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Basic logic symbols

Name

Symbol

Read as
Category

material implication
implies; if .. then

propositional logic, Heyting algebra

material equivalence
if and only if; iff; means the same as

propositional logic

negation
not

&

propositional logic

logical conjunction
and

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

logical (inclusive) disjunction


or

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

exclusive disjunction
xor

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

Tautology
top, verum

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

Contradiction
bottom, falsum, falsity

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

universal quantification
for all; for any; for each

()

first-order logic
existential quantification
there exists
first-order logic
uniqueness quantification

there exists exactly one


first-order logic

definition

is defined as
everywhere
precedence grouping

()

parentheses, brackets
everywhere

Turnstile

provable
propositional logic, first-order logic
double turnstile
entails

propositional logic, first-order logic

Explanation

Examples

Unicode
Value
(hexdecimal)

A B is true only in the case that


either A is false or Bis true.

may mean the same as (the symbol


may also indicate the domain and
codomain of a function; seetable of
mathematical symbols).

U+21D2

x = 2 x2 = 4 is true, but x2 = 4 x = 2
is in general false (since xcould be 2).

U+2192

U+2283
may mean the same as (the symbol may also meansuperset).
U+21D4

U+2261
A B is true only if both A and B are false,
x+5=y+2 x+3=y
or both Aand B are true.

U+2194

The statement A is true if and only if A is


false.

(A) A

U+00AC

x y (x = y)

A slash placed through another operator is


the same as "" placed in front.

U+02DC

U+0021
U+2227

U+00B7
The statement A B is true if A and B are
both true; else it is false.
U+0026
n< 4n>2n= 3 whennis anatural number.
U+2228

U+002B

The statement A B is true if A or B (or


both) are true; if both are false, the
statement is false.

U+2225
n 4n 2n 3 whennis anatural number.
U+2295
The statement A B is true when either A
(A) A is always true, A A is always
or B, but not both, are true. A B means
false.
the same.

The statement A B is true when either A


(A) A is always true, A A is always
or B, but not both, are true. A B means
false.
the same.
U+22BB

The statement is unconditionally true.

A is always true.

U+22A4

A is always true.

U+22A5

The statement is unconditionally false. (The symbol may also refer toperpendicularlines.)

x: P(x) or (x) P(x) means P(x) is true for


all x.

n : n2 n.

U+2200

x: P(x) means there is at least one x such


n : n is even.
that P(x) is true.
U+2203
! x: P(x) means there is exactly
one x such that P(x) is true.

! n : n + 5 = 2n.

U+2203 U+00
21

U+2254
(U+003A U+0
03D)
xyorxymeansxis defined to be another name fory(but note that can also mean other thin
cosh x (1/2)(exp x + exp (x))

A XOR B : (A B) (A B)

U+2261

P:QmeansPis defined to belogically equivalenttoQ.


U+003A U+22
9C

Perform the operations inside the


parentheses first.

(8 4) 2 = 2 2 = 1, but 8 (4 2) = 8 U+0028 U+00


2 = 4.
29

x y means y is provable from x (in some


A B B A
specified formal system).

U+22A2

x y means x semantically entails y

U+22A8

A B B A

HTML
Value

HTML
Entity

(decimal)

(named)

&#8658;

&rArr;

LaTeX
symbol

\Rightarrow
\to

&#8594;

&rarr;

\supset

\implies

&#8835;

&sup;

&#8660;

&hArr;

\Leftrightarrow
\equiv

&#8801;

&equiv;

\leftrightarrow

\iff

&#8596;

&harr;

&#172;

&not;

\lnot or \neg

\sim

&#732;

&tilde;

&#33;

&excl;

&#8743;

&and;

\wedge or \land
\&[2]

&#183;

&middot;

&#38;

&amp;

&#8744;

&#43;
&or;

\lor or \vee

&#8741;

&#8853;

\oplus

&oplus;

\veebar

&oplus;
&#8891;

&#8868;

\top

&#8869;

&perp;

\bot

&#8704;

&forall;

\forall

&#8707;

&exist;

\exists

&#8707;
&#33;

\exists !

&#8788;
(&#58; &#61;)

:=
\equiv

&#8801;

:\Leftrightarrow
&equiv;

&#8860;
&hArr;

&#40; &#41;

()

&#8866;

\vdash

&#8872;

\vDash

&#9671;
&#9723;