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StocExpo 2015

17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

EEMUA 159

4th edition

Published June 2014

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor

The consequences for the users

Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Author and presenter;


Hans Kuipers
Ex. Principal Engineer conventional & L.P.G. storage facilities , Shell Global Solution.
Ex .Chairman EEMUA storage tanks committee.

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Introduction
Introduction

Main objectives of the original EEMUA 159

(1994)

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for


a storage tank assessor

A practical users guide for tank inspection and maintenance


Written by the Main Oil companies storage tank specialists
Initial the O.C.M.A. (Oil Companies Material Association) till 1980.
For the use of Oil companies and Terminal owners
Based on over 100 years storage tank experience

Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Focus is on prevention
Rejection values ,criteria, graphs etc. are a guide only,
Take action within the next 6-9 months when approaching these values
No code of practice !!
Guidelines are related to tanks designed in line with (mainly) the BS2654
Some references made to the API codes

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is new in the EEMUA 159

4th Edition

List of Key changes


Main subjects as presented during the launch 12th June 2014

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Scope, tank components, failure modes


Corrosion rates and inspection techniques
Tank coating, insulation.
Appendix B,C,D,E,and F
Appendix A deleted ? ( grid system )

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Many recommendations to use Finite Element (FE) by assessments

What is the added value ??

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
What is the added value
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Section 5: General inspection ( 7 steps ) & Interpretation


Not clear which inspection lists should be used , ( EEMUA 159 , API 653 , 575 ? )
The 7 steps does not indicate which / what tools should be used per step
No indication who should do this ( qualified inspectors - assessors!! )
Inspection intervals (show the time based inspection table under this section)
Interpretation of inspection data
Only 2 cases mentioned, general and pitting corrosion at shell (section 8 ?)
What is the purpose of the Fitness for purpose analysis sheet
Table 4 in this section is not clear.

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Focus EEMUA 159 is on tanks in service , designed & built to BS 2654.


For the future, incl. assessment for tanks based on the EN 14015 code.
Minor reference to API 653, why extensive list to old API docs .?

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 6: Tank foundations
A logic set-up for this section would be :
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Typical Tank foundations,


Settlement of tank foundations
Impact of foundation settlements on the tank structure
(bottom, shell & roofs)
Section 6 is however a mix of various assessments /evaluations, and
design examples without indicating the added value.

For planar tilt, out of verticality or differential edge settlement


reference is made to the original EEMUA 159 and/or API 653.
Compare some of the original assessments and the new sections.

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Original assessment differential settlement EEMUA 159 1994
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Planar Tilt of a tank


Figure 5

Local uneven edge settlement

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
New edge settlement figures A, B, & C
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

Note; C is not edge, but bottom settlement

What is new in the rev. 4

Slope under C is 1:6 !

List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

A
Max. cone down bottom settlement is f max. ! (page 79)

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4

EEMUA 159 rev.4


does not make reference to an original designed and constructed cone
up /down profile, for the assessment of the edge settlement .
(See API 653)

List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
New table planar tilt /out of verticality
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159
Note: The tank shell out of verticality is not the same as planar tilt !!

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value

New

Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Out of verticality of a tank shell


Tank bottom horizontal !

The out of verticality of the tank shell (H) is often independent from the tank dia (D).
Only small dia tanks on a concrete raft may have a lineair relation with the tank heigth H when
subject to planar tilt.
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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Fig . 35 Planar tilt .

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor

Example 1. H = 18.5m and D = 25m The allow. out of verticality is 1.4 % =259 mm !
This is far more then the normal H/100 (185 mm). ( API 653 max. = 127 mm )
Example 2 . H 16.5 m and D 9.05 m, allow. 0.78 % = 129 mm i.s.o. 165 mm.
Added value of any axial or shear stresses in the tank shell under this foundation
section. ??? Reference to a factor of safety for the allowable versus actual stress is
incorrect. (page 74 & 75)
Quote page 78

Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

This formule (API 653) is intended to calculate the permissible out of plane settlement
using the best fit (optimal) cosine curve. No reference to rim seals.

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Latest update API 653 App. B

S is the permissible +/_ out of plane settlement using the best fit (optimal) cosine curve.
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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam

Introduction

Alternative presentation of survey results for the tank shell


Differential Edged Settlement ( best fit Cosine line )

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Typical presentation of survey results for the tank shell
Verticality and out of roundness condition
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Settlement tank foundations
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

Statement on ripple formation by even settlement should refer to section 6.5.4.

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Ripple formation refers to the change from a cone up to cone down tank bottom.

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 7 : Tank bottoms / annular plates
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach

L minimal corroded is 9.5mm ! ?

Inspection/ maintenance &


criticality assessments

What is now the maximal corroded L

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Minimum acceptable corroded throat


thickness is 3 mm !
How to read this in reference with
requirements in the EEMUA 180 ??
Frangible roof joints

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor

Section 8: Tank shells


Changes to min. corroded Shell thickness calculation
When Yield stress unknown, now max. 172 N/mm i.s.o. 215 N/mm
Reference to elevated temperature;
Now reduction factor 0.89 for 100 200 C and 0.79 for 200 - 300 C
(BS 2654 design basis is 150 C .)

Why ?

Further reduction when t = > 16 mm by 10 N/mm.

Why ?

Assessment methods /tools

Assessments:

The PPM approach

Use BS 2654 design basis for tanks constructed to BS 2654

Why ?

Inspection/ maintenance &


criticality assessments

Return of investment

Venting of tanks (page 126)

Cost to introduce / implement


Savings on tank maintenance ?

Assessment and settings of the vents to be inline with the original design.

Pivoted type emergency vents statement (page 129)


To provide a safe release of a large volume of product ???

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Vent settings in line with the original design codes
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 8: Tank shells
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor

Tank shell under tensile stress !

Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Quote page 110.


This form of buckling may also be seen on fixed roof tanks that have
experienced failure of the roof due to excessive overpressure or an explosion in
the vapour space.
A roof failure will commence at the weakest point, generally the roof to shell
connection, which gives rise to a non uniform compressive load on the shell.

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 9 and 10 : Tank Roofs & Roof support structures
Roof plates fixed roof tanks
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value

No back ground on rejection values of 75% (3.75mm) and 80% (4.0mm) Page 120.
T min. 2.25 mm gen. corr. or T min 2 mm at local corr. (500x500mm) Page 121.
Why to use a FE Analysis for simple (5.0mm) roof plates. ?
Roof plate is, at subject area, supported at 3 sides ! (e.g. near tank shell)

Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

No reference to the max. allow. corrosion in the compression zone ( top curb angle )
Max . allowable stress is compressive stress (buckling)
Note BS2654 uses 120 N/mm and API uses 137,5 N/mm

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Roof support structure (beams,purlins etc.)

Return of investment

Measure the corrosion and check the reduced cross sectional area for actual
stress, e.g. applicable load(s) . Allowable stress as for tank shell assessment

Cost to introduce / implement


Savings on tank maintenance ?

Column supported roofs (section 10.4)


Section refers to;
tank floor replacement , fatigue cracking , tank jacking and column design ?????

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Membrane roofs.
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

Item d) Internal pressure

(page 121)

Equations used should be part of section 9.3.2.


a) Internal pressure and b) external loading (buckling)
Roof plate t min (corroded) = 80% of t nominal , what is the basis ??

Floating roofs
As indicated, current under review no indication when available.
Values on min thickness 50% , 80 % and 91% are quoted without background
No need for FE analysis. Review by simple structural engineering is adequate.

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

See Storage Tank handbook by Bob Long and Bob Garner


for design / assessment or the basic 3 load cases without using F E cals
1) Roof to carry 250 mm rain water in product with s.g. 0.7
2) Roof to stay afloat when two adjacent pontoons and centre deck are
leaking
3) In landed position to carry u.d.l. of 1.2 kN/m
For case 1 & 2 Roof drain is considered to be inoperative.

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 11, Rim seals and Appendix D 3
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

Perfect round tank shell

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The typical working range of rim seals by a rim gap of 200 mm


is outward (+) 125 mm and inward () 125 mm ( -X /+ X)

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Oval shaped tank shell

Rim gap by oval shaped tank


and a rim space of 200 mm.

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StocExpo 2015
17-19 March Ahoy Rotterdam
Section 11, Rim seals and Appendix D 3
Introduction

Rim seal working range X (75mm) & + 3 X. (225mm)

Objectives of EEMUA 159

No indication on how to control the 125 mm rim space at point C

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor

Note that the roof dia is


49.600 plus the rim seal
structure / bumperbar of
2x75 mm = 49750 mm

Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

The min. Oval tank dia is


49850 mm ! ( N-S direction )

Leaving a movement gap of


Only 100/2 = 50mm !!

B
The floating roof to jam already at points A & B ! No reference is made to the
roof movement restrictions by the guide/gauge pole position.

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StocExpo 2015
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Section 11, Rim seals and Appendix D 3
Restriction due to the guide/gauge pole position.
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

This rim seal section and the X / + 3 X philosophy requires an update to reflect the
above restrictions plus the impact when having custody transfer guide poles.
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StocExpo 2015
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What are the benefits for a storage tank assessor ??
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4

There are no clear benefits indentified for the Tank Integrity Assessor nor
the client /owner.

List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

The document is non structured and various subjects with the rejection
criteria are repeated in different sections, this makes it hard to read /use.
The numerous references to use a FE calculations is not only costly but needs
often to be done by specialists. High cost ! No justification given.
Most assessment / engineering work can be done by structural engineering,
without impact on safety, integrity or the functionality of the tank.
Over 100 years experience in tank design, construction and maintenance
together with sound structural engineering and common sense tells you
often more then the results produced by F E calculations.

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StocExpo 2015
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The EEMUA 159 PPM approach
Introduction

Inspection / maintenance & criticality assessments.

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

This typical EEMUA 159 model covers about 80-90 pages on background
and example sheets on how to apply this.
At the end, real life time experience and judgment by a team is used to
agree at a next inspection interval. ( factor K )
At most locations there is a shortage of good and experienced staff and
ongoing cost saving actions by the companies has an impact on the staff
availability and budgets for outsourcing.
There is no reference to the tank maintenance cost savings when
applying this method, neither an indication that HSE aspects will
improve.

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StocExpo 2015
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Return of investment when applying the PPM method
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

Cost to introduce / implement ? Savings on tank maintenance ?

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

There is no reference provided on the cost and time to introduce this


method neither the time required by operators / inspectors to get familiar
with the system.
Questions raised on these subjects during the launch / presentation in June
2014 could not be addressed in detail.

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

No reference was available on location(s) where this method is already in


use .
Reply on the question regarding the anticipated time of return on the
investment was quoted at about 3 years .

Any alternatives ???


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StocExpo 2015
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Use a criticality approach .

Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Details of this method is


Available in this revision 4.
See the 15 steps under
section 17.3 and use the
flow chart on the right side.
Simple to use in combination
with the inspection list(s) ,
An example is shown on the
next slide.
Use step 8 only for H rated
Components.
Review M rated for this step 8
only when safety / structural
integrity is involved.
Criticality is based on 100 y
tank experience and identifies
Also the dominant failure modes.

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StocExpo 2015
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Introduction

The original EEMUA 159 criticality assessment sheets which


Includes the H. M . L. and N qualifications

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

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StocExpo 2015
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Corrosion rates and time based Inspection frequency
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

Table 2 Corrosion rates


Table 20 Inspection frequencies

(page 24)
(page 237)

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Table 20 includes more and new products.


Should be handy to have the same product groups also in the table 2 with an
indication of anticipated corrosion rates for the new products.
Noted that bio fuels tanks have a stringent (time based) inspection
frequency. Typical bio fuels are:
E 20 Ethanol with gasoline (blending - late )
B 20 Methanol with diesel (quick blending )
Inspection intervals for separate storage of these products are longer???

Reference re coating section C. 5.3.


Table does not show special coating / lining and material requirements for
the bio fuels.

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In conclusion,
Introduction
Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

The new document is complex, non structured and not easy to use
Mixing often various subjects in different and non related sections
Recommends costly FE calculations without benefits
Does not show a clear improvement regarding added values.
Not complete for floating roof assessment
Indicates rejection criteria values without justification / background
Suggest various advantages when using the PPM but fails to quantify.
Little reference to the original objectives of the EEMUA ;
1) The document is intended as a Prevention guide and
2) To use the common sense of the 100 years storage tank experience

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StocExpo 2015
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Introduction

Recommended subjects for the next EEMUA 159 revision ;

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

More details on secondary containment volumes, distances btw tanks etc.


Guidance on tank compound volume, drainage facilities incl.
requirements under fire fighting / cooling situations
Overfill protection
Brittle fracture
Tank anchorage and rejection criteria when corroded
Seismic design / verification rules
Special requirements for the AFS ( Airport Fuel Supply ) tanks and terminals

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

A reference to the handbook for storage tanks and equipment.

Guide to Storage tanks by Bob Long and Bob Garner

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Introduction

References ;

Objectives of EEMUA 159

What is new in the rev. 4


List of Key changes

What is the added value


Of changes and the revisions

What are the benefits for a


storage tank assessor
Assessment methods /tools

The PPM approach


Inspection/ maintenance &
criticality assessments

Return of investment
Cost to introduce / implement
Savings on tank maintenance ?

Papers by ;
J.B. Denham: Shell to base joint design
J. de Wit: Allowable foundation settlements
W. Allen Marr, Ramos and Lambe: Criteria for settlements of tanks
G.E. Bratchell : Foundation Monitoring Considerations ( Institute of Petroleum)
J. de Wit: Brittle fracture
R.O. Long: Roof Designs
D. Dickie: Floating roof designs
J. de Wit : Large floating roof design at Europoort .
H. Kroon: Rotation and stresses at tank shell / bottom connection
S.C. Palmer: Effects of foundation design & Tank anchorage
M.O. Engel: Roof frangibility and venting
Dr. N.J. Adams: Seismic design rules for flat bottom liquid storage tanks

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