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Friday,March01,2013

Misskhoso
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http://www.cssforum.com.pk/csscompulsorysubjects/essay/essays/76085womenempowermentpakistan.html

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WomenEmpowermentinPakistan

DearMembersIhavetriedtocompilematerialrelatedto"WomenEmpowerment"fromdifferentsources(i.eDawnnewspaper,
ReflectionEssays,Jahangirworldtimesetc)soastosharetherelevantdataaboutthistopicwhichisgoingtohelpyoupreparefor
Examination.
Regards!
WomenEmpowermentinPakistan
Outline
1.Introduction
2.WomenEmpowermentandPakistan
3.WomenEmpowermentatgloballevel
4.CausesofantiwomenpracticesinPakistan
a.Maledominanceanddiscriminationonthebasisofgender
b.Pseudoreligiousscholarsmisinterpretationofscriptures
c.Feudalistic,Political,EconomicandSocialisticsystemofgovernment
5.EffectsofAntiwomenpractices
a.Abysmalstateofwomen
b.Honorkillings,marriageswithQuran,denialofinheritance,WattaSatta
c.WomenasbargainingchipsincustomslikeVaniandSwara
d.HarassmentofwomenatworkplacesandTrafficking
6.Prowomenlegislationdonesofarbydifferentgovernments
a.DomesticViolence(PreventionandProtection)Act2012
b.PreventionoftheAntiwomenpracticesBill,Act2011
c.Theprotectionofwomenatworkplace,Act2010
d.PreventionofDomesticViolenceAct,2008
e.WomenprotectionBill,2006
7.AntiwomenLegislation
a.HudoodOrdinance1979
8.NeedofEmpoweringwomeninPakistan
a.Economicaspect
b.Socialaspect
c.Religiousaspect
d.Politicalaspect
e.Legalaspect
9.Conclusion
Itisbeyondanydoubtthatwomenplayasignificantroleindevelopmentofsociety.Historybearsthetestimonytothegreatnessof
womenasvibrantmembersofsociety.Eveninthecurrentscenariowomenhavestoodshouldertoshoulderwithmenforthegeneral
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causeofhumanity.But,itisunfortunatethattheireffortshavenotbeengivenduerecognitioninsociety.Inthenameofvarious
customs,ritualsandpractices,womenarebeingdeprivedofthelegitimaterights.Consequently,womenarefoundintheabysmal
state.Theneedofhouristogivewomenworkplacesandbusinessenvironmentsthatsupportandwelcomethemtoimprovesociety
atalargeamassmovementthatPakistandesperatelyneedstohelppushitoutofEconomicandSocialquagmireinwhichitfinds
itselftoday.
Nonationcanrisetotheheightofgloryunlessyourwomenaresidebysidewithyouwearevictimsofevilcustoms.Itiscrime
againsthumanitythatourwomenareshutupwithinthefourwallsofhouseasprisoners.
(QuadeAzamMuhammadAliJinnah,1944)
ThePakistanisocietyisoneofthedifferentkinds,whereononesideitplaceswomenasthecentreofattentionandlifeitthenon
theotherhandconsidersthemnomorethanasecondarycitizen.Foryearstherolethatawomenplayedasacitizen,amemberof
familyorahomemakerhasbeenhighlyunderminedandtodayithasturnedintoatraditiontodegradewomensability.However,
overtheyearsthisscenariohaschanged,andtheawarenessofherabilities,herrightsandherstatushasreachedalmostallparts
ofPakistan.ThiscountrywasformedonthebasisofTwoNationTheory,whichemphasizedIslamicteachingsandvalues,andis
thereforecalledasIslamicRepublicofPakistan.Islamgivesthebestandmostbalancedcodeoflife,butPseudofundamentalists
convertedtheteachingsofIslamtoreadinthebestinterestsofmenandhighlyunjusttowardswomen.Despitethisthewomenof
Pakistanhascomealongwayinprovingherself.ThelivesofPakistaniwomenhavechangedduringthepastthirtyyearsandthey
aremorepoweredandemancipatedthentheywereeverbefore.Moreandmorewomenareenteringtheworkforcetodayastheir
predecessors,whomadethefirsttimeattheworkplaceandalsomadelifeeasierforwomen,lentthemtheencouragementtodoso.
TheU.NEntityforGenderEqualityandEmpowermentofWomendefinesEmpowermentas:
Empowermentmeansthatpeoplebothwomenandmencantakecontroloftheirlivessettheirownagendas,gainskills(orhave
theirownskillsandknowledgerecognized)increaseselfconfidence,solveproblemsanddevelopselfreliance.Itisbothaprocess
andoutcome
Byempoweringwomenitismeantthatwomenshouldbeallowedtoparticipatefullyineconomiclifeacrossallsectorsand
throughoutalllevelsofeconomicactivity.WiththetaglineofEqualitymeansBusinesstheU.NhasputtogethersevenWomens
EmpowermentPrinciplesdesignedtobringaboutagenderequalenvironmentinworkplaceandbusiness.Theyinclude:
Establishinghighlevelcorporateleadershipforgenderequality
Treatingallwomenandmenfairlyatwork,respectingandsupportinghumanrightsandnondiscrimination
Ensuringthehealth,safetyandwellbeingofallwomenandmenworkers
Promotingeducation,trainingandprofessionaldevelopmentforwomen
Implementingenterprisedevelopment,supplychainandmarketingpracticethatempowerwomen
Promotingequalitythroughcommunityinitiativesandadvocacy
Measuringandpubliclyreportingonprogresstoachievegenderequality
Withthepassageoftimeandeconomicdevelopmentwomenhaveattainedhighleveloflibertyinthedevelopedcountries.Womenin
saidcountriesareenjoyingalmostequalrightsinaccordancetomen.Theyhaveacquiredsuchstatusduetohighliteracyrate,better
infrastructure,enlightenmentandsincerityoftherulingclass.
Unfortunately,manhaswoefullymilitatedagainstGodscommandmentsinPakistan.Hehasbroughtdownwomenssocialstatusto
thelevelofathirdratecitizen.Threemainfactorshaveencouragedmantodoso.
Firstly,itisthephysicalstrengthandafalsesenseofsuperiorityasagainstwomensphysicalweaknessthatmakeshervulnerable
tooppression.ManhasenforcedthelawofJunglewheretheweakerleadslifeatthemercyofstronger.
Secondly,itisthesocalledreligiousscholari.e.theilleducatedpseudoscholarwhointerpretstheHolyQuraninthelightofhisown
genderprejudicesagainstthewomenfolk.Himselfbeingmanhepreachesabsolutepropertyrightsofmenoverwomen.
Thirdly,itisthefeudalistic,political,economicandsocialisticsystemofgovernmentthathastakenchargeofnationalaffairsever
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sinceindependence.Inthepoliticalfield,thisautocraticorderhasdeniedadventofdemocracyinthecountry.Insomepartsofthe
society,sheisnotallowedtoexerciseherrighttovote.Restorationofrighttovotehasnotmuchdifferencebecausesheisnotfree
tovoteasperthevoiceofherconscience.Intheeconomicsphereteemingmillionsareleadinglivesofserfdom.Denied
opportunitiestoimprovehereconomiclotshehasbeentheworstsufferer.Dependentonmanforeverybitofherneedsshevirtually
leadsslaveslife.Feudalisticorderhaskeptmajorpartofnationilliteratebutwomenhavebeenleftfarbehindliteracy,knowledge,
awarenessandeducation.Insomequarterseveneducationisafactorthattendstoindulgeinsinfulactivities.Ithastherefore
preferredtokeepthemilliterateandpious.Insocialmattersmanhassuccessfullymanagedtokeepherignorantofherhuman
rights.Hehasintroduceddevilishcustomsthatvictimizewomantoaccordherthestatusofdomesticanimals.ThepracticeofVani,
Swara,honorkilling,marriageofdaughterswiththeHolyQuran,commitmentofgangrapeunderordersofjirgaetcaresomeofthe
examplesofmansinhumantreatmentofwoman.Targetofallthesesocialevilshasalwaysbeenwoman.
AntiwomenpracticeshaveadverselyaffectedthestatusofwomeninPakistan.Theinequalityanddepressionofwomenhave
negativeimpactsonsociety.Theimplicationsofantiwomenpracticesonsocietyareasfollows:
Firstly,womenarefoundinanabysmalstateinPakistan.Whenfatherisnotafatherandbrotherisnotabrother,manhastaken
undueadvantageofvulnerabilityoftheweakersex.Thatisthemarkofhiscowardice.Whenitcomestoaddresswomensproblems,
fatherisnotafatherbutonlyaMAN.Hewouldhandoverhischildgirlinmarriagetoaneightyyearoldmanjusttogetoutofa
difficultsituationinwhichcircumstanceshaveplacedhimbychance.
Secondly,thebrutalcustomsofhonorkilling(calledasKaroKariinSindh),WattaSattamarriages,marriagewithHolyQuranand
denialofinheritanceareprevailinginsociety.ArealbrotherisnotabrotherbutonlyaMANwhowouldkillhissistermercilessly
justbecauseinhisview,shehasdisgracedhimandhisfamily.Todenyinheritance,thefatherincollusionwithsons,wouldmarry
hisdaughtertotheHolyQuran.Togetridofanunwanteddaughterortogetadaughterinlawofhischoice,hewouldgiveheraway
inforciblemarriageexchange.ThispracticeiscalledasWattaSattawhichoftenendsinmiseriesandeventualbreakupmarriageon
bothsides.HusbandisnotahusbandbutonlyaMANwhouttersthewordofdivorcethriceinonebreathandsendsthewoman
home.Manmakesherworklikeananimalandbeatsherupwheneverhefeelstheurgetodoso.Domesticviolenceintheformof
physicalthrashingandmentaltorturewithwhichwomanistreatedisconsideredtobethebirthrightofman.Manwhoisordainedto
protectwomenbytheAlmightyGodasperteachingsofHolyQuranandSunnah,leavesherexposedtoeverykindofthreat,fear,
misery,misfortune,indignity,uncertainty,unhappinessthatonecanimagineinthislife.
Thirdly,womenhavebeenusedasbargainingchipstoresolvedisputesindisgracefulcustomsofSwaraandVani.Swaraisacustom
usuallypracticedintribalareas,inwhichwomanisusedasacommoditytoresolvefeudbetweentwoclans.Similarly,inSouthern
PunjabVaniisacustompracticedinordertosettlebloodfeuds.Vanicouldbeavoidediftheclanofthegirlagreestopaymoney
calledasDeet.Otherwise,theyoungbridemayspendherlifepayingforthecrimesofhermalerelatives.
Fourthly,womenfaceharassmentinsociety,especiallyattheirworkplaces.Thebossesparticularlyharassthem.Traffickingisa
worldwidephenomenon.Itisthesmugglingofwomenforthepurposeofprostitution.Manywomenareabductedorblackmailedfrom
Pakistantootherpartsoftheworldandintracountryalso.
Tocorrectthedespicablescenario,thelawmensittingintheAssemblieshaveoffandonenactedvariouslawstowipetherampant
socialvicesandcustomarypracticesthatdistortthefairimageofwomen.
ThepassageofDomesticViolence(Preventionandprotection),Act2012andestablishmentofWomenRightsCommissionwith
financialandadministrativepowersaimedatpromotingsocial,social,economic,politicalandlegalrightsofwomeninPakistan,who
constitutehalfofitspopulationislaudable.But,ourhistorybearsthetestimonythatcommissionstoupliftthestatusofwomenwas
madeandtheywerenotsuccessfulbecausetheywerenotindependent.Ithasremainedacustomtoputgoodlawsonpaperbuta
littleeffortinhistoryhasbeenmadetoimplementthem.
ThePreventionofAntiwomenPractices(CriminalLawAmendment)Act2011isamilestonetoempowerandenlightenwomen.The
struggleofwomenforemancipationandagainstdiscriminationhasalonghistorythroughouttheworld.EveninPakistan,itisthe
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hightimetointroducealegalredresstoensurebasicrightsofwomeninsocietyandtoprotectthemagainstdiscriminatory
traditions.Theaimofthisbillistoreduceinjusticeagainstwomenbydiscouragingseveralpracticesandcustomsinvogueinthe
countrywhicharenotonlyagainsthumandignity,butalsoincontrasttoIslamicinjunctions.Itistherefore,necessarythatsuch
inhumanepracticesandcustomsaredoneawayforthwithandthosewhoarefoundguiltyshouldbedealtseverelybyprovidingpenal
andfinancialliabilities.
TheProtectionagainstHarassmentofWomenatWorkplace,Act2010isalsoanimportantlegislationdonetoprotectwomenagainst
harassmentatworkplaces.TheobjectiveofthisActwastocreateasafeworkingenvironmentforwomen,whichisfreefrom
harassment,abuseandintimidationwithaviewtofulfillingtheirrighttoworkwithdignity.Harassmentisoneofthebiggesthurdles
facedbytheworkingwomenpreventingotherswhowanttobringthemselvesandtheirfamiliesoutofpoverty.ThisActbuildsonthe
principlesofequalopportunitytowomenandtheirrighttoearnlivelihoodwithoutanyfearofdiscriminationasstipulatedinthe
constitution.ThisActcomplieswiththegovernmentscommitmenttohighinternationallaborstandardsandempowermentofwomen.
ItalsoadherestoHumanRightsDeclaration,theUnitedNationsConventionforEliminationofallformsofDiscriminationagainst
WomenandILOsConvention100and111onworkersrights.ItadherestotheprinciplesofIslamandallotherreligionswhich
assurewomensdignity.ThisActrequiresallpublicandprivateorganizationstoadoptaninternalcodeofconductand
complain/appealsmechanismaimedatestablishingasafeworkingenvironmentforallworkingwomen.
ThePreventionofDomesticViolenceAct,2008waspassedunanimouslybytheNationalAssembly,but,thebilllapsedafterthe
Senatefailedtopassitwithinthreemonthsperiodrequiredundertheconstitution.Thedomesticviolencebillseekstoprevent
violenceagainstwomenandchildrenwithanetworkofprotectioncommitteesandprotectionofficersandprompttrialsofsuspected
abusers.Thebillincludesprotectioninpublicplacessuchasmarkets,publictransport,streetsorparksandmoreprivateplacessuch
asworkplaces,privategatheringsandhomes.
TheProtectionofWomen(CriminalLawsAmendments)Act2006wasenactedtoprovidereliefandprotectionagainstmisuseand
abuseoflawandtopreventtheirexploitation.ThisActprovidedThirtyImportantAmendmentsinOffenseofZinaandQazaf
(EnforcementofHudoodOrdinance1979).ThisBillallowedrapetobeprosecutableundercivillaw.
Apartfromthisempoweringandenlighteningprowomenlegislation,therehasalsobeenantiwomenlegislationinPakistaninthe
formofHudoodOrdinance1979.ItwasasteptodowngradethestatusofwomeninthenameofIslam.TheHudoodLawwas
intendedtoimplementShariaLaw,byenforcingpunishmentsmentionedinHolyQuranandSunnahforZina,Qazafoffenceagainst
propertyanddrinking.AsforZina,awomanallegingrapeisrequiredtoprovidefouradultmaleeyewitnesses.TheOrdinancehas
beencriticizedasleadingtohundredincidentswhereawomansubjectedtorape,orevengangrape,waseventuallyaccusedofZina
andimprisonedbecomingavictimofextremelyunjustpropaganda.ThisOrdinancegavewomanthesymbolofdirt,filthand
mainspringunderthesunhasbeenheapeduponthepoorhaplesswomen.Thiswastheabysmaldepthwherewomanlayalmosthalf
deadsomedecadesago.ButtheamendmentinBillin2006hadremovedthemajorroadblockthatstoodinthewayofwomens
empowerment.Herrightsreceivedrecognitionandherstatuswasrestoredasanhonorablememberofsociety.
Equaltreatmentofwomenandmenisnotjusttherightthingtodobutitisalsogoodforbusiness.ByacceptingGenderstereotype
andkeepingtheworkplacesandbusinessasnogoareaforwomen,isanactwhichisweakeningPakistanseconomy.Theneedof
hourhouristorobbothPakistanimenandwomenofthechancetoimprovetheirlivesandperpetuateanunbalancedandunequal
society.Followingaresomerecommendationsfortheempowermentofwomen.
Economically,itisessentialtoidentifycausesthatkeepwomensubservienttomen.Oneofthemostcriticalpowerthatmenwields
tokeepwomenunderhisthumb.Thispowershouldbesharedbetweenthetwo.Jointownershipofagriculturallandandallother
moveableandimmoveableassetsshouldbemademandatoryforahousewifeinparticular.Incomeandwealthcreatedbywomen
shouldbeherroleownership.Manshouldhavenoclaimoverit.Secondly,daughtersshareininheritancealongwithbrothersshould
belegallyensuredinaccordancewiththemandateoftheHolyQurananditsdenialshouldbestrictlyprotectedfrombeingusurped
byherhusbandortheinlaws.Thirdly,theorientationofallpublicsectorpolicies,programsandprojectsshouldbeequallyfavorable
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tobothmenandwomen.Thereshouldbenodiscrimination.
Sociologically,thedeadlycustomsofsocietywillcontinuetohavetheirswaysolongastheinhumansystemofFeudalismisnot
burieddeepdownfromwhereitshouldneverbeabletopopupitsuglyhead.Feudalismistoofirmlyentrenchedinthissystem.It
willbeeliminatedonlyinthewakeofarevolution.UntilthenitistheresponsibilityofNGOsthatshouldspringuplikemushrooms
throughoutthecountryandtocometothehelpofwomen.Highlyeducated,economicallyindependentandpoliticallyemancipated
womenwillpartlybeabletolookafterherrights.Feudalismhastobesidetrackedtoempowerthewomensothatitrefusestobe
exploitedbyman,mayhebeahusband,afatherorabrother.
Religiously,theimportanceofwomenandtheirsuccessashumanbeingsismeasuredwithcompletelydifferentcriteriainIslam,
theirfearofAllahandobediencetoHimandfulfillmentoftheduties,hehasentrustedthemwith,particularlythatofbearing,rearing
andteachingchildren.Nevertheless,Islamisapracticalreligionandrespondstohumanneedsandlifesituations.Manywomen
need,orwishtoworkforvariousreasons.Islamdoesnotprohibitwomenworkingoutsideherhome,itdoesstipulatethatthe
followingrestrictionsbefollowedtoprotectthedignityandhonorofwomenandthepurityandstabilityofIslamicsociety,the
conductofwomen,afterallisthebackboneofanysociety.Outsideemploymentshouldnotcomebefore,orseriouslyinterferewith
herresponsibilitiesaswifeandmother.Herworkshouldnotbeasourceoffrictionwithinfamily,andthehusbandsconsentis
requiredtoavoidlaterdisagreements.Ifsheisnotmarried,shemusthaveherguardiansconsent.Herappearance,mannerand
toneofspeechandoverallbehaviorshouldfollowIslamicguidelines.Herjobshouldnotbeonewhichcausesmoralcorruptionin
society,orinvolveanyprohibitedtradeoractivity,affectherreligion,morals,dignityandgoodbehavior,orsubjectherto
temptations.Theseguidelinesclearlyshowthatawomanisnotprohibitedtogooutofherhomeforthepurposeofajob,ifshehas
therightintentions.
Politically,therepresentationofPakistaniwomeninPoliticsishigherthanIndia,SriLankaandIran.Pakistanislistedas45thinthe
InterParliamentaryUnionslistofwomeninnationalparliamentsandstoodaheadofseveraldevelopeddemocraciesincluding
Canada,UKandtheUS.TheonlypositivedevelopmentthusfarremainedtherelativelylargerepresentationofwomeninNational
Assembly,theSenateandProvincialAssembliesincomparisontoothercountries.IncreasednumberofseatsinUnion,District,
ProvincialandFederalassemblieshaspartiallygivenherreasontolivemeaningfullyandleadanhonorablelife.Thistrendshould
growtoenableherparticipateinshapingthedestinyofthenationinabigway.
Legally,theprowomenbillshavebeenpassedinrecentpastbuttheneedofhouristoimplementthoselawstoempowerwomen.
Thereismuchweightincallsbywomensgroupstosetupanimplementationmechanismbecauseitisquitecommontoputlawson
paperbutthereislittlegovernmentwillorsturdymechanismtogetthemenforced,thecreationofanimplementationmechanism
maybespurrequiredtoputtheselawsintopracticeandstrengthenthestruggletoeradicatetheappallingcustomsofsociety.It
goeswithoutsayingthattheframingoflawsandtheirimplementationisonlythefirststeptowardsreformingsocietyandriddingit
ofAntiwomenpractices.Acontinuouseffortfromallsegmentsofsociety,includingpubliccondemnationofdestructivetraditionsis
neededtocreateawareness.Thechallengeisconsiderable,butitiscommendablethatlawshavebeenmadetostrengthenwomen.
InthenutshellitcanbesaidthatGodinhisinfinitewisdomcreatedwomentoplayherroleintheadvancementofhumanaffairsin
herownway,andmanwasordainedtoprovideherprotectionsothatshemayperformherassigneddutieswithhonorandrespect.
Butmanhassubjectedwomentoallkindsofexploitationsi.e.social,economicandpolitical.Shebecametheworstvictimofgender
discrimination.Theresultisthathalfofthepopulationthatwomenconstitutedisputasideasgoodfornothing.Thereligious
prejudicesfurthermadeherlifemiserable.Tobeinhertrueselfcontributingtotheadvancementofthesocietyinherassigned
manner,sheneedstobeempoweredineverywalkoflife.Itisagloballyacceptedfactthatwhenwomenhavefullagencyand
participationinbusiness,economiesarestrengthened,societiesbecomemorestableandjust,internationallyagreedgoalsfor
development,sustainabilityandhumanrightsareachieved,thequalityoflifeimprovesnotjustforwomen,butformen,familiesand
communities,theentirebusinessesoperationsandgoalsarepushedforwardtosuccess.
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Sunday,April14,2013

compEngr
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Dear

Salam
Youressayisverygoodandimpressive..inshaallahiwillappearinnextyearce2014inCSS.Iwillclearcssinfirstattempt...
Kindlytellmehowpassmarksrequiretopassessayandenglish(compositionandprecise).Tellmethepassingmarksofoptional
subjectplzz.
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regards
__________________
Godhassentustodosomethingspecial,LifeisonceforallbutnottobeRepeatedbyapendulum.

Sunday,April14,2013

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JoinDate:Dec2009
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Quote:

OriginallyPostedbycompEngr
Salam
Youressayisverygoodandimpressive..inshaallahiwillappearinnextyearce2014inCSS.Iwillclearcssinfirst
attempt...
Kindlytellmehowpassmarksrequiretopassessayandenglish(compositionandprecise).Tellmethepassingmarksof
optionalsubjectplzz.
regards
Whatswrong?
Whyareyouaskingsamequestionineverythread.ContinueHere.
__________________
Workuntilyouridolsbecomeyourrivals.

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