله دملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ xāyi ḍāktar-Ø abdəla-Ø də mili jubhay-e maybe doctor-M.3PL.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL.PST-PST.M.DIR path-F.M.AOR.ANIM.3 AOR-hit-PST-PST. he said to him.’¹⁷ (8.M ‘Maybe Doctor Abdullah will be a candidate for the United National Front.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.32) .OBL and sadness-PL.PRS. 'May you be miserable.OBL to 3.DIR Abdullah-M.AOR.F.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.M.PRS-2SG Musab-M.DIR wi be.3SG.DIR be.3PL.DIR of national front-F.DIR š-e musab-a become.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL. Musab!'’ (8.OBL for of concern-PL.OBL one-F.M musab-Ø ta ye wə́-way-əl xwā́r-Ø Musab-M.M.’ 17 Standardized version of 8.VOC ‘As he looked directly at Musab.ANIM.3[PL.31) !‫ خوار شې مصعبه‬: ‫چی کله مخامخ سترګي پرې ولګیدې مصعب ته یې وویل‬ če kala muxāmux sterg-e pre wé-lag-ed-e COMP when direct eye-PL.32: ‫ښایي ډاکتر عبدالله د ملي جبهې کاندید وي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.DIR on.276  Verbs (8.M miserable-M.PRS.F.228.M.OBL kāndid-Ø wi candidate-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL bite-INF-PL.AOR.33) ‫د نوکانو ژوول ښايي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابديو د څرګندولو یوه لار‬ .WK AOR-tell.

177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PRS-1PL.M] ‘Why do they have to learn it?’ (8.228.3[PL.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.’ (8. ‘We must work.DIR NEC work-M.35) māṛ-əy ro-səra wə́-k-e food-F.PRS-PRS.AOR-PRS.’ (WAZ)¹⁸ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL AOR-do.M. and sometimes we use the reaper.39) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M.CONT.38) .’ (8.‫نه پوهیږم په کوم لفظ دی موري یاد کړم‬ ná poh-ég-əm pə kum-Ø lafaz-Ø de NEG learned-beome.Verb usage  (8.WK NEC learned do.STR.3[SG.‫ښایی د دې بنسټونو د بیارغاونې لپاره جدی پاملرنه وشی‬ xāye də bansaṭ-uno də biyā raɣawən-e lə maybe of foundation-PL.VOC memory do.DIR 1-COMIT AOR-do.’ (8.DIR AOR\take.PRS-2SG ‘Have some food with me.ABL serious attention-F.OBL from work-M.PRS-1SG INSTR which-M word-M NEC mor-e yā́d kṛ-əm mother-F.OBL manual.DIR AOR-gather. mother.36) muẓ̌ bāyád kār-Ø wú-k-u 1PL.37) ‫ولی یی باید زده کړي؟‬ wali ye bāyad zda kṛ-i why 3.harvest(?)-F.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M.34) 277 .’ (WAZ) (8.AOR.DIR from pār-a jədi pāmlarəna-Ø sake-M.OBL of then building-F.DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become.AOR-1SG ‘I don't know which words I should use to remember you.F] ‘Maybe they will take a serious look at rebuilding [our social] foundations.

Sometimes verbal disputes are created between us.STR.228.3PL.. too..STR.43) ‫زه په خندا شم؟‬ zə pə xandā́-Ø s-əm 1SG.DIR INSTR laugh-F.F COMP 1PL..CONT.PRS.in tear-PL.DIR song-F.42) čars-Ø liyā afin-Ø e dzon-Ø səra marijuana-M.DIR ham mandz ta rādz-í also center to come.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL . too.]’ (8. self-M.‫کله کله زموږ ترمنځ لفظي شخړه هم منځ ته راځي‬ kala kala zmung tər mandz-Ø lahfzi šxəra-Ø when when 1PL.INSTR paṭ kšéʣ-i hidden AOR\place.STR.DIR Ø-wāy-o CONT-say. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR.STR.POSS up.harvest’ is uncertain.‫کله کله زموږ په سترګو کې اوښکې وي چې موږ دا سندره وایو‬ kala kala zmung pə sterg-o ke uxk-e when when 1PL. eye-PL..OBL ...177.F.PRS-1SG ‘Should I laugh?’ (SW) 18 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual.’ The customary usage of the present aorist can also be expressed with the present continuous: (8.OBL become.40) .PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we get teary-eyed when we sing this song. [lit.PRS-1PL ‘They [often] hide marijuana or opium on themselves’ (WAZ) (8.F] ‘Sometimes we argue..278  Verbs (8.DIR or opium-M.to center-M.F.3[PL.DIR wi če mung dā sandera-Ø be.AOR.41) ..POSS in.OBL oral dispute-F.DIR this.PRS-PRS.DIR INSTR.

65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ..PRS-PRS..PRS-1PL peace-M.46) .from free-PL.OBL Wisa-M.SG.3[PL.PST-PST.OBL .M COMP COMIT.DIR wé-k-i AOR-do.45) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se when COMP 3PL.M..STR.OBL .OBL country-PL.M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you.OBL wə́-ɣuxt-əl če də stunz-o sərə AOR-want. police-M.COMIT muqābala-Ø wə́-kṛ-i resistance-M.’ (DZA) (8.Verb usage  279 (8.PRS-3[SG.DIR AOR-do.DIR bə wlā́ṛ-s-əm WOULD AOR\go-go-1SG ‘If he does not come.3PL.3 Past continuous The past continuous is used for continuous or habitual events in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..3[PL..M.. then I will go.DIR NEG come. we sit down and rest.AOR-PRS.STR.PRS-1PL then AOR\sit.DIR 2 after wə́-čaw-i ne če AOR-throw-PRS.2.5.M.228.AOR.M.’ 8.47) ka háɣa ná rā́s-i no zə if 3SG.CONT..177.M] ‘[Governor] Mr..AOR.F.DIR fire-M.M] then 1.’ (8..44) če e polis-Ø na xlos-Ø COMP from.OBL from all-PL. problem-PL.PRS-1PL ‘After getting rid of the police.’ (WAZ) (8.3[PL. Wesa wanted all nations to battle [these] issues.STR.‫ښاغلي ويسا له ټولو هيوادوالو وغوښتل چي د ستونزو سره مقابله وكړي‬ xāɣl-i wisā-Ø lə ṭol-o hewād-uno mister-M.DIR š-i biyā kšén-i arām-Ø become..M] then COMP der-bež-iž-i 2-near-become.

M ‘He was sleeping with his eyes open.48) .‫سړي ټول په مېله کې ګډېده‬ sar-̣i ṭol-Ø pə mela-Ø ke man-PL.’ (8.F. picnic-F.DIR .DIR in.3SG.COMIT voice-PST-PST.PST-PST..49) .M ‘All the men were dancing at the picnic OR.PST-PST-PST.OBL 3.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST.3SG..M and dance-PST-PST.3SG.CONT-PST.’ (8.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. laughing.OBL WOULD shout-PL.F.‫په خلاصو سترګو یې خوبونه لیدل‬ pə xlās-o sterg-o ye xob-una INSTR open-PL.DIR step-M.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F. and dancing.3SG.DIR above do.M.177.M..F..WK sleep-PL.OBL world-F.. the entire world would cry out.3SG.280  Verbs (8.OBL .F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.OBL of woman-PL.OBL eye-PL.M ‘He was talking with himself.F.51) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .in Ø-gaḍ-éd-ə CONT-dance-PST-PST.3PL..DIR Ø-lid-ə́l CONT-see.M xand-éd-ə aw gaḍ-éd-ə laugh.’ (8.‫ خندېده او ګډېده‬،‫له ځانه سره غږېده‬ lə dzān-a sərə ɣag-éd-ə COMIT..DIR all-M. all the men used to dance at picnics.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M. self-M.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .50) .‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.M..3PL.

ABL on this country-M nuw-i bandiz-una wə́-lagaw-əl new-PL.DIR 1 CONT-throw-PST-PST.WK NEG mər-kaw-ə́l-e killed-do.CONT-PST-PST.OBL government-M.55) ‫دبريتانيا حکومت پرون دايران داتومې پروګرام له امله پردغه هيواد نوى بنديزونه‬ .52) pə háɣa čār-Ø ke ḍer-a binga-Ø mi in.OBL of atomi progrām-Ø lə amal-a pər dáɣa hewād-Ø atomic program-M.in much-F.F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132...DIR 1SG.DIR affair-F .DIR so.3SG. he did not [want to] kill you.DIR yesterday of Iran-M.Verb usage  281 (8.2.STR.228.M ‘Yesterday the British government placed new sanctions on Iran in response to their nuclear program.’ (DZA) (8. this.3PL.3SG.OBL from sake-M.’ (WAZ) (8. or on the event per se rather than its duration or multiple instances of the event.4 Past aorist The past aorist verb form expresses actions with focus on completion..54) če di xwl-ə r Ø-čaw-ə́l-a COMP 3SG..DIR AOR-hit-PST.DIR sanction-PL.WK joṛ-aw-ə́l-a built-do.DIR .177.CONT-PST-2SG ‘All day long.M. that..OBL mouth-F.M.’ (DZA) 8.. (8..5.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ..in 3.F ‘I was making great gains in that business.DIR wealth-F.much day-F.‫ولګول‬ də britānyā-Ø hakumat-Ø parun də irān-Ø də of Britain-F.53) pə da domra wredz-Ø ke ye ná in. when she threw her mouth upon me].F ‘When she was taking me in her mouth [lit.

OBL flood-M.from AOR-leave.DIR what damage-M.WK hidden-F.3SG.AOR-PST-PST.3SG.PST-PST..AOR.M ‘Afghans living in Bayern [Germany] protested for the release of Afghan prisoners.’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PST-PST.AOR-PST.OBL on.58) ..AOR.OBL of release-M.M ‘The gentleman took his seat but was angry.228.M this.M ‘Did the flooding cause any damage this year?’ (WAZ) (8.OBL protest-M.’ (8.M aw other also ɣósa šo-Ø angry become.57) .‫سړی په خپل ځای کښېناست او نور هم غصه شو‬ saṛ-ay pə xpəl-Ø dzāy-Ø kxénāst-Ø aw nor ham man-M.DIR 1SG.on the 3-to AOR\sit.3SG.DIR wə́-kəṛ-Ø AOR-do.OBL Afghan-PL.PST-PST.282  (8.M.M ‘He has left the town to go wait at the top of the hill.177.M..OBL .59) e sažkol-Ø silab-Ø tsə naqsān-Ø of this.3SG.56) Verbs . sitting near it.3SG..DIR of ṭop-i pə sar-Ø nə bya wer-ta kénost-Ø hill-F.DIR də́rk-ə give.DIR do.OBL from pār-a bayrān mešt-o afɣān-āno lāryun-Ø sake-M.60) ye šār-Ø na ó-wet-Ø dā ye from.‫د افغان زندانیانو دخلاصون لپاره بایرن مېستو افغانانو لاریون وکړ‬ də afɣān zindān-iāno də xlāsun-Ø lə of Afghan prisoner-PL.‫مينه مې پټه کړله‬ mina-Ø me páṭ-a kəṛ-l-a love-M.3SG.M.PST-PST.year-M... city-M.’ (8.3SG.’ (8...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . head-M .ANIM.F ‘I hid my affection.ABL Bayern settled-PL.DIR on own-M place-M AOR\sit-PST.

64) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.PST-PST.63) .6).65) .DIR video-PL.3SG.3SG.’ (8.OBL house-M.SG ‘Step outside your comfort zone and get to know the wide world out there.CONT.2..SG big-M..DIR abuse-PL.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ (8.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want.AOR.5.M ‘He landed on the inside..DIR ear-M nénawet-a AOR\enter.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR thanks-F.OBL on this. Please post more videos.in AOR-hit-PST-PST.M.PRS-IMP.DIR of 1SG.M čə yenənə wer-nə́nawet-Ø when inside 3-AOR\enter.‫له واړه کوره راوځه لوى جهان سره اشنا شه‬ lə wār-ə kor-a rādz-á loy-Ø from small-M.F.‫ نورې ویډیوګانې هم واچوه‬.DIR ham w-ā́čaw-a also AOR-throw-IMP.DIR repeated-do-INF-PL.DIR then this.DIR .5 Imperative Imperative forms convey commands (Section 8.M. threshold-F. Section 8..ABL come.F.SG ‘Thanks a lot. at the entrance.STR.AOR.61) če yenənə pə daṛa-Ø ke wə́-lg-ed-ə COMP inside in.STR.PRS-IMP.OBL jahān-Ø sərə ašnā́ š-a universe-M.’ (DZA) 8.5.’ (DZA) (8.PRS-2SG healthy-M.62) a kisa-Ø ye mo pə da ɣwaž-Ø this story-F.PRS-IMP. He penetrated the interior.3.PST-PST.DIR other-PL.Verb usage  283 (8.3.F ‘This story fell into my ear.‫ډېره ډېره مننه‬ ḍer-a ḍer-a manana-Ø nor-e vidio-gāne many-F.DIR many-F.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .3SG.177.OBL COMIT friend become.DIR become. (8.

STR.DIR 1SG. like so.STR.DIR do. for half an hour. imparting a sense of urgency.68) .e.3SG.DIR wə́-kṛ-a AOR-do.OBL to 2.F.OBL to ijaza-Ø rók-a permission-M. kill him]’ (8.DIR bullet-F.PRS-IMP. Time is short.‫شېبې مې پرېږده چې ښه وژاړمه‬ šeb-e me prégd-a če xə moment-PL. or repetition: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.71) mo ta nan-e wə́-k-e 1SG.’ (8.CONT.PRS-IMP.WK AOR\abandon-IMP. calm him with a single shot. [i.F pə yaw-a marm-əy ye arā́m-Ø kṛ-a COMIT one-F.AOR-PST.DIR 3.3SG.PRS-2SG ‘Make me some popcorn!’ (DZA) Present continuous stems may be used to form commands as well.66) . continuation.SG COMP good wə́-žār-əma AOR-cry-1SG ‘Leave me alone for a little bit so I can have a good cry.PRS.OBL for popcorn-PL.’ (WAZ) (8.177.DIR appearance-M.‫ په يوه مرمۍ يې آرام کړه‬،‫که بې بې عقلي يې وکړه‬ ka be be aql-i ye wə́-kṛ-a if without without intelligence-F.WK complete attention-M.AOR.DIR AOR-do.DIR 1-with AOR\sit.DIR little-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . Let me leave now.228.SG ‘Pay full attention to how you look.DIR give.PL ‘Sit with me.F.DIR be.SG ‘Okay.M 1SG.WK calm-M. thus intensifying them.69) dāse nim-a genṭa-Ø rā-səra kšén-əy such half-F.DIR hour-F.AOR-IMP.’ (8.67) .‫خپل ظاهر ته دې پوره پام وکړه‬ xpəl-Ø zāher-Ø ta de pura pām-Ø own-M.AOR-IMP.DIR 3..284  Verbs (8.70) šə waxt-Ø kam-Ø day mo ta good time-M.SG ‘If he does anything stupid.’ (WAZ) (8.WK AOR-do.

‫په خواښي دې خوره‬ pə xwāx-e de Ø-xor-á INSTR mother.177. it's a holy place.PRS-IMP.PRS-IMP.in.CONT-IMP.’ (8.3SG.DIR day də xudāy kor-Ø day be.74) .‫هره ورځ لږ لږ د خواښې په ډوډۍ کې اچوه‬ har-a oradz-Ø ləg ləg də xwāx-e pə ḍoḍ-əy every-F.law-F 2.‫ د خدای کور دی‬،‫پام کوه! دا جومات دی‬ pām-Ø kaw-á dā jumāt-Ø attention-M.PRS.SG this.3SG..WK CONT-eat.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .law-F.SG ‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].M.’ (8. and writing Pashto..OBL to helpless-NMLZ do.DIR CONT-write-IMP.DIR CONT-tell. food-F ke Ø-ačaw-á .SG ‘Add a little bit [of poison] to your mother-in-law's food every day.76) .PRS.WK freed-do.72) .’ (8.CONT.CONT-IMP.’ (8.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.SG ‘Keep speaking Pashto.‫ پښتو ليکه‬، ‫ پښتو لوله‬، ‫پښتو وايه‬ paxto-Ø Ø-wāy-á paxto-Ø Pashto-F.SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.SG Pashto-F.SG ‘Humbly submit to the government!’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.Verb usage  285 (8.PRS-IMP.CONT.CONT-IMP.228.DIR few few of mother.PRS-IMP.DIR do.75) .77) sarkor-Ø ta ajiz-i kaw-a government-M.DIR mosque-M..OBL in.73) .OBL people-M. reading Pashto.DIR be.’ (8.DIR Ø-lwal-á paxto-Ø Ø-lik-á CONT-read.in.‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL.M ‘Behave yourself! This is a mosque..in CONT-throw-IMP.DIR CONT-kill.ABL 3.M of God house-M.DIR day-F.SG Pashto-F.

81) !‫د بل چا څخه د مننې هيله مه كوه‬ də bel-Ø čā tsəxə də manan-e hila-Ø from.DIR to NEG pregd-á CONT\abandon.OBL who. Negative commands almost always use continuous forms.‫د نن کار سبا ته مه پرېږده‬ də nən kār-Ø sabā-Ø ta má of today work-M.DIR má kaw-á NEG do.SG ‘Don't expect thanks from someone else!’ (8.’ (8.79) !‫زویه د بل د پاره ځان مه وژنه‬ zoy-a də bel-Ø də pār-a dzān-Ø má son-M.DIR NEG Ø-wažn-á CONT-kill.78) !‫ساده مه شه‬ sāda mə́ s-a naive NEG become.ABL self-M. are negated by /má/.SG ‘Son.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .VOC of other-M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.SG ‘Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today.from of thanks-F.177.. don't kill yourself for the sake of another!’ (8.DIR NEG AOR\recognize. which usually occurs before the verb but can also be after it.PRS-IMP.‫ مه خپه کیږه‬، ‫که تا نه پیژني‬ ka tā ná péžən-i má xapa if 2SG. whether using continuous or aorist forms.3[SG.PRS-IMP.PRS. except in certain stock phrases like 8.DIR tomorrow-M.80) .AOR-IMP. ‫مه‬ (8.OBL .CONT..OBL from sake-M.78.82) ..PRS-PRS.228..SG ‘Don't be naive!’ (8. other-M.M] NEG sad kég-a become.CONT-IMP.286  Verbs All types of commands.OBL hope-F.STR.SG ‘Don't get upset if he doesn't recognize you.PRS-IMP.

‫افغانستان کی ژمی زور اخیستی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø ke žim-i zor-Ø Afghanistan-M in winter-M. Perfect constructions in Pashto encode relative tense.4.OBL of prānist-əl-o xabara-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-e open-INF-PL. and—in the case of third conjugation verbs—the adjectival complement agree with the undergoer of the action. as illustrated above in Section 8. Third conjugation verbs use the aorist participle and the present continuous forms of to be.OBL word-F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.3.DIR be. the auxiliary.OBL force-M.2SG ‘The world has accepted you. (8.M.M.3 Compound constructions: perfect Agreement in present and past perfect constructions is governed by the main verb...‫دونیا منلی یې‬ dunyā-Ø Ø-man-ə́l-ay ye world-F.F ‘The Taliban have confirmed that they will be opening a political office in Qatar.’ (8.DIR Ø-axist-áy day CONT-take[PST]-PTCP.OBL in.M.3SG.3SG.84) .Verb usage  287 8.in of political office-M. 8. as can be seen in the sentences below.177.PRS.5.CONT.DIR CONT-accept-PST-PTCP.‫طالبانو په قطر کې د سياسي دفتر پرانيستلو خبره منلې ده‬ tālibān-o pə qatar-Ø ke də siyāsi daftar-Ø də Taliban-PL.1. and are generally best translated using the respective English present and past perfect forms.CONT.M ‘Winter has taken hold in Afghanistan.DIR da be.M.1..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL CONT-accept-PST-PTCP. This means that in transitive constructions the main verb. Qatar-M .’ (8.1 Present perfect First and second conjugation verbs form this tense with the past continuous participle and the present continuous of to be. as can be seen in the example sentences in the following two sections.F.PRS.CONT.85) ..PRS.228.DIR be.83) .

3SG.M NEG 2SG.PRS.PRS.PRS.DIR yəm če tarjuma-Ø kaw-əl-Ø be.in nənəwat-ə́l-e yəm aw os dā CONT\enter-PST-PTCP.OBL decision-F.CONT.OBL exhaustion-F.87) !‫زه په یو خالي کور کي ننوتلې یم او اوس دا زما کور دي نه ستا‬ zə pə yaw xāli kor-Ø ki 1SG.M..228.ANIM.DIR be.‫دواړو د دفاع وزيرانو په افغانستان کښې د پوځ ستړيا احساس کړې ده‬ dwāṛ-o də difah-Ø wazir-āno pə both-PL...3SG.F ‘Both Defense Ministers have seen how exhausted troops in Afghanistan are.CONT.M.in of force-M.OBL to arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.AOR-PRS.DIR be.STR.AOR-PTCP.3[SG.F.‫زرغونه يې اوس مجبوره کړې ده چي واده وکړي‬ zarɣona-Ø ye os majbur-a kə́r-e Zarghoona-F.DIR zmā kor-Ø day ná stā 1SG..3SG.CONT.PRS.DIR NEG be.OBL minister-PL.PRS.DIR be.STR..DIR feeling kə́ṛ-e da do.1SG COMP translation-F.DIR do.DIR ayb-Ø ná day defect-M.F.PRS.F COMP marriage-M.89) .88) .OBL in.CONT.DIR do-INF-PL.DIR 3..’ (8.1SG and now this..CONT.M.86) Verbs .’ (8.WK now forced-F.288  (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .POSS ‘I've entered an empty house.F..M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.CONT.M ‘I've finally come to the conclusion that doing translations isn't so bad. one empty house-M .DIR AOR-do.OBL of defense-F. afɣānistān-Ø kxe də paudz-Ø stəṛyā-Ø ihsās Afghanistan-M . and now it's mine and not yours!’ (8.STR.AOR-PTCP.‫اوس دې فیصلې ته رسېدلی یم چې ترجمه کول عیب نه دی‬ os de faysal-e ta ras-ed-ə́l-ay now this.DIR in.F] ‘Now he's forced Zarghuna to get married.DIR da če wād-ə wə́-kṛ-i be.POSS house-M.3SG.

92) .OBL without civilization-PL.94.CONT.228.AOR.AOR-PTCP.PRS. Because of the irrealis semantics of this construction.‫تا پر ما باندی غلط فکر کړی دی‬ tā pər mā bānde ɣalat fikər-Ø 2SG.3SG.DIR hál kə́ṛ-e wi solution do.AOR.F because COMP also WOULD 3.PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .90) 289 .M.ABL WOULD 1PL. and 8.‫هم به يې ګټه کړې وي ځکه چې هم به يې خپل تربور وژلی وي‬ ham bə ye gaṭa-Ø kə́ṛ-e also WOULD 3. 8.F ‘We will have more or less resolved the issue. (8.M.DIR Ø-ist-ə́l-i wi CONT-remove.3SG.DIR do.PRS.on mistaken thought-M.DIR kə́ṛ-ay day do.M.M ‘Those heathen Pashtoons in Swat will have eradicated any trace of the Taliban.AOR.M. 1SG.’ (8.3PL..AOR-PTCP.‫ترډيره حده به موستونزه حل کړي وي‬ tər ḍer-a had-a bə mo stunza-Ø up...STR.AOR-PTCP.93) .OBL bə də tālibān-o noɣ-i WOULD of Taliban-PL.92.PRS.DIR CONT-kill-PST-PTCP.M. or doubt or uncertainty about one.Verb usage  (8.DIR be.3SG.93.’ (8.DIR tərbur-Ø Ø-waž-ə́l-ay wi cousin-M.ABL border-M.DIR wi dzəkə če ham bə ye xpəl-Ø be.M. as in 8.STR. as in 8.M ‘You've got me all wrong.OBL .‫د سوات غيرتمندو پښتنو به د تالبانو نوغی ايستلی وی‬ də swat-Ø ɣayr tamadun-o paxtan-o of Swat-M.M.177.PRS.DIR be.DIR be.WK own-M..M ‘He will also have benefited because he will have killed his cousin.PRS.’ ‫به‬ ‫دې‬ The modal particles /bə/ or /de/ in combination with the present perfect construction express a supposition about a future event.91.F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.OBL on.to very-M.OBL Pashtoon-PL.F.AOR.DIR be.91) ‫وی‬ .PST-PST-PTCP.OBL mark-PL.WK benefit-F. the present aorist form /wi/ is used as the third person auxiliary.WK problem-F.

F.97) .STR.PST-PST-PTCP.CONT.‫هغه به ذه ليدلی يم‬ haɣə́ bə zə Ø-lid-ə́l-əy 3SG.M.’ (8.94) .PST-PTCP.‫دوه کيسې خو مې يې د مخه په يوه مجله کې لوستې وې‬ dwa kis-e xo me ye də məx-a pə two story-PL.M.’ (SW) 8.STR.PST.STR.96) .PL.290  Verbs (8.M ‘She had posted a message on Facebook asking for help.F ‘I had previously read two stories of his in a magazine.‫زه راغلم ځه چې تا بللی وم‬ zə rā́ɣl-əm dzəkə če tā 1SG. Facebook-M . first and second conjugation verbs employ the past continuous participle.F.DIR CONT-see.. (See Section 8.in 3.1SG ‘I came because you had invited me.DIR come.2 Past perfect As with the present perfect.177.DIR be.PRS.228.PST.DIR be.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M.1SG ‘He may have seen me.1.WK 3.CONT.WK from face-M...3. and third conjugation verbs employ the aorist participle...DIR prexud-ə́l-ay wə CONT\leave-PST-PTCP..’ (8.DIR we be.CONT.OBL one message-M.in CONT-read.‫په فيس بوک کې يې د مرستې يو پيغام پرېښودلی و‬ pə fesbuk-Ø ke ye də mərast-e yaw peɣām-Ø in.PST.2.DIR yəm be.OBL Ø-bal-ə́l-ay wəm CONT-invite-PST-PTCP. All use the past continuous of to be as the auxiliary.) (8.CONT.STR.DIR EMPH 1SG.4.95) .PST.AOR-1SG because COMP 2SG.3PL. yaw-a mujala-Ø ke Ø-lwúst-e one-F.3SG.DIR magazine-F. in this construction.OBL WOULD 1SG.DIR .5.WK of help-F..ABL in..’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

F.‫ تر منزل له رسیدلی نه یم‬. as in 8.‫مزل کوومه‬ mazal-Ø kaw-əma tər manzil-Ø lā distance-M.CONT. the participle can occur before this negated verb phrase. the light verb construction can occur either before the negated verb phrase.101) .storm-PL.ANIM.OBL sand. the negative particle /ná/ immediately precedes the auxiliary verb and forms a constituent phrase with it..PST.OBL yet Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay ná yəm CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.AOR-PTCP.OBL friend-PL.to encampment-M. in perfect constructions with third conjugation verbs.Verb usage  291 .DIR be.F.PL.177.3PL.COMIT of attention waṛ mərast-e kə́ṛ-e we worthy help-PL.DIR kə́ṛ-ay wə do.ANIM. or after it.’ ..PRS.PRS.‫دې ځغاستو دوړې جوړي کړی وې‬ (8.F.DIR built-PL..CONT.DIR be.AOR-PTCP.3PL.105 and 8.CONT..107.DIR do.DIR do.F. I haven't gotten as far as the station.103.‫زموږ ډیموکرات دوستانو دوه کاله پخوا بودیجه تصویب کړی وه‬ (8.CONT-1SG up.3. Likewise.228. ‫نه‬ (8.’ 8.’ (8.CONT.AOR-PTCP. as in 8.F ‘Their steps had given rise to sandstorms.100) . as in 8.99) zmung ḍimokrāt-āno dost-āno dwa 1PL.POSS democrat-PL.3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR kə́ṛ-e we do.3 Negation of perfect tenses When compound tenses are negated. With first and second conjugation verbs.106.DIR approval-M.5.M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL on side-F budget-F.F ‘The government had also helped them significantly.101 and 8. or after it.‫دولت هم د دوی سره د پام وړ مرستې کړي وې‬ dawlat-Ø ham də duy sərə də pām government-M.M. as in 8.F.M ‘Our friends the Democrats had passed a budget two years ago.STR.OBL .DIR NEG be.M.PST.PL.102 and 8.OBL run-PL.DIR be.98) de dzaɣāst-o duṛ-e jóṛ-e this.STR.M.M.1SG ‘I'm in transit.104. 3PL.OBL two kāl-a pə xwā-Ø bodija-Ø taswíb-Ø year-M.OBL also COMIT.

F.PRS.M.DIR torn-PTCP.F.M.’ (8.DIR ‘I still haven't had my dream come true.’ (8.OBL to CONT\permit.CONT.PRS.’ (8.‫د طالبانو ادعاوې نورو سرچینو تایید کړي نه دي‬ də tālibān-o idā-gāne nor-o sarčin-o of Taliban-PL.PST-PTCP.‫تر اوسه لا دغه لوړ ارمان ته نه یم رسیدلی‬ (8.228.ABL yet this.PST.1SG ‘He hasn't let me talk today.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL to NEG yəm Ø-ras-ed-ə́l-ay be.PRS.1SG CONT-arrive-PST-PST-PTCP.AOR-PTCP.M ‘Other sources haven't confirmed the Taliban's assertions.3PL.PRS.PL.F ‘Our war-torn nation hadn't forgotten that day.CONT.F.to now-M.DIR ‘God hasn't left mankind behind.CONT.DIR do.DIR forgotten-F.102) tər os-a lā dáɣa lwaṛ-Ø armān-Ø ta ná up.DIR oradz-Ø hír-a kə́ṛ-e ná day-F.CONT.M.’ (8.OBL source-PL.OBL tā́yid kə́ṛ-e ná di confirmation do.104) .DIR NEG yəm be.POSS disaster-M.M.F.M.OBL claim-PL.DIR other-PL.177.292  Verbs .‫نن يې خبرو ته پرېښودى نه يم‬ nən ye xabar-o ta prexúd-ay ná today 3.103) .105) .OBL high-M.F.F.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.DIR in own-M condition-M NEG day prexúd-ay be.AOR-PTCP.DIR NEG wa be.DIR NEG be.OBL this.PST-PTCP.106) .‫زمونږ مصيبت ځپلي ولس دا ورځ هيره کړی نه وه‬ zmung masibat-Ø dzəpəl-i walas-Ø dā 1PL.STR.WK word-PL.‫خدای پاک انسان په خپل حال نه دی پرېښودی‬ xudāy pāk insān-Ø pə xpəl-Ø hāl-Ø ná God clean person-M.DIR people-M.CONT.3SG.OBL desire-M.M CONT\abandon.

PRS. These verbs are sometimes analyzed as participles in these constructions (Tegey & Robson.PRS-1SG ‘My vision still works and I can still write.228.DIR do.CONT. but unlike participles.3[SG.3SG.4 Compound constructions: potential ‫کېدل‬ Optative verb forms are used in a construction with aorist forms of the verb /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ to express potential.AOR.108) ‫کېدل‬ .same activity-M ..4.’ 8.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫نظر مې لا کار کوي او لا هم لیکلای شم‬ nizar-Ø me lā kār-Ø kaw-í aw lā sight-M.5. they do not take agreement suffixes.3. See Section 8.‫پخوا مې هيڅکله په دغشان فعالت کې نه دی ګډون کړی‬ (8..M] and still ham Ø-lik-ə́l-ay š-əm also CONT-write-PST-OPT become.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .WK none when in.177. and should therefore be regarded as optatives.M participation-M.CONT-PRS.DIR do.107) pəxwā me hits kala pə daɣšān fālāt-Ø ke ná before 1SG.WK still work-M.AOR-PTCP.M. this. 8. 1996: 146)..DIR 1SG.in NEG day gaḍun-Ø kə́ṛ-ay be.8 for the formation of optative verbs.5..3.Verb usage  293 .1 Expressing potential present events The present tense of the potentiality construction is formed with the present optative form of the matrix verb and the present aorist form of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’: (8.7 and Section 8.DIR ‘I've never done this type of thing before.

OBL INSTR manner-M also CONT\leave-PST-OPT š-əy become.STR.PRS-1PL ‘We can proselytize on a large scale.DIR INSTR large-F.M.109) tāso də xpəl-Ø ṭelefun-Ø šmira-Ø 2PL.2 Expressing potential past events The past tense of the potentiality construction is formed from the optative forms of the matrix verb and past aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.111) ‫تۀ هلته پر وخت ورسېدلی شوې؟‬ ta həlta pər waxt-Ø wə́-ras-ed-əl-ay 2SG.AOR.294  Verbs ‫تاسود خپل ټلیفون شمېره موږ ته په غږیزه توګه او دبرېښنا لیک په ډول هم‬ .DIR AOR-arrive-PST-PST-OPT šw-e become.AOR.OBL telephone-M.110) .PST-2SG ‘Were you able to get there on time?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction.STR.‫موږ په غټه پیمانه خلګو ته دین خپرولی شو‬ mung pə ɣaṭ-a pemāna-Ø xalk-o ta 1PL. translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson.AOR. 1996: 148).DIR manner-F.4.DIR people-PL.STR.’ (8.DIR and of electricity lik-Ø pə ḍawal-Ø ham prexud-ə́l-ay letter-M.DIR there on time-M.CONT-PST-OPT become.‫پرېښودلای شئ‬ (8.DIR spread-do.OBL to INSTR vocal-F.PRS-2PL ‘You can also leave us your telephone number over the phone or by email.OBL number-F. the connotation is that the event either did not take place.STR.’ 8.5. The aorist optative is used for an event that was actually carried out: ‫کېدل‬ (8.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM . or was carried out over an extended period of time in the past: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR measure-F.DIR of own-M.DIR mung ta pə ɣagiz-a toga-Ø aw də brixnā 1PL.177.228.OBL to din-Ø xapar-aw-ə́l-ay š-u religion-M.

‫مونږ تېره هفته جوار کرلی شوه‬ mung tera hafta jwār-Ø Ø-kar-ə́l-ay 1PL.AOR..DIR CONT-see..3 Expressing potential future events Potential future events are expressed using the modal clitic /bə/.‫ تلویژني پروګرامونه لیدلی شول‬.’ (8.PST-PST.DIR do. televizyoni progrām-una Ø-lid-ə́l-ay Berlin-M.‫افغانانو له موږ سره ډېره لږه مرسته کولای شوه‬ afɣān-āno lə mung sərə ḍer-a Afghan-PL. 1996: 146). ‫به‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.COMIT very-F.M ‘We might have been able to plant the corn last week [if you had brought the seeds].OBL Germany-M.AOR.CONT-PST-OPT become.4.. either a continuous or an aorist optative form of the matrix verb. Using the aorist optative implies that the event is expected by the speaker to take place (Tegey & Robson..228.OBL of west-M.OBL ..3SG.STR.M ‘People in East Germany were able to watch TV shows from West Berlin..PST-PST..DIR ləg-a mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay šw-a little-F.OBL COMIT.113) ..112) .ANIM.AOR.3PL..M. televised program-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .114) .OBL last week corn-M CONT-plant-PST-OPT sw-ə become.5.Verb usage  295 (8. 1PL.OBL .M.PST-PST-OPT šw-əl become. and present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ ‘to become’.’ 8.OBL berlin-Ø .STR. ‫د ختیز جرمني خلکو د لویدیز برلین‬ də xatiz-Ø jermani-Ø xalk-o də lowediz-Ø of east-M.OBL people-PL.DIR help-F.3SG.M.F ‘The Afghans were able to help us very little [as they were busy with their own armed conflict].’ (8.177..PST-PST.

115) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .STR.M.OBL to AOR-arrive-PST-OPT š-i become.‫د خبرو له لارې به د افغانستان لس کلنه جګړه پای ته ورسولی شي‬ də xabar-o lə lār-e bə də afɣānistān-Ø of word-PL.DIR reader-PL. [they]'ll be able to end the 10 year-old war in Afghanistan.AOR.3[PL.OBL las kalən-a jagṛa-Ø pāy-Ø ta wə́-rasaw-əl-ay ten year.PL.‫خلكو دا لې ده چې دوی به یوازې په دومره ویلو پرېښودلای شي‬ xalk-o dā Ø-gaṇ-ə́l-e people-PL.F COMP 3PL.CONT.’ (8.M.’ (8.PRS-PRS.DIR CONT-consider-PST-PTCP.3 usage-F.old-F.3[PL.PRS-PRS.DIR war-F.‫په لنډ ډول لیکل شوي تر څو ټول لوستونکي ترې استفاده وکړای شي‬ pə lanḍ-Ø ḍawal-Ø lik-əl šúw-ay INSTR short-M manner-M write-INF become.M] ‘People thought that they would be allowed to pass only by talking enough [to convince us].M] ‘[The articles] have been written concisely so that all readers are able to make use of them.DIR WOULD only INSTR dumra way-əl-o préxud-əl-ay so.OBL WOULD of Afghanistan-M.M.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.F.116) .DIR up.OBL AOR\permit-PST-OPT š-i become.3[PL.296  Verbs (8.OBL from side-F.3SG.to.F.AOR.M] ‘With diplomacy.PST-PTCP.OBL this.AOR-OPT become.to some all-PL.DIR tər tso ṭol-Ø lwustunk-i tre istafāda-Ø up.117) .DIR end-M.AOR.DIR da če duy bə yawāze pə be.M.much say-INF-PL.177.PRS-PRS.228.AOR.DIR wə́-kṛ-ay š-i AOR-do.PRS.

228.AOR.DIR amáli kṛ-ay š-i implemented do.‫بل څوګ نشته چې داسې يو شی جوړولی وشي‬ bel-Ø tsok nə́ šta če dāse yaw šay-Ø other-M.F ‘Layla might be able to send the letter tomorrow.PRS-PRS.3SG.’ The following two sentences suggest that either a continuous or an aorist optative can be used to express an a repeated event with future time reference: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..DIR Karzai-M.’ (NW) (8.DIR kaw-ə́l-ay š-e do. 1996: 148).CONT-PST-OPT become.119) laylā-Ø bə lik-Ø sabā-Ø ta Layla-F.3[SG.STR.. .DIR who.3[SG..DIR WOULD on this.M] ‘Will President Karzai be able to implement the assurances he made at the Second Bonn Conference?’ If the continuous optative is used in this construction with the future particle.118) ayā walas məšer-Ø karz-ay bə pə dohəm-Ø bon Q people leader-M.CONT-PST-OPT AOR-become.’ (8.AOR.DIR tomorrow-F.DIR NEG EXT COMP such one thing-M. second-M Bonn konferans-Ø ke wə́rkṛ-i tazmin-una conference-M .PL.‫ته به په همدې موخه کار کولای شي‬ ta bə pə hamde moxa-Ø kār-Ø 2SG.AOR.M] ‘There's no one else who could build such a thing.PRS-PRS.same goal-F.M.AOR.177.PRS-2SG ‘You may be able to work on [achieving] this same goal.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .AOR-PTCP.121) .PRS-PRS. the connotation is that the action is not necessarily probable.DIR on Ø-leg-ə́l-ay s-i CONT-send-PST-OPT become. translatable into English with might (Tegey & Robson..120) .DIR joṛ-aw-ə́l-ay wə́-š-i built-do.Verb usage  297 ‫ایاولس مشرکرزای به په دوهم بون کې ورکړي تضمیونونه عملي کړای شي؟‬ (8.DIR WOULD letter-M.DIR WOULD in.in give.‫لیلا به لیک سبا ته لېږلی شي‬ (8.DIR work-M.M.DIR guarantee-PL.AOR-OPT become.

AOR.DIR prégd-i če pə xlās-a pxa-Ø tag AOR\permit-PRS.DIR NEC representative-PL.DIR Taliban-PL.3SG. but the optative form may come before or after the negated verb phrase (Tegey & Robson.DIR foot-F.to some people-M.4.5.M] ‘So that the people can come and go without issue.4 Negative The negative particle must precede the auxiliary verb in a potential construction.PST-PST.to now-M. I wasn't able to write either my name or my father's. 1996: 145–147): (8.‫تر څو خلک له کومې ستونزې پرته تګ راتګ کولای وشي‬ (8.M CONT-write-PST-OPT ‘Until now.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ANIM.3[PL.228.AOR.3[PL.PRS-PRS.DIR go rātag-Ø wə́-kaw-əl-ay š-i come-M.OBL problem-F.M.ABL 1SG.AOR.’ 8.DIR from which-F.123) nāto-Ø de marakič-ian tālibān-Ø NATO-M.DIR AOR-do-PST-OPT become.122) tər tso xalək-Ø lə kum-e stunz-e prata up.M] ‘NATO should allow the Taliban delegates to be able to come and go as they please.‫تر اوسه مې خپل او د پلار نوم نه شو لیکلی‬ tər os-a me xpəl-Ø aw də plār-Ø up.3[SG.DIR and of father-M.CONT-PST-OPT wə́-š-i AOR-become.177.M.124) .DIR NEG become.298  Verbs .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .OBL without tag rātag-Ø kaw-ə́l-ay go come-M.M] COMP INSTR open-F.OBL num-Ø ná šo-Ø Ø-lik-ə́l-ay name-M.‫شي‬ (8.’ ‫ناټو دې د مرکچيان طالبان پرېږدي چې په خلاسه پښه تګ راتګ وکولای‬ .PRS-PRS .DIR do.WK own-M.

PRS-1PL ‘You can't write anything with a broken pen.M do.PST-PST.M.AOR. Like other event nominals. infinitives ‫ـو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL correct-M.5.3SG.‫قلم که مات شی څه لیکلی نشو‬ (8.125) qalam-Ø ka māt-Ø š-i tsə pen-M.3SG..Verb usage  299 .’ 8.228.127) də kābul-Ø pohəntun-Ø də 9 11 pə aṛa-Ø of Kabul university-M.DIR 1SG.AOR.128) .’ (8.129.DIR become.PST-PST.M..’ !!!‫ په اړه کوم سیمپوزیم جوړ نشو کړای‬۹/۱۱ ‫د کابل پوهنتون د‬ (8. as in 8.4..1 Infinitives as nouns Infinitives show the default masculine plural agreement (see Section 11.126) .‫په کونړ کې ډاکټرانو سم تشخیص ونه شو کړای‬ pə konaṛ-Ø ke ḍāktar-āno sam-Ø in.2.7.AOR-OPT ‘The doctors in Kunar couldn't give a correct diagnosis.DIR if broken-M.DIR NEG šo-Ø kṛ-ay become.PRS-PRS.5.AOR.AOR.3[SG.CONT-PST-OPT ‘I couldn't pull myself together.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .M] what Ø-lik-əl-ay ná š-u CONT-write-PST-OPT NEG become.DIR kum-Ø simpoziyom-Ø joṛ-Ø ná which-PL.5 Infinitives 8.PST do.ANIM. non-direct forms take the /‑o/ oblique/ablative plural suffix used on declension Class II nouns (see Section 5. Kunar-M .AOR.5.DIR seminar-M.‫ځان مې نه شو ټینګولی‬ dzān-Ø me ná šo-Ø self-M.177.M ṭing-aw-ə́l-ay tight-do.DIR built-M.AOR-OPT ‘The University of Kabul wasn't able to offer any seminars on 9–11!!!’ (8.4).in doctor-PL.DIR tašxis-Ø wə-nə́ šo-Ø kṛ-ay diagnosis-M..3 and Section 11.WK NEG become.DIR AOR-NEG become.5).OBL of 9 11 on topic-F.

M ‘Helping the government is a duty in an advanced society.F ‘I heard on the radio about the government's helping out.PRS. in addition to an aorist form of /kedə́l/.130) ‫ايا د زکام لپاره تارياک خوړل جايز دي؟‬ ayā də zukām-Ø lə pār-a tiyārāk-Ø Q of head.DIR do-INF-PL. radio-F.PRS.5..3PL.132.300  Verbs may take their own complements.ABL opium-M.DIR xoṛ-ə́l-Ø jāyiz-Ø di eat-INF-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM ‫وـ‬ .OBL from sake-M. .M.cold-M.‫ما له راديو څخه د حکومت د مرستې د کولو خبرې وارويدې‬ (8.M. infinitives and past participles can be used as the nominal component of a third conjugation verb with /kedə́l/ to form a verbal construction that is often referred to as the Pashto passive.F.M.2 The periphrastic passive As described in Section 8. 8.. ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ ‫کېدل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Both infinitival and participial complements of /kedə́l/ can optionally have the aorist prefix /wə́‑/in aorist forms of this construction. or object of an adposition.5.135.STR.DIR AOR-hear. as in 8.from of government-M..3PL.177.DIR be.129) mā lə rādyo-Ø tsəxə də hakumat-Ø də 1SG.2..OBL from.CONT.M.F.DIR COMIT. object.5.M ‘Is it legal to take opium for a head-cold?’ (8.2.’ (8.OBL job-F.PST-PST.CONT..COMIT help-F..DIR legal-PL.5. government-M.OBL . and 8.133.228.‫د مدني ټولنې دنده د دولت سره مرسته کول دي‬ də madani ṭolən-e danda-Ø də dawlat-Ø of civilized society-F.OBL of mərast-e kaw-ə́l-o xabar-e w-ā́rw-ed-e help-PL..’ 8.3PL..OBL sərə mərasta-Ø kaw-ə́l-Ø di .131) .DIR be.DIR do-INF-PL. Infinitival phrases may serve as a subject.OBL word-PL.

OBL .DIR š-i become.’ (8..3[SG..PRS-PRS.228.DIR kill-INF šw-əl become.CONT. attack-M .in 200 person-PL.CONT.DIR COMIT.PRS-PRS.COMIT AOR-eat-INF-F.PST-1SG ‘I was tied..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .PST-1SG ‘I was being tied. skin-M.177. however: .M ‘Two hundred people were killed in the attack.134) .‫وتړل شم‬ (8.AOR.M.’ .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..137) pə brid-Ø kxe 200 tan-a waz-əl in.AOR.‫تړل کېد)ل(م‬ Ø-taṛ-əl ked(əl)-ə́m CONT-tie-INF become.Verb usage  301 .PST-PST.PRS-1SG ‘[that] I be tied’ (8..‫وتړل شو)ل(م‬ (8.3PL.PRS-1SG ‘I am being tied.CONT.‫ښه بلل کېږي چي مڼه له پوټکي سره وخوړله شي‬ (8..AOR.3[PL.’ .’ ‫ وـ‬/wə́‑/ is not obligatory.135) wə́-taṛ-əl sw(əl)-əm AOR-tie-INF become..F] ‘It is considered good to eat an apple along with its peel.136) ..‫ تنه وژل شول‬۲۰۰ ‫په برید کښې‬ The prefix (8.133) wə́-taṛ-əl s-əm AOR-tie-INF become.132) xə bal-əl kég-i če good consider-INF become.AOR.‫تړل کېږم‬ Ø-taṛ-ə́l kég-əm CONT-tie-INF become.M] COMP maṇa-Ø lə poṭək-i səra wə́-xoṛ-əl-a apple-F.

as in 8.PRS-PRS.142.DIR kég-i become.CONT.STR.PRS-PRS.DIR NEG Ø-mínd-e kež-i CONT-find.PRS-PRS.3[SG.138) day Ø-wah-ə́l-ay 3SG.PL.M.’ .DIR become.F.F.143 and 8.CONT.302  Verbs If a participle rather than an infinitive is used. as can be seen in examples 8.STR.M] ‘He is being beaten.3[PL.177.3[PL.‫دوی وهلي کېږی‬ duy Ø-wah-ə́l-i 3PL.PST-PTCP.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.PRS-PRS.M] ‘They are being beaten.‫دا وهلې کېږی‬ (8.OBL INSTR eye-M water-PL.STR. however.144: .CONT.F] ‘His feet will be injured.DIR kég-i become.M.3[SG.F.F.’ (8.PL.F] ‘She is being beaten.CONT.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.8.140) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .’ (WAZ) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.WK WOULD AOR-injure-INF-PTCP. it agrees with the undergoer.F.F.M. In Dzadrani.DIR CONT-beat-PST-PTCP.DIR 3.F.141) de sten-e pə sim-Ø ob-e ná of needle-SG.‫دی وهلی کېږی‬ (8.138 .228.142) pš-e ye wa wə́-tik-əl-e feet-PL.F] ‘Not a needle's eyeful of water is [to be] found.PL.’ (WAZ-L) (8.139) dā Ø-wah-ə́l-e kég-i 3SG.DIR Ø-š-i CONT-become.DIR become. the participle does not show agreement but remains masculine direct regardless of the gender and number of the subject.PRS-PRS.’ (8.3[PL.

177.M.in on work-M.M.M.OBL CONT-see-PTCP-SG.DIR Ø-šw-e CONT-become.3PL.OBL .143) ḍəndera-Ø ó-wa-l-ay Ø-šw-a drum-F.DIR CONT-become.PST-PST. see Section 11.144) ḍənder-e ó-wa-l-ay drum-PL.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP.’ (DZA) For more example sentences using the periphrastic passive.F.AOR-PTCP.3SG.F.3.146) .M.PST-PST.DIR AOR-beat-INF-PTCP.DIR kṛ-áy do.DIR policy-PL. as in: .AOR-PRS. 8.5.’ or to form a verbal noun: (8.OBL beginning-M.‫اروپایی ټولنه باید د خلاصونکی سوداګریزې تګلارې غوره کړي‬ (8.1.5.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ukren-Ø ke pə kār-Ø payəl-Ø Ukraine-M.F ‘The European Union must consider commercial rescue policies.DIR NEC of CONT-liberate-PTCP-SG..3SG.F ‘A drum was struck.228.OBL sawda-gar-iz-e taglar-e ɣwára business-NMLZ-ADJZ-PL..F ‘Drums were struck.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .DIR ‘A European Union observer has begun work in the Ukraine.’ (DZA) (8.F.Verb usage  303 (8..‫د اروپایی ټولنې کتونکی په اوکراین کې په کار پیل کړی‬ də europay-i ṭulən-e Ø-kat-únk-i pə of Europe-ADJZ society-F..OBL in.6 Present participles Present participles can be used to modify nouns.145) europay-i ṭulən-a bāyad də Ø-xlas-únk-i Europe-ADJZ society-F.M.DIR considered kṛ-i do.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:57 PM .

² • Finally. or causal relationships. which require or allow one or the other component of a circumposition to be deleted. 2 Circumpositions in Persian. Where two components of a circumposition together express a single relation. 1987). and circumpositions. and generally the interpretation of any given adposition will depend on the context. In the general style of Indo-European. there is a set of principles that we understand only in part. rendering the effect of independent prepositions or (more typically) postpositions. adpositions that may occur either before or after their objects. In this chapter we discuss those principles that we understand.228. temporal.1 gives an example of this glossing convention. Much of the description provided of Middle dialect adpositions originates in Septfonds (1994).177. The Middle dialects vary from General Pashto in the inventory of adpositions.Claudia M. and in some case assignments. postpositions. • Second. Sentence 9. are mentioned by Heston (1987).) after the gloss. Brugman 9 Adpositions 9. as is shown in Example 9. The postpositional component in such cases may be a lexicalized meronymic expression. in the pronunciation of individual items. the functions of adpositions in Pashto range from quite abstract relationships to very specific spatial.e. 3 The translation into English of this work was provided by Melissa Fox. as reflected in the glossing or translation.³ which 1 These items are referred to in other grammars as pre-post-positions (Tegey & Robson. including cognates. We call these phrasal adpositions complex adpositions. and in the examples throughout this book. and the second will have an ellipsis before the gloss..¹ The class of circumpositions is the most difficult to describe exhaustively. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. 1996) or ambipositions (Heston. the first component will have an ellipsis (. though for a given variety the inventory of prepositions and postpositions is fixed. i.74. Lazard (1963) and Phillott (1919). some circumpositions appear to be semi-productive combinations of prepositions and postpositions or prepositions and adverbs (as asserted by Babrakzai 1999).1 Overview Pashto exhibits three categories of adposition: prepositions. The term circumposition more transparently denotes a single discontinuous lexeme. some items that function as circumpositions are complex in one component. typically the postpositional component.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 109) use this term as well. for several reasons: • First. attested examples show that Pashto also has ambipositions.. Throughout this chapter.

This is in addition to some dialect-based variation in the specific combinations of adpositions into complex adpositions or circumpositions. but a dearth of information prevents us from making any substantive claims about how they differ from each other. it is possible that there are varieties of Pashto that treat it as a simple adposition. and is therefore properly classified as an adverb. ‫چه‬ • Some adpositions are subject to dialect-based pronunciation variation as exemplified in Table 4.4 give examples of different adpositions in construction with the complementizer /čə/.73). səra/ is identified here primarily as a postpositional component of a circumposition. we identify /wrusta/ ‘after.1. adpositions generally govern either oblique or ablative case assignment to their objects.c. the object in an adpositional phrase may be more or less clausal: one possibility is an infinitive verb and its local argument. Finally. example sentences and descriptions may reflect other Middle varieties..) suggests that the direct case may be becoming the preferred case assignment for some adpositions as well. however. For instance. Many of the subsections of Section 11. it is possible that some of the features noted here for Dzadrani and Waziri may be found in varieties of Pashto outside of the Middle dialect group as well.120).228. 9. ‫ورسته‬ ‫ سره‬. this is reflected in some written examples by the lack of space between the adposition and its object.2. claiming that the use of the oblique form may sound dated to some speakers.306  Adpositions is a description of the Dzadrani dialect. however.32 gives an example with a case-marked adjectival object.. Furthermore. • As expected. • Individual adpositions are often described as clitics. later’ as an adverb in Table 10. Our own research suggests the existence of both similarities and differences between Dzadrani (as Septfonds describes it) and Waziri. concurring with other grammars. in its function outlined in Section 10.3. as described more briefly by Lorimer (1902: 39–40). where the adposition’s object is a subordinate clause. and based on the fact that from our information it only governs an object when it is a component of a complex circumposition (see Example 9. Rzehak (p. it does not take even a notional object. L. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2. both of which may be case-marked according to the requirements of the governing adposition (see 9. the item /. 9. Furthermore. Three other points should be remembered about Pashto adpositions: • Items that are identified (in this grammar or elsewhere) as adverbs may in fact function as adpositions..177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . including strong pronouns and oblique pronominal clitics.4.2 Adpositions and case assignment For all varieties of Pashto. adpositions in Pashto may govern objects other than noun phrases. Conversely.2. however.. The same can be said for some items identified in this grammar as adverbs of place in Table 10.1. In addition. However.72 and 9.

M] ‘Zartsangay's son lives in France. however. in’ preferentially assigns direct case but may also assign oblique case. where some other grammars do not. Dessart 1994: 52).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .1 Assignment of oblique case Our research suggests that the object of an adposition is most often assigned the oblique case..’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3. however. sometimes case-marking can vary (usually between direct and oblique) without difference in meaning. Also for Dzadrani. this grammar recognizes an ablative case.‫د زرڅانګي زوی په فرانسې کي اوسېږي‬ də zarʦāng-i zoy-Ø pə farāns-e ki of Zartsangay-M.. e.2.Adpositions and case assignment  307 the picture is somewhat complicated by several issues: first. when the object is plural.in Ø-os-éẓ-i CONT-live-PRS-PRS.. /pə/ ‘on. Septfonds (1994) asserts that an adposition may assign direct.. In particular. as shown in sentence 9. ‫تر‬ (9. the difference in case-marking is associated with a difference in meaning. the case assignment is always oblique. according to Lorimer (1902: 40).OBL . 9.3[SG. In Waziri.1) . In addition. France-M.OBL son-M. Some speakers have reported that vocative case-marking may be assigned. oblique..2) claims that the comparative postposition /tǝr/ ‘than’ can assign either oblique or direct case to its object. Septfonds (1994: 262) notes further that circumpositions whose first component is /ye/ or /tər/ may assign the oblique or the ablative case to their objects.2. Our own research on Waziri confirms that assignment of direct case predominates. There may be varieties of Pashto for which oblique is the only case-marking form governed by adpositions (as is claimed in.DIR in. so descriptions of the same facts may not line up. The ablative case is governed by a small number of adpositions. again. Our research suggests that Waziri does not observe this constraint: singular or plural objects of /e/ may be case-marked direct (as shown in example 9.177. this matter deserves more study. Septfonds (1997: 8. This includes the appearance of the fused genitive strong pronoun (see Section 7.g.19). the preposition /tər/ ‘up to’ and circumpositions of which it is the prepositional component always assign the oblique case to their objects.3) as the object of the adposition. in some situations either ablative or oblique case may appear in construction with a particular adposition. in other situations. however. For Dzadrani in particular. or ablative case to its object when the object is singular in number.3.228.

308  (9.’ (SW) 9.M.M.CONT. 1SG. unlike other sources (e.SW) (9.DIR in.’ (NW..M.OBL .DIR sr-ə aw spin-Ø zar-Ø di red-PL. /pāsa/ ‘top.1SG ‘I have come from father.DIR be.COMIT in.M.DIR metal-PL.PRS.177.4) ‫پاسه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ه‬ .ABL’ in example 9.2.CONT.. notebook-F.DIR and white-PL.OBL member-PL..3.5) .3PL.. most notably GP /lə/ and complex adpositions that contain it.in much-PL.ABL come.3PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL . for instance.STR..2) Adpositions ..228.DIR be.ABL wə́-taxt-ed-əl AOR-flee-PST-PST.PST-PST-PTCP. The ablative case is discussed in Section 5.M ‘The members of al-Qaida fled from Afghanistan..3) .17 is historically derived from /pas/ ‘top’ plus the postposition /na/ ‘from’. Tegey & Robson 1996) that treat /a/ as simply a variant of /na/.POSS note-PL..3..AOR.3PL.PRS.’ (9.CONT.‫له ما سره په كښتۍ كې ډېر سره او سپين زر دي‬ la mā sərə pə kixt-ey ke ḍer-Ø COMIT. In this work.M.PRS.‫زما نوټونه په کتابچې کې دي‬ zmā noṭ-una pə kitābč-e ke 1SG.STR.DIR from Afghanistan-M.g. The ablative case-marking suffix is apparently historically related to the postposition /na/.‫د القاعده غړي له افغانستانه وتښتېدل‬ də al-qedə-Ø ɣəṛ-i lə afɣānistān-a of al-Qaida-M. we nevertheless treat the ablative suffix as a case-marker and /na/ as a postpositional element.M ‘My notes are in the notebook..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M ‘There is a lot of gold and silver in the boat with me.M.‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣ-əl-əy yəm from father-M.in di be.M. boat-F .. ‫نه‬ ‫پاس‬ ‫نه‬ (9.1.2 Assignment of ablative case ‫له‬ Some adpositions assign the ablative case to their object..

1996: 158). Likewise.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.12 contain the same alternation.11 and 9.3 Assignment of direct case In General Pashto. the house is empty.AOR. in 9. In example 9.7) . examples 9.’ There may also be dialectal variation as to whether the oblique or the ablative case is assigned by a particular adposition. without a difference in meaning..Adpositions and case assignment  309 Other adpositions can assign either oblique or ablative case to the object.‫بې سړېه کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-aya kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M.11. this time using the masculine noun /xār/ ‘city’.177.. there is apparently synchronic alternation between the ablative suffix and the postposition /na/ ‘from’. Example 9. having the object marked in the ablative case gives the sense of ‘(motion) away from’: ‫د‬ (9. We have not found this difference in case-marking to correspond to a difference in meaning. ‫نه‬ 9.PRS. while 9.3SG.‫ په‬/pə.AOR. assigning ablative as opposed to oblique case affects the meaning of the phrase. ‫کوټه‬ ‫ښار‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ABL come.228.2. our own research on current usage is that direct case may be gaining ground. for instance with /də/. the noun is in direct plural form. In some dialects or in different styles. it is in the oblique plural form.DIR empty be.’ (SW) For some other adpositions.’ (SW) (9. while Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the use of the direct form as literary or formal.. the house is empty.3. the adpositions ‫ په‬/pə/ ‘on.DIR empty be.1).6) . (9.9 shows the feminine noun /koṭa/ ‘room’ appearing in the oblique form.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . in’ and ‫کې‬.‫د کوره راغلم‬ də kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M.12.1.8) .M ‘Without a man..ABL house-M.10 demonstrates it in direct form.ke/ ‘in.M ‘Without a man. at’ may assign direct or oblique case to their objects (Tegey & Robson.OBL house-M. which is normally associated with possession (see Section 9.PRS.‫بې سړي کور خالي وي‬ be saṛ-i kor-Ø xāli wi without man-M.AOR.3SG.

room-F. but also to those in cities..’ (SW) (9..OBL but.OBL ..M. village-PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132....‫زما ورور په کوټه کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-a ki nāst-Ø 1SG..CONT.DIR NEG only in.228.STR.11) ‫ بلکې په ښارونه کې‬،‫د ملگرو ملتونو د غذایي موادو پروگرام نه یوازی په ککې‬ .OBL nation-PL.3SG.‫هم خوراکي مواد خلکو ته وېشي‬ də malgr-o məlit-uno də ɣzāyi mowād-o of friend-PL.M.OBL progrām-Ø ná yuwaze pə kal-io balki pə program-M.M.DIR dəy be...310  (9..CONT.DIR people-PL.10) .177.DIR .DIR in.OBL ta Ø-weš-í to CONT-distribute-PRS.OBL of nutritional items-PL..STR.3[SG.POSS brother-M.POSS brother-M.M.also in.M ‘My brother is sitting in the room.M.DIR .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .. xār-una ke ham xorāki mowād-Ø xalk-o city-PL.M] ‘The United Nations' Food Program is distributing food items to people not only in villages.in also nutritional items-PL..PRS.DIR in..M.9) Adpositions .3SG.‫زما ورور په کوټې کي ناست دی‬ zmā wror-Ø pə koṭ-e ki nāst-Ø 1SG.in sitting-M.in sitting-M.’ (SW) (9.M.DIR dəy be.PRS.M ‘My brother is sitting in the room. room-F.

177.OBL .M.13 and for demonstratives in 9.‫کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو سان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M.M...OBL from sake..M.Adpositions and case assignment  (9.228..‫نڅاګران لکه د ژوندی قازانو غوندی دي‬ nətsāgār-ān leka də žwand-i dancer-PL.4 Mixed case-marking inside objects of adpositions Inside the objects of adpositions. that-PL.DIR of country-M. case-marking is not particularly consistent.’ (9..M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno aw UNESCO INSTR help-F.M..OBL and kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə pār-a village-PL.DIR like.3PL.OBL ministry-M.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO.CONT.3[SG..DIR opportunity-F. as shown for adjectives in sentence 9.M.DIR kṛ-i do.11..DIR prepared-F..M] COMP CONT-want.OBL of education-F.’ 9.2.. (9.like be.on ‘on those topics’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.14) ‫په هغه موضوعاتو باندې‬ pə háɣ-ə mawzo-āto bānde on.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M ‘The dancers are like energetic geese.3[SG.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø barābár-a one-M.OBL .ANIM.DIR topic-PL.PRS.M. as shown in example 9..DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell.PRS-PRS.12) 311 ‫ چې غواړي د په مرسته د هیواد په ښارونو او‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ .M.in of student-PL.DIR qāz-āno ɣunde di goose-PL. of alive-PL. city-PL. Conjoined noun phases inside the adpositional object may fail to agree with each other.DIR similar educational-F.OBL ..AOR-PRS.M.3[SG.PRS-PRS. Modifiers of the noun inside the adpositional object may fail to agree on case with the governing noun.ANIM.14.13) .M.OBL in.

Pashto has three prepositions: /də/ ‘of’.177. while /da/ is additionally attested for in construction with the third person pronouns. however. Notice that phrases governed by /də/precede their governing noun irrespective of ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 4 Hewson & Bubenik (2006) refer to /də/ as the genitive marker. /ye/. ‫تر‬ 9. and is used also to mark the complements of transitive nominalizations or gerunds. We describe here several additional prepositions.228. Other scholars analyze the different pronunciations in terms of dialect differences: Penzl (1955) identifies the pronunciation /da/ with the Eastern dialect. while the GP item /də/alternates distributionally with the GP item /lə/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ 9. by means of’. while acknowledging its grammatical status as a preposition. and Tegey & Robson (1996) identify the pronunciation /di/ with what they call the Central dialect. Besides their independent functions as prepositions. As a determiner (see also Section 6. and /tər/ ‘up to’.3). /pə/ ‘on.1. which we treat separately in Section 9. /e/ ‘of’ ‫د‬ The GP preposition /də/appears to alternate with the items /de/.3  Adpositions Prepositions ‫د‬ ‫په‬ According to most analyses. and /e/ characteristic of the Middle dialects. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. so it is possible that what appear to be independent prepositions are circumpositions with omitted postpositional components. /ye/. the geographic area including Kabul (labeled Northwest in this grammar).3.1 The prepositions /də/. it expresses typical possessive and meronymic relations. /de/. as well as the subjects of intransitive nominalizations or gerunds.3. each of them may also appear as components of various circumpositions.5.1 The General Pashto preposition /də/ The preposition /də/ is used to express any of a wide range of functional relationships between its object and other elements in the sentence⁴. which is nevertheless discussed separately in Section 9.312 9. This group of items expresses functions that are in other languages associated with genitive case marking. Some examples of common relationships expressed using /də/ are given here. The Middle items appear to vary with relative freedom within the dialect group.3. The additional prepositions listed in that section may be associated with different varieties of Pashto. some of them alternate with circumpositions. There appears to be a high degree of variation in the pronunciation of /də/: this same orthographic form may be pronounced as /də/ or /di/ in construction with the first and second person pronouns.2.

0.3 as pronouns expressing genitive functions. this produces the effect of a circumposition.. as in the example /də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’.M.OBL of result-PL. which is a circumpositional phrase with /də .M.16. /də māxām storay/ ‘the evening star’ NW ‫د ماښام ستوری‬ ‫ د بالاپوښ لستوڼی‬/də bālāpox lastuṇay/ ‘the coat sleeve’ ‫ د عادل خپلوان‬/də ādil xpəlwān/ ‘Adil's relatives’ ‫ د دوست سپی‬/də dost spay/ ‘the friend's dog’ ‫ د وطن ساتنه‬/də watan sātəna/ ‘protection of the country’ NW /de yespone čapləy/ ‘sandals of iron’ DZA (Septfonds. ‫د‬ 9..OBL elections-PL.Prepositions  313 the functional relationship between the two—for instance.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228.OBL of wazir-Ø də waynā-Ø la məx-e minister-M. 1955: 77.177.15 and the true possessive in 9. the nominal complement in sentence 9. In example 9.15) ‫د تیرو انتخاباتو د نتایجو لغوه کول‬ də tir-o intixābāt-o də natāyij-o of past-PL.2. we consider each phrase consisting of /də/ and its object to be a simple prepositional phrase.OBL affair-PL.2 Complex adpositions using /də/ In general. ‫د‬ (9.F. With the lexicalization of meronyms.OBL of internal-PL. the phrase is pronounced with distinct preposition and object (Penzl. it is common to find multiple instances one after another.OBL of speech-F. la məxe/. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. the result is a set of coalesced or fused forms that are identified in Section 7. In such uses.1.OBL ‘according to Afghanistan's Minister of the Interior’ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ In many dialects.3. Examples of these items are found in examples 9.OBL laɣwa-Ø kaw-ə́l cancellation-M.F. except for the final one.3a).9. the /də/ has reduced to a single consonant.2) (9.. when /də/ governs a strong pronoun.DIR do-INF ‫د‬ ‘invalidating the results of the past elections’ ‫د وطن ساتنه‬ /də/ can govern the objects of deverbal nouns. /də/ governs the item denoting the possessor or the holonym of which another adpositional phrase may denote the possessed item or be the meronym. ‫د‬ ‫د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو د وزیر د وینا له مخی‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də korən-əyo čār-o də of Afghanistan-M. In other dialects.16) ‫ له مخی‬.2 and 9. 1994: 4. An apparently independent condition requires the phrase governed by /də/ (or the possessive pronoun mentioned above) to be the first element in the larger phrase it belongs to..M.2.OBL from direction-F.16 are both in phrase-initial position.

17) .ABL book-PL.) These collocations are fixed and idiomatic to varying degrees.‫د کلي له پاسه سیلاو راغلی دی‬ .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫سېلاب‬ . Other common phrases with /də/ that function as complex circumpositions are discussed below in Section 9. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ 9.3 The Middle dialect prepositions /de/. this circumposition can be used in number names.PRS.5.3SG.lə pāsa/.‫د کلي له پاسه سلاو راغلی دی‬ də kil-i lə pās-a silāw-Ø of village-M. while the sentence translations reflect the meaning of the phrase as a whole.DIR 1SG.18) . ‫د‬ (9.M. the form closer in pronunciation to General Pashto.1.1.228. ‫د‬ ‫ د پاسه‬.’ (E)⁶ (9.DIR be.2 and Table 6. 6 Standardized version of 9.18: .M. on top of’ ⁵ ‫ له پاسه‬.CONT.17. these items appear to vary freely with each other.OBL of top-M. In Western dialects it is /sélāb/.314  Adpositions as exemplified in 9.‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما نه دي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..17. in an apparently extragrammatical way (because the construction appears without either /də/ or /lə/governing the grammatical object).‫د مېز د پاسه کتابونه زما ندی‬ də mez-Ø də pās-a kitāb-una zmā of table-M. not /ye/.3.M ‘The books on top of the table are not mine. is found less often in Dzadrani than its variant /ye/. These two variant forms fulfill functions very similar to the corresponding items /də/ and /lə/ in General Pashto.PST-PTCP.AOR..ABL flood-M.5. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists only /de/ and /e/..STR. a phrase governed by /de/ or /ye/is often found in pre-clausal position.POSS ná day NEG be.38 for a variant on this construction.PRS. (See also Table 6. the /silāw/ is an Eastern-dialect variant. the glosses reflect the translation of their components. used in some additive number name forms.OBL from top-M. /e/ In their prepositional uses. /ye/.M ‘The flood came from above the village.3SG.177.17: 7 Standardized version of 9. in that the elements together all govern one object.3.. Section 6. As is the case for General Pashto. for Waziri.CONT.1. /de/.38 describe how.... /də. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫سلاو‬ 5 In example 9.DIR rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.də pāsa/ ‘above.’⁷ This situation results in constructions that function as circumpositions.. over. /də.

The second noun is always /liri/ or /lerya/ ‘direction’. pə sar/ ‘at the top of.2.ABL of tabāh-i liyār-Ø do destruction-F.DIR be..STR.20) da ye to pə oršo ke miʝ prot-ə this. This is analogous to the situation in General Pashto (see Section 9..1. xo ta/ ‘next to’ • /ye .PRS.3..’ (WAZ) (9...1PL ‘We are on your land..DIR located-PL. Compare the GP examples with /mǝx/ ‘direction’ (9.1). ye pora/ ‘after’ A number of phrases are based on the combination of /ye/ (in its use indicating motion away from—see 9. the entire phrase governs a single object.228.DIR of sake-M..2 and Section 9.20 is from Septfonds 1994: 269. due in part to the lexicalization of the meronym.OBL path-F.1).5.PRS.1. pə ɣo/ ‘at the top of.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . above’ • /ye .DIR of all-PL.DIR of 2SG.16).1.M. and with ‫ په لور‬..pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9. ‫مخې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.CONT. according to Septfonds (1997: 8. ‫ د‬/də..89). land . Again in these cases.M.3SG.DIR nation-PL.F ‘Smuggling is a path to destruction for all nations..4 Middle dialect complex adpositions using /ye/ Septfonds notes that the placement of these phrases before the phrase they modify has resulted in the effect of circumpositions.) In Dzadrani.. The following are constructions mentioned specifically in Septfonds (1994: 258) for Dzadrani: • /ye .Prepositions  (9..in 1PL.177. pə manj ke/ ‘in the middle of’ • /ye .19) 315 . the contracted forms discussed in Table 7... 9... above’ (compare 9.DIR yi be.CONT.M..6 do not exist.3. but Septfonds records different combinations which result in different circumposition-like phrases.17) • /ye . the uncontracted forms with the governing preposition /ye/ and the strong pronoun objects are found instead.8) with two nouns in succession.. both of which are marked ablative.STR in.’ (DZA) (Example 9.‫قاچاقي اِ ټول ملکینه اِپوره تباهي ليار دو‬ qāčāq-i e ṭol-Ø mulk-ina e por-a e smuggling-F.

..na/ ‘without’....21) ye.on direction ‘toward the house’ (DZA) • /ye . from .177... posa lerya/ ‘from ..CONT. from .AOR. if there are two circumpositions that contain the same postpositional element and vary between /də/ and /lə/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . The preposition /lə/ should not be confused with the postposition /la/ ‘to’ .. below [lit.3. In particular. acknowledging that it is relatively rare. for Waziri. back direction]’ • /ye .. from . bərya lerya/ ‘from .na/ ‘from’ governs the standard of comparison where the compared item is the object of /tǝr/ ‘than’ (compare General Pashto: see Section 9.. Lorimer (1902: 39) cites it as part of the circumposition /lə. above..‫له پلاره راغلئ یم‬ lə plār-a rā́ɣl-əy yəm from father-M. when its object appears with ablative case marking.1.. from . which exists in some dialects (see Section 9...5)..DIR be.. On the other hand.228.3..22) ‫له‬ ‫له‬ .4..2). ʦət̩a lerya/ ‘from ...316  Adpositions • /ye ... Some sources treat /lə/ as a variant of /də/.. top direction]’ • /ye .. bottom direction]’ In addition to these combinations.ABL come.1..3. 9. above [lit. ker . /lə/ can function as a preposition of ablative function or of origin. the preposition /lə/ does not have the possessive interpretation exemplified in Section 9.2 The General Pashto preposition ‫ له‬/lə/ ‘from’ ‫له‬ Most grammars treat the element /lə/ only as part of a circumposition.PRS.. on top [lit.’ (NW. While we are neutral as to that issue.1SG ‘I have come from father. however.. house . our own consultants dispute this. reflecting the fact that they are interchangeable as components of many circumpositions.. we should nonetheless note that the two items may differ in meaning when appearing as independent prepositions. top direction]’ • /ye . pə liri/ ‘towards’ (9. they are apparently synonymous or reflect dialectal differences..na/ ‘from’ and /be lə.SW) ‫له‬ The GP variant /lə/ is claimed to be nonexistent in Dzadrani. ‫له‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ ‫له‬ (9..M... the circumposition /ye....PST-PTCP... behind [lit.. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.pə liri of. kiza lerya/ ‘from . However..

8. or two words.‫بې )له( خوره ورور یوازي وي‬ be (lə) xor-a wror-Ø yawāzi wi without (from) sister-F. he does not discuss case assignment. Both variants are cited by Lorimer (1902: 39) for Waziri. /pər/.. By contrast.177.1. ‫بې‬ /be/ ‘without’ may govern an object which is typically assigned the ablative case.AOR.228.OBL without movement-M.3.4 The prepositions ‫ په‬/pə/.3.OBL of 3SG.g. we treat the prefix and the preposition as two separate.ABL and dəṛ-ay wəṛay jəsad-Ø wə́-lid-Ø shredded-M. this shows the relationship to the derivational affix.’ (NW) (9. We treat it as corresponding to GP /be/ ‘without’. Lorimer (1902: 39) gives the same analysis for Waziri. 9.Prepositions  9. /pə/ and /pər/.1. la na/ (suggesting that /lə/ is an ambiposition).DIR AOR-see. fulfilling the function of an adjective. ‫ پر‬/pər/ Scholars disagree as to whether Pashto synchronically possesses one polyfunctional word with two pronunciations. Our analysis of the corresponding Dzadrani item differs from that of Septfonds (1994: 269) in that he identifies the /be/ with the future marker (the /bǝ/ of General Pashto).3SG.4) claims that the governing of ablative case-marking by /be/ is limited to singular nouns whose stems are consonant-final. Penzl 1955) suggest that ‫ بې‬/be/ can be thought of as an affix rather than a preposition.3 The preposition 317 ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ Alone or in construction with the preposition ‫له‬ /lə/ ‘from’.M ‘I saw his lifeless and broken body.24.24) ..PRS.DIR ECHO corpse-M.3).STR. See also examples 9. items based on the lexical class of the item governed by /be/.23) .M.M ‘A brother without a sister is lonely.ABL brother-M. but he does mention the presumably cognate circumposition /be . Septfonds (1994: 5.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . but related. as it normally does in General Pashto (see Section 9. Note that in sentence 9.’ Some scholars (e.2 for a ‫بې‬ brief description of its use as an affix deriving adjectives. The object shows abla- ‫بې‬ tive case-marking.PST-PST.3. /pə/.116.DIR lonely be. ‫له‬ (9.‫ما د ده بې حرکته او دړی وړی جسد وليد‬ mā də də be harkat-a aw 1SG. See Section 6.STR. the prepositional phrase is attributively modifying a noun.3SG. Arguments Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.6 and 9.

CONT-PRS. which are discussed in Section 9.ke/.F. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫پر‬ 9.PST-PST. that there are two words.6.3.26: .27.’ (E..28 and 9. 1987: 166–167).3. Below.3SG.1 for a variant of this preposition that incorporates its object.M..WK pen-M.1 The locational /pə/. Afghanistan-M in.25) .M ‘I put a pen on the notebook. and spelling and pronunciation variation does not line up neatly with differences in function. See Section 9.OBL ki tajriba-Ø kaw-í .3PL.⁸ Here we note that the more frequent pronunciation of these items in Dzadrani is /pə/ (Septfonds.4.OBL 1SG...‫په مېز قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø qalam-una di on table-M pen-PL.‫په افغانستان په دښتو اوغرونوکي تجربه کوي‬ ‫کې‬.27) . 1997). Lorenz (1982) takes the position implied here.DIR do.25 with 9. /pər/.in experiment-F.DIR be. Compare example 9..177.. while /pər/ is cognate with Persian /bar/ ‘on’ (Heston.M] ‘They are performing experiments in the deserts and mountains in Afghanistan.DIR AOR\place. /pər/ ‘on’ or a circumposition containing it may be used to express location.... (9.W) Example 9.228. desert-PL. we describe three functions of the prepositions /pə/.PRS. 9 Standardized version of 9.318  Adpositions can be made in both directions.128.’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫به‬ ‫پر‬ ‫بر‬ 8 /pə/ is cognate with Persian /ba/ ‘in. /pər/ ‘on’ Either the preposition /pə/. as shown in examples 9.OBL and mountain-PL.CONT. (9.’⁹ Note again the possibility.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . ..26) pə afɣānistān-Ø pə dəxt-o aw ɣar-uno in.26 shows a circumpositional phrase containing ‫ په‬/pə/.M. to’ . This item can also be the first component in several circumpositions.M ‘There are pens on the table.‫د افغانستان په دښتو او غرونو کي تجربې کوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. mod- ified by a prepositional phrase headed by (9.‫پر کتابچې مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābč-e me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F.3[PL. in at least the NW and SW dialects.5. that either oblique or direct case may be assigned to the object.‫ په‬/pə.

28) 319 .OBL wealth tossing-PL.4.in of energy-F.29) ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ .Prepositions  (9. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.2 show this usage.PST-PST.228.3SG.DIR COMP of India-M.3.WK pen-M. who is a former energy advisor in India's Industrial Federation..3[SG.DIR problem-F.AOR.30) ‫رګو رام چې د هند د صنعت په کانفیدراسیون کې د انرژۍ د برخې پخوانی‬ ‫سلاکار دی وایي چې دغه ستونزه به د خصوصي سکتور د غټو پانګه اچونو په‬ .32).OBL former-M.F.‫پر کتابچه مې قلم کېښود‬ pər kitābča-Ø me qalam-Ø kéxod-Ø on notebook-F. says that this problem will be solved by means of significant investments from the private sector.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be.CONT.‫مرسته حل شي‬ rago rām-Ø če də hind-Ø də sunat-Ø pə Rago Ram-M.DIR 1SG.2 The instrumental /pə/ ‘with..177. often in infinitival form.4.DIR AOR\place.M. The examples in Section 5.OBL of industry-M.3SG.DIR solved š-i become.. Note too the use of /pə/ with an inflected adjective complement (9. (9.OBL in.PRS-PRS.OBL INSTR help-F.OBL of ɣaṭ-o pānga āčawən-o pə mərasta-Ø hál large-PL.M ‘I put a pen on the notebook..OBL of part-F.DIR salākār-Ø day Ø-wāy-í če advisor-M.DIR INSTR knife-M CONT-eat.DIR WOULD of private sector-M.’ (SW) (9. kanfərəns-Ø ke də inerž-əy də barx-e paxwān-ay conference-M .F] ‘Rago Ram.3[SG. by means of’ One use of the preposition /pə/ (but not /pər/) indicates instrumentality or means (compare with example 9.‫زه ډوډۍ په چاکو خورم‬ za ḍoḍ-əy pə čākú-Ø Ø-xor-ə́m 1SG.’ (NW) ‫په‬ ‫په‬ 9.PRS-PRS.DIR food-F.PRS-1SG ‘I eat with a knife.’ ‫ په‬/pə/ may govern an event nominal.STR.PRS.M CONT-tell. which indicates an event that has a causative or circumstantial relationship to the event denoted in the finite verb.136).M] COMP dáɣa stunza-Ø bə də xosusi sektor-Ø də this.

‫دغه کسان په آسانه له نورو حکم نه اخلي‬ daɣa kas-ān pә asān-a də this.’ (9.M. it may be found in construction with an adjectival.32) .DIR INSTR rope-F horse-M.DIR Pashtoon-M.DIR person-PL.M.M.31 with 9. the sentence takes on the sense of a causative construction in which the grammatical subject denotes an ultimate cause of an event expressed through the rest of the sentence: the actor of the caused event is expressed as the prepositional object.CONT. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ ‫په‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. object (as shown in example 9.PRS-3SG.DIR NEG CONT-take.3 ‘The man ties the horse up with a rope.‫په خټه پښتون دی‬ pə xaṭ-a paxtun-Ø d-ay INSTR mud-F.ABL of nor-o hukәm-Ø ná Ø-axl-í other-PL.94).3[PL. see also 9. ‫په‬ ‫پر‬ 9.320  Adpositions ‫په‬ When the object of /pə/ is animate.DIR ‘I did something with great strain.PRS-PRS.WK do.36.228.33) .PL. see also Section 10. as shown in 9.3 The temporal /pə/.‫څه په ګرانه مي کړي‬ tsә pә gran-a mi kә́ṛ-i what INSTR difficult-M. (9.AOR-PTCP.2.31) .34) .81 for a temporal collocation with /pə/.’ ‫په‬ An example of /pə/ conveying manner can be seen in the following examples (see also 9.177.OBL order-M. Compare 9.32.35 and 9. /pər/ ‘at.DIR INSTR easy-M.3. on’ The prepositions /pə/ . In this usage. on’ can govern a noun that refers to a time of day.4.DIR CONT-tie-PRS.M ‘He is Pashtoon by origin.M] ‘These people don't easily take orders from others.ABL 1SG.93 and 9. /pər/ ‘at.154. the animacy value of the prepositional object prompts the interpretation as denoting an intermediate agent or an instrument. rather than nominal.3).‫سړی په رسۍ اس تړي‬ saṛ-ay pə ras-əy ās-Ø Ø-taṛ-i man-M.’ ‫په‬ The preposition /pə/ can appear in a number of idioms indicating manner.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be.’ (9. These lexicalized phrases differ across dialects.ANIM. (9.

OBL attorney-M. Ahmadiya-F.36) ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او ددې هیواد د لوی‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې‬،‫څارنوالي لخوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ .AOR-PRS.DIR AOR-do.OBL ..OBL na ḍaḍa-Ø wə́-kṛ-i .Prepositions  (9.DIR be.AOR.DIR night-F..F COMP of xpəl-o əqāyid-o də xəpar-aw-əl-o own-PL.DIR drunk wo be.PST-PTCP.DIR šúw-e da če də become.AOR.OBL and of mazhabi umur-o də wazir-āno aw də de religious affair-PL.228.CONT.DIR at that. broadcasted-do-INF-PL.CONT.M.PST.PRS..PST-PTCP..M.F.3[SG.‫احمد په هغه شپه دېر نېشه وو‬ ahmad-Ø pə háɣa špa-Ø der-Ø neša Ahmad-M.M.OBL from.M in.OBL ..M.177..M.in də ahmadiy-e na ɣuxtəna-Ø from.F] ‘In the order that was written on Monday night by the ministers of Internal Affairs and of Religious Affairs.3SG.F.CONT.DIR very-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL hand letter šúw-ay day pə haɣ-ə́ ke become.from side-F..‫نه غوښتنه شوېده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ háɣa farmān-Ø če də dāxila čār-o aw də that.DIR order-M.‫غوښتنه شوې ده چې د خپلو عقایدو د خپرولو نه ډډه وکړي‬ 10 Standardized version of 9..’¹⁰ ‫هغه فرمان چې د داخله چارو او د مذهبي امورو د وزیرانو او د دې‬ ‫ په هغه کې د احمدیې نه‬،‫هیواد د لوي څارنوالي له خوا د دوشنبې په شپې لاس لیک شوی دی‬ ..OBL of došanb-e pə šp-e lās lik Monday-F. that-M.OBL haywād-Ø də loy-Ø ʦāranwāl-i lə xwā-Ø də country-M.OBL at night-F.M.OBL of large-M..OBL beliefs-PL.ANIM.OBL and of this..3SG.DIR COMP of internal affair-PL.35) 321 .PRS.OBL of minister-PL.DIR be. as well as by the nation's Attorney General. it was requested that Ahmadiya refrain from proselytizing its beliefs.from request-F.’ (SW) (9.36: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG..M ‘Ahmad was very drunk on that night.OBL from side-F.

PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.37 and 9. as expected after a preposition.’ (SW) 9.F. ‫په‬ (9.228.DIR CONT-eat.322  Adpositions It may also be used with number terms in time expressions to mean at X o'clock. or in the direct form.4 With aspectual verbs Described for Dzadrani (Septfonds. Compare 9.DIR CONT-eat.WK pə wə́-k-ə TMP AOR-do.4.DIR Ø-xwar-ə́m CONT-eat.F.39) .M ‘I took it to her and started [to milk]’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. both pronunciations of the preposition can be found with this meaning: (9.F.PST-PST.’ In some dialects.3SG. the numbers can appear either in the oblique form.F.STR.DIR 1SG.’ (9.DIR 1SG.3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR hour-PL.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.OBL hour-PL.37) .DIR food-F.DIR at two-PL.M attack-M.OBL food-F.PST-PST. In this construction.3. which also show that the object can appear as either singular or plural: (9.DIR hour-F. 1994: 269). and found also in General Pashto.38) .DIR food-F.‫په دوو بجو ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-ó baj-ó ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-PL.WK 3SG-to AOR-take.‫په دوه بجه ډوډۍ خورم‬ pə dw-á baj-á ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m at two-F.177. is a use of /pə/ in construction with aspectual verbs to indicate the beginning of the process.PRS-1SG ‘I eat at two o'clock.38.‫زه پر دوې بجې ډوډۍ خورم‬ zə pər/pə dw-e baj-e ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.40) da me we-ta wə́-niw-Ø brid-Ø me this.

M. For a reduced form of this preposition in construction with the weak third-person pronoun.. Example 9.3SG..‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.much ɣaṭ-Ø ḍaz-Ø pə wə́-kəṛ-Ø če big-M.113 for an alternative form for comparatives and superlatives). ‫تر‬ ‫تر‬ ‫نه‬..OBL situation-M.VOC this. /tər/ also functions as a preposition in comparative and superlative constructions (see also examples 9. na/ ‘from’.1. Karachi-M.DIR be.42) . LOL’ 9.3SG. until’ is claimed to have an optional second component.177.ABL of paxtan-o hāl-Ø Pashtoon-PL.228.. see Section 9..93 for an example of this use..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .41) 323 ‫ دا خو دی دومره غټ ډز په وکړ چی سکاټلینډیانو به په سکاټلینډ‬،‫ وروره‬،‫ارمل‬ ‫ لول‬..AOR.M..3.135 and 9..OBL WOULD in.. Scotland-M . 2006: 156)—see 9.DIR TMP AOR-do.5 The preposition ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‘'up to'’ ‫تر‬ The preposition /tər/ often appears as the first component of several circumpositions. across' (Hewson & Bubenik. as indicated by the parentheses in examples 9.‫د کراچې نه تر کابله د پښتنو حال‬ dә karači-Ø na tәr Kabul-a dә from.PRS.53 gives an example of /tər/ in a common idiom..from up.DIR ‘the state of Pashtoons from Karachi to Kabul’ In the SW dialect. brother.M..109 through 9.M COMP skāṭlanḍ-iāno bə pə skāṭlanḍ-Ø ke Scottish-PL.‫د‬ (9.Prepositions  (9. Across dialects /tər/ may assign direct or oblique case to its ob- ‫)ه( پورې‬.ANIM. it is also found as an independent preposition with a meaning of 'up to.6..OBL so. and can govern the assignment of ablative or direct case marking to its object.in Ø-āwr-ed-ə́l-ay wi lol CONT-hear-PST-PST-PTCP.DIR EMPH this..OBL .136..DIR shot-M. he took such a large shot right then that the Scots must have heard it in Scotland.DIR brother-M. As part of a pair of correlative adpositions ‘from.M LOL ‘Armal...to Kabul-M.to. the circumposition /tər .’ /tər/ pairs with the circumposition /de .‫کی اوریدلی وی‬ armal-Ø oror-a dā xo de dumra Armal-M.AOR-PST.. (a) pore/ ‘up to.

OBL people-PL..in than one nim səl-o ḍer-o xalk-o ta mərg half one.13).DIR than France-M.177.CONT.OBL center-M of attack-M.M..M. (9.F.DIR than all-PL.. for Dzadrani.DIR be.6 The preposition ‫ لکه‬/leka/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ The preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may appear independently or may be part of a circumposition (see 9.M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest [of all].43) ‫ تر‬/tər/ can assign either oblique .3..M.in of police-PL.DIR day be.OBL big-M.OBL . which he transcribes as /pa.M. Septfonds (1997: 8..OBL on yaw-ə merkaz-Ø də brid-Ø pə traʦ-Ø ke tər yaw one-M.‫افغانستان تر فرانسې غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø tər frāns-e ɣaṭ-Ø dəy Afghanistan-M.na/.OBL large-M.45) ‫د پاکستان په کراچۍ ښار کې د پولیسو پر یوه مرکز د برید په ترڅ کې تر یونیم‬ .PST-PTCP..M.OBL to death žobl-a Ø-awuxt-é da injury-F.3SG.OBL house-M.hundred-PL.over.’ A circumposition. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.F ‘More than 150 people were injured or killed during an attack on a police station in Karachi.M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France. Pakistan.44) ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be. the entire circumpositional phrase precedes the adjectival head.OBL in. is cited by Lorimer (1902: 12) as the marker of comparison for Waziri.‫د محمود کور تر ټولو لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø tər ṭol-o lw-ay of Mahmoud-M.CONT.2) claims that or direct case to its object. interval-M .228..324  Adpositions ject.OBL more-PL.PRS.’ (9.DIR CONT-cross.3SG..3SG. 9.3.‫سلو ډیرو خلکو ته مرګ ژوبله اوښتې ده‬ də pākistān-Ø pə karāč-əy ke də polis-o pər of Pakistan-M.PRS.CONT..PRS.OBL in. Karachi-F.’ (9.

like Taghir and Umed.DIR effort-F. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) also identify the independent Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. many items treated in other works as adverbs take objects.DIR name-PL.‫ټلوالې هڅه کړې ځان په ښکلي نومونو سینګار کړي لکه تغییر او امید‬ ṭalwāl-i hatsa-Ø kəṛ-e dzān-Ø pə mass-PL.’ (SW) 9.46) 325 .M.F.DIR like lās pox-e aɣwast-ə́l kíg-i hand cover-F.3[PL.PRS. In any case.DIR wear-INF become.DIR and Ahmed-M. /ta/ ‘to’.3[SG.M.DIR self-M.AOR. indicating an epistemic judgment: (9.1 Overview ‫ته‬ Some other grammars indicate only one postposition for Pashto overall.Postpositions  (9.DIR become.M.F] ‘A [computer] mouse has been made to be worn like a glove.’ ‫چه‬ The preposition can also be used in construction with the complementizer /čə/.M decoration do.DIR ‘Everybody’s been trying to doll themselves up using fancy names. accordingly.AOR-PTCP.4. the claim that /ta/ is the only independent postposition may be true for only some dialects: Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that /ke/ can appear independently in Eastern and Western dialects. as exemplified below.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .48) . some of them are listed in this section.M] like taɣir-Ø aw umed-Ø Taghir-M.‫لکه چه دوی راځي‬ leka čə duy rāʣ-i like COMP 3PL come. ‫ته‬ ‫کې‬ ‫نه‬ also.47) .CONT. Although they do not identify the associated dialects.3 ‘It seems like they are coming.DIR do. Tegey & Robson (1996) indicate that /na/ can appear as an independent postposition in NW and NE dialects.PST-PTCP.CONT-PRS.4 Postpositions 9. However.177.‫داسې ماوس جوړ شوى لکه لاس پوښي اغوښتل کېږي‬ dāse māws-Ø joṛ-Ø šúw-ay leka such mouse-M. with scope over the corresponding proposition.’ (9.228.AOR-PRS.DIR built-M.PRES-PRS.DIR INSTR xkl-i num-uno singā́r kṛ-i leka beautiful-PL.

for’ ‫ ته‬/ta/ is the postposition most commonly described as functioning independently. we consider these cases of incomplete circumpositions.5.DIR give.DIR school-M.50). Its object appears in the oblique case form.326  Adpositions ‫باتدې‬ postposition /bānde/ ‘up.SG ‘Give the book to Ahmad.STR.‫احمد ته کتاب ورکړه‬ ahmad-Ø ta kitāb-Ø wə́rkəṛ-a Ahmad-M. 9.49) ‫و‬ . Shafeev 1964) claim that /la/and /lara/ are variants of /ta/. in construction with the preposition /wə/.177.OBL for tsapl-əy ham w-ā́xl-a sandals-F.51) . and may also govern beneficiary arguments.162 and 9.’ ‫له‬ ‫لره‬ Several sources (Skalmowski 1996. To the extent we can discern. There are several morphosyntactic conditions under which the first component of a circumposition is omitted.SG ‘Take the money and buy some sandals for yourself. or a circumposition with its first component omitted.SG self-M.2). we have found it described for Dzadrani (see Table 9. rather than cases of complete postpositions.164.7.DIR rupee-F.PRS-IMP.71. Note that /ta/ can also function as the second component of a circumposition.OBL to book-M. ‫ته‬ (9. See Section 9. Pate (2012: 18) cites the circumposition as possible for the Kandahari dialect. while it was marked as archaic by Lorimer (1902) for Waziri. with the postposition preferred. above’.PRS-IMP.228.‫داروپې واخله ځانه ته څپلې هم واخله‬ dā rup-əy w-ā́xl-a dzān-a ta this. appears to be much less common. There is little agreement as to which variant is more character- ‫ته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL to go. In practical terms. however. whose cognate /bondi/ ‘atop.49) and recipients (9. It governs arguments denoting destinations (9.2 The postposition ‫ ته‬/ta/ ‘to.DIR AOR-take. as in 7.CONT. in particular the discussion preceding sentences 9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR also AOR-take. after Lorimer (1902).PRS-1PL ‘We are going to school’ (9.4.AOR-IMP.50) . This form. above’ we here identify with Middle varieties.‫موږ ښوونځي ته ځو‬ muẓ ṣowəndz-i ta ʣ-ú 1PL. it is often difficult to decide whether an item is a postposition.’ (9.

‫ملا محمد عمر افغان حکومت سره خبرې رد کړلې‬ mullā-Ø mohammed-Ø omar-Ø afghan Mullah-M.M.DIR on head-.AOR-PRS. 1996: 155–156). (9.2).AOR-PST-PST.’ This situation is sometimes described as a dialect-dependent optional omission of the first component of a circumposition (Tegey & Robson.66 and 9.52) .M COMP of Kabul-M. and the stem as a nominal with the approximate meaning ‘opposite’.228.M.M.177. /səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ can be found as an independent postposition: ‫سره‬ (9.DIR CONT-want.F ‘Mullah Mohammed Omar rejected talks with the Afghan government.DIR rejection keṛ-l-e do.F.OBL COMIT word-PL.OBL against fāliyat-una tər sar-á kṛ-i activity-PL.M] ‘The Taliban wanted to undertake anti-government activities on the road from Kabul to Jalalabad.3PL.Postpositions  istic of which dialect group. anti-’ (also pronounced /zed-e/) denotes opposition.OBL jalālābad-Ø pər lāra-Ø dawlat-Ø zidi Jalalabad-M.4.PST-PST.OBL Omar-M.4 The postposition ‫ ضدی‬/zidi/ ‘against’ ‫ضدی‬ The postposition /zidi/ ‘against.OBL on road-F.3PL. 9.OBL Afghan hukumat-Ø səra xabər-e rád government-M.‫ جلال اباد پر لاره دولت ضدي فعاليتونه ترسره کړي‬.4.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL Mohammed-M.‫طالبانو غوښتل د کابل‬ tālibān-o Ø-ɣuxt-əl če də kābəl-Ø Taliban-PL. in everyday use. however.53) . among these.DIR government-M.3[PL. It can also be used to govern a predicate or modifier.ABL do. with the approximate meaning ‘contrary’ (see Section 6.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3 The postposition 327 ‫ لره‬/lara/ appears to be the rarest ‫ سره‬/səra/ ‘with’ Though more common as a component of a circumposition (see examples 9.8.99). 9.

‫په‬ For some dialects..5.177.OBL like 3.55) .ANIM.4.4..CONT. (9.‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F.PST-PTCP.WK gulp do.5. /bānde/ can function with a range of meanings similar to those of /pə.6 The postposition ‫ غوندې‬/ɣunde/ ‘like’ ‫لکه‬ Both this postposition and the preposition /leka/ ‘like’ may independently govern an object.328  9.PST.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become.54) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ .M.4. A use of postposition /bondi/ in Waziri that we have not found in General Pashto is within number names. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. an example is given in Section 6.13.’ 9. or may be combined into the circumposition exemplified in sentence 9..5 Adpositions The postposition ‫ و ړاندې‬/wṛānde/ ‘before’ ‫وړاندې‬ Although it has not been described as a postposition by other Pashto scholars.DIR be.228.bānde/. see Section 9.M. (9.. See 9. /wṛānde/ ‘before’ fits our definition of a postposition that governs ablative case on its object.‫شـربـت غـونـدې يـې غـړپ کـه‬ šarbat-Ø ɣunde ye ɣáṛp k-a alcohol-SG.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL.OBL one-M.3 for more information.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.OBL society-F.AOR.1SG ‘A few days ago.SG ‘Chug it like a beer.OBL conference-M.AOR-IMP.OBL international-F. I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.’ 9.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.M.OBL before of student-PL.7 The postposition ‫ باتدې‬/bānde/ ‫باتدې‬ ‫باندې‬.54 for an example.

M] ‘When they put the fire after you and they approach you . /pse/ ‘after’ may be used as an independent postposition in Dzadrani. some speakers of Northern dialects have reported that they can be found in those dialects as well.PRS-1PL ‘Sometimes we gather village people for harvesting by hand.STR. /londi/ ‘beneath.57 shows /(p)se/ used as a postposition.177.. such as Heston (1987: 169) and Dessart (1994).¹² Our analysis is somewhat different in two ways.8 Some additional postpositions in Middle dialects In apparent contrast to GP.OBL from work-M. each circumposition can be analyzed as a combination of a preposition and a postposition. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-PRS.56 gives an example of /na/ used as a postposition. such as the constraint against weak pronouns inside circumpositions: Example 9. and 9. go further and state or hint that the circumpositions are the result of free combinations of prepositions and postpositions and are not completely conventionalized. 12 Some authors.228. This conflicts with most claims about General Pashto that they are only components of circumpositions..’ /pere/ ‘across’. however.’ (WAZ)¹¹ (9.4.Circumpositions  329 9. We nevertheless find it useful to treat the most commonly occurring circumpositions as (discontinuous) lexical items. First.’ (DZA) 9.3[PL. and sometimes we use the reaper.M] ne če der-bež-iž-i then COMP 2-near-become.3[PL. some of these may represent dialect differences.DIR fire-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . some of the elements found in circumpositions do not function as independent prepositions 11 The glossing of /bagra-Ø/ as ‘manual. among others.57) kəla če dəy yer-Ø de se wə́-čaw-i when COMP 3PL.DIR AOR\take.DIR 2 after AOR-throw-PRS. as independent postpositions.PRS-1PL aw kala biyā ripəl-Ø nə kor-Ø wóxl-i and when then reaper-M. According to many grammarians of Pashto.5 Circumpositions The majority of adpositions in Pashto are circumpositions.harvest’ is uncertain. and some may exemplify constraints that resemble those of General Pashto.OBL manual. For Waziri.56) kala kala e šār-Ø bagra-Ø wə́-nis-i when when of city-M. (9.harvest(?)-F. Lorimer (1902: 39) lists the independent postpositions /kxe/ ‘on’.CONT. Attested examples suggest an even larger inventory of items that can be used as independent postpositions.DIR AOR-gather.

according to the definition above. circumpositions function as single relations governing a single complement. Other studies treat the components as separate words.2. we list the sequence as if it were a circumposition. showing common circumpositions of Dzadrani and Waziri. It is evident that this is also an area of dialectal variation: besides there being differences in pronunciation associated with dialects. the second component of many of these may appear independently with approximately the meaning of the circumposition.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .1 shows many of the simple circumpositions we have found for General Pashto. and variability noted throughout this section constitutes some evidence in favor of this view. and there is not full consensus on even which are the most frequent. as well as in some Middle dialects. apparently there is some freedom in how the elements are combined. rendering the effect of a postposition.1.330  Adpositions or postpositions (though perhaps most do).228. we want to emphasize that although they consist of separate parts that are in some cases identifiable as independent words. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. either through our own research or in other sources. the first component of some circumpositions appears to be fairly freely omissible. it is not always easy to tell whether an item is a true circumposition. When we are in doubt as to this question. Second. Some of those differences are reflected in Table 9.177. Since an adpositional phrase can take an adpositional phrase rather than a noun phrase as an object. on the grounds that such phrases may be in the process of lexicalization. there are also differences in which combinations are to be found as circumpositions. or is (for instance) a preposition with a postpositional phrase as its object. Of the circumpositions listed in Table 9. Other dictionaries and descriptions show additional combinations or alternative orderings. In many of the Northern dialects of Pashto. Table 9.

...‫له‬ də..124 ‫پسې‬.lānde ‘under’ 9.63 ‫څخه‬. lānde ‫ لاندې‬..... pəse ‫ پسې‬.. ‫پر‬ pər ..... by means of’ 9. ‫کې‬... səra ‫ سره‬. ‫د‬ ....‫له‬ də.101 ‫څخه‬....... Table 9....ke ‘in...na ‘from’ 9.‫په‬ lə.‫په‬ də..‫له‬ də.. ʦəxa ‫ څخه‬.. ‫تر‬ lə.ʦəxa ‘from’ 9..‫تر‬ lə. pə...104 ‫نه‬..134 ‫پورې‬.‫تر‬ pər... pə..lānde ‘under’ 9...‫د‬ ....pore ‘with’ ‫ پورې‬..bānde ‘on top of.. ...‫په‬ . ‫په‬ tər ......65 ‫ پورې‬.pəse ‘after’ ‫ پسې‬. ..... at..... .....128 ‫باندې‬...99 ‫سره‬.1: Some GP simple circumpositions   pə. na ‫ نه‬... lə.177.ʦəxa ‘from’ 9..lānde ‘under’ 9.səra ‘with’ 9...na ‘from’ 9. tər.228..pore ‘up to.. pə......‫په‬ .66 ‫سره‬... ke ‫ کې‬...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 331 ......100 ‫لاندې‬...123 pə ...... lə .‫له‬ də.. ‫له‬ də .139 ‫لاندې‬....səra ‘with’ 9.. ‫د‬ ↓first component →second component tər..pore ‘until..pəse ‘after. across’ 9..132 ‫سره‬.səra ‘with’ 9.‫د‬ .....‫د‬ . ‫د‬ . behind’ 9...... ‫پر‬ də.... on’ 9.. up to’ 9... pore ‫ پورې‬. Circumpositions  Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132... bānde ‫ باندې‬...61 ‫لاندې‬. . ‫د‬ .59 ‫نه‬.

/pə..g.AOR.PST-PTCP..1.332  Adpositions Table 9.177.228.58) ʣəke če doy pə daɣa bonde ḍer-a because COMP 3PL. Lorimer 1902). (9.. /ye/ and /de/ may vary freely in circumpositions. in positions corresponding largely to the ones in Table 9. and some of them may vary with forms found also in General Pashto (e.OBL on.F. since in the Middle dialects..DIR ziyot-a krāy-a Ø-wəxíst-e wi much-F.2 may be understood as corresponding to the first two rows of that table.2 shows the circumpositions cited for Middle dialects (Septfonds 1994.DIR .DIR fee-F..PRS.DIR CONT-take.DIR be. The first row of Table 9.58) in contrast with /pə..on much-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .nde/).F ‘Because they have already gotten a lot of money as carriage charges for that.3SG.M..’ (DZA) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.bānde/ (9. this. Some of these forms may also be found in GP dialects..

.....  pə. londe Table 9. up to’ pə. na tər...londe ‘under’ pə...pera ‘until...na ‘from..kxe ‘in.nde ‘on top’ 9..42 .177.ta Circumpositions  333 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.....ta ‘to’ ..bondi pə.... kxe (xe) tər.130 .. with’ 8. (p)se tər. with’ yə.44 . at. pə ....61 ...nde...sra ‘with’ yə.pera ‘until’ .2: Some Middle Dialect circumpositions in contrast with GP wa........londe ‘under’ . ... (y)ə .na ‘from.. tər ..pera ‘with’ yə... on’ 8...65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .sra ‘with’ 8....127 .. first ↓ component second component → pə..228. pera pə..pse ‘in.. after’ 9. səra wa.londi ‘under’ yə....

who claim to describe a Northwest.F.177..’ • ‫لاندې‬. ‫د‬ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. out of’ In this construction.from come. Kabuli variety of Pashto.from come. (9. house-M. ‫د‬ • ‫ نه‬.‫د سایې لاندي ناست یم‬ də sāy-e lāndi nāst-Ø yəm under.1SG ‘I am sitting in the shade.. oblique case is assigned to the object.OBL .AOR.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.OBL .lānde/ ‘under’ (9..F ‘There is water under the carpet.CONT...¹³ The ones we have found are exemplified in this section.228.‫د کور نه راغلم‬ də kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from.61) .. ‫ د‬/də..’ (9.M. carpet-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Compare example 9.).8 with 9.1 General Pashto simple circumpositions with /də/ The preposition /də/ can combine with a number of postpositions to form simple circumpositions.. ‫ د‬/də..PRS.PST-PTCP..DIR be.under sitting-M..‫د کابل نه راغلی یم‬ də kābəl-Ø na rā́ɣl-ay from.DIR be..‫د غالۍ لاندې اوبه دي‬ də ɣāl-əy lānde ob-ə d..CONT.AOR.1SG ‘I came from Kabul.i under.1. shadow-F.5.59) .334  9.60) .under water-PL...’ (SW) (9.DIR yəm be...PRS. do not list /də/ as a component of circumpositions.62) ... who claims to be describing the same variety.na/ ‘from...’ 13 Tegey & Robson (1996: 154ff.5.PRS. does give examples of circumpositions with /də/. recognizing only the variant /lə/ as a possible components. Babrakzai (1999: 44).60.OBL .... Kabul-M.3PL.OBL .CONT.1 Adpositions Circumpositions with ‫ د‬/də/ ‫د‬ 9.

səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9.‫د دوسته پورې په موټر کې ولاړم‬ də dost-ə pore pə moṭər-Ø ke wlā́ṛ-əm up.‫له‬ Note too the apparently synonymous phrase /lə.66) ...]’ (SW) (9..‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬ də ahmad-Ø səra kampyuṭər-Ø nə šta COMIT...‫ له‬/lə. as in examples ‫سره‬.‫ د‬/də. on account of.9..4.. Ahmad-M.OBL ...OBL .7): ‫له دې سره‬ ‫سره‬..‫تر‬ /tər.lānde/ (see 9.63) . best translated as nonetheless or thereby (see also Section 11.‫د لرګي څخه بېرېږم‬ də larg-i ʦəxa Ø-ber-éẓ-əm from....to.5.DIR NEG EXT ‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer..lānde/ (see 9.AOR.‫تر‬ /tər.PST-1SG ‘I went to my friend by car’ (NW) This relation can also be expressed with 9. see 9.COMIT computer-M.OBL ..4.’ (SW) ‫سره‬. as well as the idiomatic phrase /la de səra/ ‘with this’ .STR..102. see 9.177.‫ د‬/də.DIR EXT ‘I have three good books..pore/ ‘up to’ (9.2.Circumpositions  335 This can also be expressed with ‫لاندې‬.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .. (9.’ For dialectal variants.228.139)...1..‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه سته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG.. The following sentence exemplifies the common “joining with” use of /də.133 ....64) .from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit..tsəxa/ ‘from.......to in.səra/.. • ‫پورې‬.‫ د‬/də.səra/. friend-M.ABL ..65) .....100).. car-M. and with ‫لاندې‬. which is exemplified in Section 9. • ‫څخه‬..pore/.in go..M... I am afraid of the stick.135.OBL from three good book-PL.. for a postpositional use of ‫ څخه‬/ʦəxa/. stick-M....up..’ (NE) • ‫پورې‬.64.

‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتاونېږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل‬ ..4) notes that the postpositional component of this item can be heard as /sra/ and..COMIT from pul-e xpəl-Ø pawʣ-iān də border-F. See Section 10..2 Middle dialect simple circumpositions with /ye/..3[SG..‫افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ lə de səra bə pākistān-Ø COMIT.COMIT WOULD Pakistan-M. 9.M] ‘Nonetheless.M.DIR wə́-tawan-eg-i če də hindustān-Ø səra lə AOR-able-PRS-PRS. /e/ A local variant of the GP preposition /də/ is Middle /de/. less often.OBL .‫پوځیان د افغانستان سره اوږده سرحد ته واستوي‬ 14 Standardized version of9.2.. āfɣānistān-Ø səra ugd-a sarhad-Ø ta Afghanistan-M.. . and it is the first component in many of the same circumpositions..228.M.67: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ده‬ • /ə.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ Septfonds (1994: 5..67) ‫له دې سره به پاکستان وتوانیږي چې د هندوستان سره له پولې خپل پوځیان د‬ . we are showing here the circumpositions using the more common variants /ye/∼/e/. it is less common in the Middle dialects than the variants /ye/ and /e/.OBL . which apparently vary freely with each other..1. However.177.OBL to w-ā́staw-i AOR-send-PRS.’¹⁴ ‫سه‬ The particle /səra/ can appear independently and without an overt object.ANIM.OBL own-PL..M] COMP COMIT. Because the /de/ form is the less common..3.336  Adpositions (9.COMIT long-M.OBL border-M.2.OBL .5.DIR COMIT. /sa/. Pakistan will be able to send their forces from the border with India to the long border with Afghanistan.1 for more discussion and some examples..3[SG. this.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .1.DIR force-PL. India-M. with interpretation determined by context.

lə pāra/ ‘for..OBL .. exemplified here.OBL .PRS..70) ye de mlo-Ø kra wolma day at.3SG.. • /ye.də pāra/ .M] ‘Sometimes their head is in danger.PRS..Circumpositions  337 (9.DIR be.M ‘He is invited to the mullah's. death-M..nə/ can be used with various functions associated with separation or differentiation. the first component is that complement marked by /də/.....3 Complex circumpositions with /də/ As discussed in Section 9. is related to GP phrases using forms of /kor/ ‘house’.CONT. We conjecture that this use.the.’ (WAZ) He notes further that this item fulfills the a broad range of functions including association. As these examples show. as exemplified in sentences 9.2.177.3[PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .. home invited be. to mark a participant who is involuntarily involved in and affected by an event..1.68) kəla kəla xo e sar-Ø xatár-Ø when when EMPH of head-M. the rule about positioning a phrase with /də/ at the beginning of its noun phrase often results in the effect of a circumposition. kra/.PRS...151 and 9. they are faced with death..5..69) e to na kəšər-Ø da than.M ‘Is he younger than you?’ (WAZ) Septfonds notes that this circumposition can work as in a malefactive-type construction.OBL . the second component consists of an adpositional phrase with a complement-taking. and means.CONT. kra/ ‘at the home of’ This distinctive circumposition is translated as chez in Septfonds (1994: 267) and cited also by Lorimer (1902: 39) as /de .1.8: ‫کور‬ (9.. for the sake of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. of mullah-M.OBL danger-M.nə/ The circumposition /ye.STR.DIR wi yane e marg-Ø səra məxāmə́x be.M that. ‫ د‬/də. 2SG.AOR.. nominal..3.228.AOR...is COMIT.PRS-PRS... that is. ‫ له پاره‬..3SG.COMIT facing š-i become. accompaniment. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ • ‫ دپاره‬. including marking the standard of comparison (compare GP 9.. • /ye .. ‫ د‬/də.’ (DZA) ‫د‬ 9..3SG. often abstract or relational.than young-M.109): (9.. possession.

in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up.DIR decision-F.OBL to of thirty thousand-PL...F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term. Here the circumpositional phrase containing /də.DIR path-F.73) ‫د نو کانو ژوول ښایي ماشومانو ته د تشویشونو او خوابدیو د ځرکندولو یوه لار‬ .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M.3[PL.OBL and sadness-PL.WK of national office-M...DIR be.338  Adpositions (9..M. ‫د‬ ‫پرېکړه‬ (9.OBL one-F.AOR.M.DIR .3[SG.‫ریاست په دوره کی ترټولو سخته پریکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M.M.OBL from sake-M.. as in this example.ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M.PRS-PRS.DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.F.OBL from sake-M.OBL of send-INF-PL.M.M] ‘Biting the fingernails may be a way for children to express concerns or distress.72) ‫افغانستان ته د دیرش زره اضافی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه یی د جمهوری‬ ..M.177.DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy.OBL də ʦargand-aw-əl-o yaw-a lār-Ø of revealed-do-INF-PL.‫وي‬ də nuk-āno žuw-əl-Ø xāyi of fingernail-PL.ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.lə pāra/ is the complement of /prekṛa/ ‘decision’: ‫ له پاره‬.DIR of Ahmad-M.PRS.OBL in.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad. term-F.PST-PST.DIR 3.ANIM.DIR wi be.’ (SW) Verbal nouns within adpositional phrases may express the complements of verbs or.’ (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.M.OBL for of concern-PL.DIR maybe māsum-āno tə də tašwiš-uno aw xwābd-io child-PL. nominalizations.M.PST.CONT.3SG.71) .AOR.OBL to go.228.to all-PL.3SG.ANIM..OBL difficult-F.M COMP medicine-M.OBL bite-INF-PL.

‫ د‬/də..M.DIR di be.‫د احمد په باره کي ډېرې مقالې لیکل شوي دي‬ də ahmad-Ø pə bāra-Ø ki ḍer-e of Ahmad-M...OBL to of Zalmay-M.F ‘Many articles have been written about Ahmad.DIR write-INF become.pə bāra ke/ ‘about’ (9...in many-PL.’ (SW) (9.PL....Circumpositions  • ‫ په باره کې‬.DIR .74) .CONT.3PL.OBL in.....PST-PTCP.in Ø-ẓaɣ-éẓ-i če mā ʦanga CONT-speak-PRS-PRS..75) .. subject-F.STR.OBL in.177.OBL teacher-M.pə bāb/ ‘about’ (9..DIR .PRS. ‫ د‬/də.F ‘He is talking about how I won the race. ‫ د‬/də.M.228.M ‘What have you said about Zalmay to the teacher?’ (SW) • ‫ په ځای‬.STR..AOR.F. subject-F...pə ʣāy/ ‘instead of’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR of contest-F.’ (SW) • ‫ په باب‬.3SG..OBL on bāb-Ø tsə Ø-way-ə́l-i subject-M what CONT-tell.OBL how wə́-gaṭ-əl-ə AOR-win-PST-PST.F.3[SG.PST-PST-PTCP..F.DIR di be.‫دی د مسابقې په باره کې ږغېږي چه ما څنګه وګټله‬ day də mušābiq-e pə bāra-Ø ke 3SG.PL.STR.3PL.M] COMP 1SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 339 .CONT.76) ‫تاسو ښوونکي ته د زلمي په باب څه ویلي دی؟‬ tāso ṣwunk-i tə də zalm-i pə 2PL.DIR maqāl-e lik-əl šə́w-i article-PL.PRS.

81 below.SG. a corresponding item in Waziri can be found in 9.STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫د صنف په مخ کې ودرید‬ də sinf-Ø pə məx-Ø ke wə́-dar-id-Ø of class-M.CONT.M.3SG..DIR assigned-M.M ‘He stood in front of the class.79) !‫د احمد په مخ کې ما ته څه مه وایئ‬ də ahmad-Ø pə məx-Ø ke mā ta ʦə má of Ahmad-M.PST-PTCP.DIR person-M.3SG.3SG.in AOR-stop-PST-PST..PRS..PL ‘Don't tell me anything in front of Ahmad!’ (9.1PL good WOULD be..PRS.78) .’ Septfonds (1994) translates the Dzadrani collocation /pə məx/ as ‘immediately’.M.. ‫ د‬/də.DIR šáw-ay dəy become.DIR COMP Kandahar to go.. face-M .228.PRS.177.in 1SG.’ (SW) (9.‫د ضیا په ځای بل کس مقرر شوی دئ‬ də ziā-Ø pə ʣāy-Ø bal-Ø kas-Ø muqarar-Ø of Zia-M.pə məx ke/ ‘in front of’ This circumposition has more and less literal uses: (9.’ (SW) • ‫په مخ کې‬.OBL on place-M other-M. face-M .AOR..77) Adpositions .340  (9.AOR.OBL in.M ‘Someone else has been appointed instead of Zia.80) ..DIR be...OBL in.. note the variation in the location of the genitive phrase: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M ‘It will be better to go to Kandahar instead of Kabul.OBL to what NEG Ø-wāy-ə́y CONT-tell-IMP..AOR šu ṣə bə wi be.PRS.‫د کابل په ځای چه کندهار ته لاړ شو ښه به وي‬ də kābul pə ʣāy čə kandahār ta lā́ṛ of Kabul in place.AOR.

.OBL in.(pə) xwā ke/ ‘alongside’ (9.. ‫ د‬/də.AOR..3[PL.M] ‘When these goods become excessive in their area.83) .. • ‫ له امله‬.84.OBL effort-M..M.DIR this.81) dā mol-ina če kala ile ḍér-Ø this.PRS-PRS.3SG.DIR CONT-do..M ‘A car passed beside Ahmad..M.228.M ‘I have suffered much loss because of Ahmad.M.PRS-PRS.M.DIR goods-PL.DIR wə́-ras-ed-Ø AOR-arrive.STR. 9.OBL to e rasaw-ə́l-e košəš-Ø Ø-k-í of send-INF-PL.82) .DIR š-i biyā dáɣa qāčābar become..PST-PST-PST.ABL 1SG..177.DIR goods-PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .in passed-M.DIR of Ahmad-M.‫موټر د احمد )په( خوا کي تېر شو‬ moṭər-Ø də ahmad-Ø (pə) xwā-Ø ki tér-Ø car-M.OBL nor-e stər-e šār-e ta other-PL..Circumpositions  341 (9. then smugglers immediately try to send these goods to other big cities in the country.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.’ (WAZ) • ‫ )په( خوا‬.’ (SW) Both the version with the postposition and that without were acceptable to our speaker.‫د احمد له امله ما ته زیان ورسېد‬ də ahmad-Ø lə amal-a mā ta zyān-Ø of Ahmad-M.OBL city-PL...OBL to loss-M.PST-PST.OBL from cause-M.DIR on face-M of məlk-Ø country-M. side-F .M] then this.M.AOR.M.lə amala/ ‘because of’ (see also 9.M. ‫ د‬/də.OBL large-PL.DIR šu-Ø become.3SG.DIR smuggling xalək-Ø dáɣa mol-ina pə max-Ø e people-PL.85) (9.3[PL.DIR COMP when here much-PL.

PST-PTCP.DIR COMP results-PL.DIR 3.342  (9.228.OBL in.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M.PRS.. Afghanistan-M. elections-PL..in amniat-Ø ná šta security-M....OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want. Asad too has been wounded.M.pə šān/ ‘like’ (9.AOR.DIR be.OBL vast-PL.PST-PTCP.ABL in.CONT.85) ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.SG má NEG..OBL INSTR manner-M become.OBL .M..177.OBL INSTR manner-M Asad-M.PL.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M.ABL from high-F.’ • ‫ په شان‬.’ (9.PRS-IMP.OBL lawyer-F.F.AOR-PRS.M ‘Like John.OBL court-F.3[SG.’ (9.OBL fraud-PL.3SG.DIR also wounded šúw-ay dəy become..‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬ də jang-Ø lə amal-a pə afɣānistān-Ø ke of war-M.WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.F.M.‫غوښتي چې نتایج باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F..OBL from cause-M.F.PST-PTCP..DIR NEG EXT ‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war. ‫ د‬/də.in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become.CONT.‫د جان په شان اسد هم ټپی شوی دی‬ də jān-Ø pə šān-Ø asad-Ø ham ṭəpi of John-M.86) .84) Adpositions ..OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .87) !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M..AOR.PL.

94..AOR-SG.5). Ahmad does not do good work.PST-PTCP.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.lə xwā/ ‘by’ This circumposition may be used to mark the agent of an action when it is not the subject.’ (9..91) .5.228.90) . ‫ د‬/də.motion-M. as in sentence 9.M ‘Afghanistan has been moving towards development.M ‘His house was surrounded by police.Circumpositions  • 343 ‫په څېر‬..OBL house-M.pə lor/ ‘towards’ (9.DIR also good kār-Ø ná kaw-í work-M.OBL INSTR sort-M Ahmad-M.3.92 below.PRS.PST.DIR from side-F.DIR of development-F.CONT-PRS..M] ‘Like Mahmoud.88) .motion-M.‫د محمود په څېر احمد هم ښه کار نه کوي‬ də mahmud-Ø pə ʦer-Ø ahmad-Ø ham xa of Mahmoud-M..DIR be.3[SG.1.PST-PST.177. ‫ د‬/də.91 and 9.PRS.’ • ‫له خوا‬. as in denominal verb constructions (see Section 8.‫د امریکا په لور روان شوی دی‬ də amrikā-Ø pə lor-Ø rawān-Ø of America-F.DIR šáw-ay dəy become..5.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .WK surrounded šáw-Ø become.‫افغانستان د ترقۍ په لور روان شوی دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø də taraq-əy pə lor-Ø Afghanistan-M.89) .DIR be.3SG.’ • ‫ په لور‬.DIR NEG do.AOR. It may also mark the agent of a nominalized form of a verb.M ‘He is heading towards America.OBL on direction-M in.2 and Section 11..CONT.2.DIR 3.CONT.M. This is exemplified in 9..pə ʦer/ ‘like’ (9.‫د پولیس له خوا کوریی محاصره شو‬ də polis-Ø lə xwā-Ø kor-Ø ye mahāsra of police-PL. (9...3SG.DIR become.M.AOR..3SG. ‫ د‬/də..OBL on direction-M rawān-Ø šáw-ay dəy in.

’ (9.OBL from side-F.M.‫د مذهبي ډلو له خوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR of Ahmad-M.DIR AOR-NEG do.OBL statement-F.OBL INSTR haste-F.’ This circumposition may also express origin: (9.PRS.F] ‘Advice is being given to them from religious groups.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR give-INF do.PRS-PRS.OBL from side-F.OBL of intiqād-uno yadawəna-Ø wə-nə́ kṛ-a criticism-PL.SG.177.OBL rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.‫دا لیک د احمد له خوا راغلی دئ‬ dā lik-Ø də ahmad-Ø lə xwā-Ø this.CONT.DIR up.to Shiranai-M.‫د امریکا له خوا د انتقادونو یادونه ونکړه‬ də rusiy-e jumhor-Ø rais-Ø pə mustaqima-Ø of Russian-F.M ‘This letter came from Ahmad.M.OBL 3 to advice mašwar-a wərkaw-ə́l kíg-i advice-SG.AOR.93) .228.OBL from side-F.DIR be.M.OBL pə āṛa-Ø də amrikā-Ø lə xwā-Ø də on topic-F.DIR letter-M.OBL INSTR direct-F.OBL president-M.OBL republic-M.DIR of Moscow-M.STR.OBL ó-rasaw-əl-u AOR-deliver-PST-PST.M.3SG.’¹⁵ (9.3SG.92: .F.DIR self-M.DIR toga-Ø də mosko-Ø də ḍəmokrās-əy də sābəq-e manner-F.3[SG.94) ‫د روسیي جمهور رئیس په مستقیمه توګه د مسکو د ډموکراسۍ د سابقي په اړه‬ .F ‘Criticisms from America regarding Moscow's history with democracy were not directly mentioned by the Russian president.’ (SW) 15 Standardized version of 9.95) .‫هغه په نبړه ځان تر سیرینئ اورسولو‬ haɣə́ pə biṛa-Ø ʣān-Ø tər širin-əy 3SG.OBL of democracy-F.DIR of America-F.PST-PTCP.‫د مذهبي ډلو لخوا ورته سلا مشوره ورکول کېږي‬ də mazhabi ḍəl-o lə xwā-Ø wər tə salā of religious group-PL.M ‘He hurriedly got himself near Shirinai.92) .AOR-PST.OBL of history-F.344  Adpositions (9.

.228.M..OBL country-M ..OBL from side-F. ‫تیر کال د ملګرو ملتونو د امنیت شورا له لورې د ایران د اتومي فعاایتو له‬ .DIR of thief-PL..OBL nation-PL.‫ د‬/də lə xwā/ ‘by’. this.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3PL.AOR.OBL of atomic fāliat-o lə kabəl-a pər de haywād-Ø ke activities-PL..lə lure/ ‘by’ Like ‫له خوا‬.PST-PST.PST-PST.3SG.AOR.M ‘A banker was killed by thieves.96) ter-Ø kāl-Ø də malgr-o milat-uno də passed-M..‫ د‬/də.OBL of Iran-M.97) .Circumpositions  • 345 ‫له لورې‬...DIR banker-M.DIR year-M. this circumposition can also be used to indicate an agent.‫کبله پر دې هیواد کې وضعه شول‬ (9.M.in wázā šwu-əl established become.’ (9.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.ABL in.‫یو صراف د غلو له لورې ووژل شو‬ yaw-Ø sarrāf-Ø də ɣəl-o lə lur-e one-M..M ‘[The sanctions] were implemented last year in Iran by the United Nations Security Council.M.OBL from cause-M.DIR of friend-PL.OBL wə́-waž-əl šu-Ø AOR-kill-INF become.177.OBL from side-F.OBL of amniat šurā-Ø lə lur-e də irān-Ø də atomi security council-F..

.F.2 General Pashto circumpositions with ‫ له‬/lə/ ‫له‬ ‫د‬ Many grammars describe /lə/ as a variant of /də/ that can appear in circumpositions.OBL this.‫ له‬/lə..OBL from side-F.5.OBL of Iran-M. The postpositional component is the one to look to for the meaning information.M.M.‫بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكوم كړه‬۱۵ (9. ‫له‬ 9..DIR videotaped document-F.in seize-INF become...’ ‫ په كې‬،‫بریتانیا د ایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ .WK word-PL.98) britānyā-Ø də irān-Ø lə lur-e háɣa Britain-F.DIR xəpura-Ø šuw-e widiỵowi paṭa-Ø broadcast-F.228..9.5.AOR-PST.102.DIR show-INF kíg-i mahkúm kṛ-a become..2.DIR become.AOR.99) .DIR wə́-kəṛ-e AOR-do.COMIT 1SG.AOR-PST.3SG..177.99 .’¹⁶ 9.CONT.OBL . Ahmad-M.PRS-PRS. as shown in Examples 9.M] condemned do.F ‘I talked with Ahmad.DIR če pə ke niw-ə́l šúw-i 15 COMP in.DIR 15 britānawi samandari sartir-i xud-ə́l British marine soldier-PL. .PL.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .PST-PTCP..PST-PTCP.səra/ ‘[comitative] with’ (9.98: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.346  Adpositions ‫په كې نیول شوي‬،‫بریتانیا دایران له لورې هغه خپره شوې ویډویي پټه چې‬ . • ‫له‬ ‫سره‬.‫له احمد سره مې خبرې وکړې‬ lə ahmad-Ø səra me xabər-e COMIT..1 GP simple circumpositions with /lə/ What follows are the most commonly encountered simple circumpositions starting with /lə/.‫ بریتانوي سمندري سرتیري ښودل كیږي محكومه كړه‬۱۵ ‫نیول شوي‬ 16 Standardized version of 9..3[PL.AOR..F ‘Britain condemned a video tape broadcast by Iran in which 15 captured Naval soldiers were shown.3PL.F.

lānde/ under.100) .2..under di be..’ (9.PST-PTCP.OBL .OBL under..OBL .from come.101) /lə. For a variant with the /də/.DIR of attack-PL... ‫د‬ ... see 9..from CONT-fear-PRS-1SG ‘I am afraid of a beating [lit.PRS.‫له کابل څخه راغلی یم‬ lə kābə́l-Ø ʦə́xa rā́ɣl-ay from.PRS-1SG ‘I have come from Kabul.’ • ‫څخه‬.M..F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do..M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit..63.. see Section 10.1. Kabul-M...AOR-PST.3SG.. from below (9. I am afraid of the stick].. • ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ ‫لاندې‬..DIR yəm be.from crown-M. pressure-PL.‫له لرګي څخه ډارېږم‬ lə larg-i tsəxə Ø-ḍār-ég-əm from.102) .M ‘Pakistan is under pressure of attack.‫کښېننست‬ (9.Circumpositions  347 In NE and NW dialects. 1996: 155–156)..3.OBL from. on account of’.103. head-M..AOR.ʦəxa/ ‘from...177.PST-PST.‫ له‬/lə.M.’ (NW) ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ایسته کړ او هیڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ . it is possible to omit the prepositional component. leaving the postposition /səra/ (Tegey & Robson. Compare also the function of /səra/ that appears without an object.‫پاکستان د حملو له فشارونو لاندې دي‬ pākistān-Ø də haml-o lə fišār-uno lānde Pakistan-M.228.3SG. stick-M.CONT.OBL .M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..‫له‬ preposition (9. See also 9.OBL Mahmud-M.3SG..103) šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø ʦəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M.CONT..OBL .

‫له کوره راغلم‬ lə kor-a rā́ɣl-əm from house-M.AOR.107. ‫د‬ . only the two forms /də.PST-1SG ‘I came from home.’ (NE.2.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.M.5. the ablative marker cannot appear without an adposition governing it.108. which is ungrammatical.177..348  • Adpositions ‫نه‬..SG.na/ is the most common simple circumposition starting with ‫ له‬/lə/.PST-PST.ABL come.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ نه‬...‫ له‬/lə..OBL from AOR-take.’ (9..DIR 1SG..OBL .3SG.107) . 1996: 155). house-M.na/ from The circumposition ‫نه‬..106) . this circumposition is unacceptable.‫کالي مي موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭə́r-Ø na w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL.104) ..WK from.AOR.DIR 1SG.. (9. The following two examples show how the postposition /nə/ alternates with the ablative case-marker /-a/: the two items may not co-occur.PST-PST.2. as shown in Section 9.‫کالي مي له موټر نه واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi lə moṭər-Ø na clothes-M.. ‫نه‬ ‫ـه‬ (9.OBL . car-M.228...from come.¹⁷ and it is also used with complex circumpositions. ‫له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Compare 9.. it is possible to omit the prepositional component of this circumposition in informal speech (Tegey & Robson..106 and 9.‫له کور نه راغلم‬ lə kor-Ø na rā́ɣl-əm from..M ‘I took the clothes out of the car.from w-ā́xist-ə AOR-take.WK car-M..’ In the NE and NW dialects. It typically indicates motion away or separation from.‫ له‬/lə.na/ and /lə/ exist. 17 For Babrakzai (1999: 42).’ (9..105) ..NW) In sentence 9..PST-1SG ‘I came from home.

PRS-1SG ‘I have much more money than Mahmoud.DIR coin-PL.108) 349 .PRS. (9..from big-M.PRS-1SG ‘I have fewer books than Mahmoud. the object of the circumposition must be preceded by a universal quantifier such as /ṭolo/ ‘all’.’ ‫نه‬.228..‫له‬ Similarly.. see the examples in Section 9..DIR from.‫زه له محمود نه ډېري زیاتي پېسې لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ḍer-i 1SG.. ‫نه‬.‫افغانستان له فرانسې نه غټ دی‬ afɣānistān-Ø lə frāns-e na ɣaṭ-Ø Afghanistan-M...DIR dəy be.M.5 (from Tegey & Robson 1996: 162).DIR zyāt-i pays-e Ø-lar-ə́m more-PL. few’... Mahmoud-M.na/ is also the most common way to make comparative statements in Pashto.F. France-M.’ ‫نه‬.na/ can be used in Pashto to create superlative constructions.DIR CONT-have.3SG.M.ABL AOR-take.from many-PL. For the superlative construction. 1996: 155).. the circumposition /lə.OBL .3.M.’ (9....Circumpositions  (9.na/ followed by /zyāt/ ‘more’ ..3SG.OBL .DIR 1SG.109) .111) ..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .110) ‫زیات‬ ‫دېر‬ .‫زه له محمود نه لږ کتابونه لرم‬ zə lə mahmud-Ø na ləž-Ø 1SG.from few-PL..PST-PST..177. /der/ ‘very’ or /ləg/ ‘less.F. The object appears in the oblique case (Tegey & Robson.DIR from.WK car-M.OBL .STR. Mahmoud-M.DIR kitāb-una Ø-lar-ə́m book-PL.‫له‬ ‫لږ‬ (9. for another construction.F...‫له‬ The full form of the circumposition /lə..M ‘Afghanistan is larger than France...’ Quantitative comparatives such as more than and less than are created using the circumposition /lə.M ‘I took the clothes out of the car..‫* کالي مي موټره واخیسته‬ kāl-i mi moṭər-a w-ā́xist-ə clothes-PL.CONT.STR..DIR CONT-have.DIR from. ‫ټولو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

na bahar/ ‘out of.DIR from.na/ frequently combines with other adpositions or adverbs to form complex circumpositions.. the postposition /na/ governs oblique case-marking on its object.5.CONT. it may assign case somewhat irregularly.. all-PL... 1SG.‫احمد له ما نه پخوا راغلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə mā na pəxwā Ahmad-M..‫محمود له ټولو نه پوه دی‬ mahmud-Ø lə ṭol-o na poh-Ø Mahmoud-M.from smart-M..DIR from.OBL .na pəxwā́/ ‘before’ [ ‫ پخوا‬/pəxwā́/ ‘before’ ] (9.M.PRS.AOR.CONT...’ ‫نه‬..3SG.113) ..DIR from.114) .OBL house-M..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ....DIR dəy be..‫له‬ 9. ‫نه‬.’ (9.... /lə.3SG. this object may sometimes appear in the ablative case form.from before rā́ɣl-ay dəy come.‫له‬ ‫نه‬.M ‘Mahmoud's house is the biggest/Mahmoud's house is bigger than all [other houses]..OBL .‫له‬ ‫نه‬ • ‫نه پخوا‬...from lw-ay dəy big-M.OBL .. outside of’ [ ‫ بهر‬/bahar/ ‘outside’ ] Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M ‘Ahmad has come before me.M ‘Mahmoud is the smartest of all/Mahmoud is smarter than all [of them].PST-PTCP.3SG. Traditionally.2.PRS.’ • ‫نه بهر‬.. Together they govern the item between the two sets of ellipses.DIR be.112) ...STR...na/ The circumposition /lə.‫ له‬/lə.228.na/ does not contribute any meaning beyond the meaning of the other element.‫د محمود کور له ټولو نه لوی دی‬ də mahmud-Ø kor-Ø lə ṭol-o na of Mahmoud-M.2 GP complex circumpositions with /lə.PRS..177.DIR be.‫ له‬/lə..CONT. however.. Furthermore. all-PL... Most of the time.350  Adpositions (9.

CONT..‫ وروسته له‬/wrusta lə. Besides being identifiable as an adverb...from go.WK other-PL. later’ exemplifies some of the complexity of the system of adpositions.OBL .’ • (‫)نه‬.M.DIR from..AOR.na/ except for [ ‫ پرته‬/prata/ ‘except’ ] (9..(na) wrusta/.DIR AOR-NEG see. 2SG.from 1SG...177.na/ without [ ‫ بې‬/be/ ‘without’ ] (9.DIR ʦok-Ø wə-nə́ lid-əl who...‫احمد له کور نه بهر وتلی دی‬ ahmad-Ø lə kor-Ø na bahár Ahmad-M.. See Table 10.‫ بې له‬/be lə.. house-M.. Ahmad-M..3PL.(na)/ next to /lə....‫بې له تا نه ولاړم‬ be lə tā na wlā́ṛ-əm without from...117) .‫وروسته له‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. it appears to be an ambiposition in that it can appear as either a prepositional or a postpositional component of circumpositions.PRS.228.PST-PTCP. as well as /də....OBL ..from outside Ø-watə́l-ay dəy CONT-leave...3SG.STR.OBL .. (‫)نه‬.PST-PST. later’.119).1] ‫وروسته‬ The item /wrusta/ ‘after.Circumpositions  (9.’ • ‫نه‬.116) ..115) 351 .‫پرته له احمد نه مې بل څوک ونهلیدل‬ prata lə ahmad-Ø na me bəl-Ø except from..M..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M ‘I didn't see anybody except for Ahmad.DIR be.(na) wrusta/ (see 9.(na)/ ‘after’ [ ‫ وروسته‬/wrusta/ ‘after.‫ پرته له‬/prata lə...M ‘Ahmad has come out of the house. We find /wrusta lə.’ • ‫نه‬.118 and 9...PST-1SG ‘I went without you.

119) .OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.OBL INSTR topic-F.OBL təl-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M.STR.DIR after from 2SG.140 and the examples that follow it for another variant using the adposition /wrusta/.PST-PST.DIR darlód-Ø have..352  Adpositions ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورښ په اړه د‬ .3SG.OBL responsibility-M. ‫وروسته‬ (9.118) də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.OBL AOR\enter-PST-1SG ‘I entered after you. we won't import fuel through Iran.WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.DIR INSTR neck-F.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .‫زه وروسته له تا ننوتلم‬ za wrustá lə tā nə́nəwat-əl-əm 1SG..DIR imported-M.120) . See also 9.M.from after 3.DIR NEG do.OBL collection-F.’ (9.OBL eating-F.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.’¹⁸ As the parentheses indicate.119: .’ 18 Standardized version of 9.OBL from side-F.AOR-1PL ‘After this.OBL .M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election..‫اه دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.STR..228.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrusta bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.AOR. the element /na/ is apparently optional in all three versions. vote-F.‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ (9.

M.OBL dispute-F. or causal.DIR š-u become.3SG. ‫چه‬ (9.DIR attacker-PL.PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner.. A selection of circumpositions with /pə/ follows: ‫په‬ ‫د هغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوسته د بلواګرو له‬ .PST-PST.121: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR. də of that.AOR.‫برید وروسته رامنځته شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ 19 Standardized version of 9.M.3PL.‫وروسته رامنځټه شوه دوه تنه بلواګر ووژل شول‬ (9.Circumpositions  353 ‫دهغې نښتې په ترځ کې چې … د پولیسو پر یو پوستې د بلواګرو له برید‬ .AOR.in COMP .’ (SW) 9.OBL in.OBL on one post-F.177.M.WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat.F cinema-F..OBL after 1-center to become...DIR 1PL..3SG.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3 Circumpositions with ‫ په‬/pə/ ‫په‬ Circumpositions with /pə/ denote an entity’s relationship to another’s.PST-PST. interval-M .OBL to WOULD gone-PL.F two tan-a balwāgar-Ø wə́-waž-əl person-PL.M. temporal.PST-PST.228.122) ..DIR AOR-kill-INF šw-ə́l become.5.M.’¹⁹ The following example shows the usual form of clausal complements of adpositions: a demonstrative head and an embedded clause introduced by the complementizer /čə/.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍod-̣əy mo after from this.OBL of attacker-PL.OBL COMP food-F.M ‘Two insurgents were killed in a fight which broke out after they attacked a police station. of polis-o pər yaw post-e də balwāgar-o lə police-PL. these relations may be physical.OBL from brid-Ø wrustá rā-mánʣ ta šw-a dwa attack-M..121) də háɣe nəxət-e pə traʦ-Ø ke če ..

PRS..after come. (9.123) .26 shows the use of the circumposition ‫په‬ ‫کې‬...in be..CONT...CONT. however.‫په‬ This very common circumposition indicates a very wide range of relative locations of juxtaposition (Hewson & Bubenik. where the prepositional phrase is modifying the circumpositional phrase. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 153) claim that ‫ کې‬/ke/ ‘in. 1970) and /ki/.. 2006: 150).. 2009).124) !‫په ما پسې راځه‬ pə mā pəsé rāʣ-á after.98 shows this circumposition with a null object.‫محمود په صنف کې دی‬ mahmud-Ø pə sinf-Ø ke dəy Mahmoud-M...SG ‘Come after me!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.... or that its appearance is restricted to certain kinds of usage.M ‘Mahmoud is in class. a claim that is supported by our research.ke/ and the prepo- sition /pə/ in the same clause. It appears not to permit direct case-marking on its object. and see 9. class-M...‫ په‬/pə.121 for a temporal meaning of this circumposition. introducing a relative clause.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .PRS-IMP.OBL .354 •  Adpositions ‫کې‬. There is evidence.STR.3SG. .DIR in. /kʂe/ (Henderson... that it is restricted to the Eastern dialects (Pashtoon.. • GP ‫پسې‬. mostly. into.228.. See 9. on.‫ په‬/pə. at’ In addition to the variation that one can find in the pronunciation of the prepositional component.’ Example 9.. into’ can function indepen- dently as a postposition.pəse/ ‘after’ (9. the specific relationship must be inferred from the context. The example 9. 1SG.OBL .ke/ ‘in.160 for an example of this circumposition in construction with an omitted object.177. the postpositional component /ke/ is also subject to substantial variation in pronunciation: various scholars have cited /kxe/. that it is much rarer than the circumposition (given that it lacks separate description).‫ په‬/pə.

and this variant apparently exists in other varieties of Pashto as well.SG ‘Don't backbite me!’ For a variant of this form in which ‫پسې‬ /pesə/ acts as a preposition..126) .. 1994). see 9. This circumposition may also appear with the variant (9.M.OBL ..in study study-M.130 for conditions on its appearance in Dzadrani. table-M.M..M ‘There are many pens on the table. .. 1SG.DIR di be..DIR EMPH in.126.STR.CONT..DIR .F...bānde/ Septfonds (1994) transcribes the second component /bonde/.on many-PL.F.OBL .’ (WAZ) • GP ‫باندې‬..PRS.pəse/ ‘after’ (Septfonds. The Dzadrani item /pə..DIR Ø-k-ã́ CONT-do..se/ ‘after.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫په‬ /pə...‫پس له دې‬ pas lə de after from this.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .3PL.Circumpositions  (9.PRS-1SG ‘I am studying in the mosque school....CONT-IMP.127) zə xo pə madrasa-Ø še tadris dars-Ø 1SG..DIR NEG kaw-á do..128) ‫ پر‬/pər/ as its first component. (9..177.OBL ‘after this’ (9.after many-PL.DIR pen-PL.‫ په‬/pə. mosque-F. Hewson & Bubenik (2006: 151) gloss this circumposition as an adverb ‘up’.‫په مېز باندې ډېر قلمونه دي‬ pə mez-Ø bānde ḍer-Ø qalam-una on.125) 355 !‫په ما پسې ډېرې خبرې مه کوه‬ pə mā pəse ḍer-e xabr-e má after.228..DIR word-PL. because of’ corresponds to the GP ‫پسې‬. see notes at example 9..STR. but our research has not substantiated this meaning.

See Section 9...131) .DIR .... while the grammatical subject designates a causer or enabler of the entire event..M. excutioner-PL. ‫باندې‬.PST-PST..130) če də pə želot-on nde COMP 3SG.7.’ The Middle dialect circumposition /pə... (9.OBL on.129 below.ne/) corresponds to GP /pə.129) ‫باندې‬.. sara/ ‘[instrumental] with’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..‫نوبياپه څه وِرکه په څه ُروکه بون ِد فيصله وشي‬ no biyā pə tsə werk-a pə tsə therefore then INSTR what exchange-F.‫په‬ ‫په‬ There are dialects in which the first component /pə/ may be omitted.AOR.INSTR decision-F.WK 3 on CONT\put. so /bānde/ functions as a postposition.M ‘I put the book on it.PRS.PRS. See 9..’ (SW) • ‫ سره‬.PST-PTCP.DIR 1SG.PRS-become.‫کتاب مي ور باندي ایښی دئ‬ kitāb-Ø mi wər bāndi iṣ-ay book-M.3 for more discussion and an example. (9..DIR wə́-š-i AOR..DIR CONT-do..-PRS... and 9.on ɣag-Ø Ø-k-ə́ voice-M.‫ په‬/pə.‫په‬ (9. according to Septfonds (1994).3SG.bānde/ designates the proximal actor of the named activity..bānde/ is exemplified .3SG....CONT. he got ready to call the executioners. Under these conditions. the latter is found in poetic registers in these Middle varieties.157 for an example of the instrumental function.M.228.STR.DIR INSTR.M. ‫ په‬/pə . the object of /pə.DIR dəy be.... what rok-a bonde faysəl-a exchange-F. ‫باندې‬.177..nde/ ‘at..’ (DZA) A meaning related to this one involves an animate object of this circumposition..131 for an example of the locative meaning. on’ (also pronounced /pə.F ‘The matter is resolved by give-and-take.3SG.bānde/.DIR .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ..M ‘Him.356  Adpositions An instrumental/means/manner function of in 9.

protection-M. until’ ²¹ Where Standard Pashto uses ‫)ه( پورې‬.pore/.‫زما ځوانۍ ډول کوي په پښتونواله سره‬ zmā zawān-əy ḍəwəl-Ø kaw-i pə 1SG. morning-F.. which he attributed to the Jalalabad poet Malang Jan. This is in keeping with the alternation between GP /o/ and M /e/ that is illustrated in Table 4. pera/ or /tər ...134) ‫تر کابله پورې‬ tər kābəl-a pore up.. see Section 9.CONT-PRS. For a discussion of ablative case assignment to its object.’ (9..until of God with.DIR manner-M.. ‫تر‬ • ‫)ه( پورې‬.3[SG. see Section 5. For a variant of /tər/ ...Circumpositions  (9.to.up.‫ تر‬/tər.ABL .POSS youth-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .132) 357 . 1997). the postposition /pori/ may be omitted from this circumposition in speech. rendering a prepositional phrase. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..1.3.133) !‫تر سبا پورې د خدا پامان‬ tər sabā-Ø pore də xodā pāmān-Ø until. the corresponding circum- position in Dzadrani is pronounced /tər. with God's protection]..INSTR ‘My youth manifests itself in Pashtunwali.177.4 Circumpositions with ‫ تر‬/tər/ ‫تر‬ The form /tər/ is most often found as the first component of several circumpositions that indicate a movement up to a terminal point in time or space..5.OBL .to ‘as far as Kabul’ ‫پوري‬ In the Western dialects.pore/ ‘up to.STR. Kabul-M.... until tomorrow.. pere/ (Septfonds.‫ تر‬/tər..DIR do.6..228.3.. (9.1.. 20 Our thanks to James Caron for this example.DIR ‘See you tomorrow! [lit.. paxtunwāla sara Pashtunwali .5.F] INSTR.’ (NE)²⁰ 9... 21 Henderson (1970) additionally cites ‘hence’ as a translation of this term...

358

 Adpositions

(9.135)

.‫تر سړي )پوري( دي وشرمولم‬

tər
saṛ-i
(pore)
di
wə́-šarmaw-əl-əm
up.to... man-M.OBL (...up.to) 2.WK AOR-shame-PST-1SG
‘You shamed me in front of the man.’ (NW)
(9.136)

.‫تر پلاره )پوري( په منډه ولاړم‬

tər
plār-a
(pori)

mənḍa-Ø wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to... father-M.ABL (...up.to) INSTR run-F.DIR go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I ran to my father.’ (SW)

‫ تر څو چه‬/tər ʦo čə/ ‫ ; تر هغه چه‬/tər haɣa čə/ ‘until’
These two expressions both convey temporal relations, and both can introduce subordinate clauses: see 9.137 and 9.138. The translation ‘until’ incorporates the negated
assertion in the subordinate clause.
(9.137)

.‫زه هغې ته لیک نه لېږم تر څو چه ما ته تېلیفون ونه کړي‬

za
haɣé
ta lik-Ø

Ø-leẓ-ə́m
1SG.STR.DIR 3SG.F.STR.OBL to letter-SG.M.DIR NEG CONT-send-1SG
tər
ʦo
čə

ta telifún-Ø
wə-ná
up.to how.much COMP 1SG.STR.OBL to telephone-M.DIR AOR-NEG
kr-̣i
do.AOR-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘I am not writing to her until she calls me.’ (SW)
(9.138)

.‫تر هغه چي ته نه یې راغلی ډوډۍ نه خورم‬

tər
haɣə́
či


ye
up.to this.OBL COMP 2SG.STR.DIR NEG be.CONT.PRS.2SG
rāɣl-ay
ḍoḍ-əy

Ø-xur-ə́m
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.M.DIR food-F.DIR NEG CONT-eat.PRS-1SG
‘Until you have arrived, I will not eat.’ (SW)

‫)ه( لاندې‬...‫ تر‬/tər...lānde/ ‘under’

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Circumpositions 

(9.139)

359

.‫سړی تر پله لاندې ناست دی‬

saṛ-ay
tər
pl-a
lānde
nāst-Ø
man-M.DIR under... bridge-M.OBL . ..under sitting-M.DIR
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘The man is sitting under the bridge.’

‫لاندې‬...‫تر‬

The Dzadrani circumposition /tər...londe/ corresponds to the GP item
/tər...lānde/ ‘under’, and is attested in Dzadrani as appearing both with and without
an object, i.e. as both an adposition and an adverb (see also Table 10.2).

‫ وروسته‬... ‫تر‬

/tər ... wrusta/ ‘after’ (Hewson & Bubenik, 2006). These authors
provide the following examples in comparing this item with the circumposition /lə
... wrusta/ exemplified herein; see also 9.121 and 9.120.
(9.140) tər
dwa ʦalwišt kal-uno
wrusta
after... two forty
year-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after forty-two years’
(9.141) wrusta tər
špag-o
myāšt-o
after
after six-PL.F.OBL month-PL.F.OBL
‘after six months’
(9.142) tər
xwar-əl-o
wrusta
after... eat-INF-PL.M.OBL ...after
‘after eating’

9.5.5

A Middle dialect circumposition with

‫ و‬/wə/

‫و‬

The independent preposition /wə/ is not discussed here, since it has been described
as obsolescent (Trumpp, 1873: 85) or only poetic (Skalmowski, 1996).
There appears to be only one circumposition with /wə/ (also sometimes transcribed as /vu/—see Section 3.2.1.2) as its first component, and it is not common in
General Pashto, although it is cited by Lorimer (1902) as a variant of the postposition
/ta/. Skalmowski (1996) cites another variant, the compound postposition
/wə
ta/.

‫و‬

‫ته‬

‫وته‬

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360 

(9.143)

Adpositions

.‫دغسي خلګو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬
daɣase
xalk-o
ta wə xār-Ø
ta

those.same people-PL.M.OBL to to... city-M.OBL ...to of
nənəwat-əl-o
ejāza-Ø

warkaw-ə́l-a
enter-INF-PL.M.OBL permission-F.DIR NEG give-INF-SG.F.DIR
kég-i
become.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.F]
‘Permission to enter the city is not being given to those [same] people.’²²

9.6

Coalesced adpositional phrases

9.6.1

Pro-adpositional phrases

‫په ې‬

Tegey (1977: 35ff.) lists three adpositions that may govern null objects:
/pə ke/
‘on.3’ ( /pəkʂe/ in the Kandahar dialect, according to Pate 2012),
/pə/ ∼ /pre/
∼ /pe/ ‘on.3’, and /tre/ ‘up.to.3’. Tegey terms these “Pro-Pre/Postpositional Phrases”
and analyzes them as incorporating third person definite objects, an analysis which
reflects the requirement that the incorporated object be recoverable from the discourse
or extralinguistic context. Pate (2012: 23), in contrast, analyzes these items as weak
pronouns that are constrained to function as non-nuclear terms.
There is apparently dialect-based variation on the inventory of these items: Pate
(2012) additionally lists the Kandahari form /dzine/ ‘from.3’ as an object-incorporating
form corresponding to the circumposition
/də ... ʦəxa/ ‘from’.
The pronunciation /pe/ instead of
/pre/ (Section 9.6.1) is cited by Lorimer
(1902: 40) as a characteristic of Waziri.

‫پرې‬

‫څخه‬...‫د‬
‫پرې‬

(9.144)

.‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬
zmā
tre
na
bad raʣ-í
1SG.STR.POSS up.to.3... ...up.to bad come.CONT.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘I don't like him.’

(9.145)

.‫ترې پوري ولاړم‬
tre
pori
wlā́ṛ-əm
up.to.3.. ...up.to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went up to it.’ (NW)

22 Standardized version of 9.143:

.‫دغې خلکو ته و ښار ته د ننوتلو اجازه نه ورکوله کېږي‬

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Coalesced adpositional phrases 

‫پرې‬

361

‫پر‬

The following examples show that both
/pre/ and /pər/ are possible in the
same context; this suggests that there is a lexical distinction between the fused forms
and the forms that allow a null object.
(9.146)

.‫زه پرې سپور یم‬
za
pre spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’

(9.147)

.‫زه پر سپور یم‬

pər spor-Ø
yəm
1SG.STR.DIR on sitting-M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.1SG
‘I am sitting on it.’ (SW)

The relative order of the pro-adpositional phrase and the negative in examples
9.148 and 9.149 lends support to the alternative analysis given by Pate (2012) of these
forms as essentially pronominal rather than essentially adpositional, since the form incorporating the third person assumes second position, as is characteristic of the weak
pronouns:
(9.148)

.‫زه پې نه پوهېږم‬

pe

Ø-poh-eẓ́-əm
1SG.STR.DIR on.3 NEG CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’

(9.149)

.‫زه نه په پوهېږم‬


pə Ø-poh-éẓ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR NEG on CONT-learned-PRS-1SG
‘I don't understand it.’ (SW)

9.6.2

The adpositional phrase

‫کره‬

‫ کره‬/kara/ ‘at the home of’
‫کور‬

/kara/ is a pro-adpositional phrase related to the noun
/kor/ ‘house’ that
may appear just in case the house’s possessor is identified or recoverable. This form
optionally replaces
/kor ta/. Compare sentences 9.150 and 9.151; see 9.70 for the
corresponding construction in Dzadrani.

‫کور ته‬

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362 

(9.150)

Adpositions

.‫زموږ کور ته مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kor-Ø
ta mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.OBL to guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M
‘Guests came to our house.’

(9.151)

.‫زموږ کره مهمانان راغلي دي‬
zmuž
kar-a
mihmān-ān
1PL.STR.OBL house-M.ABL guest-PL.M.ANIM.DIR
rā́ɣl-i
di
come.AOR.PST-PTCP.PL.M.DIR be.CONT.PRS.3PL.M

‘Guests came to our house.’
Additionally, the special form
/kara/ can be used instead of

‫کره‬

‫ په کور کې‬/pə

kor ke/, as shown in this pair.
(9.152)

.‫احمد د محمود په کور کې دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
pə kor-Ø
ke
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL in... house-M.OBL ...in
dəy
be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

(9.153)

.‫احمد د محمود کره دی‬
ahmad-Ø
də mahmud-Ø
kar-a
dəy
Ahmad-M.DIR of Mahmoud-M.OBL house-M.ABL be.CONT.PRS.3SG.M
‘Ahmad is at Mahmoud's house.’

9.7

Adposition usage

Throughout this chapter and others, we describe various exceptional or idiosyncratic
interactions of adpositions with particular pronouns and nouns that they govern. We
summarize some important ones here.

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Adposition usage 

9.7.1

363

‫ نه‬/na/ vs. ablative case-marking on object
‫نه‬

Elsewhere we observe that the postpositional component
/na/ alternates in usage
with ablative case-marking on the noun object. Compare sentences 9.8 and 9.60.

9.7.2

‫ د‬/də/ and strong pronoun objects
‫د‬

In Section 9.3.1.1, we observed that in some dialects the preposition /də/ assimilates
to a following strong pronoun in the first and second persons. In those dialects, the
sequence of /də/ and the pronoun is unacceptable and the fused form is the only
possible form. This is discussed in Section 7.2.3.

‫د‬

9.7.3

‫ په‬/pə/ and ‫باندې‬...‫ په‬/(pə...) bānde/ used in a causative construction

In Section 11.5 we describe a causative construction that involves one or another verb
of causation and a subordinate clause describing the caused event. However, there is
also a use of
/pə/ and
/pə...bānde/ that requires a causative interpretation of the sentence it appears in, even though there is no overt expression of causation, either with another verb or with an affix. In Pashto, the object of
/pə...bānde/ refers to the proximate agent, and the grammatical subject, if present,
refers to ultimate agent.

‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

‫باندې‬...‫په‬

(9.154)

.‫سړی په ما اس تړي‬
saṛ-ay


ās-Ø
Ø-taṛ-i
man-M.DIR INSTR 1SG.STR.OBL horse-M.DIR CONT-tie-PRS.3
‘The man makes me tie up the horse.’

(9.155)

.‫سړي په ما باندې اس وتړه‬
saṛ-i


bānde
ās-Ø
man-M.OBL INSTR... 1SG.STR.OBL ...INSTR horse-M.DIR
wә́-taṛ-ә
AOR-tie-PST.3SG.M
‘The man made me tie up the horse.’

(9.156)

.‫په جواښي دې خوره‬

xwāx-e
de
Ø-xor-á
INSTR mother.in.law-F 2.WK CONT-eat.PRS-IMP.SG
‘Get your mother-in-law to eat [it].’

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364 

Adpositions

In some dialects, the first part of the circumposition is optional; in this case, the
postposition alone can fulfil the same function in this construction.

.‫هغه باندې مې چای وڅکله‬

(9.157)

haɣə
bānde me
c̉ay-Ø
wə́-ʦak-l-ə
3SG.STR.OBL INSTR 1.SG.WK tea-M.DIR. AOR-drink-PST.PST.3SG.M
‘I got him a cup of tea to drink.’ (NE)

9.7.4 Omission of pronoun objects of adpositions
As noted in Section 7.3.2, weak pronouns may not appear as objects of adpositions. The
following examples demonstrate that weak pronouns cannot appear as the object of
an adposition as shown in the ungrammatical example 9.158; compare this with the
acceptable 9.159, using the strong pronoun.

.‫* پر دي خېجم‬

(9.158)

pər di
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2.WK CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)

.‫پر تا خېجم‬

(9.159)

pər tā
Ø-xej-ə́m
on 2SG.STR CONT-step.PRS-1SG
‘I step on you.’ (SW)
The object can be omitted entirely if it is known or can be recovered from the context, as in 9.160.²³
(9.160)

.‫په کې اوبه واچوه‬

ke
ob-ə
w-ā́čaw-a
on... ...in water-PL.F.DIR AOR-pour-IMP.SG

‘Pour water in it! ’

23 One speaker reports that a weak pronoun may be placed after the circumposition; we have not
verified this with other speakers or sources.

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Adposition usage 

365

9.7.5 Postpositions with oblique pronominal clitics
Some postpositions may govern the oblique pronominal clitics discussed in Section
7.4.

.‫محمود کتاب را ته اخلي‬

(9.161)

mahmud-Ø
kitāb-Ø
rā ta Ø-axl-í
Mahmoud-SG.M.DIR book-M.DIR 1 for CONT-buy.PRS-PRS.3[SG.M]
‘Mahmoud is buying me a book.’

.‫خلک درپورې خاندي‬

(9.162)

xalak-Ø
dər pore Ø-xand-í
people-PL.M.DIR 2
up.to CONT-laugh-PRS.3[PL.M]
‘People are laughing at you.’
Oblique pronominal clitics cannot be governed by circumpositions; compare the
unacceptable 9.163 with the acceptable 9.164 (and note the claim in Babrakzai 1999:
34 that prepositions also may not take oblique pronominal clitic objects; we have not
found a counterexample to this claim in any dialect). The postpositional component
of a circumposition will cooccur with the directive pronoun.

.‫* زه له ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬

(9.163)

za

wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR COMIT... 3
...COMIT park-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG
‘I went to the park with them.’
(9.164)

.‫زه ورسره باغ ته ولاړم‬
za
wər səra
bāɣ-Ø
ta walā́ṛ-əm
1SG.STR.DIR 3
COMIT garden-M.OBL to go.AOR.PST-1SG

‘I went to the park with them.’

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Melissa Fox and Anne Boyle David

10

Other Lexical Elements

This chapter provides an overview of lexical categories not treated elsewhere in this
grammar.

10.1 Particles
We have classified as particles any lexically free item that does not host inflection and
that does not function as the argument or complement of a verb or adposition. This
second criterion rules out some elements called “particles” in other works, notably
the various pronoun forms. Some particles are formally clitics.

10.1.1 The existential particle

‫شته‬

‫ شته‬/šta/

The particle
/šta/ marks existential clauses in Pashto (including Waziri: Lorimer
1902: 32). The negative form of
/šta/ is
/nə́ šta/. Though derived from an
archaic third person singular form of the verb to be in Pashto,
/šta/ is no longer
inflected. Another example of this construction is found in example 10.1. In example
10.3 the particle is found at the end of the clause with a relative clause following it.
(10.1)

‫شته‬

‫نشته‬

‫شته‬

.‫د احمد سره کمپوټر نشته‬

ahmad-Ø
səra
kampyuṭər-Ø

šta
COMIT... Ahmad-M.OBL ...COMIT computer-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘Ahmad doesn't have a computer.’ (SW)

(10.2)

.‫د جنګ له امله په افغانستان کې امنیت نشته‬
də jang-Ø

amal-a
pə afɣānistān-Ø
ke
of war-M.OBL from cause-M.ABL in... Afghanistan-M.OBL ...in
amniat-Ø

šta
security-M.DIR NEG EXT
‘There is no security in Afghanistan because of the war.’

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PRS-PRS.DIR š-i become.ANIM.4) .DIR EXT COMP NEG Ø-ɣwāṛ-i haqiqat-Ø ʦargánd-Ø CONT-want.PRS.M.‫ هغه نه شته‬،‫نه‬ ná haɣá ná šta NEG 3SG. 1996).DIR EXT be.AOR. a concordant negative particle may but need not appear within the clause in scope. with 10. he is not here.7.M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . which does not: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.177.‫ظالمان شته دي دا منم‬ zāləm-ān šta day dā abuser-PL.368  (10.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ (10.5) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M. (10.DIR Ø-man-ə́m CONT-accept-1SG ‘There are bad guys around.‫هم داسی عناصر شته چی نه غواړی حقیقت څرګند شی‬ ham dāse anāsir-Ø šta če ná also such elements-PL. contrast 10. which contains a concordant negative.M] ‘There are also those parties who don’t want the truth the come to light.PRS-PRS.M] reality-M.6) .M this.STR.228. the existential particle may exist in construction with the copula.3[SG. I get that.3[PL.DIR NEG EXT ‘No.8.’ The existential particle will often be used over the phone to ask or tell someone if a person is at home (Tegey & Robson. exhibiting third person masculine singular agreement.CONT.’ In the Northern and Middle dialects.’ ‫نشته‬ In clauses containing the phrase /nə́ šta/.DIR revealed-M. (10.3) Other Lexical Elements .

as in 10.Particles  (10.22 with 10.‫هېڅ داسې سازمان او يا مرجع نشته چې له امريکاورته شکايت وشي‬ hets dāse sāzmān-Ø aw yā marja-Ø ná šta none such organization-M.DIR NEG EXT če lə amrikā-Ø wər-ta šikāyat-Ø COMP from America-F. ‫به‬ ‫به‬ 1 Standardized version of 10. We try to capture its apparent polysemy by glossing this modal clitic as WOULD. ‫چه‬ ‫به‬ 10. as in That would be Mary arriving at the front door and Every day last summer the girls would play in the park.M.23.15.DIR party-M.5.2.2) if the verb refers to an event that is to be repeated or ongoing.8: .DIR wə́-š-i AOR-become.CONT.OBL of claim-F.1 The modal clitic /bə/ As noted in the Verbs chapter (Section 8.DIR NEG EXT ‘There’s no third party claiming the money.228.‫د فنډونو د اعدا لپاره کوم دریم فریق نه شته‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.‫دفنډونو دادعا لپاره کوم دريم فريق نشته‬ də fanḍ̙-uno də idiā-Ø lə pār-a kum-Ø of fund-PL. however.5. or doubt when it occurs with a present aorist verb and can also express the future with present continuous forms (see Section 8.1.2).8) .7) 369 .1.M] ‘There's no organization that one may complain to about America.2 Modal particles In the Indo-European style. previous action.’¹ 10.OBL 3-to complaint-M. It is used to convey future time reference. the modal clitic /bə/ often appears in constructions with irrealis semantics.3[SG.DIR dreyəm-Ø fariq-Ø ná šta third-M. though given the optionality of the complementizer /čə/ under some conditions.’ (10. With a past continuous verb form.DIR and or authority-F.2. speculation. /bə/ conveys habitual.OBL from sake-M. The clause within the scope of the particle may appear as a main clause or as a finite subordinate clause.2.1.ABL which-M. it is difficult to discern a difference between these—contrast 10.PRS-PRS. since its irrealis and past habitual uses parallel two of the uses of English would.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . Pashto sometimes fulfills modal functions by means of uninflected sentence-level modifiers.

3[SG.11) .10) .DIR of this.OBL AOR\abandon. the aforementioned company will complete a survey of this project.‫ددی تړون له مخې به نوموړي شرکت ددی پروژی سروي ترسره کړي‬ də de təṛun-Ø lə məx-e bə of this.‫کړي‬ 4 Standardized version of 10.STR.228.DIR WOULD selected-PL.2.AOR.DIR WOULD 1SG.11: ‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدي‬،‫که زه عیسائي شم‬ 2 Standardized version of 10.’² (10.AOR-PRS.DIR wə́-ʦeṛ-i AOR-investigate-PRS.F.STR.PRS-1SG then 1SG.OBL sarw-e tər sar-á kṛ-i survey-F. then my family will abandon me. these follow a particular order discussed in Section 11. /bə/ must appear after the first stressed element of the clause.177.OBL from direction-F.F] ‘If I become a Christian.’⁴ .M] ‘According to the contract.5. The following sentences illustrate the uses of /bə/.9) ʣāngr-e mahkma-Ø bə ṭākəniz-e qazy-e special-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL contract-M.10: ‫د دې تړون له مخې به نوموړی شرکت د دې پروژې سروې تر سره‬ .3.STR.370  Other Lexical Elements ‫به‬ As a second-position clitic (Section 11.3[SG.OBL project-F.‫ نو زما کورنۍ به ما پرېږدى‬،‫کۀ زۀ عیسائى شم‬ ka zə isayí š-əm no zmā if 1SG.’³ (10.‫ځانګړې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ 3 Standardized version of 10. If other clitics are present.2).F.POSS korən-əy bə mā prégd-i family-F.DIR up.‫ځانګړ ې مهکمه به ټاکنیزې قضیې وڅیړي‬ (10.to head-M.14 is taken from Pate 2012: 26): ‫به‬ . (10.DIR Christian become.DIR court-F.DIR case-PL.3[SG.3.F] ‘A special court will investigate these cases.OBL WOULD numwaṛ-ay šarkat-Ø də de prož-e aforementioned-M.9: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.ABL do.PRS-PRS.DIR company-M.

’ (10.OBL of woman-PL.OBL world-F.CONT-PST.AOR.3SG.F.Particles  (10.DIR š-i become.177.DIR step-M.DIR snake-M.’ (10.M.M] ‘This big snake will turn into a dragon.PRS.15) ‫ نو ټولې نړۍ به‬،‫کله چې به طالبانو د ښځو په وړاندې کوم ګام پورته کاوه‬ .DIR wə́-ɣwāṛ-u AOR-want.5.M] ‘Davud might have come.3[SG.OBL on wṛānde kum-Ø gām-Ø porta kāw-ə no before which-M.F.‫دا لوى مار به ښامار سي‬ dā loy-Ø mār-Ø bə xāmā́r-Ø this.3 for more examples of the uses of Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.12) 371 .228.DIR WOULD from outside-M.13) .4.ABL help-F.PTCP-3MSG be.M then tol-e nəṛ-əy bə nār-e all-F.DIR WOULD dragon-M.DIR Ø-wah-ə́l-e CONT-beat-PST-PST.DIR large-M.’ See also Section 8.3. the entire world would cry out.STR.14) dāwud bə rāɣəl-ei wi Davud WOULD come.‫مونږ به له بهره مرسته وغواړو‬ mung bə lə bahar-a mərasta-Ø 1PL.’ ‘Davud should have come [but I'm not sure].OBL WOULD shout-PL.5.3PL.DIR above do.F ‘Whenever the Taliban would take steps against women.e.AOR. foreign aid].65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM ‫ به‬/bə/.PRS-1PL ‘We'll ask for help from the outside [i.‫نارې وهلې‬ kala če bə tālibān-o də xədz-o pə when COMP WOULD Taliban-PL.1 and Section 8.PRS-PRS.3[PL. .’ (10.

OBL .DIR NEC AOR-do..in ‘Let the men sit in the downstairs rooms and the women in the upstairs rooms.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .M.DIR do. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR become.3[PL.. in construction with the present aorist form of the verb: ‫دې‬ ‫دي‬ !‫هغه دي ولاړ شي‬ (10. you'd better hustle!’ 5 According to Babrakzai.‫نارینه دي په لاندې کوټو کې کښېني او ښځې دي په پورته کوټو کې‬ (10.2 The modal particles /de/ and /bāyad/ The particle /de/ ( /di/ in the Western dialects) ⁵ functions most frequently as a deontic modal.’ (10.DIR xabar-una sānsór-Ø kṛ-i news-PL.‫الجزيره تلويزيون دې د بحرين په اړه خبرونه سانسور کړي‬ (10.ABL and from Prophet-M.VOC good haste-M.’ (W) .177.372  Other Lexical Elements ‫دې‬ ‫باید‬ 10.20) ..PRS-PRS.M..17) nārina di pə lānde koṭ-u ke kṣén-i men NEC in.’ .AOR-PRS.‫جلانه! ښه مزې دې وکړې‬ jālān-a xə məz-ay de wə́-kṛ-e Jalan-M.ABL wə́-šarm-eg-i AOR-shame-PRS-PRS.1.3[SG.OBL .18) nor-Ø de lə xudāy-a aw lə rasul-a other-PL.228.M.AOR-2SG ‘Hey Jalan. below room-PL.19) aljazira-Ø televisyon-Ø de də bahrayn-Ø pə aṛa-Ø Al-Jazeera-M.16) haɣá di wlā́ṛ-Ø š-i 3SG.M] aw ṣəʣ-e di pə porta koṭ-u ke and woman-PL.M] ‘The others should be ashamed in front of God and the Prophet Mohammed.DIR television NEC of Bahrain-M. ‫ دې‬/de/ functions as an enclitic.M] ‘He should go!’ (SW) ..in AOR\sit.DIR NEC from God-M.OBL on topic-F.AOR.3[PL.STR.2.DIR NEC in.. above room-PL.DIR censored-PL.3[SG.‫نور دې له خدايه او له رسوله وشرميږي‬ (10.DIR NEC gone-M.M] ‘The Al-Jazeera network should censor reports on Bahrain...PRS-PRS.

1.22) ṣāyi za day pə wāšəngṭən ke wə́-win-əm must 1SG be.’ (SW) 10.PST-PST. 373 ‫ باید‬/bāyad/ is also found in construction with the present aorist form !‫ زه بايد ځان مړ کړم‬: ‫ويې ويل‬ (10.DIR mə́ṛ-Ø kṛ-əm killed-M.M.1.Particles  The particle of the verb. ‫چه‬ . must’ This particle is positioned sentence-initially and may appear in construction with the complementizer /čə/.AOR-1SG ‘He said: I should just kill myself!’ 10.23) ..DIR NEC self-M.. ‫ کشکي‬/kaški/—to introduce clauses expressing a wish or desire that something would happen or would have happened.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .WK tell. Washington .OBL to come-PRS.3 ‘It is possible that my brother will come home tomorrow.4 The optative particle Pashto uses the particle ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‫ کاشکې‬/kāške/ ‘if only’—also ‫ کاشکي‬/kāški/.177.’ (SW) (10.M in.‫ښايي چه ورور مي سبا ته کورته راشي‬ ṣāyi čə wror mi sabā ta maybe COMP brother. to express a counterfactual wish • with a present aorist verb..SG.DIR do.2.3SG.228.SG.3 The modal particle ‫ ښایي‬/ṣāyi/ ‘may. to express a polite request Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3PL.PRS-1SG ‘I should meet him in Washington.M.‫ښايي زه دی په واشنګټن کې ووينم‬ (10.M 1SG. It can be used one of two ways: • with an optative verb..in AOR-meet.WK tomorrow to kor ta rāš-i house. ‫ کشکې‬/kaške/.STR.21) wə́ ye way-əl zə bāyad dzān-Ø AOR 3.2.DIR 1SG.

OPT ‘I wish you had come earlier! [lit.PRS-2SG ‘Please come to my house! [lit.26) ‫پوه شوې که نه؟‬ póh-Ø šw-e kə na learned-M.3 Affirmation particles In Pashto.’ It appears to be found more frequently in affirmation questions than in affirmation statements.7 and Section 8.27) .8 for the formation of these verbs): (10. ‫که نه‬ (10. intonation differentiates the question use from the affirmation use. of course. If only you would come to my house!]’ ‫که‬ It is also possible to use the form /kə/ ‘if’ plus the optative to achieve this counterfactual effect.only early come.CONT.STR. 10.374  Other Lexical Elements The verb in a sentence with counterfactual meaning must appear with optative mood marking (see Section 8. If only you had come earlier!]’ (SW) In the second use. the speaker is stating a hope that the event will take place.24) !‫کشکي وختي راغلئ وای‬ kaški waxti rā́ɣl-əy wāy if.AOR. a phrase that translates literally as 'or not.177.POSS house-M. didn't you?’ (SW) (10.DIR become. The most common of these particles is /kə na/.PST-PTCP.PST.3.3. affirmation questions and statements contain an affirmation particle. The verb in a sentence with this meaning must appear with present aorist marking.1. which expresses an irrealis event (see Section 8. In speech.PST-2SG or not ‘You understood.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . a polite request.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL to come.AOR.only 2SG.STR.103 for an example of this use. see 11.DIR be.AOR.M.228.3.25) !‫کشکي ته زما کور ته راسې‬ kaški tə zmā kor-Ø tə rā́s-e if.DIR 1SG.2 for the formation of these verbs): (10.‫هو که نه‬ wo kə na yes or not ‘Yes.

DIR more after..PST-PST-OPT ‘Stop..OBL .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .DIR be..‫ وا‬/wā .DIR man-M... man!’ !‫ آ سړیه‬/ā saṛaya/ ‘Hey. women!’ ..SG or not 1SG.M of bel-Ø saṛ-i wror-Ø ná other-M.POSS brother-M.OBL brother-M..5 Vocative particles A vocative particle may introduce a noun in the vocative case form (see Section 5.4 The emphatic clitic The particle (10.’⁶ 10.PRS-1SG CONT-go.CONT./ .DIR EMPH 1SG.1..28: 7 The emphatic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. OK? [because] I can't follow you any longer.after NEG become. !‫ د بل سړي وررو نه‬،‫دا خو زما ورور دی‬ dā xo zmā wror-Ø day də this.Particles  (10.STR./ . man!’ !‫ ای ښځو‬/ay ṣeʣu/ ‘Hello there. the vocative particles are called /də nədā adāt/ ‘call particles’.DIR NEG ‘He is in fact my brother.4).1.3SG.29) ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‫ خو‬/xo/⁷ is a second-position clitic and expresses emphasis.‫راودرېږه که نه؟ زه نور په تاپسې نشم تللی‬ rā-wə́-dar-eg-a ka ná zə nor pə 1DVC-AOR-stand-PRS-IMP.3. In Pashto.STR. Examples of vocatives in Pashto are: ‫د ندا ادات‬ • • • • • !‫ اې سړیه‬/ē saṛaya/ ‘Hey..STR.177. not some other man's brother!’ 10..‫ او‬/o . 6 Standardized version of 10. tā pse ná š-əm Ø-təl-ə́l-ay 2SG..1.28) 375 ..‫راودرېږه که نه! زه نور په تاسې نه شم تللای‬ ‫ خو‬/xo/ is considered to be different from the conjunction ‫ خو‬/xo/ ‘but’.PRS.AOR.228.

‫ ارمان‬/armān/ What a pity!. ‫ یه‬/ya/. All right!): ‫ هو‬/ho/. ‫ بلې‬/bale/. ‫ واخ‬/wāx/. ‫ آه‬/āh/ • To express grief or pain (Ouch!.228.177. ‫ وای وای‬/wāy wāy/.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . usually in fully-reduplicated form. They include: ‫ کچ کچ‬/kuč kuč/ To shoo a dog: ‫ چغه چغه‬/čiɣa čiɣa/ To make a camel kneel: ‫ اېخ اېخ‬/ex ex/ To call a cat: ‫ پش پش‬/piš piš/ To shoo a cat: ‫ پشتې پشتې‬/pište pište/ • To call a dog: • • • • ‫ اشه اشه‬/aša aša/ To call a donkey: ‫ کورو کورو‬/kuru kuru/ To urge on a horse: ‫ چ چ‬/č č/ To call sheep: ‫ درهۍ‬/drhey/ To urge on oxen: ‫ او او‬/aw aw/ • To urge on a donkey: • • • • Another set of interjections is onomatopoetic: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫ افسوس‬/afsos/.6 Interjections Below are some common interjections: ‫ آخ‬/ax/. ‫ بلې هو‬/bale hō/ Yes!. ‫ خیر‬/xayr/ For contradiction or disagreement (No!): ‫ نه‬/na/.376  Other Lexical Elements 10. ‫ اوف‬/of/. ‫ شاباس‬/šābāš/. Really?!): • • • ya/ E (Penzl. ‫ های های‬/hāy hāy/. 1955: 44) • To threaten or caution (Whoa!): ‫ وښ‬/uṣ/ A number of interjective particles are used. Oh!): • To express admiration or praise (Bravo!): /aški/ ‫اشکي‬ ‫ آفرین‬/āfarin/. ‫ نه نه‬/na na/. ‫ توبه‬/toba/ For corroboration or agreement (Yes!.1. ‫ رښتیا‬/rixtyā/ To express regret (For shame!): ‫ اپسوس‬/apsōs/. ‫ وا‬/wā/. ‫ آپرین‬/āprin/. ‫ یه یه‬/ya • To express surprise (Wow!. ‫ واوا‬/wā wā/. for calling or urging various domesticated animals.

Adverbs  377 ‫ ټک ټک‬/ṭek ṭek/ Whispering: ‫ پس پس‬/pes pes/ Water: ‫ شړپ شړپ‬/šṛap šṛap/ Gunfire: ‫ ډز ډز‬/ḍez ḍez/ • Knocking: • • • There is also a set of interjections borrowed directly from Arabic for religious reasons and used in certain cultural contexts. these are classified in this work as particles (Section 10. Both of these points deserve further clarification: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Our criteria for eliminating an item from the class of adverbs are these: • If a word has an adjectival function. • If a word is uninflected (and therefore not a verb) but governs an object. we have classified it as an adjective.2 Adverbs For the purposes of this grammar. • Said after praising someone to ward off the evil eye: God willed’ • Said in relief or in thanks: ‫ما شاء الله‬ /mašallāh/ ‘what ‫ الحمد لله‬/alhamdulillāh/ ‘praise to God’ • Said when beginning something such as a speech or starting a journey: /bismillāh/ ‘in the name of God’ • Said when talking about an action to be completed in the future: lāh/ ‘if God wills’ ‫بسمالله‬ ‫ ان شاء الله‬/inšal- • Said after swearing.177.1). we have classed it as an adposition. we have excluded “style disjuncts”—terms that have scope over the entire proposition or speech act. verbs or verb phrases. after saying or doing something inappropriate.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . we have classified adverbs in terms of both lexical and functional properties. we have not found mentioned in the literature or from our own research any derivational morphology that results in lexical adverbs. it is less straightforward to find lexical properties that differentiate adverbs from other word classes. or when being modest: /astaɣfarallāh/ ‘I ask God for forgiveness’ ‫استغر الله‬ 10. Functionally.228. As is often the case. adverbs comprise modifiers of adjectives. and sentences.

g. Unlike adjectives functioning adverbially. some adverbs listed here are exophoric in their reference and can therefore be classified as demonstratives (e.1 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of time. Table 10. since some classes of adjectives in Pashto do not undergo inflection.2. since our chapter on pro-forms has been confined to pronouns. beginning with 10.M] Afghanistan-M. see also Septfonds.g. we have placed the adverbial pro-forms in this section.378  Other Lexical Elements • Two circumstances exist in which adjectives function adverbially: when they modify other adjectives. place.1 Adverbs of time Adverbs of time include both adverbs with time reference and quantifier-like items. adverbs of place or time may also take complements and under those conditions are classified as adpositions (e.7. and because of the numerous conditions under which adpositions can appear without an overt object.2.g. • Because adpositional phrases are substantially “adverbial” in their functions. acting alone. /həlta/ ‘there’).3[SG. and when they modify verbs. /ham/ ‘thus’. /wrusta/ ‘after. the adverbs discussed in the current section are never inflected.30) !‫تل دي وي افغانستان‬ təl de wi afɣānistān-Ø always NEC be. In Pashto as in many other languages. Adverbs can generally be divided into the traditional semantic classes of time.g. The position that we take here is that an item is an adverb if. They can appear in any position in the clause that precedes the verb.30. however.177. later’). there is a fair amount of uncertainty as to whether a particular item has a distinct function as an adverb. We treat both circumstances as adjectival modification. as discussed in Section 10. and degree. many of the terms here listed as adverbs but not listed as adpositions may in fact (or in addition) be adpositions.2. (10. ‫لږ‬ ‫وروسته‬ ‫هم‬ ‫خپل‬ ‫هلته‬ 10.AOR. find examples of their use in sentences.228.DIR ‘May it always be Afghanistan!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. Similarly.2 on /xpəl/ ‘own’ as an adverb with reflexive reference).65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . In this last case.PRS. In addition. /ləg/ ‘a little’). it may not be possible to tell whether an adjective is being used adjectivally or adverbially without looking at the overall syntax and interpretation of the sentence. However. section 4. some adverbs refer anaphorically and may therefore be classified as pro-forms (e. manner. it modifies one of the constituents listed above. some items are multifunctional: adverbs of degree may also be nominal quantifiers (e.

7) (‫هیڅ کله )نه‬ hiʦ kala (na) ‘never’ ‫کله‬ kala ‘sometimes’ os ‘now’ ‫اوس‬ ‫اکنون‬ ‫الحال‬ aknun ilhāl ‫نن‬ nən ‘today’ ‫پرون‬ parun ‘yesterday’ ‫سبا‬ sabā ‘tomorrow’ ‫وختي‬ waxti ‘early’ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta ‘after’ (11.89.2.1: Some adverbs of time Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.5.Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫تل‬ təl ‘always’ ‫همېشه‬ hameša ‘any time’ ‫هر کله‬ har kala ‘whenever’ (see Section 7. see also Section 9.228.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 379 . then’   Table 10.2) ‫مخکښې‬ məxkṣe ‘before’ ‫لا‬ lā ‘yet’ ‫پس‬ pas ‘later.177.

32) tā lā ḍoḍ-əy ná da 2SG.DIR NEG be.33) halta kṣén-a there AOR\sit.OBL yet food-F.5).33 provide examples of their use in sentences.DIR do.34) !‫دلته راشه‬ dəlta rā́š-a here come.2 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of place.31) .DIR be.2 Adverbs of place Table 10.SG ‘Come here!’ (10.CONT.3SG.35) .PRS-IMP.‫کتاب مې پورته پروت دئ‬ kitab-Ø me porta prot-Ø dəy book-M.WK above lying-M.DIR always work-M. 9 Also: /bāhar/ ‫باهر‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.AOR. Some items mentioned here as adverbs also function as adpositions.STR.DIR ‘Haven't you eaten yet?’ 10.CONT.CONT-1SG ‘I always work.’ (W) ‫دلته‬ ‫هلته‬ 8 Notice that /dəlta/ and /halta/ follow the same d/h alternation for proximal vs.M ‘My book is lying on top.F Ø-xwoṛ-ə́l-e CONT-eat.STR. !‫هلته کښېنه‬ (10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . distal reference as the demonstrative pronouns (Section 7.‫زه همیشه کار کوم‬ za hamiša kār-Ø kaw-ə́m 1SG.3SG.’ ‫تا لا ډوډۍ نه ده خوړلې؟‬ (10.SG ‘Sit there!’ (10.2.DIR 1SG. sentences beginning with 10.228.F.PRS.PRS-IMP.PST-PST-PTCP.380  Other Lexical Elements (10.177.PRS.

dolata WAZ ‫هلته‬ halta⁸ ‫هلې‬ hale ‫پورته‬ porta ‫پاسه‬ pāsa ‫)د(ننه‬ (də)nəna ‘inside’ ‫دباندي‬ dabāndi ‘outside’ ‫بهر‬ bahar ⁹ ‫باندې‬ bānde ‘on top’ ‫لاندې‬ lānde ‘down. upon’   Table 10.Adverbs  Adverb Gloss ‫دلته‬ dəlta ‫دلې‬ dale ‘here’ dele.2: Some adverbs of place Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. underneath’ ‫هيچرې‬ hičare ‘nowhere’ ‫هيچرته‬ hičarta ‘there’ ‘above.177. below’ ‫نژدې‬ nəžde ‘near’ ‫پوري‬ pori ‘around’ ‫لرې‬ lare ‘far (away)’ ‫کښته‬ kṣətə ‘below.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 381 .228.

’ (W) 10.DIR 1PL.3. this.in still of de ʦəlānd-ə stur-i raṇā-Ø zmung pər this.36) Other Lexical Elements .OBL .‫ دباندې باران دئ‬،‫دننه ولاړ شئ‬ dənəna walā́ṛ-Ø səy dəbānde bārān-Ø inside gone-M...over.177. in the heights of Pashto literature.OBL of literature-M. as discussed in Section 9.OBL insufficient-M.F but of paxto-Ø də adab-Ø pə hask-Ø ke lā də pashto-M.F ‘Even though Dr.‫ددې ځلانده ستوری رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ ḍāktar-Ø kabir-Ø stori-Ø ka pə fiziki ləhāz-Ø doctor-M.OBL from orbit-M..OBL in.3 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of manner.POSS on sar-Ø da head-M be.OBL shining-M.CONT.PRS-IMP.DIR become.WK movement-F.DIR dəy be.3 Adverbs of manner Table 10.. The preposition /pə/ can be used with an adjective object.CONT.STR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .AOR-PST-PST.3SG.37) ‫په‬ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکی لحاظ د دی نیمګری ژوند له مداره واوښت‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا‬، ‫او له دی نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ . find examples of their use in sentences.2).4.. This stands next to the more usual construction of /pə/ with a noun object.38 and following.OBL world-F.M ‘Go inside! It is raining outside.. ‫په‬ (10. in examples 10.DIR if INSTR physical side-M. to render an adverbial phrase (10. Kabir Stori has physically turned away from movements of his meager life and left this world.PST-PST.37)..OBL light-F.3SG.DIR Kabir-M.3SG.. the light of his shining star is still above our heads.ABL w-ā́wuxt-Ø aw lə de naṛ-əy ʦəxə AOR-cross. also used to convey manner.AOR.from ye kaḍa-Ø wə́-kəṛ-l-a magar də 3..OBL star-M.2.228.DIR Stori-M. height-M .M and from.’¹⁰ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3SG.382  (10.PRS.SG outside rain-M.PRS.OBL life-M.OBL də de nimgəṛ-i žwand-Ø lə madār-a of this.DIR AOR-do.

M.PRS.38) 383 !‫مشران چې ناست وي ورو ورو خبرې وکړه‬ məšr-ān če nāst-Ø wi wro elder-PL.F.Adverbs  (10.M.37: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.DIR AOR-do.M ‘Their guests suddenly entered their home.DIR COMP sitting-PL.M] ‘Tell him to come quickly!’ ‫ډاکتر کبیر ستوری که په فزیکي لحاظ د دې نیمګري ژوند له‬ ‫ مګر د پښتو د ادب په هسک کې لا د دې‬، ‫مداره واوښت او له دې نړۍ څخه ئې کډه وکړله‬ .177.M] slow wro xabr-e wə́-kəṛ-a slow word-PL.’ (10.ANIM.DIR 3.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .39) melm-ānə ye nāʦāpa kor-Ø ta wər guest-PL.AOR.‫مېلمانه یې ناڅاپه کور ته ور ننوتل‬ (10.PRS-IMP.OBL to 3DVC nə́nawat-əl AOR\enter.3[PL.DIR be.WK sudden house-M.PST-PST.40) !‫ورته ووایه چې عاجل راشي‬ wər-ta wə́-wāy-a če ājil rā́s-i 3-to AOR-tell.M.AOR.3[SG.PRS-PRS.228.SG ‘Talk softly when there are elders present!’ .SG COMP quick come.3PL.‫ځلانده ستوري رڼا زمونږ پر سر ده‬ 11 Also: ‫ دا سي‬/dā si/ 12 Also: ‫ ځبله‬/ʣabla/ 10 Standardized version of 10.AOR-IMP.ANIM.

3: Some adverbs of manner Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. too’ ‫بې جا‬ be-jā ‘improperly’ ‘quickly’ ‘slowly’ ‘suddenly’   Table 10.384  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ‫ژر‬ žer ‫په لغت‬ pə laɣat ‫جلته‬ jalta ‫عاجل‬ ājil ‫ورو‬ wro ‫آهسته‬ āhista ‫نا څاپه‬ nā-ʦāpa ‫بې څافه‬ be-ʦāfa ‫ناګاه‬ nā-gāh ‫دا هسي‬¹¹ dā hasi ‘thus’ ‫دا رنګ‬ dā rang ‘in this manner’ ‫سره‬ səra ‘together (with)’ ‫بهم‬ baham ‫زبله‬¹² zablah ‫هم‬ ham ‘also.228.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .

41) pǝ dohǝm-Ø paṛāw-Ø ke bǝ səra siyāl-i in.228.F.2.’ ‫سره‬ Often. • A second likely interpretation involves the null object of reference: (10.M] ‘They will compete with [each other] in the second round.OBL affair-PLF.OBL 1PL.DIR be.in WOULD together competition-SG. a translation into English might include the particle along..OBL road-PL. /səra/ (otherwise an adposition) can appear without an overt object.WK discussion-M.43) ‫ سره‬/səra/ having anaphoric ‫چي کله سره مخامخ شي‬ če kala sǝrǝ mǝxāmǝ́x-Ø š-i COMP when COMIT facing-[PL.42) .65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’ (10.41 and 10...M ‘We discussed those efforts [among ourselves]. as shown in 10..AOR.M.PRS.M.1 The adverb /səra/ Across Pashto varieties. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.. and when it is.CONT.PST-PTCP.3[PL.177.3SG.3. in that instance.AOR.DIR wǝ́-kṛ-i AOR-do..43. generally determined through context.AOR-PRS.‫په دوهم پړاو کې به سره سيالي وکړي‬ (10. subject to predictable semantic conditions: . it has a number of potential meanings.PRS-1PL ‘whenever we come face to face with [them]’ Note too that the omitted.DIR] become.Adverbs  385 ‫سره‬ ‫سره‬ 10. the verb that allows this usage of /səra/ is a denominal verb. In this usage.DIR səra kǝ́ṛ-ay day together do. second-M stage-M . the adverb can appear either preceding the substantive word or may occur between the substantive and the verbalizer.‫په هغو لارو چارو مو بحث سره وکړ‬ pǝ haɣo lār-o čar-o mo bahs-Ø in. • ‫ سره‬/səra/ may indicate a reciprocal reading of the predicate.F. understood object need not be animate. that.

4 contains a list of some common Pashto adverbs of degree.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .4: Some adverbs of degree 13 Also: 14 Also: ‫ سرپ‬/sirp/. Table 10. and they strongly tend to precede the modified element.44. 1867) ‫ چټ پټ‬/čaṭ paṭ/(Raverty. their use in sentences can be seen in examples beginning with 10.2.386  Other Lexical Elements 10.4 Adverbs of degree Often adverbs of degree will be used to modify adjectives or verbs to denote intensity or emphasis.177. Adverb Gloss ‫لږ‬ ləg ‘a little’ ‫ډېر‬ ḍer ‘very’ ‫زښت‬ zəxt ‫خورا‬ xwarā ‫تنها‬ tan(h)ā ‫صرف‬¹³ serf ‫مازې‬ māze ‫بیښي‬ bixi ‫کورټ‬ kwərṭ ‫چټ‬¹⁴ čaṭ ‫څخو‬ ʦaxo ‘only’ ‘completely’ ‘slightly’   Table 10. 1867) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. as a corruption of the Persian ‫ صرف‬/sirf/(Raverty.228.

Adverbs  (10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . they are listed among the Pashto adverbs. These adverbs are recognizable because they end in the Arabic accusative case marker adverbs. a number of adverbs have also been borrowed from Persian and Urdu (Shafeev.DIR do.228.DIR 1SG. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.3PL.WK little AOR-run-PST.5 Adverbs borrowed from Arabic A number of adverbs in Pashto have been borrowed from Arabic and have retained their Arabic morphology.45) də maram-io ẓaɣ-Ø māšum-Ø xwarā of bullet-PL.M ‘The gunfire scared the child immensely.‫د مرمیو ږغ ماشوم خورا وبېراوه‬ (10.OBL child-M.2.¹⁵ ً‫ا‬ /‑an/.’ .AOR-PST.’ (10.‫پرون مې لږ وځغستل‬ parun me ləẓ wə́-ʣɣast-əl yesterday 1SG.M ‘I completely finished my work for today.3SG.177.OBL voice-M.WK complete ECHO xlā́s-Ø kṛ-Ø finished-M.’ 10.‫خپل ننی کار مې چټ پټ خلاص کړ‬ xpəl-Ø nan-ay kār-Ø me čaṭ paṭ own-M.DIR daily-M.F.3SG.DIR work-M. though since these borrowings do not have a peculiar morphology. 1964: 50).DIR very wə́-berāw-ə AOR-scare-PST. Borrowings from Arabic include all categories of 15 Similarly.46) .44) 387 .M ‘I ran a little yesterday.

‫کله چې ماشومانو خپل پلار ولید نو دفعتاً په خندا شول‬ (10.’ 10. suggesting from the variable ‫ولي‬ ‫څه‬ position of the weak pronoun clitic that this element may be outside the clause.3PL.228.47) kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.6 and exemplified beginning with 10.6 Adverbial interrogatives Other interrogative words fill the positions of adverbials .PST-PST.DIR father-M.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .388  Other Lexical Elements Adverb Gloss ً‫تقریبا‬ taqribán ‘approximately’ ً‫رسما‬ rasmán ‘officially’ ً‫دفعتا‬ dafatán ‘suddenly’ ً‫فورا‬ fawrán ‘immediately’ ً ‫كاملا‬ kamilán ‘completely’   Table 10.48 and 10. In many cases there is a shorter form as well as a longer (sometimes two word) form starting with /ʦə/.OBL own-M.PST-PST.50.M ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father.2.M. (10.M] 1SG.AOR. They words are summarized in Table 10.177. /sə/ ‘what’.48) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do.ANIM.M that suddenly INSTR laugh-F.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā́-Ø AOR-see.DIR šw-əl become. See 10.3SG.3[SG.49 for examples with /wáli/ ‘why’.CONT-PRS.5: Arabic adverbs in Pashto .WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.

sanga ʦanga. sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ čeri.AOR.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM 389 . čere ‫ چرې‬čare   Table 10.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) (10. sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga.Adverbs  GP M Translation ‫ ولي‬wáli wále ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla (če) kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخت‬ʦə waxt.3[SG.228.49) wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG. sə waxt ʦə waxt.CONT-PRS.6: Some other interrogative words ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ (10. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga.PST-2SG ‘When did you come?’ (NW) (10. səranga ʦərga.AOR.51) ‫څه وخت راغلې؟‬ sə waxt-Ø rā́ɣl-e what time-M.50) ‫کله راغلې؟‬ kəla rā́ɣl-e when come.177. sərga ‘how (what manner)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri.WK kiss-do.DIR come.

3 for more on reduplication. The reduplication of the question word gives the sense that the eating events are distributed over time..DIR how table-M.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) ‫نجار څرنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ (10.3[SG. See Section 10.DIR built-do. can occur with /har/ /ar/ ‘every’.58.M] ‘How is the carpenter making the table?’ (NW) As with interrogative pronouns.in CONT-eat. (10.CONT.390  Other Lexical Elements ‫چېري ځئ؟‬ (10.‫کله کله زه په رستوران کي خورم‬ kəla kəla zə pə restorān-Ø ki Ø-xwar-ə́m when when 1SG.. anytime’ and /har čere/ ‘wherever. Negative statements with /hets/. /hes/ ‘any’ also occur with other interrogatives/indefinites..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . as in /har kəla/ ‘whenever.DIR how table-M.53) čerta z-əy where go.CONT.DIR in.PRS-1SG ‘Sometimes I eat in restaurants.’ (SW) (10.’ Also like interrogative pronouns. as in Example 10.56) .3[SG. ‫هر چېري‬ ‫هر‬ ‫هر کله‬ ‫هېڅ‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.PRS-IMP.DIR built-do..56. restaurant-M . Come anytime!].52) čere z-əy where go. these interrogatives also may be used with indefinite meanings. when being used indefinitely.PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) ‫چېرته ځئ؟‬ (10.‫هرکله راشئ‬ har kala rā́š-əy every when come.57) .CONT-PRS.PRS-2PL ‘Where are you going?’ (NW) (10.177.PL ‘You are always welcome [lit. everywhere’.54) ‫نجار څنګه مېز جوړوی؟‬ najār-Ø sanga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M.228.AOR.STR.CONT-PRS. these interrogatives. as shown in 10.55) najār-Ø səranga mez-Ø juṛ-aw-í carpenter-M.

Punjabi. Notably. as well as certain western Indo-Aryan languages—for example. According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 87).CONT.’ (NW) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ (10. and Kashmiri (Hook & Chauhan 1988b. concord in Pashto adverbs is a subject ripe for further linguistic investigation. ‘very’ (adverb). and Kazakhstan) and those of the western Indo-Aryan languages.DIR NEG do. and with the subject if not. ‘very’ (adverb).60) ‫زیات‬ ‫پوست‬ . This unusual type of concord has been observed in the Caucasian language Avar.AOR. contiguous with Punjabi areas—a fact which suggests that adverbial concord is an areal feature.58) zə hes čere wláṛ-Ø ná šw-əm 1SG. The following examples use the adjectives /post/ ‘soft’ and /səxt/ ‘hard’: ‫ډېر‬ (10.177. While it has been briefly described elsewhere.DIR on road-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .PRS-PRS.3[SG. ‘many’ (adverb).STR.CONT-IMP.2.Adverbs  391 . Some adjectives that frequently modify verbs are: /xə/ ‘good’ (adjective). when playing this adverbial role they show agreement with the direct object if there is one. and is. Bhitrauti. in fact.’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.7 Adjectives as adverbs Many adjectives can also be used as verbal or sentential modifiers. /xāyistá/ ‘pretty’ (adjective).SG ‘Never backbite!’ 10.DIR soft-M.M] ‘This camel rides very comfortably [lit.DIR none where gone-M.DIR camel-M.59) hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-a never when backbiting-M.228.‫زه هېڅ چېرې ولاړ نه شوم‬ (10. Hook & Joshi 1991.DIR NEG become.DIR ʣ-í go. the Pashto-speaking region is situated between the regions in which Avar is spoken (western Dagestan. northwest Azerbaijan. ‘well’ (adverb). /ḍer/ ‘many’ (adjective). /zyāt/ ‘heavy’ (adjective).PST-1SG ‘I didn't go anywhere. goes soft].‫دا اوښ په لاره پوست ځي‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښایسته‬ ‫سخت‬ dā ux-Ø pə lāra-Ø post-Ø this. Hook & Koul 2008). Gujarati.

‫ما دغه اوښه سخته ټېلې کړله‬ mā dáɣa uxa-Ø səxt-a ṭelé 1SG.PRS-PRS.62) dā ux-ān pə lāra-Ø pāst-ə this.3[SG.STR.PRS-PRS.DIR soft-F. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.61) dā uxa-Ø pə lāra-Ø past-a this.DIR on road-F.M] ‘These camels ride very comfortably [lit.3SG.DIR on road-F.F ‘I pushed this she-camel hard.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .CONT.F] ‘This she-camel rides very comfortably [lit. goes soft].3[PL.DIR soft-PL.M.DIR hard-F.AOR-PST-PST.’ (NW) .‫ما دغه اوښ سخت ټېلې کړ‬ (10.177.’ (NW) .DIR pushed kṛ-ə do.63) mā dáɣa ux-Ø səxt-Ø ṭelé 1SG.DIR camel-PL.CONT.‫دا اوښان په لاره پاسته ځي‬ (10.’ (NW) 10.228.’ (NW) (10.M.OBL this.STR.M ‘I pushed this camel hard.DIR camel-M.64) .DIR hard-M.3SG.DIR pushed kṛ-əl-a do.DIR camel-F.DIR ʣ-í go.OBL this.392  Other Lexical Elements .DIR camel-F. go soft].8 Reduplication of adverbs Degree adverbs may undergo full reduplicaton to indicate increased intensity of the action.DIR ʣ-í go.2.‫دا اوښه په لاره پسته ځي‬ (10.AOR-PST.

’ (NW) 10.2.PRS-PRS. full reduplication is a morphological process with effects dependent on the lexical class of the word reduplicated.‫تحقیقاتو مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ ‫د رایې گیري نه وروسته یې د ټگي برگي او رشوت خوري په اړه د‬ ‫دغو بی هویتو او بی پتو مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل‬ .7 gives a list of some more doublet words and the stem from which they are derived (Pashtoon. number names. if the noun refers to an object.‫فاطمه زر زر ځي‬ fatəma-Ø zər zər ʣ-í Fatima-F.F] ‘Fatima went very quickly.8.69).3[SG.DIR quick quick go.65) 393 . the quality of this altered segment is conventionalized for the particular stem.2 Partial reduplication: echo words Partial reduplication (resulting in a doublet that consists of a lexeme plus an echo word) typically involves the alteration of only the initial sound.67. Section 6.2. Tibeto-Burman. adjectives.228. and Section 10. ¹⁷ 16 Standardized version of 10.8. and Table 10. 2009). though some patterns exist. 10.3.177. Echo words are an areal phenomenon throughout South Asia. as in examples 10.1.3 Reduplication 10. the functions of reduplication for each of these are found in Section 5. For instance.CONT. adverbs. the doublet construction may be a generalized plural.‫دومره ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنو کی ساری نه لری‬ 17 Standardized version of 10.66 and 10.1 Full (morphological) reduplication In Pashto. where they occur in Indo-Aryan.4.5.69: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. The doublet may convey intensity if the repeated element refers to an action (example 10.Reduplication  (10. The meanings of these doublet words are similarly conventionalized. Nouns.6 respectively. Some attested examples are given here. Section 6. and Austroasiatic languages.¹⁶. It seems reasonable to assume that their existence in Pashto is due to areal influence. Dravidian.3.3.67: . Section 10.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .4. and interjections are subject to full reduplication.

vote-F.OBL ECHO and bribe-M.3SG...OBL sickness-F.M ‘He had the responsibility of investigating bribery and cheating after the election.OBL .WK of ṭag-i bragi aw rašwat-Ø xoṛ-i pə aṛa-Ø cheat-M.DIR INSTR neck-F.OBL lār-e čāre ye path-PL.394  Other Lexical Elements (10.ANIM.66) ‫ګلان ملان دې خواښیږی؟‬ gul-ān mulān de flower-PL.PST-PST.AOR.67) ‫د رایې گیرئ نه وروسته یې د ټگئ برگئ او رشوت خورئ په اړه د تحقیقاتو‬ .WK xwāx-íg-i sweet-become.177..DIR and of prevention-M.OBL INSTR topic-F..3[PL.PRS-PRS.F.M] ‘Do you like flowers and such things?’ (NW) (10.228.DIR ECHO 3.M.DIR də tahqiq-āto masuliat-Ø pə ɣāṛa-Ø of research-PL.68) ‫د ملاریا ناروغی او د مخنیوۍ لاری چاری یی‬ də malāryā-Ø nāroɣ-i aw də məxniw-i of malaria-F.OBL collection-F.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .’ (10.M.‫مسوولیت په غاړه درلوده‬ də rāy-e gir-í na wrusta ye də from.OBL eating-F.DIR ECHO 2.CONT.WK ‘The Disease of Malaria and the Ways to Prevent It’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.OBL responsiblity-M.from after 3.DIR darlód-Ø have.

.M.AOR-PST.Reduplication  (10..DIR so.M..ABL and without honor-M.177.M.M.M.OBL .ABL məšr-āno zmung də grān-Ø hewād-Ø elder-PL.in example-M.DIR ECHO do.AOR.3[SG. built-do-INF-PL.DIR and də́ṛ-ay wə́ṛay kəṛ-Ø če zmung shredded-M.OBL ke sār-ay ná Ø-lar-i . India has fallen behind in its desired goal of building power plants.OBL to in.DIR be.M.M.OBL ṭāk-ə́l šúw-i hadaf-Ø tə pə select-INF become.OBL goal-M...PRS. and tore it to such pieces that our history has had no such example in two hundred years.POSS tārix-Ø pə dw-o saw-o kal-uno history-M..DIR NEG CONT-have-PRS. ras-éd-o ke šātə pātə arrive-become-PL..much destroyed-M.’ (10.in own-M.STR.OBL 1PL.M.OBL in.in behind ECHO súw-ay day become.3[SG.PST-PCTP.228.OBL country-M.ANIM.DIR of electricity-F.‫ویجاړاو دړی وړی کړ چه زمونږ تا ریخ یې په دووسوو کلنوکی ساری نلری‬ daɣá be huyat-a aw be pat-a this.DIR in.STR.M COMP 1PL.70) ‫هند څو ځلي د برېښنا د فابریکو په جوړولو کې خپل ټاکل شوي هدف ته په‬ ..69) 395 ‫دغه بی هویته او بی پته مشرانو زمونږ د ګران هیواد پلازمینه کابل دومره‬ .OBL of fābrik-o pə joṛ-aw-ə́l-o ke xpəl-Ø factory-PL.‫رسیدو کې شاته پاته سوی دی‬ hind-Ø ʦo ʣəl-i də brixnā-Ø də India-M.3SG.AOR.DIR some time-PL.OBL plazmena-Ø kābul-Ø dumra wijā́ṛ-Ø aw capital-F.PST-PTCP.M..M.OBL without identity-M.CONT.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.POSS of dear-M.OBL . two-PL.DIR Kabul-M.OBL hundred-PL..OBL year-PL...M] ‘A couple of times now.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .F] ‘These nameless and honorless leaders destroyed Kabul. the capital of our dear country.

WK nothing manner-M.M.71) Other Lexical Elements .177.‫موږ به د امریکا او ملګرو سره یې هیڅ ډول خبری اتری و نه کړو‬ mung bə də amrikā-Ø aw malgər-o 1PL.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132..228.396  (10.AOR-1PL ‘We will not hold talks with America or any of its allies.with 3.DIR word-PL..F..OBL sərə ye hiʦ ḍawal-Ø xabar-e atere wə́ ná . America-F.DIR ECHO AOR NEG kṛ-u do.STR[DIR] WOULD with..65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .OBL and friend-PL.

overcooked’ ‘overripe’ ‫کړینګ پړینګ‬ kṛing pṛing ‘curved’ ‫ کړينګ‬kṛing ‘curve.228. turn’ ‫ ناسنه‬nāsta ‘sitting’ ‘conduct’ ‫تت پت‬ tət pət ‘disordered’ ‫ تت‬tət ‘confused’ ‘confused’ ‫غټ پټ‬ ɣaṭ paṭ ‘very big’ ‫ غټ‬ɣaṭ ‘large’ ‫لټ پټ‬ laṭ paṭ ‘soiled’ ‫ لټ‬laṭ ‘sluggish’ ‘besmirched’ ‫خوړین پړین‬ xuṛin pṛin ‘boiled very soft’ ‫ خوړين‬xuṛin ‘boiled soft.Reduplication  Doublet 397 Stem ‫پوښتنه اتنه‬ poxtәna utәna ‘questioning’ ‫ پوختنه‬poxtәna ‘question’ ‫پېژنې اېجنې‬ pežәne ajane gloss unknown ‫ پېژنه‬pežəna ‘familiarity. bend’ ‘bent’ ‫سست پست‬ sust pust ‘quite listless.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM . lax. confidence’ ‫هله‬ hala ‘attach’. alarm’ ‫ ځله‬zila   Table 10. ‘worry. non-diligent’ ‫خل پل‬ xal pal gloss unknown ‫هلې ځلې‬ hali zali ‘effort’ ‫ سست‬sust ‘listless’ ‫ خل‬xal ‘faith.177.7: Some doublets and their base stems Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132. ‫وار پار‬ wār pār ‘through and through’ ‫ناسته پاسته‬ nāsta pasta ‘social intercourse’ recognition’ ‫ وار‬war ‘time.

Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 132.177.65 Download Date | 5/27/14 4:58 PM .228.

and Tegey (1979).3. described in Section 11. there is a phrasal position outside the clause after the verb phrase.1. irrespective of its function (see Section 9. the research we conducted with native speakers rendered differences in lexical forms or case-marking patterns. however. we refer to this position as pre-clausal position.2. which is similarly used for a variety of functions.3) is generally phrase-initial.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Brugman and Anne Boyle David 11 11. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.Noun. Penzl (1955). modifiers.2. Pate (2012). before the subject. and case-marking and agreement.1 Noun phrases Pashto noun phrases¹ generally exhibit the internal order Determiner . when they are used as genitive determiners (which is indicated only by their proximity to the noun).1 for more examples).Adjective .2.189. There is at least one phrasal position outside the clause. but not restricted to.Quantifier .2. in generative terminology. It is used for a variety of purposes including. among others. A genitive determiner (headed either by /də/ or by a fused strong form—see Section 7.2.1. Because it apparently fulfills many independent grammatical requirements of Pashto. which has been described in various degrees of detail by Babrakzai (1999). It is not a comprehensive treatment of Pashto syntax.3.1 Syntax Overview This grammar has concentrated on Pashto word-formation and phrase-formation. not in the general properties of Pashto syntax. We refer to this position as the post-clausal position. and determiners. Most of the description in this chapter has been synthesized from these works. Pashto exhibits strong head-final order in noun phrases and verb phrases.Claudia M. A set of apparent exceptions to the general order of elements in a clause results from the large inventory of second-position clitics. Lorimer (1902). The current chapter covers some aspects of Pashto sentence construction. For the most part. this is called the Determiner Phrase or DP. focusing on questions of word and phrase order. In addition. rather than as a Focus position.2.2 Phrasal syntax 11.186. Because weak pronouns are second-position clitics. our field research on syntax was more limited than that on other aspects of Pashto grammar. Pashto is a pro-drop language: the pronoun coreferential with the agreement marker on the verb may be omitted under the conditions detailed in Section 7. 11. they may follow ‫د‬ 1 We use this term in its traditional sense of a noun and its complements. a focus function.

PRS.AOR.DIR 1PL.M.WK book-M.M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná xoṛ-Ø 3. This is exemplified in 11.4 and Section 9..1. and circumpositions.3: (11. and nobody even cared.DIR 1SG.M ‘Our forests were destroyed.2) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL also sorrow-M. having to do with the interrelationships between weak pronouns or oblique pronominal clitics and adpositions.3SG.5.3PL.WK AOR-hit-INF become.3) .PST-PTCP.2. 11.M ‘That is my book. Farah-M .1) .2.M.AOR.3PL.DIR be.‫په فراه کې تښتول شوي کارګران خوشې شول‬ pə farā-Ø ke təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i in.400  Syntax their head.7.AOR.DIR kārgar-ān xóše šw-əl worker-PL.3SG.189.‫دا مي کتاب دئ‬ dā mi kitāb-Ø dəy this.CONT. but may also appear in the post-clausal position.186..PST-PST. respectively. as shown in example 11.in kidnap-INF become. as is shown in 11.ANIM. postpositions.WK none who. A number of additional conditions obtain on the internal structure of adpositional phrases.PST-PST. these are discussed in Section 9. as shown in 11. They may also precede their head. (11..PL. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL. given the existence of prepositions.PST-PST.’ Relative-clause modifiers appear after their heads in the same phrase.7.DIR AOR-NEG eat.M.DIR released become.75. as shown in example 11.’ (SW) Participial phrases modifying nouns pattern as adjective phrases and tend to precede their heads.M ‘The workers kidnapped in Farah were released.76..2 Adpositional phrases The salient exception to the head-final principle can be found in adpositional phrases.’ (11.

) fan’ ‫ کنګل نيول‬/kangal niwə́l/ ‘to freeze (intr. with the borrowed word filling the complement slot.) wrestling’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.5 for examples. Pashto uses the verbs /axistə́l/ ‘to take’.) breathing.) push. which we refer to as the intransitive and transitive verbalizers when they act as light verbs.) foot’ ‫ سا اخیستل‬/sā axistə́l/ ‘to breathe’ < ‫ سا‬/sā/ ‘(f. Pashto has a robust system of light verb constructions (LVC).140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4 for a detailed description of their morphosyntactic behavior.2. See Section 8.) ice’ ‫ کشتي نيول‬/kuští niwə́l/ ‘to wrestle’ < ‫ کشتي‬/kuští/ ‘(f. if any.2. further investigation is necessary. they can license further complementation. LVCs are so prominent and productive in Pashto that they serve as simplex predicates for further syntactic purposes—for example. Relative clauses and sentence-level modifiers may appear in postclausal position. with the verb. as described by Tegey (1979) and Pate (2012). Only one of the two canonical types—those of the form Noun/Adjective + Verb (N-V)—appears in our data and has been described by other authors as occurring in Pashto. it is also used as a way of importing loanwords. to grasp’. as the final element.) The inventory of light verbs in Pashto should not surprise anyone familiar with LVCs. In addition to the verbs /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and /kawə́l/ ‘to make. as in the following examples: ‫کېدل‬ ‫نيول‬ • • • • • • ‫اخیستل‬ ‫ایستا‬ ‫کول‬ ‫وهل‬ ‫ پښه اخیستل‬/pša axistə́l/ ‘to stride’ < ‫ پښه‬/pša/ ‘(f. As for the other type of LVC—Verb + Verb (V-V)—since it is abundant in South Asian languages of both the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families.4. As verbs are a closed class in Pashto. 2011). and has recently been reported for Persian (Kshanovski. respiration’ ‫ ڼېل وهل‬/ṭel wahə́l/ ‘to push.2. shove (one another)’ < ‫ ڼېل‬/ṭel/ ‘(m. /niwə́l/ ‘to seize. head-final order is found also in the verb phrase.)’ < ‫ کنګل‬/kangál/ ‘(m.186. the LVC is the only means of creating new verbal forms in the language. to do’. (See Section 11. two-word expressions that are semantically interpretable as a single predicate.Phrasal syntax  11. 11.189.3 401 Verb phrases Generally. /wahə́l/ ‘to beat’.1 Light verb constructions Like many other languages of the Western Asian and South Asian areas. and /istə́l/ ‘to throw out’ as light verbs. shove’ ‫ ببوزی وهل‬/bəbozay wahə́l/ ‘to fan’ < ‫ ببوزی‬/bəbózay/ ‘(m.2.4.3. the morphosyntactic requirements on the complement are discussed in Section 8. it would not be surprising to find it in Pashto as well. For that reason we will not say definitively that V-V LVCs do not occur in Pashto.4.

In addition.CONT-IMP.M.CONT-PRS.‫په لسګونو خلک وژنه او له ژونده يې خلاصوه‬ pə lasgun-o xalək-Ø Ø-wažn-á aw INSTR dozen-PL.DIR of world-F.M.‫نوموړی ماشين د نړۍ په ګڼ شمېر ژبو باندې خدمات وړاندې کوي‬ numwəṛ-ay māšin-Ø də nəṛ-əy pə aforementioned-M.186.DIR CONT-kill.OBL .DIR machine-M.ABL 3.on services-PL.DIR kaw-í do. Contracted LVC: (11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.F.in of "P R T" team-M.’ Uncontracted LVC: (11. many more can be seen throughout this book. there are likely more light verbs in Pashto.5) .SG and lə žwand-a ye xlās-aw-á from life-M.SG ‘Kill dozens of people and release them from this life.F] ‘Australia is establishing a 'P[rovincial] R[econstruction] T[eam]' team in Afghanistan. Afghanistan-M .4) .‫استرالیا په افغانستان کې د "پي آر ټي" ټېم جوړوي‬ astrāliyā-Ø pə afɣānistān-Ø ke də "pi ar ṭi" ṭim-Ø Australia-F. A few examples follow of typical LVCs.. we do not know how productive the other verbs in the above examples are as light verbs.OBL people-M.. compelled’ While LVCs with ‫ کېدل‬/kedə́l/ and ‫ کول‬/kawə́l/ are by far the most common and extremely productive... gaṇ-Ø šmir-Ø žəb-o bānde xadmāt-Ø numerous-M number-M language-PL.OBL on.3[SG.DIR joṛ-aw-í́ built-do.189.402  • Syntax ‫ اړ ایستا‬/aṛ istə́l/ ‘to compel’ < ‫ اړ‬/aṛ/ ‘obstacle.CONT-PRS.’ (11....6) ..M] ‘The aforementioned device functions in a large number of the world's languages. as these are so common in Pashto.3[SG. further research in this area is needed. but again.DIR in.PRS-IMP.WK freed-do.

Phrasal syntax  (11. Nominal complements are usually treated as the direct object of the verb.189. similarly to adjective complements.) • The complement of a denominal verb and its verbalizer. cannot be a direct object. as the verb can have at most two arguments.4 for a discussion of these exceptions. or pronominal clitics and ‫ مو‬/mo/ 2 Standardized version of 11.OBL cart-F.1 The verbal group in General Pashto Certain particles can be inserted between: • The aorist prefix ‫ وـ‬/wə́/and its verb.3. some nominal complements behave like part of the verb lexeme and allow a direct object. or prefixed. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. on the other hand.F ‘The big bull pulled the cart.AOR-1PL ‘After this.³ 11. • A prefix or pseudo-prefix and its verb. The undergoer of the action.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.7: ‫ مې‬/me/ .AOR-PST.4.’ Adjective complements of N-V LVCs always show agreement with the undergoer of the action of the verb. verbs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . it is instead indicated by an adposition and accordingly case-marked oblique.OBL bull-M.OBL tel-Ø waréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M. which is in turn marked in accordance with Pashto’s system of split ergativity.3.186. we won't import fuel through Iran.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this. ‫ دې‬/de/ .’² (11.2 Elements in the verbal group 11.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 3 However. .8) .2. The particles that interact with verbs in this way are: • The modal clitics ‫ به‬/bə/ and ‫ دې‬/de/ • The weak personal pronouns.OBL from side-F. ‫ یې‬/ye/ .DIR pulled do.2.DIR NEG do. see Section 8.‫غټ غویي کراچي کشه کړه‬ ɣaṭ-Ø ɣway-i karāč-e kašá kṛ-a big-M.DIR imported-M.2. (This includes both the a-initial complex verbs and second conjugation.7) 403 .3SG. and are therefore also case-marked according to split-ergative alignment.2.

’ With /wā́/ (< /wə́/+ /a-/): ‫واـ‬ (11.‫ا مې خیستل‬ Ø-á me xist-əl-ə CONT-buy 1SG.3PL.WK beat-PST.AOR. and adverbials are all second-position clitics.12) .‫وا مې خیستل‬ w-ā́ me xist-əl AOR-buy 1SG. weak personal pronouns.186. Tegey (1977) reports the following ordering of enclitics between verbal components: /xo/> /bə/> { /mo/| /me/| /de/| /ye/} > /no/ ‫خو‬ ‫به‬ ‫مو‬ ‫مې‬ ‫دې‬ ‫یې‬ ‫نو‬ If the first syllable of the verb does not carry stress (that is.M ‘I beat him.3SG. Also. if it is a non-aorist form).PRS WOULD 1SG.‫و مې واهه‬ (11.WK buy.10) ‫وـ‬ .PST-PST-3PL.9) wə́ me wāh-ə AOR 1SG.’ versus: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M ‘I was buying them.11) .404  Syntax ‫ خو‬/xo/ and ‫ نو‬/no/ The negatives ‫ نه‬/ná/ and ‫ مه‬/má/ • The adverbial clitics • Modals.WK NEG take-2SG ‘You won't take me. if an aorist form is negated.’ With second conjugation (= prefixed) verb: (11. Some examples of these phenomena follow (examples are from Kopris 2009 and Tegey 1977 ). the negative precedes the verb.‫بو به مې نه زې‬ bó bə me ná z-e take.PST-PST.’ With a-initial verbs. but only when the /a/ is stressed (the a-initial verbs are unusual in that they have variable stress placement): (11.189.WK buy. and the clitics follow the negative. They also obey strict rules of ordering relative to each other.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M ‘I bought them. the negative marker—not the initial syllable of the verb—takes the stress. With aorist prefix /wə́/: ‫وـ‬ .

2.M ‘I knocked them down.‫وران مې کړ‬ warān-Ø me k-ə worse-M.WK do. (11.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him.OBL AOR\knock.‫اخیستل مې‬ Ø-axist-ə́l-ə me CONT-buy. or the weak pronoun clitic may cliticize to the initial stressed syllable of the verb.3SG.PST-PST-3PL.’ ‫څملول‬ The pair below with the second conjugation verb /ʦamlawə́l/ ‘to knock down’ shows that the choice of pronoun is optional: either the strong pronoun may precede the intact inflected verb.‫څه مې ملول‬ ʦá me mlaw-əl AOR\knock.M ‘I knocked them down.3SG.’ (11.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M.14) .OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.M ‘I made it worse.down 1SG. The Waziri particles take the following forms: • The modal clitics /wa/ and /de/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3PL.STR.2 The verbal group in Middle dialects Particles in the Middle dialects interact with verbs similarly to those in the General Pashto dialects.2. They differ somewhat in form. as illustrated below.’ A negated aorist form (note stress on negative): (11.down-PST.’ 11.17) .down-PST.3.‫ما څملول‬ mā́ ʦámlaw-əl 1SG.DIR 1SG.15) .’ With denominal verbs: (11.189.16) .WK ‘I was buying them.M 1SG.DIR AOR-NEG do.AOR-PST.AOR-PST.13) 405 .WK knock.186.Phrasal syntax  (11.3PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

In aorist constructions.OBL also sorrow-M.3PL.19) .DIR 1PL.M ‘Our forests were destroyed.M ‘I didn't read [them] over.1. /(y)e/ . /de/ .3.2. Because it carries an inherent stress.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. and either initial /a/.STR.4) and /nu/ • The negative morphemes /ná/ and /má/ The Dzadrani particles take these forms: • The modal clitics /be/ and /de/ • The weak personal pronouns. and nobody even cared.3PL.406  Syntax • The weak personal pronouns. in contrast to General Pashto dialects. and /mo/ • The adverbial clitics /xo/ (see Section 10.PST-PST.WK none who. 11. and /əm/ • The adverbial clitic /xo/ • The negative morphemes /nə́/ and /má/ We do not have information on the ordering of Waziri clitics.OBL AOR NEG read-PST.PST-PST.’ (11.‫ بيا يې هيچا هم غم ونه خوړ‬،‫ځنګلونه مو ووهل شول‬ dzangal-una mo wə́-wah-əl šw-əl biyā jungle-PL.AOR.3SG. but Septfonds reports Dzadrani ordering as follows: adverbial clitics > pronominal clitics > modal clitics Note that this ordering distinguishes between modal /de/ and pronominal /de/ ‘you’ . it takes the main stress in an aorist verb phrase: ‫نه‬ ‫و‬ (11. it therefore follows the aorist marker /wə/ for simplex verbs. or pronominal clitics /me/ ∼ /be/.2. the prefix. or the light verb complement for complex verbs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . /di/ .M then ye hits čā ham ɣam-Ø wə-ná 3.3 Negative placement in the aorist verb phrase The negative particle /ná/ nearly always precedes the verb and is placed as close to the verb stem as possible.WK AOR-hit-INF become.‫ما و نه لوستل‬ mā wu nə́ lwast-əl 1SG. /ye/ .18) . where the two occupy the same slot.186. or pronominal clitics /mi/ .DIR AOR-NEG xoṛ-Ø eat.M.189.

STR.OBL from.21) haɣe xpəl-a čatr-əy xlā́s-a ná 3SG.‫کښېنناست‬ šāh-Ø mahmud-Ø lə sar-Ø tsəxe tāj-Ø Shah-M.AOR-PST..DIR AOR-NEG do.’ .OBL own-F.Phrasal syntax  (11.F ‘Fate didn't befriend him. head-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR NEG kṛ-a do.1: Element ordering in negative future constructions Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.F ‘She didn't open her umbrella.3SG.22) baxt-Ø wər-səra yār-i wə-ná kṛ-a fate-M.186.‫هغې خپله چترۍ خلاصه نه کړه‬ (11.OBL Mahmud-M.OBL 3-COMIT friendship-F.‫بخت ورسره ياري ونه کړه‬ (11.DIR opened-F.AOR-PST..189.DIR ista kəṛ-Ø aw hits waxt pə šahi taxt-Ø removed do.DIR umbrella-F.1..OBL .’ . the order of the other elements depends on the presence of a subject and object or both.3SG. ‫به‬ Condition Order of elements subject OR object expressed subject/object + subject AND object expressed subject + NEITHER subject NOR object expressed ‫ و‬wə + ‫ به‬bə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb ‫ به‬bə + object + ‫ و‬wə + ‫ نه‬ná+ verb   Table 11.from crown-M..M and none time on royal stage-M kxé-ne-nāst-Ø AOR\sit-NEG-sit.F. when negating future time reference.AOR-PST.3SG.3SG.20) 407 ‫شاه محمود له سر څخه تاج ايسته کړ او هيڅ وخت په شاهې تخت‬ .M ‘Shah Mahmud disavowed his royal birthright and never assumed the throne. as indicated in Table 11.’ Because /bə/ is a second-position clitic and therefore must follow the first stressed word in the clause or sentence.PST-PST.

28.DIR benefit-F.24) .M] ‘Even now. the negated verb is simply /ná/ + inflected verb stem.408  Syntax In the case of simplex verbs (i.DIR WOULD of 3PL.’ (11. Balkh-M walāyat-Ø ke pāy tə wə-nə́ ras-eg-i province-M .DIR own-F.OBL to AOR NEG arrive-PRS-PRS. examples of the orderings in Table 11..DIR WOULD only in.‫د اور ګاډي لار به یوزاي په بلخ ولایت کې پای ته ونه رسیږي‬ də orgād-i lār-Ø bə yawāze pə balx-Ø of train-M.1 (Tegey & Robson.DIR WOULD 2-to AOR-NEG deliver-PRS.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL time-M.OBL mox-e tə wə ná ras-eg-i goal-F.‫تر هغه وخته به نوموړی خپلې موخې ته و نه رسیږي‬ tər háɣə waxt-ə bə numwaṛ-ay xpəl-e up. This type of conspiracy won't bring damage to their cease-fire.‫داډول دسیسې به ددوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ dā ḍawal-Ø dəsis-e bə də duy this.STR.OBL path-F. he won't reach his goals.2.e.F. 1996: 128).3[SG] ‘It won't do you any good. [lit.23 through 11.OBL orband-Ø tə ziyān-Ø wə ná rasaw-i cease.M] ‘This type of conspiracy won't hurt the cease-fire.186.23) . as in 11.F] ‘Only in Balkh Province will the railroad not be completed. ‫نه‬ (11..]’⁴ (11.189.. all first conjugation verbs except a-initial ones.‫دا ډول دسیسې به د دوى اوربند ته زیان و نه رسوي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.to that.ABL WOULD aforementioned-M.25: .3[SG.in end to AOR-NEG arrive-PRS-PRS.DIR conspiracy-PL.3[SG.’ (11.26) .4).DIR AOR NEG deliver-PRS.25) ..3[SG.‫کومه فایده به درته ونه رسوي‬ kum-a fāyida-Ø bə dər-tə wə-nə́ rasaw-i any-F.’ 4 Standardized version of 11.DIR manner-M. see Section 8.OBL to damage-M..fire-M.

M] ‘[The votes] won't be counted.AOR-1SG ‘I won't be able to serve in Parliament.‫وبه نه شمېرل شي‬ (11.2.OBL from path-F.2 describes the relative position of the elements.29 through 11.e. ‫و‬ Verb type Positioning a-initial verbs w + ā (note lengthening) + verb Second conjugation verbs prefix + Third conjugation verbs noun or adjective + ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ نه‬ná + rest of ‫ نه‬ná + rest of verb ‫ نه‬ná + verbalizer   Table 11.Phrasal syntax  409 .186. examples of this negative placement..PRS-1SG do.’ . /bə/ always appears after the first stressed element of the sentence: ‫به‬ • a-initial verb ‫ اخیستل‬/axistə́l/ ‘to take. a-initial verbs.3.2.3[PL.28) wə́ bə ná šmir-ə́l š-i AOR WOULD NEG count-INF become.‫و به نه شمېرل شي‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.4).2: Negative placement Consider 11. see Section 8.DIR AOR-do.27) wə́-ba ná š-əm kə́ṛ-āy də AOR-WOULD NEG become.28: . and third conjugation verbs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .‫وبه نه شم کړاى د پارلمان له لارې خدمت وکړم‬ (11. Note that in these constructions.AOR. See also Section 11.PRS-PRS.AOR-OPT of pārlamān-Ø lə lār-e xadmat-Ø wə́-kṛ-əm parliament-M.’⁵ With complex verbs (i. Note that the prefix /wə/ occurs only in a-initial verbs.AOR.189. the negative particle is inserted between the first element and the verb stem. Table 11.2.31. to buy’: 5 Standardized version of 11.OBL service-M. second conjugation verbs.

we won't import fuel through Iran.186.’ • third conjugation verb (11.OBL from side-F. both because the direct case marker is often zero.29) .PRS-1SG ‘Then I also won't quit my job. .‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لورې تېل وارد نه کړو‬ 6 Standardized version of 11.189.3 Main clause sentence types Pashto is a pro-drop language: it often lacks overt marking of arguments.STR.DIR INSTR none manner-M also yawāze pré ná gd-əm alone AOR\abandon NEG abandon.‫زه به هغه په هیڅ ډول هم یوازی پرې نه ږدم‬ zə́ bə haɣá pə hits ḍawal-Ø ham 1SG. and absolutive functions (see Section 5.30) ‫ پرېښودل‬/prexud-ə́l/ ‘to abandon’: .. accusative.’⁶ • second conjugation verb (11.31: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.STR.410  Syntax (11.DIR from.. and because the direct case reflects nominative.from hand-M..29: 7 Standardized version of 11.OBL tel-Ø wāréd-Ø ná kṛ-u fuel-M. this.‫نوبیابه هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ no biyā́ bə ham zə də de kār-Ø then then WOULD also 1SG.OBL after WOULD of Iran-M.PRS-1SG ‘I won’t ever leave him alone.DIR imported-M.DIR WOULD 3SG..DIR AOR-take NEG take.1.DIR NEG do.1 and Section 5. This affects word order in that subjects may be expressed through verb agreement suffixation alone.31) ‫ واردول‬/wāredawə́l/ ‘to take’: .OBL ʦəxə lās-Ø w-ā́ ná xl-əm .‫نو بیا به هم زه ددې کار څخه لاس وا نه خلم‬ .3.OBL work-M.‫له دې وروسته به د ایران له لوري تېل وارد نه کړو‬ lə de wrustá bə də irān-Ø lə lur-e from this.AOR-1PL ‘After this.’⁷ 11.2).STR.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

STR. one.. word order contributes to interpretation in present-tense clauses where both subject and object are case-marked as direct.1 Order of elements in declaratives Subject to several more specific conditions. and is the head of the subject noun phrase.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .33) .CONT. the first translation is the intended one.Main clause sentence types  11.M.DIR ‘Their people didn't kidnap the Turkish engineers. the nominal /māmurin/ ‘officials’ is the first of the two directmarked nouns. the order of elements in main clauses in Pashto is S . be signaled through special intonation (including a heavy pause).ANIM.186. the second possible translation (O-S-V) would require a supporting context and would. One is that the required second position of a weak pronoun may result in a violation of the S-O-V order. however.PRS-PRS.in ninety-PL.3[PL.hundred-PL.32) . Compare examples 11.‫په سلو کې نوي دولتي مامورین رشوت خوري‬ pə səl-o ke nuw-i dawlati in. suggesting that the pre-clausal position is being used in this case for focus.189.M] ‘Ninety percent of government officials take bribes.DIR bribe-F.3PL.PRS.V.DIR governmental māmur-in rašwat-Ø Ø-xor-í official-PL. According to our sources. for emphasis or contrast.M Ø-taxtaw-ә́l-i CONT-kidnap-PST-PTCP.PL.M. in speech.‫ترکي انجينران ددوى کسانو نه دي تښتولي‬ turki injinir-ān dә duy Turkish engineer-PL.M. The second one.M. In addition to verb agreement. Babrakzai (1999: 13–14) notes that outside of a strict verb-final condition.1 411 Declaratives 11.61. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ There are various exceptions to the basic S-O-V principle.1.32.3.ANIM...60 and 11.OBL NEG be. providing that the larger context supports the interpretation: (11.3.M. ‫مامورین‬ (11. In example 11. in keeping with the strong preference for the subject to precede the object.” The following example shows that (for some speakers at least) the object may precede the subject. has been confirmed by speakers as a possible interpretation. “Word order within a clause is very flexible.’ In the following attested example.OBL .M.DIR of 3PL.O ..DIR CONT-eat.OBL kas-āno ná di person-PL.

ANIM.37).34 is much more likely in past tense sentences.412  (11.M.DIR AOR-see-1SG ‘It's you I see!’ Because Pashto’s denominal verbs place the verb’s complement in the direct object position. where the ergative-absolutive case-marking pattern provides disambiguation. In these constructions. We leave to future research whether these somewhat contradictory claims reflect dialect variation.OBL 1SG.STR.DIR CONT-kill.36) tā zə Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.34) Syntax ‫د ملي اردو سرتيري ولې بهرني پوځيان وژني؟‬ dә mili urdu-Ø sartir-i wale baharəni of national army-M.34: ‫د ملي اردو سرتیري ولي بهرني پوځیان وژني؟‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. the adpositional phrase containing the undergoer precedes the denominal verb.186.35. the undergoer of the expressed action is often given in an adpositional phrase (highlighted in example 11.M.PRS-PRS. present-tense sentences with O-S-V order instantiate a construction that contains a pronoun coreferential with the object. or register or stylistic variation.DIR cat-F.35) sp-ay pišo-Ø ye xog-aw-í dog-M. which he claims places focus on the object. where the weak pronoun co-refers with the noun /spay/. (11.DIR why foreign pāwdz-iān Ø-wažn-í force-PL.STR. ‫مرسته‬ 8 Standardized version of 11. The agreement suffix on the verb reflects that /mərasta/ ‘help’ is the grammatical direct object. this lends support to the view that the object noun phrase is in a preclausal position. as shown in 11.M] ‘Why are the nation's soldiers killing foreign fighters?’ ‘Why are foreign fighters killing the nation's soldiers?’⁸ Roberts (2000: 11–12) claims that O-S-V order such as is shown in 11. (11. the cat is hurting him. no special intonation is associated with the O-S-V word order.3[PL. Note that this example contrasts with the previous one in that only one direct object expression appears.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL soldier-PL. According to Roberts.CONT-PRS.WK hurt-do.DIR 3.189.3[SG]F ‘The dog.’ Penzl (1955: 133) provides a present-tense example for Kandahari with O-S-V word order. he claims further that in such cases.

.’ (11..3[SG.3 Locative alternation Takahashi (2008) explores the phenomenon of locative alternation in Pashto... and an indirect object marked with the postposition /ta/ ‘to’.39) Bill bus-Ø pə lar-əy bār-aw-i Bill hay..1.3. “as long as the grammatical functions of the arguments are clear from context or case-marking [and] .3SG..M] on wagon-SG... spray.DIR wə́-kəṛ-l-a AOR-do.M] ‘Bill is loading hay onto the wagon.OBL .DIR[PL.F[DIR] load-do. hay-PL.na Bill wagon-SG. This is in keeping with Pashto’s limit of two distinct noun phrases per clause. any order of arguments is possible.CONT-PRES. (11. the remaining argument appears in an adpositional phrase..3.. and that either argument may also Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.CONT-PRES.WK də pākistān-Ø sərə mərasta-Ø COMIT. indirect objects are always marked with an adposition.37) 413 .Main clause sentence types  (11. Roberts (2000: 13) demonstrates that in sentences that have a subject. Afghanistan-M .” Shafeev (1964: 55) claims that the indirect object preferentially precedes the direct object in the Kandahari dialect.F ‘He helped Pakistan when Afghanistan was under attack.on of attack-PL.F[DIR] from.‫په افغانستان باندې د حملې پر وخت یې د پاکستان سره مرسته وکړله‬ pə afɣānistān-Ø bānde də haml-o pər waxt-Ø ye on.AOR-PST-PST.OBL at time-M 3..1.’ She shows further that whichever argument appears in the direct object function is the trigger of verb agreement in the past tense. allow either the undergoer of the activity or the location affected to appear as a nuclear term.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .from bār-aw-i load-do.OBL ..186.M] ‘Bill is loading the wagon with hay.. She shows that three-argument predicates such as load.. and smear. bus-o .F. the verb appears finally. a direct object...’ 11..189.38) Bill lar-əy də.COMIT help-F.2 Order of elements in ditransitive main clauses There is in Pashto no double-object ditransitive construction. which express the caused movement of material into or onto a location.3[SG.M. ‫ته‬ 11.. Pakistan-M.

CONT.5 Passive clauses Pashto does not have a clearly distinguishable morphological or periphrastic passive..AOR.189.DIR be.M.’ (11. The construction identified by some contemporary linguists as a passive comprises a special case of denominal verbs.3PL. Bill from. as shown in the examples that follow.F[DIR] from. The verbal part of the construction consists of a form of the verbalizer /kedə́l/ ‘to become’ and a verbal complement.side on wagon-SG.. however.F ‘The wagon has been loaded with hay by Bill..4 Adpositional phrases with oblique pronominal clitics According to Tegey & Robson (1996: 172).M] from. Bill . we have not otherwise seen the long /ā/ of the be-verb in 11.F[DIR] loaded šew-i di become..OBL loaded šew-i dā become. if an adpositional phrase includes an oblique pronominal clitic as its object.M.SG. 11. a phenomenon discussed at greater length in Section 8. with the pronominal cliticizing to the verb.40. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PRS.laxwā pə lar-əy bār hay-DIR[PL. Bill .2. that adpositional phrase will generally precede the verb immediately.40) lar-əy də.. This construction does have the properties characteristic of passives that it alters the canonical termhood of actors and undergoers.AOR..’ 11. and is one we have not otherwise encountered.3.. Descriptions produced well into the 20th century (including Penzl 1955) often confound Pashto’s split ergativity with the existence of a passive construction.1. Similarly. they may identify the construction described here as a passive.CONT...PL. Tegey (1979) explicitly denies the existence of a distinct passive construction.3SG..41) bus-Ø də. The undergoer of the action is expressed as the grammatical subject of the ‫کېدل‬ 9 The form /i/ for the participial endings originates with Takahashi. Bill from.5).⁹ (11. This complement appears in the infinitive form.5.5.2.DIR be. Grammars produced later usually do not include this confound..3.side on hay-PL.1..M ‘The hay has been loaded onto the wagon by Bill.1.PST-PTCP.186. Like us.PRS.laxwā pə bus-o bār wagon-SG.3. with both the actor argument and the other oblique argument available to appear in their respective adpositional phrases.414  Syntax appear as the subject of the construction that Babrakzai (as cited by Takahashi) identifies as passive (see Section 11. a position we do not concur with.PST-PTCP.

44: ‫له لورې‬.. (11.PRS-PRS.Main clause sentence types  415 sentence.DIR bāyad wə́-waž-əl š-i NEC AOR-kill-INF become.F] protest-PL. and that noun is case-marked direct and triggers verb agreement (in both tenses).OBL to WOULD dawām-Ø wárkṛ-u continuation-M. the subject may be expressed through the verb agreement suffix alone. if expressed.in of two-PL. we will continue our protests.F.F..46 and in Section 9.3[PL. as with active sentences.DIR give.DIR place-INF become.43) .c.42) .3SG.189.M..DIR and that. ‫د‬ 10 Standardized version of 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .AOR.. and James Caron has remarked (p. as in example 11.AOR-1PL ‘If our requests are not accepted.1.DIR woman-F.‫په کونړکې د دوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.45 and 11.lə lure/(as seen in examples 11.PST-PST. will most likely appear in an adpositional phrase governed by the circumposition /də.OBL bənsaṭ-Ø kexud-ə́l šo-Ø foundation-M.AOR..PRS-PRS.’¹⁰ The actor. Kunar-M .F.lə xwā/ or /də.‫هغه سړی او هغه ښځه دواړه باید ووژل شي‬ háɣə saṛ-ay aw háɣa xəʣa-Ø dwāṛ-a that.AOR.WK AOR-NEG accept-INF š-i muzāhər-o ta bə become.‫په کونړکې ددوو ودانیو بنسټ کېښودل شو‬ pə kunaṛ-Ø ke də dw-o wədān-əyo in...DIR man-M.3[PL. Tegey (1979) asserts that there is no dedicated means of marking an agent within this construction.” ‫له خوا‬. “any [adposition] that gets the semantic job [of marking the agent] done is a suitable candidate.46.44) .M ‘The foundations of two buildings were laid in Kunar..3).DIR both-PL.F. However.’ (11.5.’ (11.‫]که[ غوښتنې مو ونه منل شي مظاهرو ته به دوام ورکړو‬ [ka] ɣuxtən-e mo wə-nə́ man-ə́l [if] request-PL.)...186...‫د‬ . or.OBL building-PL.M] ‘Both that man and that woman must be killed.DIR 1PL.

45: ‫وړاندې شوې طرحه د ولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.45) Syntax .DIR be. I was invited to a conference by the International Society of Students and Young People.AOR.OBL to invite-INF šúw-ay wəm become.189.’ An embedded instance of this construction may modify a noun. like most noun modifiers.PST-PTCP. it precedes the head: 11 Standardized version of 11.PST-PTCP.OBL one-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .AOR.1SG ‘A few days ago.M.DIR ‘The presented drafts have been accepted by President Karzai.F.AOR.OBL society-F.‫وړاندې شوې طرحه دولسمشر کرزي له لورې منل شوې‬ wṛānde šúw-e tarha-Ø də walas before become.OBL from side-F.PST.CONT.M.F.DIR of people məšər-Ø Karz-i lə lur-e man-ə́l elder-M.ANIM.PST-PTCP.OBL and ʣwān-āno nəṛewal-e ṭulən-e lə young-PL.’¹¹ (11.186.OBL conference-M.‫بلل شوی وم‬ ʦo wraʣ-e wṛānde də muhasil-ino aw some day-F.OBL from xwā-Ø yaw-ə kanfərāns-Ø tə bal-ə́l side-F.46) ‫څو ورځې وړاندې د محصلینو او ځوانانو نړیوالې ټولنې له خوا یوه کنفرانس ته‬ .416  (11.OBL Karzai-M.DIR draft-F.OBL accept-INF šúw-e become.OBL before of student-PL.OBL international-F.M.

48) ‫آیا تا ډوډئ خوړلې ده؟‬ āyā tā ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e Q 2SG.OBL in.DIR writing-PL. in the place where they would be expected if they were not interrogatives.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .3SG.STR..M. through intonation.M.3.CONT.OBL from side-F.AOR.PL. It is thought to be more characteristic of Western dialects than others.DIR Ø-mund-ə́l-i CONT-find. ‫آیا‬ 11..‫په ځوان کول کې خورا مینه وال موندلي دي‬ 12 Standardized version of 11.F ‘Have you eaten yet?’ (SW) ‫د ډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شویو اثارو په دې وروستیو کې‬ .M. Questions in Pashto can be differentiated from statements through the presence of the particle associated with yes-or-no and affirmation questions.3. Zakir Naik have become popular with young people.Main clause sentence types  (11.OBL Nayak-M.DIR CONT-eat. or.‫کې خورا مینه وال موندلي‬ də ḍāktar-Ø zākir-Ø nayak-Ø lə lur-e of doctor-M.OBL food-F.189.OBL lik-əl šúw-i āsar-o pə write-INF become.1 Yes-or-no questions with the particle /āyā/ Pashto uses the interrogative particle /āyā/ to introduce yes-or-no questions. with interrogative elements.DIR da be.PRS. if any. or of the interrogative pronouns used for information questions.PST-PST-PTCP.47) 417 ‫دډاکتر ذاکر نایک له لورې لیکل شوي اثارو په دې وروستیو کې په ځوان کول‬ .2 Interrogatives Pashto uses the same word order for questions as for statements.PL.OBL Zakir-M.PST-PTCP.2..M.PST-PST-PTCP.47: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. ʣwān-Ø khol-Ø ke xorā minawāl-Ø young-M generation-M .in many admirer-PL.. in speech.F.DIR ‘The works that were written by Dr. ‫آیا‬ (11.186.’¹² 11.

186.2.49 is an example. 11.2. (11.6.DIR EXT ‘Is Zalmay there?’ 11. reproduced here from Section 10.50) ‫زلمي څوک وواهه؟‬ zalm-i ʦok wə́-wāh-ə Zalmay-M. the identity of the undergoer of the action is being asked about. (11. ‫څوک‬ ‫چا‬ Pashto Translation ‫ ولي‬wali ‘why?’ ‫ کله‬kəla ‘when?’ ‫ څه وخټ‬ʦə waxt. the human interrogative pronoun is /ʦok/ (direct) or /čā/ ‘who?’ (oblique). sanga ‘how?’ ‫ څرنګه‬ʦəranga.6.3SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . sə waxt ‘when (what time)?’ ‫ چېري‬čeri. čere ‘where?’ ‫ چېرته‬čerta ‘where?’ ‫ څنګه‬ʦanga. and Table 11. here.3: GP additional interrogative adverbs Example 11. the existence or presence of something may be queried by means of the existential particle /šta/.3.418  Syntax In addition.50 shows that interrogative elements appear in the position characteristic of their grammatical function.M ‘Whom did Zalmay hit?’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL who.189.DIR AOR-hit-PST.3. and the interrogative element appears in direct object position. lists other interrogative terms.49) ‫زلمی شته؟‬ ‫شته‬ zalm-ay šta Zalmay-M. səranga ‘how (what manner)?’   Table 11.2 Information questions with interrogative pronouns As discussed in Section 7.

This is exemplified in Section 10.53) !‫ته بیا هغه ظلمونه تکرارول غواړی روغ شئ‬ ta biyā háɣa zulm-una tikrār-aw-əl-Ø 2SG.189. Suggestions or polite commands may be conveyed with the use of the second person present aorist form of the verb.STR.1.DIR repeated-do-INF-PL. This is described in Section 8.3. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.51) ‫څوک وینې؟‬ ʦok Ø-win-é who. case-marked vocative.VOC AOR-stop-PRS-IMP. given that there may be no word order difference between them.6.DIR CONT-see.PRS-2SG healthy-M. 11.PRS-2SG ‘Whom do you see?’ (SW) ‫یو‬ Section 7. (11. and both show normal Pashto word order.M.52: (11.3 Affirmation questions with the particle /kə na/ Affirmation questions are formed through use of the particle /kə na/.Main clause sentence types  419 Example 11. stop!’ (NW) (11.3.5. ‫که نه‬ 11. with associated word forms summarized in Section 8.3.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .2.51 shows that verb agreement sanctions the omission of the subject noun for questions just as it does for statements.2.PL ‘You want to repeat those horrors? Get a clue!’ Use of the imperative verb form is not the only way to express a command.48.SG ‘Zalmay.3. The addressee subject is generally omitted from the sentence.3.M.DIR abuse-PL. as in 11.5. which shows that both the question and its answer may be marked with the same particle.2 for more explanation and examples.3.52) !‫ ودرېږه‬،‫زلمیه‬ zalm-aya wə́-dar-eg-a Zalmay-M.3 ‫که نه‬ Imperatives 11. although a name may be used.7 explains the use of the number name /yaw/ ‘one’ to differentiate between indefinite statements and information questions.AOR. see Section 8.5 and Section 8.DIR then this.1 The imperative verb form Pashto utilizes an imperative verb form.2.5 and Table 8.186.PRS-IMP.3.DIR Ø-ɣwār-e róɣ-Ø š-əy CONT-want.DIR become.

3. (11.OBL INSTR manner-M become.IMP ‘Don't be like Ahmad!’ (SW) (11. ‫مه‬ (11.PL ‘Don't think badly about your brother!’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.57) !‫د خپل ورور په باب غلط فکرونه مه کوئ‬ də xpəl-Ø wror-Ø pə bāb-Ø ɣalat-Ø of own-M. See also example 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR fikr-una má kaw-əy thought-PL.186.2 The negative imperative particle /má/ Normally /má/ precedes a verb in the imperative form to create a negative command.PST-PST-3PL.SG ‘Asad laughed and said to me.OBL to NEG ʣ-a go.56 exhibits negative concord.OBL 1-to wə́-way-əl-ə čə sinimā-Ø ta má AOR-tell.189.420  Syntax ‫مه‬ 11. 'Don't go to the movies.CONT-IMP.OBL on subject-M wrong-PL.55) .M. the negative imperative appears inside a direct quotation.DIR NEG.54.3.PRS-IMP.M COMP cinema-F.‫اسد په خندا خندا راته وویله چه سینما ته مه ځخ‬ asad-Ø pə xandā-Ø xandā-Ø rā-ta Asad-M.55.OBL laugh-F.OBL brother-M. In example 11.M.PRS-IMP.DIR INSTR laugh-F.SG ‘Never backbite!’ (11. in which the particle /má/ instead appears sentence finally.IMP do.CONT.56) !‫هیڅ کله غیبت مه کوه‬ hiʦ kala ɣeybat-Ø má kaw-á never when backbiting-M.54) ‫مه‬ !‫د احمد په شان کېږه مه‬ də ahmad-Ø pə šān-Ø keẓ-a of Ahmad-M.'’ Notice that example 11.SG má NEG.CONT.DIR NEG.IMP do.CONT-IMP.

3.3SG.F ‘While there are many languages in the world.4 Generic and existential sentences with ‫ شته‬/šta/ Generic and existential sentences are formed using the clause-final particle as outlined in Section 10. In sentences 11.many language-PL.PRS. ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبی چی دی خو په دوی کی داسی یوه هم نشته چی بی‬ . 3PL. verb agreement allows for unambiguous interpretations.58) 421 ‫ شته‬/šta/.WK CONT-beat-1SG ‘I am hitting you.. (11... the order of two pronouns may violate the basic S .DIR also NEG šta če be mānā-Ø wi EXT COMP without meaning-F.STR. there is not one that is without meaning.1.OBL be.’¹³ (11. the weak pronoun is in second position irrespective of its role in the sentence..59) . world-M .DIR COMP di xo pə duy ke dāse yaw-a ham nə́ be.‫زه دې وهم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́m 1SG.V ordering in main clauses.M.‫ما څخه دري ښه کتابونه شته‬ mā ʦexa dre xə kitāb-una šta 1SG.O .5.189.3PL.OBL from three good book-PL. ..58: .Main clause sentence types  11.STR.AOR.3.’ 13 Standardized version of 11..STR.3.F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.61.60 and 11.1..DIR 2.’ (NE) 11..PRS.in such one-F.5 Other principles of word order in main clauses 11.CONT. (11.in so.F but in.‫مانا وی‬ ʣəka pə dunyā-Ø ke ʦumra žəb-e če because in.60) .1 Weak pronouns Because weak pronouns must appear in second position in the clause.‫نشته چې بې مانا وي‬ ‫ځکه په دنیاه څومره ژبې چې دي خو په دوي کې داسې یوه هم‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR EXT ‘I have three good books.

’ (SW) (11. an adverb.3SG.WK CONT-see.OBL 3.65) .’ (11. Compare the unacceptable 11. as in example 11. (11. as in example 11. as in example 11. because it is not prohibited from appearing in clause-initial position. where the strong pronoun can occur before the verb.422  (11.AOR-PTCP.‫او ښار یي پریښود‬ aw xā́r-Ø ye préxud-Ø and city-M.DIR 2.PST-PST. an adpositional phrase.62. as in example 11.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.186.‫وینم تې‬ Ø-win-ə́m di CONT-see.64) .M.’ Similarly.OBL CONT-see.66.DIR do.68.’ (SW) (11.STR.66) .63.‫په اسرایيلو یی غږ کړې‬ pə isrāyel-o ye ɣag-Ø kéṛ-ay on Israeli-PL.WK voice-M.67.‫* دې وینم‬ di Ø-win-ə́m 2.62) .2).M.63) .189. it may follow a direct object. in contrast with 11.PRS-1SG 2.65.‫زه دې وهلم‬ zə́ de Ø-wah-ə́l-əm 1SG.DIR 3.‫تا وینم‬ tā́ Ø-win-ə́m 2SG.’ (SW) When a weak pronoun is the subject of a past tense transitive verb (see Section 7.M ‘And they abandoned the city.3. in example 11.64.WK AOR\leave.STR.WK ‘I see you.WK CONT-beat-PST-1SG ‘You were hitting me.61) Syntax . or the complement of a denominal verb. the verb must precede the pronoun.PRS-1SG ‘I see you.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . (11.DIR ‘They have called upon the Israelis.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

Main clause sentence types  (11.’ (NW) Given that a weak pronoun cannot appear sentence-initially.‫او زیاته یی کړه چي‬ aw ziyā́t-a ye kṛ-a če and more-F.WK do.3SG.WK AOR-eat.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .67) 423 .DIR 3. It contrasts with sentence 11..189.71.‫ما لوبه وڅکلې‬ mā́ ob-ə wə́-ʦək-əl-e 1SG.’ (11.186..3[SG.F.’ Example 11.69 shows that the weak pronoun may be the next element after an entire noun phrase.72.AOR-PST.OBL water-PL.71) ‫ولي مچوي مې؟‬ wáli mač-aw-í me why kiss-do.WK of Jihad-M. (11.CONT-PRS.DIR 1SG.STR.PST-PST.M ‘Previously.69) .3SG.’ (11. it may instead appear in post-clausal position.DIR AOR-drink-PST-PST.3PL.OBL intention-M.F ‘I drank water.‫پخوا مي د جهاد نیت درلود‬ pəxwā́ me də jihād-Ø niyat-Ø before 1SG.70.DIR mulberry-PL.M.‫ډېر توت مې وخوړل‬ ḍer-Ø tút-Ø me wə́-xuṛ-əl many-PL.AOR.70) .3PL. which shows that the sentence-initial position for pronouns may acceptably be filled with a strong pronoun.68) .PST-PST. (11.. This is shown in example 11.WK ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M ‘I ate many mulberries..M] 1SG. I intended [to undertake] a Jihad.F COMP ‘And he added that.DIR darlód-Ø have. to be contrasted with the unmarked order of 11. and may therefore not be the second word.M.

. adpositional phrase modifiers precede the element they modify.3[SG.1.5. Farah-M .‫تښتول شوي کارګران په فراه کې خوشې شول‬ təxtaw-ə́l šúw-i kārgar-ān kidnap-INF become. The appearance of such a phrase in this pre-clausal position does not necessarily put that phrase in focus.AOR. Example 11.73) ..PST-PTCP.3.DIR pə farā-Ø ke xóše šw-əl in. too. (11. See also Table 11. ‫د‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3.. noun modifiers governed by /də/ ‘of’ are extremely common and may be nested within one another.1 and Table 11.3. and 11.3.2. and shows also that this may result in the effect of a complex circumpositional phrase.3.189. Another feature of these phrases is that any such phrase may appear in pre-clausal position¹⁴.ANIM. the phrase governed by the circumposition. That concept could account for this phenomenon.2 for summaries of the order of negative particles with respect to other segments of the verb.M ‘The kidnapped workers were released in Farah. as shown above in the contrast between example 11.2 provides a comprehensive discussion of the order of particles with respect to verbs.M] ‘Why is he kissing me?’ (NW) 11.72) Syntax ‫ولي مې مچوی؟‬ wáli me mač-aw-í why 1SG.3 Adpositional phrases in main clauses Adpositional phrases may be governed by verbs.5. and deverbal nouns. In general. aside from the fact that /də/ ‘of’ encodes a much wider range of relations than possession.AOR. 11.M.57 shows this. ‫د‬ ‫د‬ 14 Roberts (2000: 121ff.5. Other discussions of particle order are found throughout Chapter 8.CONT-PRS.DIR worker-PL.in released become.3PL.M.PST-PST.73.) discusses the separation of possessive clitics from their possessee phrases in terms of an apparent possessor raising construction. nouns.2 Particles Section 11..1. Example 11.PL.4 Interpretation of adpositional phrases headed by /də/ As shown in Section 9.’ ‫د‬ 11.3.424  (11.145 shows that a phrase governed by /də/ may appear extracted from its governing phrase—in this case.WK kiss-do.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.

2012) that all finite subordinate clauses are determiner (i.PRS-3[SG.M] sabā zmā kor-Ø ta rās-i tomorrow 1SG.OBL to go. jarmani . reported speech.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ..AOR.OBL garden-M... reside-PRS-3[SG. not definiteness (sentence 11. who now lives in Germany.... and syntactically by allowing a second position clitic to intervene between the head noun and the relative clause: (11.75) . including relative clauses.4  425 Some subordinate clause types The complementizer ‫ چه‬/čə/—also ‫ چې‬/če/ in Eastern and ‫ چي‬/či/ in Western dialects— can introduce numerous types of subordinate clauses. non-restrictive relative clauses are signaled prosodically by pauses. as cited by Pate (2012: 79ff). Germany .ki Ahmad WOULD COMP now in.78 has a specific indefinite item in the determiner position).in os-iʐ-i. sometimes combined with another item (which may be classifiable as a resumptive element).OBL house-M.STR. 2012).’ The rest of this section concerns restrictive relative clauses. will come to my house tomorrow.‫هغه باغ ته ځم چه توت لري‬ háɣa bāɣ-Ø ta ʣ-ə́m čə that.186.4. and adverbial clauses.Some subordinate clause types 11.OBL to come. ‫چه‬ (11.74) ahmad bə.189. Relative clauses in Pashto all employ the complementizer /čə/. the general condition accords with Pate’s claim (Pate.M] ‘I am going to the garden that has the mulberries.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3[SG. we believe rather that the condition is for specificity. verb-governed subordinate clauses. complementizer) phrases with noun-phrase complements.PRS-1SG COMP tut-Ø Ø-lar-í mulberry-PL.1 Relative clauses According to Babrakzai (1999).DIR CONT-have.M] ‘Ahmad. The analysis of relative clauses in Tegey & Robson (1996: 206–208) implies that the head noun must be definite.CONT.M. 11..PRS-PRS.e. All tensed subordinate clauses except verb complements require the complementizer (Pate. čə os pə.. orthographically by commas (though this does not always differentiate them from restrictive relative clauses).

79.3PL. where the relative clause immediately follows its head.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . (11.CONT. 1996: 208).‫څوك چه ښه كارونه كوي هغه په مړینه هم یادېږي‬ ʦok čə xə kār-una kaw-í who..M.PRS.3[SG.STR.DIR be.M ‘Drones killed 252 terrorists. however.STR.’ Notice too that in sentence 11.‫کسان په القاعده پوري تړلي وه‬ be piloṭ-a alotek-o . with a resumptive weak pronoun appearing before the verb (see also Roberts 2000: 176–177 for a fuller description of the conditions on the appearance of resumptive pronouns)..DIR da be.M.77.426  (11.DIR in death-F.3[SG.. 252 terrorist-PL..DIR on Al-Qaida-M.ABL airplane-PL...M.OBL from.M] ‘He who does good deeds is remembered even after his death..DIR ye wə́-waž-əl če də haɣwi lə jaml-e 3.ANIM.77.CONT.DIR also yād-éẓ-i remembered-become.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PL.DIR COMP good work-PL.F ‘the house the door of which is blue’ Relative clauses that modify subjects generally follow their subjects immediately. as shown in 11.DIR COMP door-F.186. 252 tərhagər-Ø without pilot-M.3PL.75 and 11..OBL complete Ø-tṛ-ə́l-i wə CONT-tie-PST-PTCP.from 12 person-PL..CONT-PRS.DIR 3..78) .CONT.PST.189.3SG.WK AOR-kill-PST. relative clauses that modify objects appear in the post-clausal position (Tegey & Robson.DIR .DIR do.PRS-PRS. the full noun phrase identifying the actor is apparently in pre-clausal position. of whom twelve were definitively tied to Al-Qaida.‫بی پیلوټه الوتکو‬ .77) ۱۲ ‫ ترهګریی ووژل چي دهغوی له جملي څخه‬۲۵۲ .76) Syntax ‫هغه کور چه دروازه یې شنه ده‬ háɣa kor-Ø čə darwāza-Ø ye šn-a that.M COMP of 3PL.M.DIR house-M.WK blue-F.M.M. total-F.OBL ʦexə 12 kas-ān pə al-qeda-Ø pori .M] haɣá pə mṛinə-Ø həm 3SG. contrast these with 11. (11.

WK civilian-PL.1.DIR be.’ (SW)¹⁵ (11. while accusative arguments require an overt pronoun (see also Babrakzai 1999 and Roberts 2000: 152ff).2.OBL explosion-PL.9.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي نه ولیده‬ (11. and adpositional objects.OBL COMIT Ø-ɣag-ég-i ná wə́-lid-a CONT-speak-PRS-PRS.M.F.DIR woman-F. while transitive subjects do (as in 11. In pasttense relative clauses.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL to tl-ə́l-əy wə də gabina-Ø go.Some subordinate clause types  427 .M ‘Two separate explosions killed 16 people.M.3SG.3[SG.DIR wə́-waž-əl če ḍer ye mulk-iān AOR-kill-PST.PST.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .ANIM. This follows from the occurrence restrictions described in Section 7.M COMP many 3.CONT.79) xušāl-Ø háɣa ṣəʣa-Ø čə zarang-Ø sara Xushal-M.186.F ‘Xushal didn't see the woman who was talking with Zarang.’ (SW) Among others studying relativization.PST.CONT.DIR boy-M.M. His analysis shows also that relative clauses employ resumptive pronouns whose distribution reflects split ergativity: in present-tense relative clauses relativizing on nominative arguments. regardless of nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive alignment—may relativize (under conditions discussed below).PST. (11.3SG.3SG.‫هغه هلک چه بازار ته تللئ و د ګبینه وراره دئ‬ háɣa hələk-Ø čə bāzār-Ø ta that.189.ANIM.‫ کسان ووژل چي ډیر ئې ملکیان ول‬۱۶ ‫دوه بیلابیلو چاودنو‬ dwa belābel-o čāwdən-o 16 kas-ān two separate-PL.3PL.OBL 16 person-PL. direct objects.’ 15 Standardized version of 11.M ‘The boy who went to the market is Gabina's nephew.DIR COMP market-M.PRS.CONT.F.DIR be.DIR wəl be.DIR COMP Zarang-M.81). direct objects and intransitive subjects do not have a corresponding overt resumptive pronoun.F] NEG AOR-see-PST.OBL that.81) .80) .OBL wrār-ə dəy nephew-M.3. see Table 7.CONT. no overt resumptive pronoun appears.3PL.M of Gabina-F.79: . many of whom were civilians.‫خوشال هغه ښځه چه زرنګ سره غږېږي ونه لیده‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Pate (2012) shows that any argument type— subjects.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M.M NEC in.. /čə/ is often preceded by the interrogative adverb /čərta/ ‘where’ or followed by the locative adverbial /həlta/ ‘there’ (see sentence 11. case-marked direct and with its relative clause modifier.PRS-PRS.OBL ke yaw-Ø mašax-Ø aw masun-Ø ʣay-Ø ..WK on head-M. Fully nominal.M ‘In the first years in which they are hired.M.DIR become.3PL.M. ‫چرته‬ ‫مړیو‬ (11..82) haɣə səṛei čə lungota ye pər sar-Ø kər-e that man.3PL.F də sabā bə rās-i be.M.AOR-PRS.DIR place-M.F.in COMP istixdām-Ø kég-i bāyad pə kābul-Ø hired-PL.PTCP-SG.OBL first-PL.83) ‫په هرو لمړیو کالو کې چې استخدام کیږي باید په کابل کې یو مشخص او‬ .4.in one-M. Kabul-M.M.in own-PL. we must have a private and safe place in Kabul where they will study their national languages for the first two months.PRS..OBL year-PL..DIR do.F tomorrow WOULD come.M..‫مصؤن ځای ولرو چې هلته په لمړیو دو میاشتو کې خپلې ملي ژبې زده کړي‬ pə har-o lumṛ-ayo kāl-o ke če in.DIR wə́-lar-u če həlta pə lumṛ-ayo do-Ø AOR-have.74 above: ‫به‬ (11. first-PL.DIR comrade-ADJZ language-PL. contrast this with sentence 11. instead. every-PL.PRS-1PL COMP there in.F.83).OBL ..OBL miyāšt-o ke xpəl-e mil-i žəb-e month-PL.M.-PRS.DIR and safe-M.3SG. appears in pre-clausal position.186. As is the case Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.. the subject function is filled with a pronoun (or by agreement)..CONT.’ 11.F.DIR private-M.84) can govern a subordinate clause expressing the content of that state or event..2 Noun complement clauses ‫تجربه‬ Nouns that denote states or events (such as /tajraba/ ‘experience’ in 11.189.OBL .OBL two-PL.. ergative arguments cannot co-occur with restrictive relative clause modifiers. and the coreferential nominal. as evidenced by the second-position clitic /bə/ (example is from Pate 2012: 80).DIR do.3[SG.M] ‘That man who is wearing a turban will come tomorrow.’ ‫چه‬ When the subordinate clause relativizes on a location expression..DIR zdá-Ø kṛ-í learned-PL.DIR COMP turban 3.428  Syntax Pate (2012) reanalyzes the assertion in Tegey (1979) that ergative subjects cannot head relative clauses.

OBL difficult-F. Here the complement clause appears in post-clausal position.DIR prānist-ə́l-e da CONT\open.DIR front-F...F.DIR decision-F.WK of national office-M. ‫ دا تجربه لرلې ده چې‬.DIR be.85..DIR da če .84) .F ‘The decision to send an additional thirty thousand soldiers to Afghanistan was the hardest decision of his presidential term. When a subordinate clause is an ar- ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL in.PST-PST-PTCP. are also introduced with the complementizer /čə/ ‘that’..OBL Times-M.OBL aw njun-o pər zid-Ø də jagr-e yaw-a jabhha-Ø and girl-PL. (11.OBL on opposite-M of war-F.3SG.PST.M.3SG. ‫د ایشیا ټایمز د دې مطلب لیکوال‬ . this.OBL of send-INF-PL.M. term-F.PRS.ABL prekṛa-Ø ye də jamhuri riyāsat-Ø pə dawra-Ø ke decision-F.F..186.‫ریاست په دوره کی تر ټولو سجته پرکړه وه‬ afɣānistān-Ø ta də dirš zər-a izāfi Afghanistan-M.DIR be. heads of complement clauses must have a determiner.OBL from sake-M.’ 11..F ‘The author of the Asia Times study has had the experience that men have started another war against women and children.DIR 3.3 Verb complement clauses Verb complement clauses.PRS.F.DIR CONT-have-PST-PTCP.DIR experience-F...OBL one-F. men .in tər ṭul-o saxt-a prekṛa-Ø wa up. nārina .DIR .M. see sentence 11..4.to all-PL...DIR .OBL of this..OBL author-M... sometimes called subordinate noun clauses.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ... (11.. ‫ نارینه‬.F COMP .OBL to of thirty thousand-PL..‫بیا د ښځو او نجونو پرضد د جگړې یوه جبهه پرانستلې ده‬ də asiyā-Ø tāymz-Ø də de matlab-Ø likwāl-Ø of Asia-F. dā tajraba-Ø Ø-lar-ə́l-e .189.85) ‫افغانیستان ته د دیرش زره اضاقی سرتېري د لیږلو لپاره پریکړه بی د جمهوری‬ .DIR additional sartir-i də leg-ə́l-o lə pār-a soldiers-M.’ Complements of nouns may also take the form of infinitive verbal nouns governed by adpositions. biyā də xəʣ-o be.3SG.CONT...Some subordinate clause types  429 for the heads of relative clauses..F.CONT. then of woman-PL..OBL study-M.CONT.

DIR learned-become.186. in the past continuous aspect.DIR be.M COMP alone wú-gərʣ-ed-e AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone. /wayəl/ ‘to tell’.87) .89 shows a past tense transitive verb.metal-PL.‫تاسو پوهېږئ چه سره زر ښه ګران شی دی‬ tāso puh-éẓ-əy čə sr-ə 2PL.‫خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi wú-gərʣ-ed-e danger-M.’ (SW) When the main clause verb is in the past tense. as shown in sentences 11.3SG. ‫ویل‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.M.M.PRS-2PL COMP gold-PL.‫دا خطرناک و چه یوازي وګرځېدې‬ dā xatarnāk-Ø wu čə yawāzi this. split ergativity dictates that the agreement be with the subordinate clause.CONT.CONT.PST.86) . ‫دا‬ (11.88) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR danger-M. In this case the demonstrative pronoun /dā/ may appear in the usual position of the subject (Tegey & Robson.PRS.DIR very expensive-M. which by convention is marked third person plural masculine (this default agreement registration also holds of infinitive verbal noun arguments.86 and 11.430  Syntax gument of the predicate.’ (SW) (11. Example 11.M COMP alone AOR-walk-PST-2SG ‘It was dangerous that you were walking alone.PST.DIR thing-M.CONT.M ‘You know that gold is a very expensive thing.DIR be.DIR di be.189.STR. it is likely to appear in post-clausal position.3SG. and with the agreement suffix for the subordinate clause.’ (SW) It is more common to find verb-governed a subordinate clause as the internal argument: (11.DIR zar-Ø xə grān-Ø šay-Ø precious.CONT.85). see sentence 11.87. 1996: 199–200).3PL.

F.ABL from high-F.DIR become.WK bāt-ə́l elā́n kṛ-i invalidate-INF announcement do.WK mother-F.M če wrusta oro oro də mān-əy fəzā-Ø COMP later slow slow of house-F..OBL Ø-ɣuxt-í če natāyij-Ø ye CONT-want.‫غوښتي چې نتایج یې باطل اعلان کړي‬ loy-əy ʦāranwāl-əy pə intixābāt-o ke də large-F.OBL vast-PL. elections-PL.OBL lawyer-F.Some subordinate clause types (11.3PL.90) ‫کشش کو‬ ‫لویې څارنوالۍ په انتخاباتو کې د شویو پراخو درغلیو له امله له سترې محکمې‬ .2).in of šúw-io prāx-o dərɣal-io lə become..90 (see Section 8.91.PL.3[SG.3.OBL fraud-PL.PL.M.OBL in.189.‫وروستو به مې مور ویل چې وروسته ورو ورو د ماڼۍ فضا غمجنه شوه‬ wrusta bə me mor-Ø Ø-way-ə́l later WOULD 1SG. ‫غواړ‬ (11.F.OBL CONT-tell. An example showing the main subject controlling the embedded subject is found in 11.3SG. the embedded verb will be in the present aorist as in 11.F] ‘The Attorney General wanted the Supreme Court to declare the election results invalid due to widespread fraud.M.PST-PST.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-PST.OBL .M.DIR 3.OBL atmosphere-F..OBL court-F.PST-PTCP.PST-PTCP.89)  431 .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.OBL from amal-a lə stər-e mahkam-e reason-M.’ When appearing with control verbs such as /ɣwāṛ‑/ ‘to want’ and /košiš kaw‑/ ‘to try’.AOR.AOR-PRS.186.DIR COMP results-PL.F.AOR..DIR ɣámjan-a šw-a sad-F.F ‘Afterwards my mother would say that the house's atmosphere slowly grew sorrowful.

1 Reported speech Verbs of speaking may govern clausal complements. as we would expect of quoted speech.186...M.AOR-PRS.M] ‘Afghanistan's Ministry of Education says that it wants to provide similar educational opportunities to students in both cities and villages with the help of UNESCO..140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .93 demonstrates.OBL .AOR. ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR of country-M. The complementizer /čə/ is optional for introducing direct speech.3.M COMP peace-F.OBL from pār-a sake-M.95.91) ‫ چې غواړي د یونسکو په مرسته د هیواد په‬،‫د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت وایی‬ . as in sentences 11.PRS-PRS. the verb form is present-tense and imperative.’ 11.ABL yaw-Ø šān rozəniz-a zamina-Ø one-M. ‫چه‬ (11.DIR barābár-a prepared-F.‫ښارونو او کلیو کې د زدهکوونکو لپاره یو شان روزنیزه زمینه برابره کړي‬ də afɣānistān-Ø də pohən-e wizārat-Ø of Afghanistan-M.M] of yunəsko pə mərasta-Ø də hewād-Ø pə xār-uno UNESCO INSTR help-F.92) . as sentence 11.CONT.F] ‘The hope is that peace will come.OBL aw kal-io ke də zdakawunk-o lə and village-PL.PRS-PRS.55. but it is obligatory for indirect speech. In example 11.3[SG.M.DIR opportunity-F.‫امېد دی چه سوله به راشي‬ omed-Ø day čə sola-Ø bə hope-M.M] COMP CONT-want.DIR Ø-wāy-í če Ø-ɣwāṛ-í də CONT-tell.432  Syntax (11..M. Note the use of the present-tense form of the verb in the subordinate clause in 11. city-PL.189.DIR WOULD rā́š-i come.3SG.DIR be.3[SG.in of student-PL. Pashto accepts both direct and indirect forms of reported speech (although Penzl 1955: 141 claims that only direct speech is found in Kandahari).OBL of education-F.3[SG.’ /čə/ may also introduce a subordinate clause serving as the second element in a copular construction.95 rather than a relative-tense expression.OBL in.PRS.3[SG.DIR kṛ-i do.4.OBL ministry-M.94 and 11.PRS-PRS.DIR similar educational-F.

3PL.DIR ‘A man said.up.M 1SG.AOR..3SG.Some subordinate clause types (11.PST-PST.OBL process-F..PRS.‫یو سړي وویل زه تر اوسه پورې چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.F] ‘He said that he and the president of Afghanistan are working together to make the peace and reconciliation process a success.DIR da be.93)  433 .F ‘Formerly people would say that the earth rested on the horn of an ox.to.‫پخلاینې پروسه بریالۍ شي‬ də wə́-way-əl če də afɣānistān-Ø 3SG.94) ‫ده وویل چې د افغانستان له ولسمشر سره یوځای هڅه کوي چې د سولې او‬ .OBL NEG be.CONT.STR..AOR-PTCP.93: .OBL lə walas məšər-Ø sərə yawzāy hatsa-Ø COMIT.1SG mistake kə́ṛ-ay do.‫پخوا خلقو به دا ویل چه زمكه د غوائي په ښكر ولاړه ده‬ pəxwā xalq-u bə dā Ø-way-ə́l before people-PL. people elder-M.to who.STR.3[SG.DIR successful-F.PRS-PRS.‫یو سړی وویل زه تر اوسه پوری چا نه یم خطا کړی‬ yaw saṛ-i wə́-way-əl zə tər one man-M.DIR CONT-tell.PRS.PST-PST.DIR kaw-í če də sol-e aw do.M COMP of Afghanistan-M.186.M.3PL.M.OBL and paxlāyən-e prosa-Ø baryā́l-e reconciliation-F.ABL .OBL WOULD this.M čə zməka-Ø da ɣwāy-i pə xkər-Ø walāṛ-a COMP earth-F.’ (11.CONT.189.OBL on horn-M standing-F.3PL.DIR up..CONT-PRS.’¹⁶ (11. os-a pure čā ná yəm xatā now-M.M.OBL ...PST-PST.. 'No one has tricked me yet'.’ (E) 16 Standardized version of 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ..OBL AOR-tell.OBL AOR-tell.M] COMP of peace-F.DIR š-i become.95) .DIR of ox-M.3[SG.COMIT together effort-F.

AOR.PST-PST.OBL COMP food-F.AOR. people were drowned along with it.’ (NE) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PL.4.3SG.4.DIR šw-əl become.3PL.F cinema-F.‫وروسته له دې چه ډوډۍ مو وخوړه سینما ته به لاړ شو‬ ‫وروسته‬ wrusta lə de čə ḍoḍ-əy mo after from this.PST-PST.AOR.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.PST-PST.PST-PST.DIR sinking-M.3SG.OBL to WOULD gone-PL.434  11.DIR of Toryal-M.4.OBL on sister-F.1 Subordinate clauses with time reference Clausal modifiers take the usual form of complementizer /čə/ and tensed clause. ‫چه‬ ‫)نه( چه‬..96).WK wá-xoṛ-a sinimā-Ø ta bə lā́ṛ-Ø AOR-eat.STR.M ‘When the ship sank..3SG.DIR 1PL.DIR become. the subordinate clause is the object of an adposition such as /wrusta lə..PRS-1PL ‘We will go to the movies after we eat dinner.M.‫له‬ (11.96) .98) .M.OBL to go.‫کله چه ډیوه د توریال په خور خبره شوه سمدستي د دوی کور ته لاړه‬ kəla čə ḍiwa-Ø də toryāl-Ø pə xor-Ø when COMP Diwa-F.(na) čə/ ‘after’ (as in 11.DIR house-M.OBL xábr-a sw-a samdasti də informed-F.M then xalaq-Ø wur sara ɣárq-Ø people-PL.4 Syntax Subordinate clauses as modifiers 11.F immediately of duy kor-Ø ta lāṛ-á 3PL.3SG.M.DIR š-u become.AOR.‫چه جهاز غرق شو نو خلق ورسره غرق شول‬ čə jahāz-Ø ɣárq-Ø su-Ø no COMP ship-M.189.’ (SW) • ‫ کله چه‬/kəla čə/ ‘when’ (11.DIR 3 COMIT sinking.F ‘When Diwa heard about Toryal's sister she immediately went to their house.97) .’ (SW) This relationship may sometimes be expressed with the complementizer alone: (11.AOR.DIR become.PST-PST. In some cases..

The conditional clause generally precedes the main clause. /kə/ may also appear as an element of a correlative conjunction (see Section 11.AOR.‫څنګه چه دی راشي زه به لاړ شم‬ ʦənga čə day rā́š-i how COMP 3SG.189.DIR come.3SG.’ (SW) • ‫ هغه وخت چه‬/haɣa waxt čə/ ‘when’ (11. This construction requires that the verb in the antecedent clause appear in the present or past aorist.AOR-1SG ‘If you come I will show you the album.3.’ (SW) ‫که‬ ‫که‬ 11.6.2 and Section 8.M] za bə lā́ṛ-Ø š-əm 1SG.100) . ‫نو‬ ‫که‬ (11.M.’ (SW) ‫ که‬/kə/ may also combine with other particles to introduce conditional clauses.DIR WOULD album-M.F all-PL.DIR do. see Section 8.M.3PL.M ‘When President Obama was speaking everyone was listening.4.DIR 2DVC-clear kṛ-əm do.PST.4 for the appropriate verb forms.2).140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.AOR.DIR time-M.DIR become.M.STR.PRS-2SG 1SG.DIR Ø-niw-ál-ay wu CONT-seize.AOR.DIR be.CONT.3.OBL xabr-e kaw-ə́l-əy ṭol-o ɣwaz-Ø̣ word-PL. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3[SG.‫که راشې زه به البوم درښکاره کړم‬ kə rā́š-e za bə album-Ø dər-ṣkārá if come.DIR WOULD gone-M.Some subordinate clause types •  435 ‫ څنګه چه‬/ʦənga čə/ ‘as soon as’ (11.PST-PST-PTCP.99) .4.OBL ear-M.STR.‫هغه وخت چه ولسمشر اوباما خبرې کولئ ټولو غوږ نیولی وو‬ haɣá waxt-Ø čə wuləs məšr-Ø obāmā-Ø this. which may begin with the particle /no/ ‘then’ (Tegey & Robson.CONT-PST-PST.OBL Obama-M.PRS-1SG ‘I will leave as soon as he comes.STR.PRS-PRS.DIR COMP people leader-M.M. 1996: 216).2 Conditional and counterfactual clauses with /kə/ ‘if’ Conditional clauses in Pashto are marked by the particle /kə/ ‘if’.101) .

ANIM have.PRS-PRS.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. As shown in sentence 11.STR.F] then 1SG.103) !‫که موږ امام شافعي غوندې مشران درلوداي‬ kə mung imam-Ø šāfi-Ø ɣunde if 1PL.DIR also go.PRS-1SG ‘Since she is going to the picnic.OBL imam-M. even when there is no main clause: ‫به‬ (11. Note the following variants of word order of /ʣəka/.’ (SW) A counterfactual interpretation of an antecedent clause in construction with a main clause is possible when both the main and the antecedent clause have optative verb forms and the main clause additionally contains the irrealis /ba/.DIR picnic-F.3[SG.4.CONT.dance-1SG ‘If Asad does not dance.104) . therefore’ may mark either the cause clause or the result clause.OBL Shafi-M.AOR.STR.OBL like məšr-ān darlód-ay leader-PL.189.186. ‫ځکه‬ ‫ځکه‬ (11.‫ نو زه به یې وګډوم‬،‫که چېري اسد و نه ګډېږی‬ ke čeri asad-Ø wə-ná gaḍ-eẓ-i no if where Asad-M.WK AOR-cause.103. and their respective complements. a counterfactual interpretation of the conditional clause relies on the verb appearing in the optative form.4.PST-OPT ‘If only we had leaders like Imam Shafi!’ ‫ځکه‬ 11.DIR WOULD 3.STR.‫ځکه چه هغه مېلې ته ځي نو زه هم ځم‬ ʣəka čə haɣá mel-e ta because COMP 3SG. I will make him dance.DIR.STR.CONT. its correlative /no/.102) .436  • Syntax ‫ که چېري‬/kə čeri/ ‘if’ (11.OBL to ʣ-í no za ham ʣ-ə́m go.M. then I am going too.M] then za bə ye wá-gaḍaw-əm 1SG.3 Subordinate clauses with /ʣəka/ ‘because’ /ʣəka/ ‘because.3[SG.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR AOR-NEG dance-PRS-PRS.

CONT..3SG.in CONT-seize.105)  437 .189. Sharukh Khan.1SG because then doctor-M.DIR be.DIR sick-M.PRS. bearing three different relation- ‫چې‬ ships to the sentence as a whole..‫زه ناروغ یم ځکه نو داکتر ته ځم‬ za nāroɣ-Ø yəm ʣəka no dāktər-Ø 1SG.PL.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . the third introduces the complement of the quantifier /sumra/ ‘so much’.3PL.PRS.CONT..OBL famous-M.107 shows three instances of /če/ .106) yaw-ə watəl-i stor-i šarux-Ø xān-Ø one-M.M ‘A famous celebrity.DIR COMP muslim day be.M.OBL Ø-way-ə́l-i di ye ʣəka CONT-tell.PRS.186. America-F .OBL Sharukh-M.Some subordinate clause types (11. the second introduces the sentential complement of /wāy-/ ‘say’.106: .PRS-1SG ‘I am sick so I am going to the doctor. has said that they arrested him in America because he was Muslim.’¹⁷ It may be rarely that punctuation is used to delimit a subordinate clause in Pashto.M 3.OBL star-M. The first introduces a relative clause that modifies its head noun.M.OBL ta ʣ-ə́m to go.DIR be. ‫څومره‬ 17 Standardized version of 11. Example 11.CONT.PST-PST-PTCP.STR..WK because pə amrikā-Ø ke Ø-niw-ə́l-ay če musəlmān in.OBL khan-M.PST-PST-PTCP.’ (SW) ‫ چې‬،‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دی یې ځکه په امریکا کې نیولی‬ .CONT.‫مسلمان دی‬ (11.‫ چې مسلمان دی‬،‫نیولی‬ -‫وای‬ ‫یوه وتلي ستوري شاروخ خان ویلي دي یې ځکه په امریکا کې‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

the main clause in such constructions uses the complement- Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..OBL embassy-M.M ‫چه‬ ‘The children suddenly started laughing when they saw their father.DIR secret-PL.3PL.CONT. ‫نو‬ (11.3SG.’ /čə/ may introduce clauses that show the direct result of an action or a state of being.CONT.107) dáɣa mahram-Ø asnād-Ø če pə kābul-Ø this.‫ډېره گرانه معلومېږي‬ (11.PST-PST.ً‫کله چې ملشومانو خپل بلار ولید نو دقعتا‬ kəla čə māšum-āno xpəl-Ø plār-Ø when COMP child-PL.DIR documents-PL. government-M . see sentence 11.in bribe xor-i dumra ziyāt-a da če čāra eating-F.WK very-F.F COMP affair sāz-i ye ḍer-a grān-a wellness-F.M then suddenly INSTR laugh-F.DIR so.PRS-PRS. Often.3PL.M] če də afɣānistān-Ø pə hakumat-Ø ke rašwat COMP of Afghanistan-M.OBL prepared-PL.M.PRS-PRS.OBL in.M.CONT. but not always.DIR father-M.DIR šw-əl become..M.’ 11.3[SG.in of America-F.M.DIR be.DIR kṛ-i di Ø-wāy-í do. may also be used alone to introduce a result clause.PRS.DIR COMP in.DIR be.OBL own-M.3[PL.M.ANIM.much more-F.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .4 Subordinate clauses expressing result The particle /no/ .108) .AOR.189.DIR malum-ég-i known-become. most often used in conditional sentences..3SG.DIR wə́-lid-Ø no dafatan pə xandā-Ø AOR-see.4.PRS.DIR 3.F] ‘The secret documents that were prepared at the American Embassy in Kabul say that the bribery within Afghanistan's government is so extensive that resolving it has turned out to be very difficult..DIR difficult-F..4.PL.PST-PST..AOR-PTCP. Kabul-M ke də amrikā-Ø safārat-Ø barābár-Ø .186..108 for an example..M CONT-tell.438  Syntax ‫دغه محرم اسناد چې په کابل کې د امریکا سفارت برابر کړي دي وایی چې‬ ‫د افغانستان په حکومت کې رشوت خوري دومره زېاته ده چې چاره سازي یې‬ .

F COMP CONT-stand-PST-PST-OPT NEG š-əm become.5 • Subordinate clauses expressing reason ‫ په دې چه‬/pə de čə/ ‘because’ (11.F.DIR də či Ø-wəlāṛ-ed-ə́l-ay ná be.‫ما دومره ډوډۍ خوړلې ده چي ولاړېدلای نه شم‬ mā dumra ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xwaṛ-ə́l-e 1SG.M ‘I had to drive slowly because of the fog.DIR come.111) .4.107.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .DIR INSTR running-F.DIR be.189.‫زه په منډه راغلم ولي څي وږی وم‬ za pə manḍa-Ø rā́ɣl-əm wale 1SG.F car-M.186.PST.much food-F.3SG.PST-1SG because čə wəz-̣ay wəm COMP hungry-M.110) .6 Subordinate clauses expressing purpose Pashto purpose clauses require the use of the complementizer /čə/.PRS.DIR be. see also example 11.’ (SW) • ‫ ولې چه‬/wale čə/ ‘because’ (11. (11.STR.AOR.AOR.3SG. ‫چه‬ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.112.PRS-1SG ‘I have eaten so much that I cannot stand up.‫په دې چه لړې وه موټر مې ورو وچلوو‬ pə de čə ləṛ-e wa moṭər-Ø in this.1SG ‘I came running because I was hungry.WK slow AOR-manage-PST.CONT. the embedded verb in the subordinate clause appears in the present aorist form.PST-PST-PTCP.OBL COMP fog-PL.DIR CONT-eat. as shown in 11.CONT.PST.4.’ (SW) 11.CONT.109) .OBL so.F.STR.3SG.5) claims that this form is not colloquial among Kandahar speakers).Some subordinate clause types  439 ‫دومره‬ taking quantifier /dumra/ ‘so much’ (although Penzl (1955: 80.4.DIR me wro wə́-čalaw-u 1SG.’ (SW) 11.4.

114) .DIR with from this.OBL COMP threaten-INF sə́w-ay wə pər xpəl-a become.DIR emphasis-M.PRS-1SG CONT-drink-PST-OPT ‘Although I am thirsty.M on own-F.DIR taglāra-Ø ṭingār-Ø kāw-ə́ policy-F.CONT.3[SG.AOR.PST-PTCP.3SG.PST-PST.’ (SW) 11.5 Periphrastic causatives As noted in Section 8.OBL from sake-M.’ (SW) • ‫ اګر چه‬/agar čə/ ‘although’ (11.M ‘He persisted in going his own way.112) .DIR be.ABL darmaltun-Ø ta wlā́ṛ-Ø čə darmal-Ø pharmacy-M.113) .DIR w-ā́xl-i AOR-buy.1SG but ob-ə ná š-əm Ø-ʦəṣ-ə́l-āy water-PL.2.7 • Subordinate clauses of concession ‫ سره له د چه‬/sara lə də čə/ ‘despite.186.3SG.DIR be.‫هغه سره له ده چه ګواښل سوی و پر خپله تګلاره ټینګار کاوه‬ haɣá sara lə də čə gwāṣ-ə́l 3SG.189.4.440  Syntax (11.DIR do.M COMP medicine-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . we present here commonly-encountered forms of periphrastic Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PRS.4.AOR.F.‫اګر چه زه تږی یم خو اوبه نه شم څښلای‬ agar čə za təẓ-ay yəm xo although COMP 1SG. I cannot drink.DIR of Ahmad-M.PST.STR.CONT-PST.CONT.3SG.DIR thirsty-M.7.AOR.PRS-PRS. morphological production of causative predicates is no longer productive in Pashto.‫محمود د احمد دپاره درملتون ته ولاړ چه درمل واخلي‬ mahmud-Ø də ahməd-Ø de pār-a Mahmoud-M.M] ‘Mahmoud went to the pharmacy to buy medicine for Ahmad.OBL to go.M. despite the warning.’ (SW) 11.DIR NEG become.STR. notwithstanding’ (11.

115 and 11.‫په‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫اړ ایستا‬ ‫مجبورول‬ ‫ته‬ ‫چه‬ (11.OBL to majbór-a kṛ-l-a forced-F.AOR-PST-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse.M.STR.‫* سړي رسئ د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ sar-i ras-əy də ās-Ø taṛ-әl-o ta man-M.OBL rope-F..DIR man-M. the infinitive affix has been omitted).119 with the present aorist subordinate clause. as shown in the unacceptable 11.7.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .118 with the infinitive (in this example.OBL forced-M.DIR do.M. One such construction encountered in Pashto uses the instrumental circumposition /pə.115) or with a present aorist clause introduced by /čə/ ‘that’ (11.AOR-PST-PST.3.2.3SG.DIR do.AOR-PST-1SG COMP ās-Ø wә́-taṛ-әm horse-M.115) .116) .186.2. along with a complement denoting the caused event.117) .116 show the construction with /majborawél/ ‘force’.F ‘The man made the rope tie up the horse.DIR tie-.INF-PL.1).116—here found in post-clausal position).DIR man-M.Periphrastic causatives  441 causatives.’ (SW) (11.’ (SW) (11. with no additional verb of causation: see Section 9. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.3.’ (SW) ‫اړ ایستا‬ The lexical causative /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ shows the same two forms of embedded predication as seen in 11.4 and Section 11.DIR do.4.OBL to majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm forced-M. or its simple adpositional variants.‫زه سړي د اس تړلو مجبور کړلم‬ zә sar-̣i də ās-Ø taṛ-ә́l-o ta 1SG. ‫باندې‬..189.115 and 11.OBL of horse-M.DIR of horse-M. and 11.116: 11.STR.. The actor of the caused event must have animate reference: it is odd to use this construction with a true instrument.DIR AOR-tie-1SG ‘The man made me tie up the horse..DIR tie-INF-PL.bānde/. The sentences 11.‫زه سړي مجبور کړلم چی اس وتړم‬ zә sar-̣i majbór-Ø kṛ-l-әm če 1SG. The caused event may be expressed either with an infinitive object of the postposition /ta/ ‘to’ (11. A different construction involves the light verb constructions /majborawél/ ‘force’ and /aṛ istə́l/ ‘compel’ (see Section 8.117.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .M ‘Ahmad isn't coming.186.COMIT shared-F.DIR 3.120) .OBL word-PL. and nouns can be conjoined using similar markers.’ (SW) Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.STR. verbs.CONT.M. as in the following example of simple apposition expressing a causal relationship: (11.PST-PST.M] sad day be. Apposition is also found.M..PRS-PRS..OBL to forced Ø-ist-Ø CONT-remove..M.’ ‫د دی خلکو خبرو زه دی ته اړ ایستم چي دا موضوع له ګرانو هیواوالو سره‬ . frequently expressing simple coordination but also other relationships.3[SG.DIR COMIT.OBL to forced Ø-ist-ə́m cě dā mawzo-Ø la CONT-remove.DIR NEG come.6 Conjunction In Pashto.OBL person-PL.442  Syntax (11.189.’ 11.‫شریکه کړم‬ (11. he is sad.OBL this.F.3SG.M ‘They made him sit quietly. clauses.CONT.PST-1SG COMP this.M.PRS.‫هغه یې پټه خوله کښیناستو ته اړ ایست‬ haɣá ye paṭ-a xola-Ø kxenāst-ó ta aṛ 3SG.WK hidden-F.3SG.‫ خفه دی‬،‫احمد نه راځی‬ ahməd-Ø ná rāʣ-í xapa Ahmad-M.DIR sit-PL..DIR kṛ-əm do.OBL .119) dә de xalk-o xabar-o de ta aṛ of this.AOR-1SG ‘I was forced to share these people's words with my esteemed countrymen.DIR topic-F.118) .DIR mouth-F.OBL countryman-PL. grān-o hewāwāl-o səra šarík-a great-PL.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .186.‫زه کندهار ته ځم او اختر هلته تېروم‬ za kandahār-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m aw axtar-Ø 1SG. the pronoun comes first: (11.‫زه کور ته راغلم او ډوډۍ مې وخوړه‬ za kor-Ø tə rā́ɣl-əm aw ḍoḍ-əy 1SG.DIR house-M.F ‘I came home and ate [dinner].M] and of ɣarm-e ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-í noon-F.OBL food-F.AOR.STR.PRS-PRS.‫محمود بازار ته ځي او د غرمې ډوډۍ خوري‬ mahmud-Ø bāzār-Ø tə ʣ-í aw də Mahmoud-M.M.PST-1SG and food-F.2PL ‘You and Khaibar were very good friends.124) .1.122) .OBL to go.3[SG.1 /aw/ ‘and’ The particle /aw/ ‘and’ is used to connect two words. the conjunction /aw/ ‘and’ may be used: ‫او‬ (11.OBL to come.DIR close malgər-i wā́st friend-PL. phrases.WK AOR-eat.3SG.OBL to go.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.PRS-1SG and feast-M.’ (11.DIR be.DIR market-M.CONT.123) .PST.PST-PST.’ Example sentences in Tegey & Robson (1996: 191–194) suggest that when one of the conjoined words is a pronoun. Most often the phrases are joined by simple apposition. (11.DIR Kandahar-M.6.‫ته او خیبر ډېر نژدې ملګري واست‬ tə aw xeybar-Ø ḍer-Ø nəžde 2SG.CONT.Conjunction  11. or clauses that perform the same function inside a sentence.1 443 Coordinating conjunctions ‫او‬ 11.6.121) ‫او‬ .CONT-1SG ‘I'll go to Kandahar and spend the feast of Eid there.’ Two verb phrases with the same subject may be conjoined.STR.DIR very-PL.DIR CONT-eat.DIR halta tər-aw-ə́m there pass-do.PRS-PRS.DIR and Khaibar-M.3[SG.CONT.DIR me wə́-xoṛ-a 1SG. however.M] ‘Mahmoud is going to the market and having lunch.STR.M.189.

M.3[SG.1.M] and water-F.OBL to water-F. (11. and adjectives: (11. When used to join phrases.127) !‫سپین یا تور کالي واغونده‬ spin-Ø yā tor-Ø kāl-i white-PL.‫زه چه سهار د خوبه راکښېنم سپورټ ته ځم )او( یا کتابخانې ته ځم‬ za čə sahār də xob-a rā́kṣen-əm 1SG.DIR COMP morning from sleep-M.‫ماته اوبه یا شربت راکړه‬ ma tə ob-ə yā šərbat-Ø rā́kṛ-a 1SG.AOR-IMP.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PRS-1SG (and) or library-F.PRS-IMP. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. noun phrases.PRS-PRS.128) ‫ یا‬/yā/may com- ‫او‬ .SG ‘Wear a white or black suit!’ It may also conjoin two verb phrases.DIR clothing-PL.DIR CONT-eat.444  Syntax (11.M] ‘Ahmad eats food and drinks water.’ 18 Shafeev (1964) additionally cites /ka/ as a disjunction marker.189.‫احمد ډوډۍ خوري او اوبه څښي‬ ahmad-Ø ḍod-̣əy Ø-xor-í aw ob-ə Ahmad-M.3[SG.2 /yā/ ‘or’ This conjunction¹⁸ may conjoin items of many classes.DIR or black-PL.ABL AOR\arise.SG ‘Give me water or juice.STR.DIR Ø-ʦiṣ-i CONT-drink-PRS.M.DIR give. including nouns.M.6. bine with the conjunction /aw/ to express disjunction.DIR w-ā́ɣund-a AOR-wear.OBL to ʣ-ə́m go.125) .CONT.DIR food-F.PRS-1SG ‘When I wake up in the morning I go to the gym or to the library.OBL to go.PRS-1SG səporṭ-Ø tə ʣ-ə́m (aw) yā kitābxān-e tə sport-M.CONT.’ (11.STR.186.’ ‫یا‬ 11.DIR or juice-M.126) .

M but food-F.’ ‫خو‬ 11.3SG.DIR house-M.3SG.’ (SW)¹⁹ (11.M ‘I was coming to your home.PRS.DIR good hotel-M.1.3 /xo/ ‘but’ The conjunction /xo/ in Pashto functions similarly to its English counterpart but.‫امان یا لیلا وګډېده‬ (11.PST-PST. (11.DIR or Aman-M. /so/ is the Kandahari pronunciation of but may sometimes be spelled with instead.‫دا ښه هوټل دئ خو ډوډۍ یې خرابه ده‬ dā ṣə hoṭəl-Ø dəy xo ḍoḍ-əy ye this.DIR be.M ‘Layla or Aman danced.6.DIR be.186.WK bad-M.F ‘Aman or Layla danced. ‫س‬ ‫ شو‬/šwə/.129) amān-Ø yā laylā-Ø wə́-gaḍed-a Aman-M.’ (W) ‫سو‬ 19 In 11.WK xarāb-a da bad-F. but my car broke down. (Tegey & Robson.131.CONT.DIR AOR-dance.DIR or Layla-F.DIR AOR-dance.3SG.PST-PST.PST-PST. the verb must agree with the last element (examples are from Tegey & Robson 1996: 194): .DIR become.STR.‫لیلا یا امان وګډېده‬ laylā-Ø yā amān-Ø wə́-gaḍed-ə Layla-F. but its food is awful.CONT.3SG. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ (11.AOR.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .Conjunction  445 ‫او‬ ‫یا‬ Unlike with /aw/ ‘and’ .DIR me xarāb-Ø so-Ø 1SG.CONT.DIR 3.F ‘This is a good hotel.‫زه کور ته درتلم خو موټر مې خراب سو‬ za kor-Ø tə dərtəl-əm xo moṭər-Ø 1SG.189.3SG.131) ‫خو‬ .130) . this is usually spelled with ‫ش‬. when the two elements conjoined by /yā/ ‘or’ differ in gender.132) . 1996: 196).OBL to come.PST-1SG but car-M.PRS.

DIR first shop-F.4 The adverb za awəl maɣāz-e tə wlā́ṛ-əm byā kor-Ø 1SG..balkə/ ‘not only. (11.CONT-PST-PST.WK wə́-xor-a AOR-eat-IMP.OBL tə rā́ɣl-əm to come.DIR do.1.’ • ‫بلکه‬.‫ هم‬/ham..6.’ The conjunction 1996): (11.AOR-IMP...OBL to go.STR.134) ‫ او‬/aw/ ‘and’ optionally accompanies ‫ بیا‬/byā/ (Tegey & Robson.aw ham/ ‘both. then I came home..F ‘Mahmud was driving and also was talking [on the phone].SG and then 3.. !‫ډوډۍ پخه کړه او بیا یې وخوره‬ ḍoḍ-əy pax-á kr-̣a aw byā ye food-F.PST-1SG ‘First I went to the store. • ‫او هم‬.but also’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94..OBL also car-M.M and also ye xabr-e kaw-ə́l-i 3.F.WK word-PL.PST-1SG then house-M.446  Syntax ‫ )او( بیا‬/(aw) byā/ ‘then’ ‫ بیا‬/byā/ may be used to express the sequencing of events.6.‫ نه یوازې‬/ná yawāze.‫محمود هم موټر چلوئ او هم یی خبرې کولي‬ mahmud-Ø ham moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy aw ham Mahmoud-M...SG ‘Cook and then eat!’ 11.189.DIR do.AOR.3PL.3SG.135) .133) .140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .and’ (11.DIR CONT-manage-PST..DIR cooked-F.2 Correlative conjunctions Elements conjoined in a correlative structure are generally of the same phrasal class..AOR.186..‫زه اول مغازې ته ولاړم بیا کور ته راغلم‬ 11.

no/ ‘if. although’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.DIR 3.‫ نه‬/ná..Conjunction  447 (11. a single example in Bilal.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM ..CONT-PST-PST.PRS-IMP.137) .F..’ • ‫نه‬.3SG.F ‘Mahmud was not only driving but was also talking [on the phone].2 and Section 11.DIR AOR-eat-IMP. yā/ ‘either..186.OBL NEG only car-M.189.also word-PL. ‫نه‬ • ‫نو‬.138) ..SG ‘Either eat here or go.‫ که‬/kə...PRS-1SG and NEG water-PL..‫نه ډوډۍ خورم او نه اوبه څښم‬ ná ḍoḍ-əy Ø-xor-ə́m aw ná ob-ə NEG food-F..or’ (11.. and may or may not appear in construction with the particle ‫ نو‬/no/ ‘then.‫یا دلته ډوډۍ وخوره یا ولاړ سه‬ yā dəlta ḍoḍ-əy wə́-xor-a yā wlā́ṛ-Ø or here food-F.’ • ‫یا‬. negating both clauses..4.‫ که څې هم‬/kə ʦe ham .4.ná/ ‘neither...DIR s-a become.. so’.nor’ (11..SG or gone-M..’ Although we have not found this attested elsewhere.136) . xo/ ‘even if.‫محمود نه یوازې موټر چلوئ بلکه خبرې یې هم کولې‬ mahmud-Ø ná yawāze moṭər-Ø Ø-čalaw-əy Mahmoud-M..WK also do. • ‫خو‬.AOR.DIR Ø-ʦṣ-ə́m CONT-drink-1SG ‘I neither eat nor drink...‫ یا‬/yā .4.then’ ‫ که‬/kə/ ‘if’ introduces the antecedent clauses of conditionals. Khan. These two components are discussed respectively in Section 11.DIR CONT-manage-PST...DIR CONT-eat. Ali & Ahmed (2011: 57) suggests that one instance of the negative particle /ná/ in the second conjunct of a correlative construction has a possible reading of wide scope..4.3PL.F.M balkə xabr-e ye ham kaw-ə́l-i but.4.

DIR CONT-laugh-PRS. as described in Section 7. Pashto is a morphologically split ergative language.6 shows how the two-way split is manifested in the pattern of case-marking for strong pronouns. In Section 11.139) . Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. zər-̣a ki xəpa day heart-M .6. Table 11. can be found for the personal pronoun systems. In Section 11.189. and the ergative-absolutive alignment is used in the past tenses.1) and for the distribution constraints on weak pronouns.7 Principles of case-marking and agreement In this section we provide some of the principles that underlie case-marking and agreement patterns.M ‘Although he is laughing...3SG. he is sad deep inside.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .5 shows a similar pattern for human interrogative pronouns.M..‫ خو په زړه کي خپه دی‬،‫که څې هم دی خاندی‬ kə ʦe ham day Ø-xānd-í xo pə if how. Table 11. we present a summary of the expressions of split ergativity. That is. In this section we summarize the morphosyntactic expressions of this property. we describe briefly a few constructions in which the general nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive agreement patterns are not found.7.CONT.4 shows this.1 Tense-based case-marking and split ergativity Pashto uses two strategies for case-marking nouns: the nominative-accusative alignment familiar from Western European languages is used in the non-past tenses.5.448  Syntax (11.9.STR.PRS.7. the two-way distinction between ergative and absolutive is realized on nouns in the differential use of oblique vs.4.much also 3SG. In the past tenses. direct case suffixes. A somewhat different pattern. 11.7.4 and Section 11. Essentially the same pattern is found for resumptive pronouns (see Section 11.7. as shown in Table 7.186.in sad be.M] but in.3[SG. Table 11. By contrast with many familiar nominative-accusative languages that mark nominative and accusative cases differently on nouns.1.’ (SW) 11. Pashto instead uses the direct form for both.. also reflecting split ergativity.

140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 449 .6: Case-marking pattern for strong pronouns Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.189.186.Principles of case-marking and agreement  Non-past tenses (nominative-accusative alignment) Transitive subject Past tenses (ergative-absolutive alignment) OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.4: Case-marking pattern for nouns   Non-past tenses Transitive subject Past tenses  OBLIQUE DIRECT Intransitive subject DIRECT Direct object   Table 11.5: Case-marking pattern for human interrogative pronouns Non-past tenses Transitive subject DIRECT Intransitive subject Direct object Past tenses OBLIQUE DIRECT OBLIQUE   Table 11.

DIR become. ‫کېږـ‬ • ‫ ګرمی کېږـ‬/garmí keg‑/ ‘feel hot’ (11.CONT. ‫د‬ 11.4 Case-marking patterns of verbs of sensation or preference In the following sections.e.7. a phrase governed by /də/ or a possessive pronoun. the construction resembles a denominal verb construction.7.4.2 Agreement of conjoined items Section 5.4. i.F ‘Zalmay was feeling hot.OBL heat-F. 11.1 Four denominal verbs of sensation Three verbs in this group consist of the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ with a noun.450  Syntax 11.2.186. the experiencer is expressed by means of a genitive phrase.7.3SG. or as the complement to the denominal verb in Section 11. We present the group in subcategories as determined by case-marking or agreement patterns associated with the construction.189.7. except that the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase (recall that weak pronouns appearing in apposition to their heads may express a genitive relation).7. The thing experienced may be expressed as the accusative argument.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .PST-PST. A brief description is given by Tegey & Robson (1996: 184) of a set of collocations expressing preference or sensation.‫د زلمی ګرمی کېده‬ də zalm-i garm-i ked-á of Zalmay-M.1.140) . In these constructions. as among the predicates discussed in Section 11. though they can be compared to similar constructions in other languages.2. 11.4.7.7 summarize agreement properties for conjoined elements in noun phrases. we discuss two constructions that show case-marking strategies other than those outlined elsewhere.’ • ‫ ساړه کېږـ‬/sārə́ keg‑/ ‘feel cold’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.7.3 and Section 6.3 Concordant adverbs See Section 10.

WK be.3[SG.142) .‫ساړه دې کېږی‬ sāṛ-ə de kég-i cold-PL. ‫خوښ‬ (11. enjoy’ ‫کېږـ‬ A fifth denominal verb.CONT.DIR become.186.‫زما امریکایی ډوډۍ خوښېږی‬ zmā amrikāi ḍoḍ-əy xwax-ég-i 1SG.F] ‘I like American food.141) 451 . and the experiencer appears as a genitive phrase. The thing experienced is expressed as a noun. Again.CONT.3[PL.POSS American food-F. (11.CONT.M] ‘I am craving pilau. the thing experienced governs agreement.Principles of case-marking and agreement  (11. 1996).M.PRS-PRS.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.’ • ‫ رړه کېږـ‬/zrə keg‑/ ‘feel like’ ‫زړه‬ This idiomatic expression consists of the verbalizer plus the word /zṛə/ ‘heart’. for’ or.DIR 3.WK heart-M.STR.CONT.4.7. The thing experienced is expressed inside an adpositional phrase governed by /ta/ ‘to.WK become.PRS-PRS.’ A third collocation uses the verb /da/ ‘be’ as an auxiliary.’ 11. generally written as one word.‫تبه یې ده‬ təba-Ø ye da fever-F.143) ‫ته‬ . ‫ده‬ • ‫ تبه ده‬/təba də/ ‘have a fever’ (11.144) .PRS-PRS.F ‘He has a fever.PRS. derives from the verbalizer /keg‑/ ‘become’ plus /xwax/ ‘sweet.3SG.M] ‘You feel cold.2 Denominal -‫ خوښېږ‬/xwaxeg‑/ ‘like.DIR to 1SG. the experiencer is expressed in a genitive phrase. pleasant’.3[PL.189.M.DIR 2. Verb agreement is governed by the noun expressing the thing experienced.‫تورتاوده ته مې زړه کېږی‬ tortāwdə-Ø tə me zṛ-ə kég-i pilau-PL. it will take the usual form of a tensed complement (Tegey & Robson. if the thing experienced is expressed through a clause.DIR sweet-become.

‫د هر چا ډیوې ښه ایسی‬ de har-Ø čā ḍiw-e xa Ø-yis-í of every-M.from bad come.OBL na bad rā́ɣl-əl .M] ‘I don't like him. /bad/ ‘bad’ and /xə/ ‘good’ in these expressions show variable agreement inflection: both these and the verbal component agree with the noun expressing the thing experienced. Unlike the preceding example. The verb component always carries third person plural agreement inflection.3PL.145) ..7.CONT.‫له‬ ‫د‬ (11..3[SG. according to Tegey & Robson (1996).to.‫د محمود د کیمیا له درس نه بد راغلل‬ də mahmud-Ø də kimyā-Ø lə dars-Ø of Mahmoud-M.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .OBL from...186. ‫بد راځـ‬ ‫نه‬.M ‘Mahmoud didn't like his chemistry class.3[SG.’ (11.. a strong possessive pronoun.3 Three more expressions of preference The expression /bad rāʣ‑/ ‘dislike’ is an idiom.OBL husband-M.452  Syntax 11..146.M] ‘He doesn't like Sana's husband.3[PL.4.PRS-PRS.147) ‫بد ایسـ‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه‬ ‫ښه ایسـ‬ ‫ایسـ‬ . ‫بد‬ ‫ید‬ (11.up.F] ‘Everyone likes Diwe. or.na/.148) .‫زما ترې نه بد راځي‬ zmā tre na bad raʣ-i 1SG.OBL Diwe-F.to bad come. as in 11..OBL of chemistry-F.OBL who.189..‫د سنا مېړه یې بد ایسی‬ dǝ sanā-Ø meṛ-ə ye bad Ø-yis-í of Sana-F.... lesson-M.PST-PST. and the experiencer appears as a phrase governed by the preposition /də/.146) .AOR.’ (11.DIR 3.DIR good CONT-seem-PRS.STR.POSS up..’ The expressions /bad yis‑/ ‘dislike’ and /xə yis‑/ ‘like’ are idioms made up of /bad/ ‘bad’ or /xə/ ‘good’ plus /yis‑/ ‘seem’. .WK bad CONT-seem-PRS. The thing experienced is expressed as the object within the circumpositional phrase /lə.3.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

Tegey & Robson 1996) describe a set of verbs (called “anti-impersonals” by Septfonds) which. this construction resembles a middle voice construction. Septfonds 1997. according to Septfonds.7. nevertheless trigger oblique case marking on their subjects in past tenses.3PL.OBL CONT-laugh-PST.186. though formally intransitive. /ɣapəl/ ‘to bark’.M ‘I laughed a lot today.M ‘Diwe and Abaseen were laughing. The verb itself exhibits PNG marking of third person masculine plural. and we have also found examples of this construction in General Pashto.DIR ‘I was crying my eyes out.OBL and Abaseen-M.M.189.151) . ‫خندل‬ ‫لمبل‬ (11.3PL.‫ښـــه ډیــر مې ژړلي‬ xə ḍer me Ø-žār-əl-i good much 1SG.‫ډیوې او آباسین خندل‬ ḍiw-e aw ābāsin-Ø Ø-xand-ə́l Diwe-F.‫نن مې ډېر وخندل‬ nən me ḍer wə́-xand-əl today 1SG. we have not through our own research been able to confirm the existence of this case-marking pattern in Waziri.PL. the default agreement value in Pashto.5 An unergative or middle voice construction A number of authors (Babrakzai 1999.’ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. /trapəl/ ‘to jump’. Recall that the oblique case form is expressed through the presence of the weak pronoun in 11. /zarəl/ ‘to cry’.’ (11.150.Principles of case-marking and agreement  453 11.’ (11. The verbs that exhibit this case-marking pattern comprise a small set of vocalization verbs and a small number of activity verbs: /xandəl/ ‘to laugh’. It occurs only with past tense verbs. Functionally.WK CONT-cry-PST-PTCP. Septfonds 2006.150) .149) ‫غپل‬ ‫ترپل‬ ‫ټوخل‬ ‫ژرل‬ .WK much AOR-laugh-PST.149 and 11. /lambəl/ ‘to bathe’. Though Septfonds’ research reports on Dzadrani.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . /ṭuxəl/ ‘to cough’.

186.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .189.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

189.6. This appendix describes how the grammar is conceptualized. This formal grammar is available for download from deGruyter Mouton. in an order and arrangement that would make sense to the human reader.3. a PDF) and into a morphological parser. in a form that a researcher with a minimum of training in descriptive linguistics would understand— i. and the twin processes for converting the XML document into a descriptive grammar (specifically.186. which encapsulates the morphological and phonological part of the descriptive grammar. The mechanism for producing the PDF (or other output formats) in these two forms is sketched in Section A. suitable for automatic extraction and conversion into a form usable by a computer program. As an XML document. • As a template for writing similar grammars of other languages. this book. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. It is also possible to use the technique called “Literate Programming” (Knuth.1 Overview This book is a descriptive grammar of Pashto. in the printed version) omitted. the parts containing the formal grammar can be (and have been. written in the Extensible Markup Language XML. also in XML.e. The XML-based descriptive grammar is converted into a PDF for people. the grammar is structured into two separate but largely parallel grammars: one is a traditional linguistic description in English. These intended uses are described in more detail in Section A. Literate Programming was developed as a way of improving the documentation of computer programs by allowing the programmer to embed pieces of a computer program into a prose document describing the program. The formal grammar may be used in several ways: • As a grammar which is easily converted into computational tools.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . The other grammar is a formal grammar of morphology and phonology. rather than an arrangement that might be required by the computer language’s compiler program. 1992) to convert both the descriptive and the formal grammars into a single PDF for readers who wish to see both.Michael Maxwell and Anne Boyle David A Structure of this Grammar A. When the grammar is converted into a PDF for on-line viewing or printing. and the XML-based formal grammar is converted into a computational form for morphological parsers. and which may be used to build a morphological parser. • As a resource for automated grammar adaptation to related languages. is supplemented by a formal grammar.. Included is a brief description of the structure of the formal grammar. The electronic form of the grammar. such as morphological parsers.

For such a user. Depending on the purpose. a weakness of formal grammars (and particularly formal grammars that are computer-readable. In addition. Again. The descriptive and formal grammar sections on a given topic are written in parallel fashion. a descriptive grammar written in a natural language such as English tends to be ambiguous. Since the formal grammar is especially concerned with morphology. and in particular with supporting the creation of morphological analysis tools. and with the functional meaning of constructions. One intended user is a computational linguist. both the descriptive grammar and the formal grammar will be of interest. may be of interest to those users. In particular. Conversely. the formal grammar may be of less interest. supplementing the use of corpora for parser testing. and conversant in basic linguistic terminology for morphology and phonology. This is why we have presented the formal grammar separately.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . as is ours) is that they tend to be difficult for people to comprehend. Of course. Another audience we have tried to keep in mind is the linguist who is charged with describing the grammar of another language. or both. people who wish to learn about the grammar—linguists and learners of Pashto—form the primary audience of this book. the examples in the paradigm tables and the examples of usage can serve as tests of parser implementations. A. although the sections on usage of the descriptive grammar will probably be of less concern. For the sake of all audiences. particularly of a related language. In the form in which both are woven together. our intention is that the meaning of the formal grammar will be clarified by the descriptive grammar. where the English description is (unintentionally) ambiguous. Such a person may wish to adopt the model given here to this other language.189. Since these users are largely concerned with understanding how the grammar works. or to use the grammar or parser on a new platform or computer environment. this application assumes that the computational linguist is knowledgeable about technology for morphological analysis. we have kept the terminology and the Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. referring to the formal grammar should disambiguate the intended meaning.2 Audience The multi-use grammar is in a format which is expected to be useful to linguists ten years or a hundred years from now. This is particularly important since some paradigm cells are likely to be sparsely attested in typical corpora. whether they wish to understand the structural properties of Pashto.186. But since the complete paradigms of exemplar words are provided in this descriptive grammar. the formal grammar. the parser can be tested on those more rarely used parts of the paradigm. making it easy to perform such disambiguation or clarification. whereas the formal grammar should be unambiguous. the descriptive grammar.456  Structure of this Grammar Weaving together the two grammars allows the strengths of each to support the weaknesses of the other.

we should therefore use the term “transducer” for the computational program which uses our grammar.3. because this document is intended as a description of the grammar of Pashto which will be simultaneously unambiguous and understandable. such as reading the grammatical description. A. 2 Finite State Transducers (FSTs) combine parsing and generation capabilities. We describe in Section A. but we continue to refer to this as a “parsing engine” for reasons of familiarity. since the DocBook XML format is a widely used format. But for other purposes. Technically. The XML source of this grammar is available.186. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. For some purposes (such as converting the grammar into a form suitable for use with computational tools.6 the method we have used to convert it to camera-ready copy as PDF. it is convenient to format the text for viewing by converting the XML tags into formatting appropriate to the printed page. beginning with computational uses. and the modifications to that formalism that we have used in this project. and 1 We use DocBook version 5. Specifically. A. DocBook is a form of XML that has been developed for book.189. It provides a mechanism for describing the structure (as opposed to the display format) of documents.3 More on uses of this grammar In this section we describe in more detail the potential applications we see for this grammar. the native XML is the appropriate format. This can be done by a variety of means. the “parsing” engine serves both as a parser and as a generator. with some extensions described later. Therefore.² We describe the method for converting this grammar. it is suitable for implementation as a computational tool. avoiding as much as possible theoretical constructs which do not correspond directly to observable linguistic phenomena. The DocBook formalism. and many tools are available for conversion. The Extensible Markup Language XML is a computer representation of text in which the function of pieces of text is indicated by tags. and in particular as a morphological parser or generator. In the following section.and article-like documents. particularly technical documents like this one.1 The grammar as a basis for computational tools As we have discussed. the descriptive grammar’s source document is structured as a DocBook XML¹ document. are described in more detail in the documentation supporting the formal grammar. if the morphological parsing engine being used is an FST (such as the Xerox or Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools).More on uses of this grammar  457 linguistic analysis itself as basic as possible.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . we describe how the XML document is converted into software. as described in the next sub-section).

written in natural language. The descriptive grammar also describes basics of Pashto syntax.2. and if so generates an intermediate representation in terms of Python objects. there are elements in the XML grammar corresponding to classes in the Python converter for linguistic objects such as affixes. and allomorphs. a grammar intended to be used by a computer would not need a descriptive component. In fact.189. which operates on the complete XML grammar to extract the formal grammar in its XML format. written in some unambiguous format. phonological rules.458  Structure of this Grammar in particular the formal grammar of Pashto morphology and phonology. a formal grammar.186. this extracted XML grammar is translated into the programming language of the chosen morphological parsing engine. This part of the converter program is analogous to the front end of a programming language compiler: it ensures that the formal grammar is syntactically correct. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. We have opted instead to blend our XML formal grammar with a descriptive grammar.3. For example. the formal grammar is extracted from the grammatical description as a whole (including the descriptive grammar). thereby making this grammar understandable by humans. largely because it is difficult to define a formal grammar mechanism for syntax which would be as generic and a-theoretic as the formal grammar schema for morphology and phonology. We have implemented our converter in the Python programming language. In theory. We chose Python because it allows the use of an object-oriented programming approach. would suffice. In the first step. This operation has been programmed as a simple XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation).1). Our goal in this is to make it more portable to future computing environments by extensively documenting in English each construct of the formal grammar. using the technology of Literate Programming (briefly described in Section A.3. This conversion could be done by any program which can parse XML and convert the result into other formats.3.1.³ Second. as well as unambiguous to computers. into a form usable by computational tools in Section A.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . The result should be that a computational linguist who is unfamiliar with our formal grammar schema should be able to understand the meaning of the formal grammar itself by referring to the descriptive grammar. 3 An example of a piece of this formal grammar structure in XML form is given in Section A.1.1. A. such formal grammars have already been written for a variety of natural languages—and in many programming languages.1 Building a parser and generator Using this grammar’s source document to produce computational implementation (a parser) requires several steps. there is no formal grammar of the syntax. in which each linguistic structure expressed as an element in the XML grammar corresponds to a class. However.

the XML-based grammars serve as a stable way to define the morphological analysis of natural languages. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 6 While the converter accounts for the morphological constructions needed for Pashto. the same converter will work for a grammar of any language for which an XML grammar conforming to the schemas has been written.de/projekte/gramotron/SOFTWARE/SFST. at least grammars of the sort required for morphological parsing. however.⁶ The final step of the conversion process is to use the parsing engine to compile the converted grammar together with an electronic dictionary of the language. 5 The Stuttgart Finite State Transducer is an open source program. SFST’s own compilation phase becomes very slow and memory-intensive under certain circumstances. the back end of our converter currently does do some optimization for the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer (SFST). it supports the kinds of constructions needed for most languages. depending on the particular parsing engine. more information is required. and it rewrites the grammar into that programming language. When a new and better parsing engine is developed. For some languages. In particular. our converter breaks large compilation steps into shorter ones.html. 4 Modern programming language compilers often include a “middle end. In fact. The converter can be used for any language for which the morphology has been described using the formal grammar. Fortunately. 7 Normally. including declension classes (for nouns and adjectives) and stem class allomorphy. there are some linguistic constructs in other languages.⁷ In summary. require effort to convert them into the form required by the parsing engine.More on uses of this grammar  459 The other half of the converter is specific to the particular morphological parsing engine being targeted. an electronic dictionary is a required resource. such as infixes and reduplication. This half is thus analogous to the back end of a programming language compiler: it translates from the intermediate representation of the grammar as Python objects. into the target programming language. In order to avoid this. for other languages. since any optimization is highly dependent on the target programming language. Electronic dictionaries will.uni-stuttgart. this work will be simply extracting words belonging to the various parts of speech into separate files. and the grammar needs to be ported to that new parsing engine. This affects only SFST’s compilation. the grammatical description can be re-used without change.⁴ Our converter currently targets the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer tools.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . the final morphological transducer would be virtually the same regardless of this optimization.⁵ Targeting a different parsing engine would require rewriting this half of the converter for the new parsing engine.186. so that the grammars can be used by different parsing engines. dictionaries are almost always more easily obtained than grammars.” where optimization is done. available from http://www.189. The details of how this information needs to be represented will vary. This is not directly relevant to our converter. The converter program is generic in terms of the language being described: that is. including Pashto.ims. only part of the converter needs to be changed. which are allowed in the formal grammar schema but are not yet handled by the converter.

and the individual affixes are displayed as a pairing of a gloss and a Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.460  A.186.189. By linguistic description we mean a description that uses such traditional linguistic constructs as allomorph and morphosyntactic features. In its current format as an XML document. in which the slots have been treated as columns in a table of affixes. the XML representation of inflectional affixation in agglutinating languages uses a structure which (in somewhat simplified form) looks like the following (this example is based on Turkish): <Ln : PartOfSpeech name="noun"> <Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d ="slotNumber '> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f S i n g u l a r "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f P l u r a l "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t i d =" s l o t C a s e "> <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" afNominative "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f G e n i t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f D a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A c c u s a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f A b l a t i v e "/ > <Ln : I n f l e c t i o n a l A f f i x i d r e f =" a f L o c a t i v e "/ > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x S l o t > </Ln : a f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > <Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > <Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Number" i d r e f ="slotNumber "/ > <Ln : S u f f i x S l o t name="Case " i d r e f =" s l o t C a s e "/ > </Ln : r e f S u f f i x S l o t s > </Ln : I n f l A f f i x T e m p l a t e > </Ln : a f f i x T e m p l a t e s > </Ln : PartOfSpeech> For a linguist. It is possible. in order to make the formal grammar more accessible to linguists (particularly to linguists who are not familiar with the XML notation).3. to add to our XML-to-PDF conversion process the capability of converting the XML formal grammar notation into a notation more similar to a traditional linguistic description.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . For example. however.2 Structure of this Grammar The grammar as a description This grammar may of course be read as simply a linguistic description of the Pashto language. The formal grammar also constitutes a description. and in fact one which may help disambiguate the descriptive grammar. it is difficult for people to read. a more useful (and more readable) display of this XML structure might be the following table.

This particular step (the conversion process from our XML-based grammar to a display in the form of tables or other forms familiar to linguists) is not implemented yet. This could obviously be important in the application of computer processing to printed texts.Spell correction  461 form. not a change in the underlying XML. That is. such as a missing lexeme in the dictionary). This can be a problem. Failure of a word to parse can therefore be construed to mean that the word is misspelled (although in fact. However. a parser requires that words be spelled in a particular way in order to be parsed. in the absence of special rules allowing for spelling variation.4 Spell correction A morphological parser constitutes a spell checker. it does not by itself constitute a spell corrector. A. there is considerable variation in the spelling of Pashto. when a word fails to parse. the parser cannot suggest a corrected spelling. rather than a reference to the definition of the affix elsewhere (the “idref” in the above XML code): Stem Number suffix slot Case suffix slot -Ø “-Singular” -Ø “-Nominative” -in “-Genitive” (Noun) -e “-Dative” -ler “-Plural” -i “-Accusative” -den “-Ablative” -de “-Locative” We emphasize that this is a matter of how the XML structure is displayed. as we have noted in Chapter 1.186. Pashto’s extensive orthographic variation is not well documented in the literature.189. In particular. because while a morphological parser acts as a spell checker. it is frequently the case—particularly in less documented languages— that spelling conventions are not as fixed as they are for languages like English. However. it is possible to build a spell corrector on top of a morphological parser. we will be able to produce versions of this grammar as PDFs and other formats which incorporate the new display. That is. the use of an XML formalism for both the descriptive and formal grammars means that when the display mechanism is programmed. However. without changing the underlying XML documents. many parse failures can be attributed to other errors. However. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

and tools built on those grammars.462  Structure of this Grammar Spelling variation may in fact result from several different causes. The multi-use grammar method which we have developed provides a way to avoid the first problem: to the extent that the descriptive and formal grammars are separable. and then use the former knowledge to encode the latter knowledge.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . In the absence of spelling standardization.1 Manual grammar building The traditional way to produce morphological parsers is to rely on highly trained linguists and computational linguists to learn the programming language for some morphological parsing engine (or to write one’s own parsing engine). learn the grammar and perhaps the writing system of the target language. such rules are given “weights” which encode the likelihood that a given spelling variation will be found.186. Over 300 languages have at least a million speakers. and probably the majority of these have non-trivial inflectional morphologies. An obvious impediment to this approach is that it is difficult to find one person who combines all these skills. but regardless.⁸ A. We do not treat spelling variation in the formal grammar. is that parsing engines tend to be replaced with newer and better engines after a few years. the finite state technology currently used for morphological parsing can also be used to encode spelling variation rules. A.org is the standard reference on languages of the world). available: by having it serve as a model or template for other grammar writers. but not all. can benefit from grammar writing using the multiuse framework we have developed. Of these. variations can be termed errors. perhaps 1500 to 2000 are written languages.189. knowledge of the 8 Ideally. 9 There are in the neighborhood of 7000 languages in the world today (http://ethnologue.5 Grammar adaptation There are hundreds of languages for which one might want to build morphological parsers. discussed above. There are two major ways that our work could be leveraged so as to make grammars of a large number of languages. all variation can cause problems for morphological parsing. and by automatically or semi-automatically adapting the formal grammar of one language to another language. we believe. some. The two sub-sections below discuss each of these approaches in turn. Some finite state tools allow the use of such weights. Another difficulty. Spell correction is therefore an important technology that can complement morphological parsing.⁹All of these. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.5. rendering the parser that was built with so much expert effort obsolete. However. they can be written by people who bring either of two skill sets: one.

it might be mediated by email or other collaborative technologies. 1999). The two grammars must still be written collaboratively. Olsen & Diab. allowing a descriptive grammar writing team from the linguistics department located in the country where a language is spoken. experience in computer programming. While the vocabulary of the Bible is not always useful in a modern context. To some extent. It may be possible to further reduce the expertise needed to write grammars. (A computer could not be expected to adapt a descriptive grammar.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . we believe. and it has become clear that this approach to grammar writing makes it easier to build teams that can construct grammars and morphological parsers.. one with each of these skill sets. It is.5. But the use of model grammars may prove useful for unrelated languages as well. etc. While the authors of this pair of descriptive and formal grammars have worked in nearby offices.2 Automated grammar adaptation Rather than writing grammars by hand. bilingual corpora in the third language and the initial target language. In particular. than it is to find one person with both skills. We have also developed grammar testing tools based on the information in the descriptive grammar. these tools use the example sentences and paradigm tables of the descriptive grammar as a source of parser test cases. we believe that this working relationship can probably be more remote.189. which may reveal morphological constructions not previously described. together with a formal grammar writing team from a computer science department. which calls for a close working relationship between the descriptive grammar writer and the formal grammar writer. bilingual corpora in the third language and English. We have in fact employed this division of labor in writing our grammars. e. if new grammars can be modeled after existing grammars. Using grammars as models might work best if the new grammars were for languages related to the ones already described. something which is well beyond the current state of the art. there Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186.) This task might be done with various sorts of resources in the third language: corpora.g. this Pashto grammar re-uses the model of earlier grammars we have written using this same framework. perhaps in a different country.Grammar adaptation  463 grammar (and writing system) of the target language. since the typology of the languages would be similar. related to the initial target language. although we have introduced some new techniques with each new language. another approach to grammar adaptation would be to create a computer program that could automatically adapt an existing formal grammar to work for another language. dictionaries of the third language. the Bible is available in nearly every written language and therefore constitutes a parallel corpus (Resnik. A. the other. Such testing of course needs to be supplemented by testing against corpora. In particular. easier to find two different people (or perhaps two teams of people). since that would require understanding of an English grammatical description.

as mentioned in Section A. Some work on automatic grammar adaptation has been described in Yarowsky (2002) and Feldman & Hana (2010). The author. which was designed to convert DocBook into LaTeX (and now into XeLaTeX). and available in the same Tex Live distribution as XeTeX. We have tweaked it slightly to allow for the conversion of the literate programming constructs and interlinear text. available from Sourceforge (http://sourceforge. Again.g.1.) Perhaps in part because Kew had worked with Arabic scripts.net/projects/dblatex/). the latter was made easier by the existence of Michael Covington’s LaTeX macros for interlinear text. has been very helpful in modifying it to work well with XeTeX. see Stayton 2005). quite pleasing. and developed by Jonathan Kew. but by means of the judicious use of tags.464  Structure of this Grammar is no reason good Bible translations in two related languages could not serve as the basis for converting the formal grammar of the morphology of one language into a formal grammar of the other language’s morphology. and use them to test a parser. particularly linguistic documents (see e. In outline. Rödig. Content markup means that not only is the markup easily extensible. The main reason for this is that XML is a content markup system.5. Borghoff. While this method would work (provided it was supplemented with the XSL transformations needed for our literate programming and interlinear text extensions). Again. the result is. see http://tug. we found the dblatex program. the latest distribution is currently included in the TeX Live distributions. For example.189. The primary method for formatting XML DocBook documents is through the use of XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects. we believe. these are freely licensed.6 Formatting the grammar for viewing This section describes the method we have used to convert this grammar into a format readable by people.186. a Unicode-aware version of TeX and LaTeX. In part because of this. there is an alternative typesetting method in the form of XeTeX. A. It remained to find a way to convert our DocBook XML files into XeTeX. XML is now recognized as a standard for long term preservation of documents. Fortunately. while LaTeX is a presentation markup system. we can extract elements for various purposes. we can automatically extract all the words in both interlinear examples and example words in text.org/texlive/.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . Benoît Guillon. the steps we have used to format this grammar are the following: Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Fortunately. Scheffczyk & Schmitz 2006 and Bird & Simons 2003). (XeTeX is released under a free license. this is an open source program. One might ask why we did not write the grammar in LaTeX directly (or XeTeX). we were not satisfied that any of the available XSL-FO processors would do a good job of typesetting the Arabic script required for Pashto and other languages.

Special care needs to be taken at this point with punctuation marks.Formatting the grammar for viewing  465 1. such as interlinear text and inline examples.189. 3. telling XeLaTeX to use the appropriate font for these characters. 4. using the xsltproc program and the XSL weave stylesheet. which can interact badly with right-to-left scripts. Combine the various files of the descriptive and formal grammars into a single file. 2. Run dblatex to convert this file into a XeLaTeX file. characters in the Arabic block of Unicode). Any non-DocBook standard elements.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . For all sequences of characters which require a special font (e. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186. XeLaTeX) to produce a PDF. we wrap the sequences in a special tag. must be provided with special code to convert them into the format expected by XeLaTeX.g. Run XETEX (in its LATEX form.

189.186.Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .

8.186.com Chapter 7: Pronouns 1.com/ 2. 6. 8.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 6.25 http://www.1 http://www.B Sources of Pashto Data B. 6.tolafghan.1 Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web Chapter 1: About this Grammar 1.55 http://www.28 http://www.shamshadtv. 7. 6.27 http://www.benawa.21 http://www.com/ 7.com/ 8.afghanjirga.15 http://www. 8.36 http://www.20 http://eqtisad.com/ 3.bloguna.benawa. 8.net/ 4. 6.26 http://www. 8.26 http://sangaar.com/PashtoJokes/ Chapter 8: Verbs 1.com/ Chapter 6: Adjectives and Other Noun Modifiers 1.tv 7.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 6.tolafghan.com 3.wikipedia.com 2.com/watch?v=Hw08YbmNFLo/ 4.sporghay.13 http://www.com/ 9.com 5.facebook.bloguna.22 http://larawbar.sada-e-azadi.aryen.org/wiki/ 5. 8.pajhwok. 8. 6.net 8.16 http://ps. 8.37 http://www.20 http://eslahonline. 6.com 6.youtube.19 http://www.189.14 http://www.tolafghan.miliehsas.net/ 6. 1. 8.facebook.aminzay.25 http://www.

com/ 28.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . 8.38 http://awakening. 8.wikipedia. 8.com/ 15. 8. 8. 8. 8.58 http://www.65 http://www. 8.186. 8. 8.facebook. 8. 8.rohi.37 http://www.32 http://www.73 http://www. 8.arawbar.63 http://dailyshahadat.66 http://www. 8.56 http://www.com/ 31.af/ 34. 8. 8.com/watch?v=UxcFrUw1ybQ/ 18.blogsky. 8. 8.com/en/photo/96113 13.com/ 29.baheer.com/Zhwand/ 19.468  Sources of Pashto Data 10. 8.bakhtarnews.mirmanbaheer.64 http://www. 8.68 http://www/.org/wiki/ 12.com/ 25.bosa.com/ 14.afghan-german.com/video/video/php?v=180813528650225/ 16.46 http:/kandahartv-gov.mirmanbaheer.189.com/ 26.50 http://www.bloguna.org/ 22.net/ 27.com/ 11.khyberwatch.tolafghan.33 http://www. 8. 8.net/ 32.facebook.67 http://eslahonline. 8.51 http://iwpr.org/ 33.55 http://www.bloguna.40 http://www.com/ 17. 8.34 http://www.pajhwok. 8.74 http://www.49 http://www.net/ps/ 23.57 http://www.com/ 20.41 http://bloguna.com/israrahmadzai/posts/246413462138948/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.youtube.com/all_comments?v=xjHs0–6bOo/ 30.31 http://ps.30 http://khabarial.af/ 24.com.s-rohi.youtube.org/ 21.tolafghan.

8. 8.cri.76 http://www.com/ 41.82 http://bloguna.83 http://www.92 http://www. 8. 8.90 http://pushtu.benawa.dawatfreemedia.com/ 44.101 http://didanona. 8.bloguna.facebook.ir/ 52.com/ 53.com/ 36.99 http://www.com/ 56.com/ 48.com/ 43.186.97 http://www.189.com/ 39.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 469 .95 http://sporghay.89 http://taand. 8.88 http://www.com/ 46.91 http://www.com/pashto/ 57.com/ 55.75 http://taand.cn/ 49.com/ 40. 8. 8.voanews.100 http://afghan-warlods.102 http://scprd.com/ 38.tolafghan.afghanjirga. 8. 8. 8.81 http://www. 8.87 http://www.com/ 59. 8. 8. 8. 8.ahena.79 http://www.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  35.96 http://www. 8.org/ 37. 8. 8.98 http://www.com/ 54.com/ 51.com/ 45. 8.scprd. 8.irib.baheer.blogfa.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.h-obaidi.80 http://www. 8.85 http://ghazal. 8.com/PashtunUnity/posts/318701911484713/ 42.blogfa. 8.benawa.pashtunforums.93 http://pashtu.jahanionline.84 http://khaibarial.s-rohi.com/ 58.com/ 50.86 http://yahyaghafoorzai.blogspot.com/ 47. 8.

net/ 62.104 http://ghorzang.121 http://www. 8.uk/pashto/world// 78.122 http://www.asia/ 75.109 http://khabarial.com/ 61. 8.voanews. 8.189.125 http://www.com/ 63.com/ 72.com/ 64. 8.com/ 73.115 http://wolas-ghag. 8. 8. 8.470  Sources of Pashto Data 60.destaar.113 http://www.118 http://nunn.asia/ 68.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.com/ 77. 8.esalat. 8. 8. 8. 8.bbc.bloguna. 8.blogfa.127 http://rohi.net/ 79.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .106 http://www. 8.com/ 66.com/ 67.110 http://nunn. 8.123 http://afghanjirga.cri.tolafghan.130 http://taleemulislam-radio.129 http://iwpr. 8.117 http://eslahonline. 8.net/ 76.pashtoonkhwa.103 http://waak.com/ 69. 8.af/ 83.com/ 70.com/ 82.tolafghan. 8. 8.107 http://pushtu.co. 8.meenapukhto.120 http://afghanfoundation.com/pashto/ 80. 8.111 http://quizlet.186.114 http://iwpr.cn/ 65.126 http://aryen.org/ 81.116 http://islam-iea.net/ 74.124 http://www. 8.105 http://taand.bloguna.net/ 71. 8. 8.108 http://baheer.net/ 84.

36 http://www. 9.com/ 16.org/ 15. 9.com/ 7.sada-e-azadi.11 http://afg-liberal-party.46 http://larawbar.voanews. 8. 9. 9. 9. 10.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .com/ 6.98 http://www.com/ 2.121 http://www.com/ 13. 9. 9.131 http://www.net/ 14.com/ 20.com/ 10.com/ 19.azadiradio.96 source: from a 12/22/2010 Azadi Radio Broadcast.azadiradio.cn/ 3.acsf.com/ 8.com 4.wakht.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  471 85. 9. 9.facebook.mashriqsoft. 9.92 http://lokrana.189.45 http://pa. 9. 9.com/ 2.blogfa.67 http://pa.org/ 12.voanews.org/ 5.azadiradio. 9. 9.bloguna.tolafghan.41 http://www. 9.32 http://www.14 http://www.3 http://www.cri.com/afghanistancricketboard/posts/245676592129372/ 11.24 http://lashkargah.33 http://www.voanews. 9.af/ Chapter 9: Adpositions 1.bloguna.4 http://www.facebook.tolafghan.azadiradio.13 http://pushtu.15 http://pa.94 http://da.baheer.net/ Chapter 10: Other word classes 1. 9.benawa. 9.47 http://www.com/Israratal/posts/193484757403886/ 9.fbjs.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.facebook.org/ 17.97 http://www. 9. 10.26 http://sporghay. 18. 9.186.

70 http://www.12 http://khyberwatch. 11.com/ 11.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .67 http://www.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 10.pajhwok.voanews.3 http://www.com/ 12.gma.talafghan.68 http://lifeinafghanistan. 10.42 http://sola.tolafghan.com/ 14.tolafghan.com/ 4.8 http://www. 11.18 http://www.blogspot. 10.kitabtoon. 10. 10.com/ 15.khost-web.com/ Chapter 11: Syntax 1.10 http://www.24 http://www. 10. 10. 10.af/ 6.net/ 7.wordpress.9 http://www. 10.afghanijokes. 10.com/ 13.com.com/ 9.benawa.11 http://www.voanews.com/ 4.186. 10.bloguna.bloguna.wikipedia. 10. 11. 11.21 http://www.com/ 5.sada-e-azadi.com/ 10.khabarial. 10.22 http://ps. 10.gotquestions. 10.com/ 17. 10. 11.com/ 3.19 http://bowraa.71 http://larawbar.benawa. 10.7 http://www.28 http://www.com/ 16.com/ 19.21 http://thanda. 11.com/ 18.23 http://www.20 http://s-rohi.189.20 http://www.sada-e-azadi.472  Sources of Pashto Data 3.com/ 2.org/wiki/ 6.com/ 5.19 http://khedmatgar.org/ 8. 11.69 http://wepakhtoons.net/ 7.

tolafghan.31 http://www.af/ 15.25 http://www.org/ 25.77 http://www.com/ 19.27 http://iwpr. 11.106 http://www.org/ 30.pashtozeray.45 http://www.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 473 . 11.org/ 29. 11.65 http://lawaghar.84 http://www. 11. 11.189.com/ 10.benawa.44 http://www.tatobay.com/ 20.com/ 23.loyafghanistan.37 www.com/ 24.af/ 13. 11.uk/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.tolafghan.azadiradio.com/ 12.93 http://www.bbc. 11.blogfars. 11. 11. 11. 11.Sources of interlinear examples taken from the web  8.85 http://pa.org/ 17. 11. 11.co. 11.com/ 26.azadiradio.voanews.47 http://www.42 http://www.com/ 18.com/ 32.org/ 31.43 http://www. 11. 11. 11.90 http://pa.81 http://www. 11.91 http://pa.azadiradio.32 http://origin-pa.46 http://eslahonline. 11.26 http://peshgaman.com/ 9.pajhwok.34 http://loyafghanistan.tolafghan.tolafghan.186.67 http://www.net/ 27. 11. 11. 11.azadiradio.com/ 28.com/ 16.dailyshahadat.68 http://pa.net/ 21. 11. 11.afghanijokes. 11.org/ 14.azadiradio.29 http://www.net/ 11.surgar.khabarial.com/ 22.

afghanjirga.azadiradio. http://lokrana. http://www. http://www. http://da. http://nojavan. http://www.co.bbc.com/ 12.com/ 16.com/ 8. http://eslahonline.com. http://www.bloguna.facebook.189.com/ 2.tolafghan. http://ghorzang.dailyshahadat.net/ 4. http://www.afghanistantoday.azadiradio. http://www.com/ 7.com/ 19.org/ 9.afghanijokes.com/ 21.com/ 17.474  Sources of Pashto Data B. http://www.com/ 18.ghatreh.net/ 22. http://www. http://www.org/ 11. http://peshgaman. http://bakhtarnews.uk/ 14.aminzay. http://www.blogspot.net/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.com/ 15.blogfa.baheer.com/ 3. http://afg-liberal-party. http://origin-pa.com/ 5. http://www. http://pa.afghanistanonlineforums.bloguna. http://www.com/ 23.186.blogfars.com/ 20.2 List of web pages mined for language data 1.af/ 13.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .org/ 10.org/ 6.blogfars. http://www.benawa.com/ 24.afghanistanvotes. http://wepakhtoons.azadiradio.

af/ 37. http://sporghay. http://pashtu. http://rohi.com/ 28.com/ 30.com/ 33. http://www.loyafghanistan. http://khyberwatch.com/ 43.com/ 35.sada-e-azadi.gma. http://www.List of web pages mined for language data  25. http://kw.af/ 26.ir/ 42.com/ 48.com/ 36.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. http://www.com/ 44. http://graanafghanistan. http://www. http://larawbar.com/ 40.net/ 46.spenghar. http://www.af/ 45.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM 475 . http://www. http://khatez.qamosona.ntm-a.org/ 41.pajhwok.org/ 27. http://www.com. http://lawaghar.186.189.net/ 32. http://www.com/ 47.net/ 29. http://rohella-pashto-forum.af/ 38.irib.af/ 34. http://iwpr.mohe.com/ 39.kabirstori.net/ 49. http://www.khost-web.tatobay. http://www.gotquestions.surgar. http://www.net/ 31.pashtozeray.gov. http://www. http://www. http://www.

com/ 52.zarlakht. http://zwand.476  Sources of Pashto Data 50. http://tolonews.wranga.189.wordpress.tolafghan. http://www. http://www.com/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . http://tolo.186. http://article.com/ 57.com/ 58.tv/ 53.voanews. http://lifeinafghanistan. http://www.com/ 55. http://cricket.wakht.com/ 56. http://www.com/ 59.tolafghan.com/ 54. http://www.wn.net/ 60.com/ 51.

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Pashto-English dictionary. Final technical report M. Standard Pashto and other dialects of Pashto.5: Standards for lexical and morphological interchange. Notes on the pronunciation of Pashto (Dialect of the Hazara district). Master's thesis. In Bernard Comrie (ed. Patil. Dictionary. Master's thesis. 2008. In Second international conference on electrical engineering. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. 2003. 1955. V. A grammar formalism for computational morphology. 2007b. 9—23. James Monroe. Mahinnaz. India. Major problems of Dari speakers in mastering Pashto morphology. Raverty. Developing a tagset for Pashto part of speech tagging. Penzl. 514—522.). Henry G. Pence. 2004. University of Texas at Austin. A grammar of the Pukhto. 1928. 88—114. Naming and address in Afghan society. 53—62. Georg. College Park. Western loanwords in modern Pashto. Miran. Cambridge. Journal of the American Oriental Society 81(1). Herbert. 1859. Morgenstierne. 1975. Michael. Afghanistan 14(3). Writing Systems Research 2(1). literature. Mohammad Khan & Rahman Ali. Richard F. and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Wiesbaden: Dr. Georg. John R. Pashtoon.189. Miran. Mohammad Alam. & Donal M. Schmitt (ed.C. Band 23: A new etymological vocabulary of Pashto. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 5(1). A grammar of Pashto: A descriptive study of the dialect of Kandahar. MD: Dunwoody Press. In Josef H. Persian. together with translations from the Articles of War. Herbert. Afghanistan. Pate. Georg. Elfenbein. Ihsan.Bibliography  481 Maxwell. Urdu. 1942. Archaisms and innovations in Pushto morphology. 2006. A tagmemic grammar of Pashto clause structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Georg & A. 8—14.). Beiträge zur Iranistik [Contributions to Iranian]. A handbook of Pashto verbal conjugation. MA: Harvard University Press. Nyrop. D. Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics. Report on a linguistic mission to North-Western India. English-Pushto. 1959. or language of the Afghans: In which the rules are illustrated by examples from the best writers both poetical and prose. Rabbi. 1987. MacKenzie & Nicholas Sims-Williams (eds. Naseer Hoonar & Zeeya A. Pashtoon. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Seekins (eds. The Turkish dialect of the Khalaj. Ann Arbor Michigan. The world's major languages. Norwegian Journal of Linguistics XII. Hyattsville. language of the Afghans = Inglisi-Pushtuqamus revised edn. Baptist Mission Press: Calcutta. University Microfilms. Payne. 1940. and remarks on the language. Mohammad Alam. T. 1961. Second position clitics and subordinate tʃe clauses in Pashto.). Wiesbaden: Dr. Washington. D. Morgenstierne. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 10(2). Minorsky. forthcoming. Pamir languages. 1919. MD: Dunwoody Press. 1932. John R. Penzl. Herbert. MD: Center for Advanced Study of Language. 2012. Mirdeghan. 2009.N. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 1951. Payne. Morgenstierne.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .). Hyattsville. New Delhi: Star Publications. 1986. and descent of the Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 417—437. Pakistan: University of Engineering and Technology. Pashtoon. David M. 1968. Claitor's Publishing Division. Pushto. Afghanistan: A country study. Journal of the American Oriental Society 71(2). Lahore. Higher Persian Grammar VI: for the use of the Calcutta University. Herbert. Lloyd-James. Penzl. V. In R. Phillott. 43—52. Maxwell. The Iranian languages.186. Penzl. 2010. University of Texas at Austin. Zeeya A. Michael. 417—444. 1969. DC: American Council of Learned Societies. 1989. Afghan descriptions of the Afghan Pashto verb. Morgenstierne.

thesis.). Allen & Co. Skalmowski.html. Roberts. Septfonds. exercises and dialogues. A. 1989. Stayton. Roberts. 129— 152. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Takahashi. Decker & Daniel G. Split ergativity in Pashto. Shafeev. Sandra J.). Split-agreement and ergativity in Pashto. thesis. In William van Belle & Willy van Langendonck (eds. 231—235. Olsen & Mona Diab. Daniel. 1994. Bloomington: Indiana University. Taylor. Stanford: Stanford University Press.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM .yorku. London: Robert Hale Limited. DocBook XSL: The complete guide. 129—153. Ph. 1994. 1964. Roberts. 2nd edn. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Richard. Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language. Septfonds. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 26(2). 2006. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Le Dzadrâni: Un parler pashto du Paktya (Afghanistan) [Dzadrani: a Pashto dialect of Paktya (Afghanistan)]. Naoko. Redard. Raverty. and its affinity to the Semitic and other Oriental tongues. Taylor. 384—410. Raverty. Taylor.D. 2001a. Dative counterparts in Pashto. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. Henry G. A guide to the world's languages. 1997. 1974. L'Atlas linguistique des parlers iraniens: Atlas de l'Afghanistan 13. Paris: Peeters. Calvin R. 2008. Sproat. London: Williams and Norgate. 2001. Spain. Pus'hto. Hallberg. H. A short grammatical outline of Pashto. James W. 1977. Languages of Kohistan. 395—406. 1997. Du Pashto standard au Wanetsi: /kawəl/ ou /kṛəl/? note de dialectologie Pashto [From standard Pashto to Wanetsi: /kawəl/ or /kṛəl/? Pashto dialectology note]. In Clare F. proverbs.186. MIT. Deriving second position. 2000. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. Louvain. The grammar of clitics: evidence from Pashto and other languages. Tegey. Merritt.482  Bibliography Afghan tribes.). Boston: Elsevier. Septfonds. Paris: Association pour L'avancement des Études Iraniennes. 1992. volume 1: Classification. 1987. 1989. Daniel. Rishtin. Taylor. Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard [Irano-Aryan studies offered for Gilbert Lazard]. 1999. quelques cartes onomasiologiques [State of travels and publication.. Etat des travaux et publication. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. Pashto. 1962. The optimal second position in Pashto. Skjærvø. S. 2001. 3rd edn. Rensch. 1998. Computers and Humanities 33.). O'Leary (ed. 2005. Peshawar: University Book Agency. Roberts. The dative. The Pushto manual: Comprising a concise grammar. Sociolinguistic survey of northern Pakistan. Pashto. Kurdica 5. London: W. 1996. 297—313. 127—153. The way of the Pathans.3. Anti-impersonal constructions in Pashto. Philip. Mari B. descriptive studies. Roberts. Daniel. Ph. Daniel.]. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. A dictionary of the Puk'hto. Taylor. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 46(1/2). volume 1. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services. Khyber Bazar. In Keith Brown (ed.). Prods O.ca/twainweb/troberts/pashto/pashlex1. In Charles-Henri de Fouchécour & Philippe Gignoux (eds. Georges. Wiesbaden: Dr. and vocabulary. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Septfonds. D. P. Some onomasiological maps. Santa Cruz: SageHill Enterprises. The Bible as a parallel corpus: Annotating the “Book of 2000 tongues”.189. Pashto grammar. In Rüdiger Schmitt (ed. Wojciech. Habibullah. Bob. Pashto dictionary. 2001b. familiar phrases. Henry G. Resnik. 2000. Clitics and agreement. A computational theory of writing systems.D. 1867. Journal of School of Foreign Languages 35. http://www. 7—19. Ruhlen. 1880. In Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.

Wikipedia. its society.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Intermediate Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition. E. Matthias. Pashto reader passages in transcription. Pashto-English glossary for the CAL Pashto materials. translation & comparison. Iran & the Caucasus 5.189. E. In I. Zyar. idioms.C.186. New Haven: HRAF Press. vol. E. 2001. Zuhra. Norman & Leonard Muellner. Tegey. 79. Shah Mahmood Ghazi. London: Messrs. Linguistic Method: Essays in honor of Herbert Penzl.org/wiki/Pashtun_tribes. In P. Walsh. 301—330.wikipedia. Zyar. Washington. Yūsufzay. Grammar of the Pḁṣ̌tō or language of the Afghāns. Washington. Carr (eds. Washington. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Rauch & G. M. Bearman. its culture. Center for Applied Linguistics. M. Afghan transitional Islamic administration ministry of communications: Computer locale requirements for Afghanistan. Tegey. Tegey. United Nations Development Programme.Bibliography  483 Tegey. M.D. Weinreich. Beginning Pashto: Textbook & workbook revised edition.).C. Watt. Janua Linguarum Series Maior.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-8051. Ernest. CA: O'Reilly & Associates. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Iran & the Caucasus 9(2). 1873. 1962. Tegey. Bianqius. Modeling and learning multilingual inflectional morphology in a minimally supervised framework. Habibullah. Sebastopol. 1993a. Office of International Education. 107—132. 1993c. Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. Pashto grammar. Afghanistan: Its people. A corpus-based finite state morphological analyzer for Pashto. The Hague: Mouton. 1993b. Washington. 369—418. http://en. Peshawar: Danish Publishing Association. Th. Pashto im Karakorum: Zur Sprachsituation und Sprache einer ethnolinguistischen Minderheit [Pashto in the Karakorum: On the language and linguistic situation of an ethno-linguistic minority]. Qissa Khwani Bazar. 2000. DocBook: the definitive guide. A English-Pashto dictionary of prepositions & postpositions. 2003. van Donzel & W. D. 2009. Tegey. 2010. 1979. compared with the Īrānian and North-Indian idioms. Ergativity in Pushto (Afghani).C. Die Pashto-Sprecher des Karakorum: Zur Migrationsgeschichte einer ethno-linguistischen Minderheit [The Pashto speakers of the Karakoram: Toward a migration history of an ethno-linguistic minority].: Center for Applied Linguistics.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Peshawar: Sopi's Center of Pashto Research and Development. David. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. Donald N. 1992. Matthias. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Weinreich. D. 2002. Inc. Ph. 2010. A. Yarowsky.C. thesis. Bosworth. A.). Habibullah & Barbara Robson. D. 2005. Wilber. 1999.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:30 PM . URL http://www. Heinrichs (eds. Habibullah & Barbara Robson. 2003. D.brillonline. Trumpp. P. Trübner & Co. expressions. C. University of Maryland: Brill Online. In Conference on language & technology 2009.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Yapp. 1996. Johns Hopkins. A reference grammar of Pashto. Fatima & Mohammad Abid Khan. Pashtun tribes.

105 – forms without stem allomorphy 107 – in Middle dialects 121 – regularization toward 104. kra/ 337 – see also Location.na/ 351 – /bondi/ 329 – /bānde/ 328 – /de/ 314 – /de . 119 – Class II 109 – diphthongization 113 – forms with stem allomorphy 110. etc.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .. comparative – usage 154 – verbs derived from 200. 247 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class IV 119 – derivational suffixes 152 – loanwords 119 – comparative 156 – with /lə. 246.... 111 – forms without stem allomorphy 115 – in Middle dialects 122 – Class III 116 – Class IIIa derivational suffixes 152 – IIIa 116 – IIIb 118... constructions with /kara/ Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. predicative 154 – Class I 104 – animate 109 – derivational suffixes 150 – dialect variation 104 – ending in /-gár/ 105 – ending in /-ján/ 105 – ending in /-mán/ 105 – ending in /-wár/ 105 – forms with stem allomorphy 104.186.Index Abbreviations 4 Adjectives 103 – as adverbs 391 – as complements of denominal verbs 201 – as nouns 155 – animacy of 155 – inflection of 79 – attributive vs.na/ 349 – with /tər/ 323 – compound 153 – derivation of 150 – by compounding 153 – Class I suffixes 150 – Class IIIa suffixes 152 – Class IV suffixes 152 – from loanwords 152 – from participles 116 – from verbs 118 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – inflection 45. 103 – comparable to noun inflection 103 – inflectional classes see Adjectives. 202 Adpositions 305 – /be/ 317 – /be (nə)/ 317 – /be lə. 303 – predicative 154 – reduplication of 153 – superlative 156 – see also Adjectives. – interrogative 147 – count and non-count 148 – negative – derived with /be-/ 152 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – number names see Number names – participles as – past 247 – present 246.189. Class I.

pəse/ 354 – assigns ablative case 48 – causative with animate objects 320.nde/ 356 – /pə....pāra/. 334 – /də..pə bābi/ 339 – /də..lə amala/ 341 – /də. 363 – in aspectual constructions 322 – in circumpositions 353 – in manner phrases 320 – instrumental use 319 – locational use 318 – manner adverbs 382 – temporal use 320 – variant /pre/ 360 – variant /pər/ 317 – /səra/ 327 – reciprocal constructions with 385 – /ta/ 326 – elided in /kara/ 361 – /tre/ see Adpositions..ʦəxa/ 156 – alternation with /lə/ 316 – expressing possession 163 – fusion with pronouns 313... /lə/ – with ablative case 309 – word order of /də/ clauses 424 – /e/ 314 – /e...ke/ 354 – /pə...... /lə.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .londe/ 357 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.lə lure/ 345 – /də........pore/ 335 – /də...na/ 156....lə xwā/ 343 – /də.. see Adpositions.na/ 156.189.. 441 – /pə. variant /pre/ – /pse/ 329 – /pə/ – /pə.....səra/ 346 – /lə..səra/ 336 – see also Adpositions. variant /tre/ – /tər/ 323 – /tər.....ʦəxa/ 347 – alternation with /də/ 316 – assigns ablative case 48 – in expressions of preference 452 – /na/ 329 – vs.bānde/ 355.pə ʣāy/ 339 – /də.... /lara/ – as variants of /ta/ 326 – /leka/ 324 – modal constructions with /če/ 325 – /londi/ 329 – /lə.tsəxa/ 335 – /də.. ablative case-marking 363 – /prata lə.səra/ 335 – /də.na pəxwā́/ 350 – /lə. 356. /trə/..... 346 – /lə.lānde/ 334 – /də...186..na/ 351 – /pre/ see Adpositions...pə šān/ 342 – /də.pə ʦer/ 343 – /də.pə məx ke/ 340 – /də.lānde/ 347 – /lə.na/ 348 – assigns oblique case 48 – complex circumpositions with 350 485 – in comparatives 349 – in superlatives 349 – /lə/ 316.......lə pāsa/ 314 – /də..na bahar/ 350 – /lə....na/ – /lə.. /də/ – /kxe/ 329 – /la/...lə pāra/ 337 – /də.. /pə/.pə lor/ 343 – /də. /də/ – /də/ 312 – /də də.. /də.. 363 – in complex adpositions 313 – in possessive interrogatives 178 – in postpositional phrases 334 – variant /lə/ see Adpositions.pə bāra ke/ 339 – /də.Index  – possessive use 313 – see also Adpositions..

.nə/ 337 – in complex phrases 315 – see also Adpositions. 312 – omitted from circumpositions 348 – usage 362 – vs..pore/ 357 – assigns ablative case 48 – in circumpositions 357 – in comparatives 156.... 307 – mixed case-marking inside 311 – omission of pronoun objects 364 – postpositions 305.. 325 – postpositional phrases 334 – with oblique pronominal clitics 365 – prepositions 305. 308 – in direct case 309 – in oblique case 48...pere/ 357 – /tər. /-ə/ – feminine Class I derived noun 71 – feminine Class I noun 67 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.186..lānde/ 358 – /tər.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .(na)/ 351 – /wə/ 359 – /wṛānde/ 328 – /ye/ 314 – /ye. /də/ – /zidi/ 327 – as negator 153 – /ɣunde/ 328 – adpositional phrases – overview of syntax 424 – structure of 400 – word order 424 – ambipositions 305 – and case assignment 306 – as adverbs 306 – circumpositions 305. 329 – complex 337 – complex circumpositional constructions with /də/ 313 – in Middle dialects 332 – incomplete 326 – oblique pronominal clitics not governed by 365 – omission of preposition 348 – table of circumpositional elements 330 – table of Middle vs.189. Standard forms 333 – with /də/ 334 – with /lə/ 346 – with /pə/ 353 – complex 305 – with /də/ 313 – in comparatives and superlatives 156 – objects of – in ablative case 48.486  Index – /tər. /kara/ 361 – weak pronouns not allowed as objects of 167 Adverbs – adjectives as 391 – adpositions as 306 – agreement of 391 – Arabic loanwords 387 – interrogatives as 388 – of degree 386 – of manner 382 – of place 380 – of time 378 – reduplication of 392 – with /čə/ 438 Affixes 209 – /-(a)war/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-(w)o/ – Class IV oblique plural adjective (variant) 119 – /-(y)ún/ – Class I masculine direct singular animate noun (M) 61 – /-a/.. 323 – in Middle dialects 324 – variant /tre/ 360 – /wrusta/ – /wrusta lə.

edə́l-/ – past tense intransitive verb 214 – /-eg/ – present tense intransitive verb 214 – /-in/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-iz/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-ján/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /-man/ – derived Class I adjective 150 – /-ya/ – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (E) 118 – /-yé/ – Class III oblique plural and feminine adjective (M) 122 – /-ám/ – ordinal numbers 105. /-ye/ – masculine Class I derived noun 55 – /-ed. 144. 151 – /-í/ – Class II adjective (M) 122 – /-ín/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 487 – /-úna/ – masculine Class I plural inanimate noun 51.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .186.189. 204 – on infinitive in periphrastic passive 300 – /‑(a)náy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑dā́r/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑gān/. 122 – masculine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ba/ – derived nouns: master.Index  – /-an/ – Arabic adverbs 387 – /-aw-/ – causative verb 227 – /-ay/ – masculine Class III direct singular adjective 116. 52. keeper 73 – /-e/ – Class II oblique plural adjective (M) 122 – masculine Class III vocative singular adjective (W) 118 – /-e/. 55 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 52 – /-ān/ – masculine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āne/ – feminine direct singular animate adjective 108 – /-āno/ – oblique animate adjective 108 – /-ā́t/ – masculine plural Arabic noun 95 – /-əma/ – first person singular (poetic) 191 – /-əy/ – feminine Class III direct singular noun 80 – /-ə́l-/ – infinitive verb 194 – optional/prohibited in some past bases 215 – past tense transitive verb 214. /-ān/ – masculine Class I plural animate noun 51. 151 – /be-/ – derived negative adjective 152 – /nā‑/ – derived negative adjective 153 – /wə́-/ – first conjugation aorist verb 197. 254 – second conjugation infinitive verb 199 – /-ə́m/ – ordinal numbers (W) 144.

308. aorist Case – ablative 48 – instrumental usage 48 – objects of adpositions in 48. postposition /na/ 363 – accusative – expressed with the oblique 162 – in Arabic loanwords 387 – adpositions and – case assignment 306 – in Middle dialects 307 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 111 – of nouns 45.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .488  Index – /‑nāk/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wāl/ – derived Class I adjective 151 – /‑wālā/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑áy/ – derived Class IIIa adjective 152 – /‑í/ – derived Class IV adjective 152 – /‑ə́/ – masculine Class II singular or direct plural adjective 111 – adjectival derivational suffixes 152 – Middle dialect personal endings 194 – table of derivational noun suffixes 98 – table of verbal affixes 187 – verbal prefixes – as second-position clitics 209 – deictic 172.186. 363 – of adjectives – Class I 109 – used as nouns 155 – of nouns 50 – and gender 45 – and stem allomorphy 55 – Class II 73 – grammatically inanimate 62 – kinship terms 93 – switching animacy categories 68 Aspect 185 – aorist – as subjunctive with present base 252 – contracted denominal verbs separable in 202 – definition 203 – first conjugation base 204 – negative placement in 406 – no negative imperatives in 260 – of a-initial verbs 197 – periphrastic passive in 300 – position of enclitics 404 – second conjugation base 209 – third conjugation base 210 – aorist optative 263 – constructions with /pə/ 322 – continuous – contracted vs. natural 51 – human vs. ambipositions Animacy 50 – grammatical vs. nonhuman objects 176 – in adpositional constructions with /pə/ 320. 317 – of adjectives 103 – vs. continuous – perfective see Aspect. 105 – Class II 110. 198 Allomorphy – of adjectives – Class I 104. 356. 69 – Class IIa 75 – in Middle dialects 61 Ambipositions see Adpositions. 198 – derivational 191. 52 – Class I 55. 62. uncontracted denominal verbs in 202 – definition 204 – continuous optative 261 – imperfective see Aspect. 67.

balki/ 'not only......no/ 'if.and' 446 – /kə..but also' 446 – /nə.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM ...Index  – mixed case-marking in adpositional objects 311 – direct 48 – identical to ablative in feminine nouns 48 – in present tense 48 – in strong pronouns 157 – objects of adpositions in 309 – predicative adjectives in 154 – strong pronouns and 162 – with intransitive verbs 48 – ergativity and 448 – in Middle dialects 48 – instrumental – causative with instrumental circumposition 441 – expressed by /pə/ 319 – oblique 48 – in objects of adpositional phrases 334 – in past tense 48 – in possessives 163 – in pronominal phrases 365 – in strong pronouns 157 – marking direct object 162 – objects of adpositions in 48. elegant Determiners – demonstrative 124 – distal 128 – medial 127 – proximal 124 – indefinite 130 – quantifiers see Quantifiers Dialect – about Pashto dialects 31 – approaches used in this book 34 – Central – adposition /də/ in 312 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. with /kə/..nor' 447 – /yā... comparative Conditionals see Subordinate clauses....aw ham/ 'both. circumpositions 489 Clauses – subordinate see Subordinate clauses Comparative see Adjectives. 307 – strong pronouns and 162 – with transitive verbs 48 – strong pronouns and 162 – syntax of case-marking 448 – vocative 49 – identical to ablative in masculine nouns 48 – of adjectives used as nouns 156 – particles assigning 375 – variant forms in Class III adjectives 118 – weak pronouns and 166 – with verbs of sensation 450 Causation see Verbs... conditional clauses Conjunctions 442 – coordinating 443 – /aw/ 'and' 443 – /byā/ 'then' 446 – /xo/ 'but' 445 – /yā/ 'or' 444 – omission of in conjoined verb phrases 443 – correlative 446 – /ham.yā/ 'either.189. causative Circumpositions see Adpositions. /čə/ – compounds with /čə/ 440 Consonants – elegant see Pronunciation.nə/ 'neither. consonants..186.or' 447 – exclusive 447 – inclusive 446 – subordinating – /čə/ see Particles..then' 447 – /ná yawāze... subordinating.

. Middle Echo words see Reduplication Emphasis – emphatic particle 375 – marked by strong pronouns 161 Ergativity 50. /pər/ 318 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347. 35 – case marking with /pə/.189. pore/ 323 – present aorist forms of /kedə́l/ 236 – three-dialect approach 42 – two-dialect approach 40 – variation 8. 348 – Northern 41 – existential constructions 368 – omission of first circumpositional component 330 – Northwest 35 – case marking with /pə/..186. ta/ 326 – circumpositions 332 – consonants 39 – existential constructions 368 – independent postpositions 329 – omission of first circumpositional component 329. hard 41 – Southeast 35 – Southern 41 – Southwest 8.490  Index – Eastern 41 – adposition /də/ in 312 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – unreduced strong possessive pronouns 163 – five-dialect approach 32 – four-dialect approach 35 – international differences 36 – map of dialect regions 32 – Middle 37 – a-initial verbs 207 – adjectives 121 – adposition /lə/ unattested in 316 – aspectual constructions 322 – circumposition /wə . /pər/ 318 – circumposition /tər . 348 – soft vs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 357 – Northeast 35 – elision of weak pronouns 169 – negative imperatives 258 – omission of first circumpositional component 347. 330 – morphology 32 – noun class membership 62 – Western 41 – Class II adjectives 113 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – forms of particle /čə/ 425 – interrogative particle 417 – omission of postposition /pori/ 357 – ordinal numbers 144 – vowel mutation in Class I adjectives 104. 330 – pronouns 157 – vowels 13 – Waziri metaphony 37... 105 – vowel mutation in ordinal numbers 105 Dictionaries 459 Distance – distal demonstratives 176 – distal strong pronoun 157 – medial demonstratives 173 – proximal demonstratives 172 Dzadrani see Dialect. 32 – cardinal numbers 137 – circumpositional combinations 330 – independent postpositions 326. 186 – and case 448 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 448 – see also Verbs Existential Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

/pər/ 318 – in relative clauses 428 – locative alternation 413 Indirect discourse see Reported speech Infinitive see Verbs. instrumental Interjections see Particles. 286 – of to be 229 – positive commands in present continuous 284 – syntax of commands 419 – usage 283 – optative Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. gender – of verbs 185 Human vs. existential – questions 418 – statements 421 – future – with modal clitic /bə/ 274. 369 – optative – with optative particle /kāške/ 374 Gender – in strong pronouns 157 – lack of gender distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in number names 133 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124. interjections Interrogation – adverbial interrogatives 388 – as indefinites 390 – affirmation questions 374. aorist 260 – negative 258. 419 – existential questions 418 – interrogative adjectives 147 – interrogative particle /āyā/ 417 – interrogative pronouns 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – with interrogative pronouns 418 – word order 417 Irrealis – counterfactual – with subordinating particle /kə/ 436 Manner – adverbs of 382 – constructions with /pə/ 320 Modals – /kedə́l/ as modal auxiliary 293 – as second-position clitics 404 – constructions with /leka če/ 325 – in present aorist constructions 275 Mood 185 – imperative 258 – continuous vs. non-human distinctions see Animacy Loanwords 102 – adjectives derived from 152 – Arabic – adjectives 119 – adverbs 387 – interjections 377 – nouns 95 – gender assignment 92 – Hindi/Urdu – as dialect signifier 37 – Persian – adjectives 119 – as dialect signifier 37 Location – adverbs of place 380 – constructions with /kara/ 361 – constructions with /pə/.Index  491 – particle /šta/ 367 – see also Particles.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .186.189. infinitive Instrumental see Case. 126 – of nouns 45 – in Class III 80 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – irregular 92 – loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – see also Nouns.

62. 67. 75 Nominalization see Nouns. 69 – /má/ 258. 64.186.189.492  Index – aorist 294 – of kinship terms 93 – continuous 294 – switching animacy categories 68 – counterfactual constructions with /kaški/ – Class I 52 373 – animate 55 – expressing potential 293 – derived feminine nouns 71 – lack of PNG distinction in 261 – derived masculine nouns 55 – particle /kāške/ 261.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 390 imate 62 – of perfect constructions 291 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects – of potential constructions 298 61. 61 – correlative conjunctions 446 – sample paradigms: feminine animate – existential 367 67 – future tense 407 – sample paradigms: feminine inani– infixation in 409 mate 70 – imperative 258 – sample paradigms: masculine ani– only in continuous aspect 260 mate 55 – with particle /mə́/ 286 – sample paradigms: masculine inan– indefinite pronouns 181. 420 – switching animacy categories 68 – /mə́/ 286 – Class II 73 – /ná/ 404 – alternate inflection of Class I nouns – /nə́ šta/ 367 64 – present tense 272 – animacy of 73 – quantifiers 132 – gender of 73 – with /zidi/ 153 – IIa 73. 71 – particles 404 – stem allomorphy in 55. deverbal – IIb 73. 79 Nouns 45 – in Middle dialects 73 – abstract 46 – sample paradigms: class IIa 75 – adjectives as 155 – sample paradigms: class IIb 79 – inflection of 79 – stem allomorphy: class IIa 75 – animacy 50 – stem allomorphy: class IIb 79 – and gender 45 – Class III 80 – and stem allomorphy 55 – gender of 80 – Class I nouns 55 – IIIa 84 – of grammatically inanimate nouns – IIIa: ethnic denominations 84 62 – IIIa: feminine 85 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 373 – feminine nouns 67 – inanimate 62 Negative – inflected as Class II 64 – adjectives – kinship terms in /ə́/ 62 – derived with /be-/ 152 – overlap with Class IIb 79 – derived with /nā‑/ 153 – plural formation 55 – aorist phrases 406 – professional titles 55.

186. 89 – collective see Nouns. 52 – in Middle dialects 61 – subordinate noun clauses 429 – used for reported speech 432 – syntax of noun phrases 399 – verbs derived from 200 – contracted vs. 87 – in Middle dialects 89 – sample paradigms: IIIa feminine 85 – sample paradigms: IIIa masculine 84 – sample paradigms: IIIb feminine 88 – sample paradigms: IIIb masculine 87 – sample paradigms: Middle dialects 89 – stress 80.Index  – IIIb 87 – IIIb: feminine 88 – IIIb: masculine 84. /ə/ 67 – gender 45 – in Class II 73 – in Class III 80 – of abstract nouns 46 – of derived nouns 55 – of irregular nouns 92 – of loanwords 95 – plural formation 46 – governing relative clauses 428 – in conjunctive constructions 97 – infinitives as 194.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . mass – compound 101 – derivation of 98 – by compounding 101 – by suffixes 98 – feminine nouns in /a/. 92 – of irregular nouns 92 – number of 46 – quantifiers as 130 – reduplication 101 – stem allomorphy in 45. /ə/ 71 – from adjectives 155 – masculine nouns in /-e/. /-ye/ 55 – switching animacy categories 68 – deverbal 313 – formation of – deverbal 313 – feminine nouns in /a/.189. uncontracted denominal verbs 201 Number – in loanwords 95 – lack of number distinction – in demonstratives 172 – in interrogative pronouns 177 – in optative 261 – in proximal demonstratives 124 – in weak pronouns 164 – of nouns 46 – Arabic loanwords 95 – irregular plural forms 92 – mass nouns 46 – of verbs 185 Number names 132 – /yaw/ as indefinite determiner 130 – cardinal 133 – counting 137 – in Middle dialects 136 – inventory 137 – morphology 133 – reduplication of 146 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 300 – inflection 45 – irregular 92 – in Middle dialects 71 – kinship terms 93 – Class I in /ə́/ 62 493 – loanwords – class and gender assignment 92 – from Arabic 95 – mass 46 – interrogative adjectives specifying 148 – noun classes 51 – dialectal variation in class membership 62.

404. 403 – /ṣāyi/ 373 – see also Particles.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . /pər/ 322 – ordinal 144 – declined like Class I adjectives 105 – in Middle dialects 146 Orthography see Spelling Participles 185. 420 – /mə́/ 286 – /ná/ 404 – /nə́ šta/ 367 – optative – /kaški/ 373 – /kāške/ 261 – pronominal see Pronouns. 198 – directional verbal clitics 171 – oblique pronominal clitics 170. 419 – deictoids 169 – deictic prefixes 172. 365 – emphatic – /xo/ 375 – enclitics 403 – in Middle dialects 405 – existential – /nə́ šta/ 367 – /šta/ 367. enclitics – interjections 376 – Arabic loanwords 377 – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – to express emotion 376 – interrogative – /āyā/ 417 – modal 369 – /bāyad/ 373 – /de/ 372.186. 246 – agreement of 265 – aorist 249 – in future perfect tense 289 – in past perfect tense 290 – verbs using 249 – as adjectives 116 – declension of 246 – past 247 – as adjectives 247 – irregular forms 249 – present 246 – as adjectives 246 – as noun modifiers 303 Particles 367 – adverbial – /no/ 404 – /xo/ 404 – as second-position clitics 404 – affirmative – /kə na/ 374. future.494  Index – in time expressions with /pə/. 369.189. 436 – /no/ 438 – /pə de čə/ 439 – /wale čə/ 439 – /če/ 325 – /čə/ 181. 418 – future – /bə/ 274. /bə/ – negative – /má/ 258. 403 – in separable verb constructions see Particles. weak – second-position clitics 404 – modal clitic /bə/ 369 – verbal prefixes 209 – weak pronouns 166 – subordinating – /kə/ 435. 275. 425 – /ʣəka 436 – vocative 375 – weak personal pronouns 403 – word order 424 – dialectal variation 258 – in Middle dialects 406 – in separable verb constructions 404 Pashto Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94.

. strong – reciprocal 184 – vs. determiners 172 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – indefinite see Pronouns. anaphoric 160 – interrogative 176 – as adverbials 388 – as indefinites 179. as indefinites – indexical vs. 32 – Class II adjectives 113 – consonants in Middle dialects 39 – glide insertion 207 – lenition of possessive /də/ 163 – Waziri metaphony 37 – of denominal verbs 201 – vowel variation in deictoids 170 – see also Allomorphy – see also Pronunciation Plurality see Number Possession – constructions with strong pronouns 163 – constructions with weak pronouns 168 – in conditions of coreference 182 – in interrogatives 178 – with /də/ 313 Postpositions see Adpositions.. lə xw/ā 343 – periphrastic with infinitive 212 – as third conjugation verb 212 Person – lack of person distinction – in optative 261 – in weak pronouns 164 – of verbs 185. adpositional constructions 385 – relative 181 – interrogative pronouns as 181 – subordinating particle /čə/ 425 – resumptive 426 – in relative clauses 427 – strong 157 – agreement 161 – as emphatics 161 – distal 157 – fusion with /də/ 313. 363 – in past tense 161 – in present tense 161 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 390 – as relatives 181 – human 176 – in temporal clauses 434 – non-human 178 – possessive 178 – omission of 161 – ergativity and 448 – in adpositional phrases 364 – see also Pro-drop – overview 157 – personal see Pronouns.186. interrogative.189.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .Index  – about 7 – dialects 8 – see also Dialect – history 8 – phonology 8 – speakers 7 – variation 8 Passive 414 – adpositional constructions – with /də. possessive 181 – demonstrative 172 – as dummy subject 430 – distinguished from distal strong pronoun 157 – proximal 172 – vs. prepositions Pro-drop 161 495 Pronouns 157 – coreferential 181 – /xpəl/ 182 – vs. lə lure/ 345 – with /də.. 191 Phonology 9 – dialectal variation 8.. postpositions Prepositions see Adpositions.

relative clauses – /čə/ + interrogative 181 Reported speech 432 Script 15 – representation of vowels 25 Spelling 1. 126 – demonstratives 172 – in deictoids 170 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. with /čə/. 421 Pronunciation 37 – consonants 9 – elegant 9 – in Middle dialects 39 – vowels 11 – dialectal variation 32 – elegant 13 – in Middle dialects 13 – Waziri metaphony 37 – see also Phonology Prosody see Stress Purpose see Subordinate clauses.496  Index – in relative clauses 426 – possessive 163.189. with /čə/. partial 393 – in interjections – onomatopoetic 376 – to call animals 376 – of adjectives 153 – of adverbs 392 – of coreferential pronoun /xpəl/ 182 – of interrogatives 390 – of nouns 101 – of number names 146 Relative clauses see Subordinate clauses.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . enclitics – resumptive pronouns 426 – see also Pronouns. purpose clauses Quantifiers 130 – as determiners 131 – as nouns 130 Reduplication – echo words 393 – full vs.186. 15 – international differences 36 – Pashto-specific letters 16 – transcription 28 – table of characters 18 – variation 29 Split ergativity see Ergativity Stem allomorphy see Allomorphy Stress 15 – sentential – and weak pronouns 166 – negative aorist phrases 406 – with future particle /bə/ 370 – word – Class I and Class II adjectives 103 – Class III nouns 89 – Class IIIa adjectives 116 – Class IIIb adjectives 118 – Class IV adjectives 119 – demonstrative determiners 124. 313 – replacing verbal enclitic 405 – vs. demonstratives 160 – with intransitive verbs 161 – weak 164 – agreement 166 – as second-position clitics 166 – in past tense 166 – in possessive constructions 168 – in present tense 166 – in separable verb constructions 403 – lack of case distinction in 166 – not allowed as objects of adpositions 167 – omission of 166 – person and number syncretism in 164 – position in sentence 411 – see also Particles. resumptive – sentential stress and 166 – with intransitive verbs 166 – with transitive verbs 166. 422 – word order 404.

and result clauses 436 – see also Particles.186.189. 217 – strong pronouns vs.Index  – negatives 272 – second conjugation aorist base 209. 425. cause. demonstratives 160 – third conjugation aorist base 210 – verbal group 404 – with directional verbal clitics 171 – with oblique pronominal clitics 170 Subordinate clauses 425 – with /kə/ – conditional clauses 435 – irrealis clauses 275 – with /no/ – result clauses 438 – with /čə/ 425 – adverbial clauses 438 – irrealis clauses 275 – noun clauses 429 – other subordinating conjunctions 440 – purpose clauses 439 – relative clauses 181. comparative Syntax – adpositional phrases 424 – agreement 448 – commands 419 – conjunction 442 – noun phrases 399 – passive clauses 414 – sentence types 410 – subordinate clauses 425 – see also Subordinate clauses – verb phrases 401 497 Tense 185 – and case-marking 448 – future – expressing potential 295 – negative 407 – with particle /bə/ 275 – with present aorist + /bə/ 275 – with present continuous + /ba/ 273 – future perfect 289 – past – /-ə́l-/ in past bases 215 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 294 – oblique case and 48 – oblique case in 48 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – past aorist 256 – usage 281 – past continuous 254 – usage 279 – past perfect 267.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 427 – reported speech 432 – temporal clauses 434 – word order 437 – with /ʣəka/ – reason. 290 – past potential 268 – perfect constructions – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 290 – present perfect 287 – present – direct case in 48 – ergativity and 50 – expressing potential in 293 – strong pronouns in 161 – weak pronouns in 166 – present aorist – expressing obligation with 373 – in imperatives 229 – irrealis constructions in 274 – polite requests in 373 – usage 274 – with purpose clauses 440 – present continuous 249 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. subordinating Superlative see Adjectives.

/pər/ 320 – subordinate clauses of 434 Transcription see Spelling. 363 – periphrastic constructions 440 – vs.186. stem 214 – first conjugation 204 – formation from stem 215 – of a-inital verbs 204 – of weak verbs 215 – second conjugation 209 – third conjugation 210 – types of verbal base 214 – causative 227 – /aṛ istə́l/ 441 – /constructions with /pə 320 – constructions with /pə/ 356. 229 – expressing potential 293 – forms of 234 – in periphrastic passive 212 – table of bases 222 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 223 – /rātlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /tlə́l/ – table of bases 222 – /wṛəl/ – table of bases 221 – agreement of – in perfect constructions 287 – with conjoined subjects 97. to be – see also Verbs. transcription Transitivity see Verbs Verbs 185 – /biwə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /ixodə́l/ – table of bases 221 – /kawə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 229 – forms of 239 – in light verb constructions 401 – table of bases 220 – tables of bases in Middle dialects 220 – /kedəĺ/ – in light verb constructions 401 – /kedə́l/ – as independent verb 204 – as verbalizer 200. 209 – compound 228. aorist – auxiliary 200 – to be see Verbs. 287 – present potential 268 – conjoined verb phrases 443 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 444 – with subordinate noun clauses 430 – aorist see Aspect. 228. 287 – present potential 268 Time – adverbs of 378 – constructions with /pə/.498  Index – in imperatives 284 – usage 270 – present perfect 265.189. denominal – in negative future tense 409 – prefixed 198. 228. 204 – definition 196 – denominal 200 – see also Verbs. verbalizers – base 186 – base vs. 290 – past potential 268 – potential 293 – potential constructions 267 – present perfect 265. 265 – future perfect 289 – negatives in 291 – past perfect 267. contracted denominals 203 – classification 186 – a-initial 204 – conjugation classes 203 – complex – a-initial 196.

186. imperative – infinitive 185. 204 – causatives 227 – formation of aorist base 204 – in Middle dialects 207 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs. complex.Index  – continuous see Aspect. a-initial – imperative see Mood. imperative. 209 – prefixed 198 – with enclitics 404 – see also Verbs. 204 – a-initial 197. continuous – denominal 200 – adjective agreement in 202 – and word order 412 – aspect of 202 – contracted 200 – in first conjugation 210 – in imperative constructions 202 – lexicalization of 201 – negation of 409 – of sensation 450 – omission of light verb in aorist optative 263 – periphrastic passive 212 – phonology of 201 – uncontracted 200 – with adjective complements 201 – with conjoined objects 149 – with enclitics 405 – derivation of 186 – a-initial 196 – denominal 200 – from denominal constructions 200 – from nouns or adjectives 200 – light verb constructions 401 – prefixed verbs 198 – first conjugation 196. see Mood. base – second conjugation 196.189. weak verbs 212 – table of stem shapes 190 – two-stem verbs 218 Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. complex. prefixed – simple verb constructions – aorist optative 263 – continuous optative 261 – imperative continuous 258 – past aorist 256 – past continuous 254 – present aorist 252 – present continuous 249 – simplex 196 – stem – multi-stem verbs 219 – one-stem verbs 215 – stem classes 212 – stem vs. 194 – as citation form 190 – as nouns 300 – as objects of adpositions 306 – formation of 194 – in periphrastic passive 212 – inflected 300 499 – intransitive – denominal 263 – direct case and 48 – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – predicative adjectives and 154 – strong pronouns and 161 – weak pronouns and 166 – irregular – past participles 249 – to be 229 – light verb constructions 401 – agreement in 403 – denominal 200 – middle voice constructions 453 – of preference 452 – of sensation 450 – participles see Participles – passive see Passive – personal endings 191 – root see Verbs. base 214 – strong vs.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM .

229. 210 – see also Verbs. 437 – weak pronouns and 421 Waziri see Dialect. denominal – to be 228.500  Index – strong – base formation 218. 239 – /kedə́l/ 228. 229.189. vowels. 404 – subordinate clauses 425.186. elegant Word order – denominal verbs and 412 – in conjunctive constructions 443 – in existential constructions 367 – in imperatives 419 – in negatives 420 – negative aorist phrases 406 – negative future 407 – in noun phrases 399 – in questions 177. 219 – list of 224 – multi-stem 219 – tables of multi-stem verbs 220 – two-stem 218 – structure of 187 – subjunctive 252 – present aorist as 252. Middle Brought to you by | provisional account Unauthenticated | 94. 374 – see also Irrealis – syntax of noun phrases 401 – third conjugation 196.140 Download Date | 5/27/14 5:31 PM . 417 – in statements 411 – ditransitive 413 – with multiple pronouns 421 – in verb phrases 401 – locative alternation 413 – of /də/ clauses 424 – of adpositional phrases 400 – of particles 424 – in separable verb constructions 404 – of relative clauses 426 – of subject and object 48 – of weak pronouns 166 – Pashto as verb-final language 410 – second-position clitics 166. 234 – aorist participles of 249 – transitive 234 – weak 215 Vowels – elegant see Pronunciation. 229 – as copula 269 – imperative 229 – in existential statements 421 – in Middle dialects 229 – past continuous 269 – present aorist 275 – present continuous 269 – transitive – ergativity and 50 – formation of denominal 200 – locative alternation in three-argument predicates 413 – past tense 48 – strong pronouns and 161 – verbalizers 234 – weak pronouns and 166 – unergative 453 – verbalizers 200 – /kawə́l/ 228.