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Filing of the complaint court acquires

jurisdiction over the plaintiff.

Lack of jurisdiction over the subject

matter of the action

Service of summons upon defendant

enables court to acquire jurisdiction
over his person (action in personam)

litis pendencia

Service of summons is not always

required to enable the court to acquire
the requisite jurisdiction over the
person of the defendant in certain
actions. Service of summons may be
dispensed with if the defendant makes
a voluntary appearance.


Defendants voluntary appearance in

action shall be equivalent to service of

When the defendant is declared in

default, the defendant loses his
standing in court and the court may
proceed to render judgment granting
the plaintiff the relief as his complaint
may warrant, unless in its discretion,
the court requires the plaintiff to
submit evidence on his claim.

Motion for bill of particulars if

after reading the complaint, the
defendant finds that, because of the
allegations of the complaint, he cannot
possibly file an intelligent answer, he
need not serve his answer unless and
until the alleged ambiguities are
clarified by the plaintiff. (Upon order
of the court.)
Motion to dismiss
Unless the case is covered by the
Rules on Summary Procedure, the
court will and ought to refrain from
dismissing a complaint on the ground
of improper venue even if the venue is
blatantly defective.

Grounds for dismissal which the

court will recognize on its own
motion: (motu proprio)

res judicata

Failure if the defendant to file an
answer will entitle the plaintiff to file a
motion to declare the defendant in

Note: The courts declaration of

default should be preceded by a
motion to declare said party in
default together with proof of such
A party declared in default may, at
any time after notice thereof and
before judgment, file a motion under
oath to set aside the order of default.
The motion must show that his failure
to answer was due to fraud, accident,
mistake, or excusable negligence, and
that he has a meritorious defense.
Note: No default order in action for
annulment of marriage, action for
declaration of nullity of marriage or
action for legal separation even if
defendant fails to answer.

The answer to the complaint must

averments of the complaint because
material averments not specifically
denied are deemed admitted.

A permissive counterclaim does not

have to be raised in the same
proceedings because by its nature, it
could be invoked as an independent

If answer admits material averments

of the complaint, the answer is
deemed to have failed to tender an
issue. since there is no triable issues,
a trial is completely unnecessary. The
plaintiff may then file a motion for a
judgment on the pleadings.

Cross-claim a pleading containing

the claim by one party against a coparty.

Judgment on the Pleadings rendered because, as disclosed by the

pleadings, there is no issue in the case
either because the answer fails to
tender an issue or because it admits
the material allegations of the
Summary Judgment - based not only
on the pleadings of the parties but
also on their affidavits, depositions, or
admissions. The basis of a summary
judgment is not the absence of an
issue but the absence of a genuine
issue on the case.
Where there is an issue in the case but
the issue does not concern any
material fact, as when the issue is
merely the amount of damages, there
is no genuine issue, and a summary
judgment would be proper.

Counterclaim - a pleading which sets

forth a claim which a defending party
may have against an opposing party. A
against an opposing party. (Either
compulsory or permissive)


defendant may bring in the third
person into the suit and implead him
as a party.
Reply Plaintiff respond to the
answer. This response is done through
a pleading.
A reply, unlike the answer, is not a
compulsory pleading. While the failure
to file an answer may lead to a
declaration of default, the failure to
file a reply does not have the same
The failure to file a reply will not
admission of the material allegations
in the answer because allegations of
new matters in the answer even if not
replied to, are deemed controverted or
Intervention if at any time before
judgment, a person not a party to the
action believes that he has a legal
interest in the matter in litigation in a
case in which he is not a party, he
may, with leave of court, file a
complaint-in-intervention in the action
if he asserts a claim against one or all
of the parties.
Answer-in-intervention if a party
unites with the defending party in

resisting a claim against said party, he

may file an answer-in-intervention.

A pre-trial is mandatory and failure to
appear by either party will result in
adverse consequences for the absent
Discovery procedures During pretrial stage and generally at any time
even before pre-trail, the parties may
obtain information from each other
through the employment of devices.
(depositions, interrogatories to parties,
request for admission, production and
inspection of documents, and physical
and mental examinations of persons.)

Parties present their evidence on their
claims and defenses.
If defendant believes that upon the
facts and the law, the plaintiff is not
entitled to relief, he may, instead of
presenting his own evidence, move for
the dismissal of the case. He does so
by way of a demurrer to evidence.
If demurrer is granted but on appeal
the order of dismissal is reversed, the
defendant is deemed to have waived
his right to present evidence.
A trial is not an indispensable stage of
a civil action.


A judgment is rendered after the

submission of the evidence of the
parties has been concluded. It is the
decision of the court and represents
its official determination of the
respective rights and obligations of
the parties to the case.
No oral judgment. It has to be written,
personally and directly prepared by
the judge, stating clearly the facts and
the law on which it is based, signed by
him, and filed with the clerk of court.
Date of entry of the judgment date
of finality of the judgment

Post judgment remedies

(a) Remedies before the judgment
becomes final and executory
Motion for Reconsideration
Motion for New Trial
(b) remedies after the judgment
becomes final and executor
(extraordinary remedies)
A petition for relief
An action to annul the

collaterally when the nullity of
the judgment is plain and
evident on its face.
Execution and
of judgments


Remedy afforded by procedural

rules for the enforcement of the
judgment. It is the fruit as well
as the end of the action.


Jurisdiction the authority of
the court to hear, try and decide
a case.
It is also considered as the
authority of the court to execute
the decisions rendered by the

Jurisdiction is not the power

of the judge
Jurisdiction does not attach to
the judge but to the court.
Hence, the continuity of a court
proceedings are not affected by
cessation from the services of
the judge presiding over it.
Test of Jurisdiction
Whether the court has the
power to enter into the
inquiry and not whether the
decision is right or wrong.