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Cardiology Mnemonics

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


"Do Block AV"
D igoxin
B -blockers
A denosine
V erapamil
Aortic regurgitation: causes
CREAM
C ongenital
R heumatic damage
E ndocarditis
A ortic dissection/A ortic root dilation
M arfan's
Aortic stenosis characteristics
SAD
S yncope
A ngina
D yspnoea
Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation
HILT
H eaving
I mpalpable
L aterally displaced
T hrusting/T apping
Apex beat: causes of impalpable apex beat
COPD
C OPD
O besity
P leural, P ericardial effusion
D extrocardia
Apex beat: differential diagnosis for impalpable apex beat
DOPES

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


D extrocardia (dont say this first!)
O besity
P ericarditis/P ericardial tamponade/P neumothorax
E mphysema
S hock/S inus inversus/S coliosis/S keletal abnormalities (e.g. pectus excavatum)
Arrhythmias
ARHYTHMIAL 3PC
A trial Myxoma
R h heart dis
HY pertension
TH yrotoxicosis
M itral valve dis
I HD
AL cohol
P neumonia /PE / Pericardial eff
C ardiomyopathy
Atrial fibrillation: causes
PIRATES
P ulmonary: PE, COPD
I atrogenic
R heumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
A therosclerotic: MI, CAD
T hyroid: hyperthyroid
E ndocarditis
S ick sinus syndrome
Atrial fibrillation: causes
A SHIT
A lcohol
S tenosis
H ypertension
I nfarction/I schemia
T hyrotoxicosis
Atrial fibrillation: causes

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


ARITHMATIC
A lcohol
R h fever
I HD
T hyrotoxicosis
H ypertension
M itral stenosis/M I /M yxoma (atrial)
A SD
T oxins
I diopathic/I nfective endocarditis
C ardiomyopathy/Constrictive pericarditis
Atrial fibrillation: management
ABCD
A nti-coagulate
B eta-blocker to control rate
C ardiovert
D igoxin
Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia
"A goes with B"
Atropine is used clinically to treat Bradycardia
Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade)
3Ds
D istant heart sounds
D istended jugular veins
D ecreased arterial pressure
Beta-blockers: cardioselective beta-blockers
"Beta-blockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium"
B etaxolol
A cebutelol
E smolol
A tenolol
M etoprolol
Beta receptor activity
"1 heart, 2 lungs"

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


Beta-1 receptors are primarily on the heart, and the airway is Beta-2 receptors
Bradycardia: regular
PAD HIM
P hysiological (athlete, sleep) /p aroxysmal
A V block (2II, 3)
D rugs (beta, dig, amiodarone)
H ypothyroid /h ypothermia
I cteric (severe)
MI
Congestive heart failure: causes of exacerbation
FAILURE
F orgot medication
A rrhythmia/A naemia
I schemia/I nfarction/I nfection
L ifestyle: taking too much salt
U pregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
R enal failure
E mbolism: pulmonary
Coronary artery bypass graft: indications
DUST
D epressed ventricular function
U nstable angina
S tenosis of the left main stem
T riple vessel disease
Coronary artery disease: risk factors
HOPEFULSSS
H TN
O besity
P VD
E levated LDL
F MH
U p glucose - DM
L ow HDL

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


S moking
S ex - male
S edentary life style
Cyanotic heart diseases
1-2-3-4-5-T's
Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
Transposition of the 2 great vessels
Tricuspid atresia
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (has 5 words)
ECG: causes of ST-segment depression
DEPRESSED ST
D rooping valve (MVP)
E nlargement of LV with strain
P otassium loss (hypokalemia)
R eciprocal ST-depression (in I/W AMI)
E mbolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
S ubendocardial ischemia
S ubendocardial infarct
E ncephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
D ilated cardiomyopathy
S hock
T oxicity of digitalis, quinidine
ECG: left vs. right bundle block
"WiLLiaM MaRRoW"
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide
ECG: T-wave inversion causes
INVERT
I schemia
N ormality [esp. young, black]
V entricular hypertrophy

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


E ctopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
R BBB, LBBB
T reatments [digoxin]
ECG: dominant R wave in V1
WORD
W PW
O ld MI
R BBB
D extrocardia
ECG: ST elevation
ELEVATION
E lectrolytes
L BBB (Left Bundle Branch Block)
E arly Repolarization
V entricular hypertrophy
A neurysm
T reatment (eg pacemaker, pericardiocentesis)
I njury (AMI, contusion)
O sborne waves (hypothermia)
N on-occlusive vasospasm (prinzmetals)
ECG: pulseless electrical activity causes
PATCH MED
P ulmonary embolus
A cidosis
T ension pneumothorax
C ardiac tamponade
H ypokalemia/H yperkalemia/H ypoxia/H ypothermia/H ypovolemia
M yocardial infarction
E lectrolyte derangements
D rugs
ECG: exercise ramp contraindications
RAMP
R ecent MI

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


A ortic stenosis
M I in the last 7 days
P ulmonary hypertension
EMD arrest
4Hs 4Ts
H ypothermia
H ypo & hyper-electrolytes
H ypovolaemia
H ypoxia
T oxic (including drugs)
T rauma
T amponade
T ension pneumothorax
Heart compensatory mechanisms that "save" organ blood flow during shock
"Heart SAVER"
S ymphatoadrenal system
A trial natriuretic factor
V asopressin
E ndogenous digitalis-like factor
R enin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Heart sounds: 3rd heart sound
FIPPY
F ailure
I ncompetence (mitral/tricuspid)
P regnancy/Pill
P E/Pericarditis
Y outh
Heart sounds: 4th heart sound
SHIT
S tenosis (aortic/pulmonary)
H ypertension/Heart Block
I schaemic HD
T amponade

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


Heart valves
LAB RAT
Left Atrium: Bicuspid
Right Atrium:Tricuspid
In case of high LDL
STArT with STATins
JVP: wave form
ASK ME
A trial contraction
S ystole (ventricular contraction)
K losure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling
M aximal atrial filling
E mptying of atrium
JVP: characteristics of
MOP HAIR
M ultiple wave form
O ccludable
P ostural changes
H epatojugular reflex
A bove (fills from)
I mpalpable
R espiratory changes
LVF: management
FOAM
F rusemide 40mg iv
O xygen
A trovent (& Ventolin) nebs
M orphine 2.5 5 mg
Mitral stenosis: complications
PASTRI
P ulm BP up
A fib
S ystemic embolism
T ricuspid regurg

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


R ight heart failure
I nfective endocarditis
Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. mitral regurgitation (MR): epidemiology
MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.
Murmur attributes
IL PQRST ("Person has ill PQRST heart waves")
I ntensity
L ocation
P itch
Q uality
R adiation
S hape
T iming
Murmurs: questions to ask
SCRIPT
S ite
C haracter (e.g. harsh, soft, blowing)
R adiation
I ntensity
P itch
T iming
Myocardial infarction: complications
ABCDE x2
A rrhythmias/A neurysm
B radycardia/BP lower
C ardiac failure/C ardiac tamponade
D resslers /D eath
E mbolism /E xtra (VSD, pap muscle rupture)
Myocardial infarction: treatment
INFARCTIONS
I V access
N arcotic analgesics (e.g. morphine, pethidine)

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


F acilities for defibrillation (DF)
A spirin/A nticoagulant (heparin)
R est
C onverting enzyme inhibitor
T hrombolysis
I V beta-blocker
O xygen 60%
N itrates
S tool softeners
Myocardial infarction: basic management
BOOMAR
B ed rest
O xygen
O piate
M onitor
A nticoagulate
R educe clot size
Myocardial infarction: symptoms
PULSE
P ersistant chest pain
U pset stomach
L ightheadedness
S hortness of breath
E xcessive sweating
Myocardial infarction: treatment of acute MI
COAG
C yclomorph
O xygen
A spirin
G lycerol trinitrate
Myocardial infarction: therapeutic treatment
ROAMBAL
R eassure

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


O xygen
A spirin
M orphine (diamorphine)
B eta blocker
A rthroplasty
L ignocaine
Occlusive arterial disease
6Ps
P ain
P allor
P ulseless
P arasthesia
P aralysis
P erishing with cold
Pericarditis
DRUMSTICX
D resslers
R h fever /R A
U raemia
MI
S LE
T rauma
I diopathic
C oxsackie
X ray
Postural hypotension
HANDI
H ypovolaemia / hypopituitarism
A ddisons
N europathy (autonomic)
D rugs (vasodilators / TCADs, diuretics, antipsychotics)
I diopathic
Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


CASES
C arditis
A rthritis (migratory)
S ubcut nodules
E rythema marginatum
S yndenhams chorea
Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria
JONES
J oints (migrating polyarthritis)
O bvious, the heart (carditis, pancarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis or valvulits)
N odes (subcutaneous nodules)
E rythema marginatum
S ydenham's chorea
Rheumatic fever: Jones minor criteria
4PA
P yrexia
P rolonged PR
P ast Hx
P ositive (ie ?)ESR/CRP
A rthralgia
Rheumatic fever: Jones minor criteria
CAFE PAL
C RP increased
A rthralgia
F ever
E levated ESR
P rolonged PR interval
A namnesis of rheumatism
L eucocytosis
Splinter haemorrhages
TRIP SAM
T rauma
RA

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


I nfective Endo
P AN
S LE / Sepsis
A naemia (profound)
M alignancy (haematological)
Supraventricular tachycardia: causes
SNAP
S inus tachy
N odal tachy
A fib
P aroxysmal atrial tachy
Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment
ABCDE
A denosine
B eta-blocker
C alcium channel antagonist
D igoxin
E xcitation (vagal stimulation)
Ventricular tachycardia: treatment
LAMB
L idocaine
A miodarone
M exiltene/ Magnesium
B eta-blocker
Secondary Causes of Hypertension (courtesy of Brian Dalton)
TRACKPADS
T hyroid disease (hyper-)
R enovascular disease (renal artery stenosis)
A orta, coarctation of
C ushing syndrome
K idney disease, chronic
P heochromocytoma
A ldosteronism (hyper-)

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes


D rugs (e.g. oral contraceptives, decongestants, NSAIDS)
S leep apnea