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The prevalence of non nutritive sucking in a society depends on ethnic

and social-economic factors and child care practices. In western society,
pacifier use is common (range 45 percent to 60 percent) along with
finger/thumb sucking (range 15 percent to 30 percent) and during the last 30
years, pacifier rates have increased while finger sucking has decreased
(Vadiakas et al,. 1998). In Sweden, pacifier use increased from 10 percent to 70
percent from 1950 to 1983, and thumb sucking decreased from 50 percent to 15
percent (LHoir et al.,1999).
A pacifier may be introduced for some different reasons. The most
common reason for pacifier use is to soothe or calm a distressed child.
Pacifiers are also used to prevent the sucking of thumbs and other objects, and
as an aid to weaning.
Health professionals held negative views towards dummy use. Writer
will focus on arguing and supporting the fact about negative effect of pacifier
in infancy and early childhood.


Recently, pacifier use may be protective against Sudden Infant Death

Syndrome (SIDS) and reduces stress during infancy (Field in Lewis Ed,1999;
Riese, In Lewis (Ed), 1999; Fox and Schaefer, 1996). Pacifier use has also been
discussed in relation to infant temperament (Riese, 1995), attachment (Lehman
et al, 1992), crying behaviour (Makoi, 1990), and motor activity (Woodson et
al, 1985).
Other child health outcomes that have been associated with pacifier use
are: dentition, the development of malocclusion, and the development of dental
caries. increased oral and gastro-intestinal flora leading to infection (Manning,
Coughlin & Poskitt, 1985; Hannula, Saarela, et al, 1999); otitis media
(Niemela, Uhari & Motytonen, 1995; Jackson & Mourina, 1999); changes in
oro-facial development (Drane, 1996); and speech development (Barlow et
In some babies, pacifier can cause nipple confusion problems that the
baby refuses to suckle at the breast. Nipple confusion will result in babies
forget how do effective sucking manner so that the production and secretion of
breast becomes inefficient. As a result, the supply of breasts becomes less and
could eventually "run out". If breast supply decreasing, the baby's weight gain
slightly until disturbing infant growth (Woodson et al, 1985).
Writer argue that breast feeding is better for the baby because it only
requires less energy than the pacifier. When a mom wean, baby's breath and
heart rate more stable because the baby was given a chance to rest. Babies can
better control the flow of milk and get the rhythm of sucking, swallowing and
feeding breaks are more stable when take breast feed.
Early initiation of breastfeeding is still the primary choice in the
treatment of newborns. Breast milk is high of nutritional content, increase the
bonding effect between mother and child, and able to increase mothers

In addition to having adverse effects on the infant, pacifier use can make
the natural process of breastfeeding is lost so that it can also adversely affect to
mother like:
1. Problems nipple: nipple pain complaints and sore nipples.
2. Problems Breast milk is not removed efficiently so vulnerable to be breast
duct obstruction, blockage of nipples pores, engorgement, mastitis and
breast abscess.
3. Fungal infections: candidiasis.
4. Milk supply decreased.
5. Frustration due to the baby having nipple confusion.


Based on this initial search of the literature a number of key issues have
been identified. Of these key issues, six have been selected for review: 1)
Giving bottle pacifier or non nutritive sucking (NNS) too early in infants can
cause nipple confusion; 2) The extent to which pacifier nonnutritive sucking
reduces stress during infancy; 3) The impact of pacifier non-nutritive sucking
on the duration and quality of breast feeding; 4) The possibility of a protective
effect for pacifier use in relation to SIDS; 5) The effect of pacifier use on the
developing dentition and general oral health; and 6) The possibility of an
increase in oral and gastro-intestinal flora leading to infection, due to the use of
a pacifier. The longer a child is weaned from dot the side effects of pacifier use
in children will be greater.
As previously discussed, the advice given by health professionals to the
parents of infants and young children regarding the use of a pacifier varies
greatly according to individual understanding and personal experience.


Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, deBlieck EA, Eberly S, Lawrence RA

(1999). The effects of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration.
Pediatrics, 103:E33.
Kramer MS, Barr RG, Dagenais S, et al (2001). Pacifier use, early weaning, and
cry/fuss behavior. JAMA, 286:322-6.

LHour M, Engelberts A, van WellG, Damste P, Idema N, Westers P, Mellenbergh

G,Wiolters W, Huber J (1999). Dummy use, thumb sucking, mouth
breathing and cot death.European Journal of Pediatrics. Nov; 158(11) 896901.
Melbourne, National SIDS Council of
http://sidsandkids.org on thrusday 7 pm.




National Scientific Advisory Group (NSAG) (2014). Information Statement:

Using a dummy or pacifier.
Ponti M, Sudbury, Ontario (2003). Recommendations for the use of pacifiers.
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Righard L, Alade MO (1997). Breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers. Birth,
Vogel Am, Hutchison BL and Mitchell, EA (2000). The impact of pacifier use on
breastfeeding: A prospective cohort study. J. Paediatr. Child Health, 37:5863.