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IAS Notes

Samir Mandal
August 12, 2014

Contents
1 Syllabus for IAS

1.1

Preliminary Exam Syllabus: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Mains Exam Syllabus (1750 Marks): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Paperwise Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

General Studies I Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

General Studies II Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6

General Studies III Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7

General Studies IV Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8

Mathematics Syllabus

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.8.1

PAPER I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.8.2

PAPER II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Physics Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.9.1

PAPER I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.9.2

PAPER II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.10 Preparation for Essay Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.10.1 Question Papers of Essay (Year wise) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.9

2 Books for IAS

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Syllabus for IAS

1.1

Preliminary Exam Syllabus:

Civil Services Preliminary exam comprises of two compulsory papers of 200 marks each. The questions
will be of multiple choice, objective type. The marks in prelims will not be counted for final ranking,
but just for qualification for main exam.
Paper I (200 marks) Duration : Two hours
Current events of national and international importance.
History of India and Indian National Movement.
Indian and World Geography Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
Indian Polity and Governance Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,
Rights Issues, etc.
Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics,
Social Sector initiatives, etc.
General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change that do not require
subject specialization.
General Science.
Paper II- (200 marks) Duration: Two hours
Comprehension.
Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
Decision-making and problem-solving.
General mental ability.
Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data
interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. Class X level).
English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).

1.2

Mains Exam Syllabus (1750 Marks):

A candidates rank in UPSC Civil Service Exam depends only on the mark scored in Main and Interview.
The main exam has 1750 marks, while interview has 275 marks. The written examination (main) will
consist of the following nine papers, but only 7 papers will be counted for final merit ranking. For the
rest two papers, the candidate should secure minimum marks prescribed by UPSC each year.
Qualifying Papers Not counted for final ranking:
Paper A - Bengali (300 Marks):
Paper B - English Language (300 Marks):
Papers to be counted for merit ranking (Each 250 Marks):
Paper I - Essay
Paper II - General Studies - I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the
World and Society
Paper III General Studies - II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations
Paper IV General Studies - III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
Paper V General Studies - IV: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
Paper VI - Mathematics Paper I
Paper VII - Mathematics Paper II
Interview Syllabus (275 Marks): Also called Personality Test.
1. The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his/her
career. He/she will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview
is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of
competent and unbiased observers. The test is intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate.
In broad terms this is really an assessment of not only his/her intellectual qualities but also
social traits and his/her interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental
alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgement, variety
and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.

2. The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though
directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.
3. The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialised or general knowledge of the
candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected
to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in
the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own state or country
as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity
of well educated youth.

1.3

Paperwise Syllabus

Qualifying Papers: UPSC says, the papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subject of only
such candidates will be taken cognizance who attain 30% marks in Indian Language and 25% marks in
English as minimum qualifying standards in these qualifying papers.
English Language: The qualifying paper on English Language in Civil Services Mains Exam will be
of Class X level. The aim of the paper is to test the candidates ability to read and understand serious
discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly in English Language.
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :(i) Comprehension of given passages. (ii) Precis Writing (iii) Usage and Vocabulary (iv) Short Essay.
Indian Language (Bengali): The pattern of questions in the qualifying Indian Language Paper
would be broadly as follows:
(i) Comprehension of given passages. (ii) Precis Writing (iii) Usage and Vocabulary. (iv) Short Essay
(v) Translation from English to the Indian language and viceversa.

1.4

General Studies I Syllabus

General Studies I Syllabus consists of the below major areas : Indian Heritage and Culture, History
and Geography of the World and Society. Detailed syllabus is given below :
Indian Heritage and Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and
Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the presentsignificant events, personalities, issues.
The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors/contributions from
different parts of the country.
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Post independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.


History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world
wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like
communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
Role of women and womens organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
Effects of globalization on Indian society.
Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism and secularism.
Salient features of worlds physical geography.
Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries
in various parts of the world (including India).
Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.,
geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water
bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Reference Books:
1. Comprehensive History of Modern India by Brishti Bandhyopadhyay.
2. India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra.
3. History of the World: From the Late Nineteenth to the Early Twenty-First Century by Arjun
Dev.
4. Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe.

1.5

General Studies II Syllabus

General Studies II consists of the below major areas : Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice
and International relations. Detailed syllabus is given below:
Indian Constitution - historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
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Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the
federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers and privileges and issues arising out of these.
Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in
the Polity.
Salient features of the Representation of Peoples Act.
Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various
Constitutional Bodies.
Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out
of their design and implementation.
Development processes and the development industry - the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups
and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the
protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
Education, Human Resources.
Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-applications,
models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency and accountability
and institutional and other measures.
Role of civil services in a democracy.
India and its neighborhood- relations.
Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting Indias
interests.
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Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on Indias interests, Indian
Diaspora.
Important International institutions, agencies and fora - their structure, mandate.
Reference Books:
1. The Constitution of India.
2. An Introduction to the Constitution of India by M.V. Pylee.
3. Introduction to the Constitution of India by Durga Das Basu.
4. Select Constitutions by Anup Chand Kapur, A.C. Kapur & K.K. Misra.
5. Fifty Years of Indian Parliament by G.C. Malhotra.
6. Social Theory, Development Administration & Development Ethics by Mohit Bhattacharya.
7. Our Parliament by Subhash Kashyap.
8. Public Institutions in India: Performance and Design by Devesh Kapur & Pratap Bhanu Mehta.
9. Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking Indias Foreign Policy by Rajiv Sikri.
10. Indias Foreign Policy Since Independence by V.P. Dutt.
11. ARC reports; special focus to the fourth report on Ethics in Governance and the fifth report on
Public Order.
12. PIB
13. India.gov.in for Welfare Schemes.
14. Articles from Planning Commission Website.
15. The Diplomat Magazine.
16. Briefs on Foreign Relations from MEA.

1.6

General Studies III Syllabus

General Studies III consists of the below major areas : Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management. Detailed syllabus is as below :
Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development
and employment.
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Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.


Government Budgeting.
Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and
irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related
constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System - objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food
security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
Food processing and related industries in India - scope and significance, location, upstream and
downstream requirements, supply chain management.
Land reforms in India.
Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial
growth.
Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
Investment models.
Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new
technology.
Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and
issues relating to intellectual property rights.
Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Disaster and disaster management.
Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its
prevention.
Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.


Reference Books:
1. NCERT Class X Understanding Economic Development, NCERT Class XI Indian Economic
Development (All Chapters 6 to 10) and NCERT Class XII Macroeconomics, NCERT Class VIII
Geography text, Resources and Development.
2. A book like Science & Technology for Civil Services Examinations by A.K. Singh.
3. Science and Technology in India (Spectrum).
4. Security Management: UPSC Civil Services Main Examination by Shamna Hussain.
5. Biodiversity, Environment and Disaster Management: UPSC Civil Services Main Examination by
Shamna Hussain
6. Newspapers like The Hindu Business Line, Business Standard or Economic Times.
7. Five Year Plan from Planning Commission Website.
8. Budget.

1.7

General Studies IV Syllabus

This paper will include questions to test the candidates attitude and approach to issues relating to
integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by
him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects.
This paper consists of the below major areas : Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude. Details of syllabus is as
below :
Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human
actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values - lessons
from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society
and educational institutions in inculcating values.
Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour;
moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship,
objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker
sections.

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience
as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and
moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and
probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of
Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizens Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization
of public funds, challenges of corruption.
Case Studies on above issues.
Reference Books:
1. 4rth Report of 2nd ARC.
2. The Handbook on Building Motivation and Positive Attitudes in Government Organisations published by the Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad.
3. Moral Attitudes.
4. Probity in Governance - Law Ministry.
5. Corporate Governance Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
6. Emotional Intelligence in Bureaucracies.

1.8
1.8.1

Mathematics Syllabus

PAPER I

1. Linear Algebra: Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces,
bases, dimension; Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruences and similarity; Rank
of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.
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2. Calculus: Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, mean
value theorem, Taylors theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima,
asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables: limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagranges method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemanns definition of
definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integrals; Double and triple integrals
(evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.
3. Analytic Geometry: Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to canonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two
skew lines; Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets
and their properties.
4. Ordinary Differential Equations: Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not
of first degree, Clairauts equation, singular solution. Second and higher order linear equations
with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of
complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters. Laplace
and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties; Laplace transforms of elementary functions.
Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.
5. Dynamics & Statics: Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Keplers laws, orbits under
central forces. Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction; common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three
dimensions.
6. Vector Analysis: Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable;
Gradient, divergence and curl in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives;
Vector identities and vector equations. Application to geometry: Curves in space, Curvature and
torsion; Serret-Frenets formulae. Gauss and Stokes theorems, Greens identities.

1.8.2

PAPER II

1. Algebra: Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagranges Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayleys theorem. Rings, subrings and ideals, homomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal
ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.
2. Real Analysis: Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence,

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absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series.
Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact
sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus. Uniform
convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions;
Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.
3. Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchys theorem, Cauchys
integral formula, power series representation of an analytic function, Taylors series; Singularities;
Laurents series; Cauchys residue theorem; Contour integration.
4. Linear programming: Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and
optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation
and assignment problems.
5. Partial differential equations: Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of
partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first
order, Cauchys method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order
with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace
equation and their solutions.
6. Numerical Analysis and Computer programming: Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and NewtonRaphson methods; solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and GaussJordan (direct), Gauss-Seidel(iterative) methods. Newtons (forward and backward) interpolation, Lagranges interpolation. Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons rules, Gaussian quadrature formula. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runge
Kutta methods. Computer Programming: Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on
numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal systems; Conversion to and from decimal systems; Algebra of
binary numbers. Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and
truth tables, Boolean algebra, normal forms. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers. Algorithms and flow charts for solving
numerical analysis problems.
7. Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics: Generalized coordinates; D Alemberts principle and Lagranges equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. Equation of continuity; Eulers equation of motion for inviscid flow; Stream-lines, path of
a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex
motion; Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.

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1.9
1.9.1

Physics Syllabus

PAPER I

1. Mechanics:
(a) Mechanics of Particles: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force;
Conservation of angular momentum, Keplers laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field
and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy;
Two-body problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory
reference frames.
(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum,
equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum;
Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Eulers theorem, angular
velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular
axes, equation of motion for rotation; Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di and triatomic
molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.
(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media: Elasticity, Hookes law and elastic constants of isotropic
solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuilles equation,
Bernoullis equation, Stokes law and applications.
(d) Special Relativity: Michelson- Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformationslength contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler
effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.
2. Waves and Optics:
(a) Waves: Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance;
Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses and wave packets; Phase and group velocities;
Reflection and Refraction from Huygens principle.
(b) Geometrical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermats principle; Matrix
method in paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
(c) Interference: Interference of light-Youngs experiment, Newtons rings, interference by thin
films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.
(d) Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving
power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: halfperiod zones and zone plates, circular aperture.
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(e) Polarization and Modern Optics: Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics,
attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; Material dispersion,
single mode fibres; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams; Three-level
scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.
3. Electricity and Magnetism:
(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and
their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential;
Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on
a dipole in an external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problemsconducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
(b) Current Electricity: Kirchhoffs laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Amperes
law, Faradays law, Lenz law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC
circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components; Series and parallel resonances;
Quality factor; Principle of transformer.
4. Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Displacement current and Maxwells
equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwells equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics,
reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnels relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Plancks
radiation law, StefanBoltzmann law, Wiens displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law.
5. Thermal and Statistical Physics:
(a) Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy;
Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel
engines, Gibbs phase rule and chemical potential; van der Waals equation of state of a
real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport
phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and Debyes theories
of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius- Clapeyron equation;
Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics: Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann,
Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

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1.9.2

PAPER II

1. Quantum Mechanics: Wave-particle duality; Schroedinger equation and expectation values;


Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle
(Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator;
Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three
dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen
atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.
2. Atomic and Molecular Physics: Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of
hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J- J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman
effect; FrankCondon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and
electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman
spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen
ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR
and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
3. Nuclear and Particle Physics: Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas;
Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear
forces; Salient features of nuclear forces; Shell model of the nucleus successes and limitations;
Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion; Elementary ideas about
Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions;
Conservation laws; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.
4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray
diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids conductors,
insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson
junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity. Intrinsic
and extrinsic semiconductors; p-n-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and oscillators; Op-amps;
FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgans laws, logic gates
and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors
and digital computers.

1.10

Preparation for Essay Writing

Some Important links for Essay


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Suggested Strategy for Essay


Essay contest
Suggested Essays, Click here for all links
1. Women Employment in India
2. Literacy Rate In India
3. Woman Empowerment In India
4. Drug Abuse in India
5. Dowry System in India
6. HIV/AIDS in India
7. Poverty in India
8. Population of India
9. Child labour in India
10. Rural Girls Education
11. State of Maternal Health in India
12. Unemployment in India
13. The status of children in India - Findings of UNICEF 2005 report
14. HIV/AIDS and Women
15. Situation of HIV /AIDS in Bihar
16. Girl and Women Trafficking in India
17. Gender Inequality In India
18. Domestic Violence Against Women

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1.10.1

Question Papers of Essay (Year wise)

2013:
1. Be the change you want to see in others Gandhiji.
2. Is the colonial mentality hindering Indias success?
3. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the
right indices for judging the well-being of a country.
4. Science and Technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation.
2012:
1. In the context of Gandhijis views on the matter, explore, on an evolutionary scale, the
terms Swadhinata, Swaraj and Dharmarajya. Critically comment on their contemporary
relevance to Indian democracy.
2. Is the criticism that the Public-private-Partnership(PPP) model for development more of
a bane in The Indian context justified?
3. Science and Mysticism: Are they compatible?
4. Managing work and home - is the Indian Working women getting a fair deal?
2011:
1. Creation of smaller states and the consequent administrative, economic and developmental
Implications.
2. Does Indian cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it?
3. Credit-based higher education system status, opportunities and challenges.
4. In the Indian context, both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism.
2010:
1. Geography may the same; history need not.
2. Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country?
3. Preparedness of our society for Indias global leadership role.
4. From traditional Indian philanthropy to the Gates-Buffet model a natural progression or a
paradigm shift?
2009:
1. Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death?
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2. Are we a soft state?


3. The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the haves of our society.
4. Good fences make good neighbours.
5. Globalism vs. Nationalism
2008:
1. Role of media in good governance
2. National Identity and Patriotism
3. Special Economic Zones: Boon or Bane
4. Discipline means success, anarchy means ruin
5. Urbanization and its hazards
6. Is an egalitarian society possible by educating the masses?
2007:
1. Independent thinking should be encouraged right from the childhood.
2. Evaluation of Panchayati Raj System in India from the point of view of eradication of power
to people.
3. Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man.
4. Is Autonomy the best answer to combat balkanization?
5. How has satellite television brought about cultural change in Indian mindsets.
6. BPO boom in India.
2006:
1. Womens Reservation Bill Would Usher in Empowerment for Women in India.
2. Protection of Ecology and Environment is Essential for Sustained Economic Development.
3. Importance of Indo-U.S. Nuclear Agreement.
4. Education for All Campaign in India: Myth or Reality.
5. Globalization Would Finish Small-Scale Industries in India.
6. Increasing Computerization Would lead to the Creation of a Dehumanized Society.
2005:
1. Justice must reach the poor
2. The hand that rocks the cradle
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3. If women ruled the world


4. what is real education?
5. Terrorism and world peace
6. Food security for sustainable national development
2004:
1. Indias Role in Promoting ASEAN Co-operation.
2. Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy.
3. Whiter Womens Emancipation?
4. Globalisation and Its Impact on Indian Culture.
5. The Lure of Space.
6. Water Resources Should Be Under the Control of Central Government.
2003:
1. The Masks of New Imperialism.
2. How far has democracy in India delivered the goods?
3. How should a civil servant conduct himself?
4. As civilization advances culture declines.
5. There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Spirituality and Scientific
temper.
2002:
1. Modern Technological Education and human values.
2. Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem.
3. If youth knew, if age could.
4. The paths of glory lead but to the grave.
5. Privatisation of Higher Education in India.
6. Responsibility of media in democracy.
2001:
1. What have we gained from our democratic set-up?
2. My vision of an ideal world order.
3. The march of science and the erosion of human value.
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4. Irrelevance of the classroom.


5. The pursuit of excellence
6. Empowerment alone cannot help our women.
2000:
1. Why should we be proud of being Indians ?
2. The cyber world : its charms and challenges.
3. The countrys need for a better disaster management system.
4. Indian culture today : a myth or a reality ?
5. The implications of globalisation for India.
6. Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values.
1999:
1. Womens empowerment : Challenges and prospects
2. The youth culture today
3. Mass media and cultural invasion
4. Resource management in the Indian context
5. Value-based science and education
6. Reservations, politics and empowerment
1998:
1. The composite culture of India
2. Woman is Gods best creation
3. The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India
4. Indias contribution to world wisdom
5. The language problem in India : Its past, present and prospects
6. The world of the twenty-first century
1997:
1. What we have not learnt during fifty years of Independence.
2. Judicial activism.
3. Greater political power alone will not improve womens plight.
4. True religion cannot be misused.
5. The modern doctor and his patients.
6. Urbanization is a blessing in disguise.
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Books for IAS

Essential Books For UPSC Prelims


1. History Of Modern India - Bipan Chandra. (History)
2. Indias Struggle For Independence - Bipan Chandra. (History)
3. Facets of Indian Culture - Spectrum. (Culture)
4. Geography of India - Majid Husain. (Geography)
5. Oxford School Atlas - Oxford. (Geography)
6. Certificate Physical and Human Geography - Goh Cheng Leong. (Geography)
7. Indian Polity for Civil Services Examinations - M. Laxmikanth. (Polity)
8. Indian Economy - Ramesh Singh. (Economy)
9. Economic Survey (2013-14). (Economy)
10. Science and Technology in India - Kalpana Rajaram : Spectrum. (Science and Technology)
11. Environmental Studies from Crisis to Cure 2nd Edition - R.Rajagoplan. (Environment)
12. India Year Book. (Current Affairs)
13. Manorama Yearbook 2014. (Current Affairs)
14. CSAT 2014 : Paper - 2 Manual by TMH or CSAT-II - Arihant (CSAT - Paper 2)
15. Analytical Reasoning - M. K. Pandey (CSAT - Paper 2 : Analytical Reasoning)
16. Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning - R. S.Aggarwal (CSAT Paper 2 : Reasoning)
Additional Books for UPSC Mains
1. Contemporary Essays - Ramesh Singh OR 151 ESSAYS For UPSC Mains (Essay Paper)
2. India After Gandhi - Ramchandra Guha (History - GS1)
3. History of Modern World - Jain and Mathur OR Norman Lowe (World History - GS1)
4. Social Problems In India - Ram Ahuja. (Indian Society - GS1)
5. Development & Developmental Processes (Social Justice - GS2)
6. Issues Relating to Social Development (Social Justice - GS2)
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7. Pax Indica - Shashi Tharoor. (Foreign Policy - GS2)


8. Indias Foreign Policy - Muchkund Dubey. (Foreign Policy - GS2)
9. Indias National Security: A Reader. (Internal Security - GS3)
10. Disaster Management. (Disaster Management - GS3)
11. Ethics In Governance. ( Ethics - GS4)
12. Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude for Civil Services Mains. ( Ethics - GS4)
13. IAS Mains Civil Services Main Examination: General Studies Chapter-wise Solved Papers.
Some More Books
1. General Studies For Civil Services Preliminary Examination 2014 - TMH. (GS Problem Solving)
2. UPSC Civil Services Prelims in 60 days - Rakesh Dwivedi. (Revision)
3. IAS Prelims 19 Years General Studies Topic-Wise Solved Papers (1995-2013) - Disha .
4. IAS (Pre.) Solved Papers General Studies wih CSAT 2013 - Arihant.
Detailed list of books can be found here
Also see this list
Other Study Materials
1. The Hindu News Paper
2. The Telegraph News Paper
3. Yojana Magazine
4. Civil Service Chronicle
5. Online Material
6. Clear IAS Material

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