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REGULARIZATION

1. Gerace, F. Martinelli

A. Tonazzini*

ABSTRACT

age demosaicing in the realistic case of noisy data. We en

force both intrachannel local smoothness of the intensity, and

interchannel local similarities of the edges. To describe these

local correlations while preserving even the finest image de

tails, we exploit suitable functions of the derivatives of first,

second and third order. The solution of the demosaicing prob

lem is defined as the minimizer of a non-convex energy func

tion, accounting for all these constraints plus a data fidelity

term. Minimization is performed via an iterative determinis

tic algorithm, applied to a family of approximating functions,

each implicitly referring to meaningful discontinuities. Our

method is irrespective of the specific color filter array em

ployed. However, to permit quantitative comparisons with

other published results, we tested it in the case of the Bayer

CFA, and on the Kodak 24-image set.

Index Terms- Color image interpolation, demosaicing,

edge-preserving regularization, non-convex minimization,

color image denoising.

1. INTRODUCTION

sociated with a color filter that only permits, at each pixel,

the measurement of the reflectance of the scene at one of the

three Red, Green and Blue colors, according to a predefined

scheme or pattern (color filter array - CFA). This implies that,

for each pixel, the other two missing colors must be estimated,

through color demosaicing techniques. Most of the literature

on demosaicing makes explicit reference to the Bayer pattern

[1], where the green is sampled twice with respect to the red

and the blue, to exploit the higher sensibility of the human

eye to the green wavelength. In [2] a comprehensive survey

of the state-of-the-art can be found.

Partially supported by program POR Calabria FESR

2007-2013 - PIA

Servizi, project ITACA (Innovative Tools for cultural heritage ArChiving and

restorAtion).

ing of the edges. Hence, some methods perform a directional

channel interpolation, after locating the image discontinuities

[3] [4], or analyzing the variance of the color differences [5].

In other methods, the best directional reconstruction of the

missing data is chosen [6], or the two reconstructions are

fused [7]. In particular, [6] proposes an algorithm based on

the Laplacian filter, by selecting the interpolation directions

having the least misguidance level of color artifacts. The Al

ternating Projections algorithm [8] exploits the strong corre

lation between the high frequencies of the three color com

ponents, by alternately projecting the estimated image into an

observation constraint set and a detail constraint set that en

forces similarity between red and green edges and blue and

green edges, until a fixed point is found. The sparse nature

of color images is exploited in [9] to design a suitable dic

tionary applied for demosaicing with the iterative K-SVD al

gorithm. In [lO] total variation is used, while [11] first uses

a quadratic smoothness regularizer and then an adaptive fil

ter, to improve the reconstruction near the edges. In [12] the

missing colors are inferred by exploiting the local geometri

cal image self-similarity, whereas in [13] a level set method

is used to minimize an energy function that gives the direc

tion of the edges along which performing interpolation. For

joint demosaicing and denoising, in [14] the full resolution

green component is first estimated exploiting both spectral

and spatial correlations to suppress sensor and interpolation

errors, and then the CFA-dependent noise is removed using

wavelets. In [15] the luminance and chrominance channels

are first reconstructed by exploiting a frequency analysis of

the Bayer pattern. Wiener filters are then designed to denoise

the chrominances, whereas the luminance is linearly filtered.

The work [16] proposes a modified total least squared estima

tion, to derive a demosaicing filter able to deal with the noise

affecting the base vectors. In [17], the authors evaluate the

statistical characteristics of the noise resulting from their pre

vious demosaicing method [11], and then remove it through

post-processing.

In this paper, we propose regularization for joint demo

saicing and denoising, considering both intrachannel and in-

tensity of each channel to be locally regular, and enforce this

constraint through stabilizers that implicitly address intensity

discontinuities of first, second and third order, respectively.

This allows to reconstruct very complex scenes with fine de

tails while removing noise. Interchannel correlation is en

forced in correspondence of the image high frequency com

ponents, through stabilizers that promote the amplitude of

the intensity discontinuities in the different channels to be

equal almost everywhere, except than on a set of implicit

hyper-discontinuities. The above constraints plus the data

fidelity term are merged into a non-convex energy function,

whose minimizer is estimated via an iterative deterministic

algorithm, entailing the minimization in sequence of a family

of approximating functions that, starting with a first convex

one, gradually converges to the original energy.

The paper is organized as follows. In Sections 2, the

edge-preserving regularization model adopted is introduced.

In Section 3, the solution strategy is detailed. Section 4 is de

voted to the quantitative comparison with some of the most

performing algorithms of the recent literature, and, finally,

conclusions and future prospects are presented in Section 5.

2.

MODEL

N

gk,N

gk,N

k=l CECk

(1)

+ L Ak L gk,v (Vkc X) ,

k=1 CECk

3

where 1111 indicates the Euclidean norm, and the first term

expresses a data fidelity term, which is effective when the

data are noisy and identically zero in the noiseless case. The

second term is the sum of stabilizers expressing local intra

channel correlation, the third term is the sum of stabilizers

expressing local interchannel correlation, and

and

are

positive parameters balancing the relative weight of the three

constraints. The terms

are the norms of the vectors of the

R, G and B intensity derivatives of a certain order k:

Ai:

Ak

Vkc X=

II (D xR - DxG, DxR - DxB, DxG - DxB) II (3)

In this way, the amplitudes of the channel intensity discon

tinuities are intended to share the same hyper-edges. Analo

gously to the case of

and with the same meaning, also

operator

is weighted by a suitable neighbor interaction

function, to permit the smoothness constraint to be local. We

adopt neighbor interaction functions

and

all having

the same functional form of the truncated parabola [18], but

containing a parameter

that can instead vary from one to

another:

if

<

(4)

otherwise

N,

gk,N

Ck

gk,v

/-1,

g(t) =

{ t/-1,22

ItI

/-1,

3. SOLUTION S TRATEGY

The solution to our problem is given by the global minimizer,

with respect to

of the non-convex en

ergy function of eq. (1). Our solution strategy is inspired

to the Graduated Non-Convexity (GNC) algorithm [18], and

consists in defining a family of approximations

P

PI, ... ,Po, PI > 0, Po

0, for the original non-convex en

ergy function, where the first approximation

is convex

and the successive ones gradually converge to the original one

The various approximations are minimized in

sequence, using the previous minimizer as starting point for

the subsequent minimization. If the first convex function is

chosen to be not too far from the original energy, and all the

other approximations are close to each other, the convergence

to the global minimum of the original, non-convex function

is empirically ensured by the fact that the starting point for

minimizing

should be located in the valley of its global

minimizer. The original version of the GNC algorithm was

x = (xR,xG,xB),

=

E(O) = E.

where

is the finite difference operator computing, for

each pixel of a given color channel, the numerical partial

derivative of order k over a suitable set c of adjacent pix

els. Thus

represents the union, across the image grid,

of the all the sets c involved in the numerical derivatives of

order k. To preserve even the finest details in the images,

we consider intensity derivatives of first, second and third

order, respectively, that is k

1, 2, 3. Operator

returns,

Vkc ,

Vkc

E(x)

dient measure for the three R, G and B channels together,

which means that they all share the same edges. Each

is weighted by a suitable neighbor interaction function

that makes the cumulative gradient to decrease when it is al

ready small, thus inhibiting intensity discontinuities due, e.g.,

to noise, and promoting a smooth filling-in of the lacking

pixels. Conversely,

makes

to decrease less when it

is greater than a certain threshold, thus preserving existing,

truly intensity discontinuities. Nevertheless, the correspond

ing intensity discontinuities at the single channels might be of

different amplitude. This is not desirable if a a constraint of

interchannel correlation has to be enforced, since it is know

that cross-correlation mainly occurs in correspondence of the

image boundaries, textures and details. Thus, the amplitude

of the intensity discontinuities of the color channels should

be similar almost everywhere. To this purpose, in a recursive

manner, this similarity is measured by the terms

which

are the norms of the vectors of the three interchannel first

order finite differences of the intrachannel derivatives:

E(O)

E(p), =

E(Pl)

derived for the case of denoising only, that is for a data term

strictly convex, whose Hessian is a positive definite matrix.

Thus, building a first convex approximation only required a

mild "correction " of the concavity of the neighbor interaction

functions. In our case, we have the further difficulty that the

our data term is semi-definite positive, being M a singular

matrix, so that making convex the overall energy function re

quires the adoption of stronger "corrections " for the concavity

of the neighbor interaction function.

In general, the edge-preserving property is only requested

for the original, non-convex energy function. However, when

generic approximations are used, to obtain a solution satis

fying the desired constraints, all the steps of the GNC must

be executed, and p = 0 must be reached. Conversely, our

aim is to build a family of approximations that are all edge

preserving, in such a way that, even stopping the GNC al

gorithm at some p > 0 to reduce the computational burden,

we are guaranteed that the solution has correct discontinu

ities. Furthermore, when p > 0 the edge elements of the

reconstructed image are continuous-valued in

rather

than boolean as when p = O. Accounting for "soft " edges

is often preferable than having "hard " edges, since oblique or

curvilinear object borders can be reconstructed in a more nat

ural and visually pleasant way. Using boolean edges, these

borders will be instead depicted as sharp horizontal and ver

tical lines, thus producing an annoying "zig-zag " effect, the

so-called aliasing effect.

(0,1),

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The algorithm proposed in this paper has been tested for the

Bayer CFA on the set of the 24 high quality row Kodak sam

ple images [21], which represent the typical benchmark im

ages used in the literature to compare the different demosaic

ing algorithms. The free parameters appearing in the energy

function have been calibrated on these images. More pre

cisely, through a trial-and-error strategy, driven by the expe

rience and of course non exhaustive of all possible combina

tions, we looked for the set of parameters that give the best

average Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) on all the 24 im

ages. The algorithm has been applied to both noiseless and

noisy images. In the noiseless case, we compared the pro

posed method with some of the most performing methods in

the literature, namely the algorithms proposed in [8], [6], [9],

[11], [3], [12], and [13], respectively. In the noisy case, we

compared our method with the algorithms in [8] and [16], by

using the original MATLAB code provided by the authors,

and with the algorithms in [15], [14], and [17], by using the

source codes available in the authors's web pages.

In the noiseless case, the best free parameters have been

empirically found to be the ones reported in Table 1.

Table 1.

AN

""N

gkP , p= 2,... , 0, having a functional form dependin on p,

O

O

an including parameter"" as well. For p=0, gk and g k

must coincide with the neighbor interaction funtions of q.

(4). For p= the first approximation of E must be convex.

2,

"

function [19]:

(2) ()t

9

where

- { t2

_

2qltl_ q 2

It I < q

otherwise

(5)

is a positive arbitrary

constant, and

represents the proper regularization param

eter, out of the sets of the

s and

s appearing in the

energy. The different approximations adopted for values of p

in the ranges

and

are specified in [20]. Note that,

whereas when p = 0 the hidden edge elements are boolean,

at each p > 0 they are continuous-valued with values be

tween 0 and

leading to the advantages mentioned above.

The minimization of each approximated energy is performed

by means of a standard descent technique, namely the Non

Linear Successive Over-Relaxation (NL-SOR) [18] iterative

algorithm.

(0,1]

1,

(1,2)

""v

k=2

0.04

8.66

0.078

k=3

0.04

7.07

0.078

3.46

6. 9

6. 9

Ak

0.01; for each sample image and for each value of p, we com

puted the R MS E between the ideal image and the minimizer

of the approximated energy function, indicated as T)j (p), j =

... ,24. The value p to which stop the algorithm has been

determined as:

p=arg min

P

Af

AV

k=l

0.0 1

30

0.25

1,

,\1 ) -2, T*

T*

( 2

vA

if

{f (P)} .

j=l

T)j

(6)

test image, the reconstruction obtained with this value of p

has then be taken as the optimal reconstruction provided by

our algorithm.

By looking at Table 2, it is apparent that the results ob

tained with the proposed method exhibit a PSNR higher than

that of the results obtained with the other methods in the 54%

of the cases (for each image, the higher PSNR is highlighted

in boldface). Figure 4 shows a portion ofImage 3, where our

results are compared with those obtained with the algorithms

in [8].

Fig. 1.

lm*lge

I

9

10

II

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

From left to right: original detail of Image 3, result of the proposed method and result of the algorithm in [8].

[S[

37.7

39.57

41.45

40.03

37.46

38.5

41.77

35.08

41.72

42.02

39.14

42.51

34.3

35.6

39.35

41.76

41.11

37.45

39.46

40.66

38.66

37.55

41.88

34.78

[6]

35.17

39.34

41.52

38.87

35.7

37.55

40.87

33.8

41.1

40.77

37.48

41.81

31.41

35.5

38.02

41.37

39.25

35.2

38.44

39.23

36.56

36.46

41.88

33.42

[9]

39.37

40.71

43.19

41.29

38.7

40.05

42.83

36.42

43.28

42.7

40.22

43.53

35.29

37.95

40.21

43.62

42.01

37.47

41.27

41

39.74

38.87

42.41

35.63

[II[

38.22

38.18

42.(14

40J14

38.04

39.7

42.1

36.08

42.15

42.15

39.78

42.94

34.94

36.34

39.15

43.27

41.83

37.13

40.15

40.39

39.27

38.25

40.4

35.37

[13]

35.64

36.46

37.25

36.74

35.45

36.39

37.07

34.59

37.46

37.26

36.41

37.56

33.68

35.07

36.22

37.53

41.09

35.98

40.20

32.49

36.47

37.32

39.45

34.32

[12[

32.61

32.51

32.42

32.48

32.63

32.52

32.44

32.74

32.40

32.42

32.52

32.38

32.86

32.68

32.54

32.39

31.99

32.57

32.09

33.01

32.51

32.41

32.17

32.78

[3]

39.96

40.)

43.26

40.56

38.31

41

42.64

37.35

43.42

42.83

4o.r.6

44.13

36.03

37.1

39.84

44.47

41.77

37.96

41.79

41.71

39.99

38.48

43.2

35.39

im*lge

I

proposed

40.66

40.86

43.31

41.84

38.94

40.20

43.62

37.22

43.29

42.70

40.51

44.40

36.24

38.26

40.35

43.75

41.54

37.43

41.10

41.59

40.20

38.48

43.89

34.78

10

II

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

independent, Gaussian noise, with zero mean and several dif

ferent values of the standard deviation a. The best free pa

rameters for all the 24 images have been empirically found to

be dependent on a according to Table 3.

Table 3. Parameters used for the noisy case

AN

",N

AV

",v

k=l

O.la

k=2

0.05a

k=3

0.05a

5

5

f!

f!

f!

la

0.05a

0.05a

O.

f! 5 f! 5 f!

value p for stopping the algorithm has been found. The fol

lowing empirical law that relates p to a has been determined:

3

4

p(a) = -a +-.

5

40

(7)

Table 4. From the Table, it is apparent that the PSNRs of the

reconstructions obtained with our algorithm are largely higher

than those of the other algorithms.

bilinear

23.38

25.86

25.98

25.84

23.68

24.09

25.78

21.89

25.57

25.58

24.78

25.69

22.03

24.76

25.64

25.31

25.70

24.29

24.30

26.00

24.43

25.13

26.07

26.98

[S]

24.24

24.50

24.47

24.38

24.42

24.40

24.43

24.18

24.36

24.38

24.45

24.44

24.12

24.25

24.79

24.36

24.68

24.39

24.35

25.44

24.32

24.28

24.47

25.26

[16[

22.35

23.55

23.84

23.48

22.85

23.09

23.47

22.18

23.66

22.85

23.28

23.72

21.99

22.96

23.94

23.44

23.79

23.01

22.93

24.80

23.21

23.16

23.96

25.50

[15]

31.64

30.16

35.56

32.80

31.98

32.58

34.74

31.17

35.80

35.49

33.19

34.72

30.03

31.81

32.%

34.49

35.08

30.90

33.26

34.04

32.65

37.17

33.39

29.73

[14[

31.49

30.17

34.91

32.56

31.29

32.39

34.01

30.74

35.13

34.57

32.85

34.37

30.03

31.55

32.72

34.16

34.39

30.69

32.87

33.62

32.36

32.18

33.24

29.71

[17]

28.89

31.72

33.65

32.02

29.70

30.21

33.57

28.92

33.61

33.35

30.91

33.01

27.53

29.51

32.12

31.71

32.69

29.68

31.00

32.33

30.91

30.55

34.84

27.32

proposed

31.76

34.17

35.74

34.29

31.90

32.49

3538

31.00

35.45

35.15

33.03

34.39

29.75

32.15

34.11

34.12

34.56

31.70

33.26

34.38

33.27

32.78

35.01

29.74

5. CONCLUSION

images within a regularization approach, which is irrespec

tive of the CFA employed to generate the data. A main fea

ture of our method is the adoption of local image smoothness

models that implicitly account for continuous-valued edges

both at the low and high frequency level. Graduated edges

are important for preventing the aliasing effect and for pre

serving the fine details in the image, especially when noise is

present. This is achieved in two ways: on one hand, we in

clude derivatives up to the third degree; on another hand, we

weight these derivatives through non-quadratic neighbor in

teracting functions. An exhaustive experimentation over the

Kodak 24-image dataset under the Bayer CFA, in different

conditions of noise, demonstrates the good performance of

our method, against some of the best performing demosaic

ing algorithms proposed so far. Planned future developments

regard experimentation of the algorithm on data from other

CFAs, and the inclusion of the filter blurs that, in this kind

of application, are known. As per this latter issue, the exten

sion of the algorithm is straightforward, being the data term

still convex, so that the same approximations for the energy

function could be exploited.

6. REFERENCES

"Color imaging array, " U.S. Patent

3971065, Jul. 1976.

[2] Daniele Menon and Giancarlo Calvagno, "Color image

demosaicking an overview, " Signal Processing: Im

age Communication, vol. 26, no. 8-9, pp. 518-533, Oct.

2011.

"Low[3] King-Hong Chung and Yuk-Hee Chan,

complexity color demosaicing algorithm based on inte

grated gradients, " 1. Electron. Imaging, vol. 19, no. 2,

2010.

[4] A Hore and D Ziou, "An edge-sensing generic de

mosaicing algorithm with application to image resam

piing, " vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 3136-3150, 2011.

[5] King-Hong Chung and Yuk-Hee Chan, "Color demo

saicing using variance of color differences, " vol. 15, no.

10, pp. 2944-2955, 2006.

[6] K. Hirakawa and T. W. Parks, "Adaptive homogeneity

directed demosaicing algorithm, " vol. 14, no. 3, pp.

360-369, 2005.

[7] D. Menon and G. Calvagno, "Demosaicing based on

wavelet analysis of the luminance component, " in Im

age Processing (ICIP), 2007 14th IEEE international

Conference on,

2007, vol. 2.

"Color plane interpolation using alternating projec

tions, " vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 997-1013, Sep. 2002.

[9] J. Mairal, M. Elad, and G. Sapiro, "Sparse represen

tation for color image restoration, " vol. 17, no. 1, pp.

53-69, 2008.

[10] T. Saito and T. Komatsu, "Demosaicing approach based

on extended color total-variation regularization, " in Im

age Processing (lCIP), 2008 15th IEEE international

Conference on,

to demosaicking, " vol. 18, pp. 2209-2220, 2009.

[12] A Buades, B Coll, J.M Morel, and C Sbert, "Self

similarity driven color demosaicking, " vol. 18, no. 6,

pp. 1192-1202, 2009.

[13] S Ferradans, M Bertalmfo, and V Caselles, "Geometry

based demosaicking, " vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 665--670, 2009.

[14] L Zhang, X Wu, and D Zhang, "Color reproduction

from noisy CFA data of single sensor digital cameras, "

vol. 16, no.9, pp. 2184-2197, 2007.

noisaicking: Joint demosaicking and denoising, " in Im

age Processing (ICIP), 2010 17th IEEE International

Conference on,

denoising, " vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2146-2157, Aug. 2006.

[17] D Menon and G Calvagno, "Joint demosaicking and de

noisingwith space-varying filters, " in Image Processing

(ICIP), 2009 16th IEEE International Conference on,

[18] A. Blake and A. Zissermann, Visual Reconstruction,

MI T Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.

[19] D. Shulman and J-Y. Herve, "Regularization of dis

continuous flow fields, " in Visual Motion, 1989,Proc.

Workshop on, Mar. 1989, pp. 81 -86.

[20] Antonio Boccuto, Ivan Gerace, and Patrizia Pucci,

"Convex approximation technique for interacting line

elements deblurring: a new approach, " Journal of Math

ematical Imaging and Vision, Online First, 27 Septem

ber 2011.

[21] "Kodak eastman company, "photocd pcd0992 ",, " .

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