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ANALYSIS OF IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEMS

14 BUS POWER SYSTEMS


The 14 bus power system consist of
14 buses of which 5 buses are generator buses,3 transformer,15
transmission line and 11 loads, the system shown in
figure(below). In this section, the test data and parameters are
introduced to be used to simulate the various method of transient
stability analysis.

TRANSMISSION LINES
The 14 bus system contains 15
transmission line has same length with different rsistance,
reactance and susceptance per unit length depending on the
material. However, since the length of transmission line does not
affect the analysis, only the per unit parameters are present in
APPENDIX A1.The data in the table are Pu system at base voltage
of100KV and 100MVA the resistance, impedance and susceptance
are given for the total length of transmission lines.
TRANSFORMER
The transformer data consists of R T(Resistance)
and xT (Reactance) which are the equivalent of the primary and
secondary windings of the transformer the APPENDIX A2 provides
the transformer parameters. All the data in the table are in per
unit based on 20KV for the primary windings and 345 KV for the
secondary.
GENERATORS
There are 5 generators in the system the 5
generators are connected to bus through 1, 2,3,6,8 buses. Bus 1
is considered as slack bus, while remaining 4are called PV Buses.
The 9 remaining Buses are all called PQ Buses. The APPENDIX A3
gives the initial load flow condition of the 5 generator Buses. All
the values are based on 100 MVA and the machines rated
terminal voltages. The APPENDIX A4 gives the generators rated
voltage, inertia, resistance, leakage reactance and time
constants.
LOADS

The load of the system is represented by fixed


impedance. The APPENDIX A5 shows the data of the 11 loads of
the system.
The 14 bus system is modeled as

FIGURE-2
LOAD FLOW RESULT OF 14 BUS SYSTEMS
By NEWTON
RAPHSON technique for load flow analysis with base MVA as 100
and nominal system frequency is 50 HZ. Bus number 1 is taken as
slack bus.
The bus voltages and powers obtained from load flow analysis are
shown below in table 1.

Table1, Bus voltages and powers


NOD FROM VE
NAME MAGNITUDE(
NO
PU)
1

BUS1

1.0600

ANGL
E
DEGR
EE
0.000

BUS2

1.0450

-5.01

40.000

BUS3

1.0100

0.000

BUS4

1.0184

BUS5

1.0207

12.77
10.40
-8.85

0.000

0.000

7.6

BUS6

1.0700

0.000

BUS8

1.0900

BUS
9
BUS
10
BUS
11
BUS
12
BUS
13
BUS
14
DUM
0001

1.0479

14.22
13.68
15.20
15.31
14.89
15.51
15.61
16.43
13.59

0.000

11.60
4
19.85
4
0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

6.100

0.000

13.50
0
14.90
0
0.000

11.2
0
0.00
0
29.5
0
9.00
0
3.50
0
1.60
0
5.80
0
5.00
0
0.00
0

10
11
12
13
14
15

1.0442
1.0534
1.0360
1.0098
1.0129
1.0579

MW
GENERATI
ON

MVAR
GEN

233.865

0.000

17.37
8
42.56
6
23.49
5
0.000

0.000

0.000
0.000

MW
MVA
LOAD R
LOA
D
0.00 0.00
0
0

MVA
R
COM
P
0.00
0

21.7
0
94.2

0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
0

47.8

12.7
19.0
0
3.90
1.60
0
7.50
0
0.00
0
16.6
0
5.80
0
1.80
0
1.60
0
5.80
0
5.00
0
0.00
0

Table 1 bus voltage and powers

The results of load flow analysis for IEEE 14 BUS system is


shown in table 2
Table 2 summary of 14 bus system Load flow analysis
TOTAL REAL POWER GENERATION

273.865 MW

TOTAL REACTIVE POWER


GENERATION

80.140 MVAR

TOTAL SHUNT REACTOR INJECTION

0.000 MW

TOTAL SHUNT REACTOR INJECTION

0.000 MVAR

TOTAL SHUNT CAPACITIVE


INJECTION

0.000 MVAR

TOTAL REAL POWER LOAD

259.000 MVAR

TOTAL REACTIVE POWER LOAD

73.500 MVAR

LOAD POWER FACTOR

0.962

TOTAL COMPENSATION AT LOADS

0.000MVAR

TOTAL HV DC REACTIVE POWER

0.000MVAR

TOTAL REAL POWER


LOSSES(AC+DC)

14.864656
MW(14.864656+0.000000)

PERCENTAGE REAL LOSS(AC+DC)

5.428

TOTAL REACTIVE POWER LOSS

27.502365 MVAR

TRANSIENT STABILITY STUDY AND MIGRAPH:


A three phase to ground fault disturbance details as mentioned in
the Table-3(below) are considered and the graphs are plotted for
different parameters(swing angle, terminal voltage, real and
reactive power, line flows)
FAULTED BUS NUMBER

BUS 4

MACHINE CONNECTED TO
FAULTED BUS

GENERATOR-3

LINE CONNECTED TO FAULT BUS

LINE-3(BUS 3 TOBUS 4)

DISTURBANCE STARTING TIME

1 SEC

DISTURBANCE CLEARING TIME

1.1SEC

SIMULATION START TIME

0 SEC

SIMULATION END TIME

3 SEC
TABLE-3

SWING CURVE

FIGURE-3

The graph shown in figure-3 is angle VS time in sec which


represents the swing curve of the system the system is swinging
continuously and there is no deviation in the machine angle which
shows that system is stable.
VARIATION OF TERMINAL VOLTAGE

FIGURE-4

The graph shown in figure-4 illustrates that the machine terminal


voltage of 1.0100 Pu, is constant till the fault is applied. At 1 sec
the fault has occurred on the system and output drops down to a
value nearly zero. After the fault is cleared i.e. 1.1 sec the system
shoots up and again starts oscillating .
VARIATION OF REAL POWER

FIGURE-5

GRAPH OF ELECTRICAL POWER OUTPUT IN MW VS


TIME IN SEC
The graph shown in figure-5 illustrates that the electrical real
power of nearly zero is constant till the fault is applied. At 1 sec
the fault has occurred on the system and the output falls down
nearly to zero. After the fault is cleared i.e. 1.1 sec the system
shoots up and starting oscillating.

THREE PHASE TO GROUND FAULT


DISTURBANCE
FAULT BUS NUMBER
BUS 4
MACHINE CONSIDERED
GENERATOR-3
CONNECTED TO FAULT BYUS
LINE CONNECTED TO FAULT BUS LINE 1(BUS 3 TO BUS4)

DISTURBANCE STARTING TIME


DISTURBANCE CLEARING TIME
SIMULATION STARTING TIME
SIMULATION END TIME

1 SEC
1.2 SEC
0 SEC
3 SEC
TABLE-4

SWING CURVE

FIGURE-6

GRAPH OF ANGLE IN DEGREE V S TIME IN


SEC
The graph shown in figure-9 is angle in degree V S time in sec
which represents the swing curve of the system .The system is
going out of step which shows that the system is unstable.
CONCLUSION:
The ability of a synchronous power system to
return to stable condition and maintain its synchronism following
a relatively large disturbance such as three phases to ground fault

is referred to as the transient stability in power system. Studies


related to transient stability in power system are done over a very
small period of time equal to the time required for one swing
which approximates to around 1 sec.or even less. If the system is
found to be stable during this first swing, it assumed that the
disturbance will reduce in the subsequent swings and the system
will be stable thereafter as in generally the case.