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Sustainability

of Concrete

Pierre-Claude Aitcin and

Spon
an

imprint

Press
of

Taylor

& Francis

Sidney

Mindess

Contents

of figures
of tables
Preface
List

xiv

List

xxn
xxiv

Sustainability
1.1

Introduction

1.2

Steps

to sustainability
References 10

11

Terminology and definitions


2.1

Introduction

2.2

Cement,

2.3

fillers
Binary, ternary, and quaternary

11

cementitious

material, binders, and

12

2.4

Cementitious material content

2.5

Specific surface

2.6

Alite and belite

2.7

Hemihydrate

2.8

area

13

Water-cement, water-cementitious materials, and


Saturated

(SSD)
2.10

surface-dry

13
state

for

an

aggregate

14

Water content,

aggregate

absorption, and

14

2.11

Mixing

2.12

Specific gravity 15
Superplasticizer dosage IS
References 15

2.13

13

13

13

water-binder ratios
2.9

cements

12

(or binders)

water

15

moisture content

of an

Contents

The water-cement and water-binder ratios


3.1

Introduction

3.2

Historical

3.3

The

background

water-cement

3.4

The concrete

industry and the w/c

3.5

Water-cement

3.6

How to

3.7

The

Conclusion

25
25

4.2

Durability: the leitmotif of the


during the twenty-first century
Sustainability 32
What about profitability? 42
Conclusion

References

27

profitability

27
construction

industry

28

42

Acknowledgement

43

43

Modern binders

44

5.1

Introduction

5.2

Production

44

5.3

of Portland cements and binders 47


Manufacturing modern binders from a sustainable
development perspective 50

5.4

Non-clinker binders

5.5
5.6

Portland

Testing
Introducing

85

cements

and binders

85

cementitious materials and

fillers

91

5.8

Concreting with blended cements 93


Testing concrete containing cementitious materials

5.9

Concluding remarks

5.7

References
6

and

Introduction

4.5

20

transform the w/b into MPa 21


sustainability of low w/b ratio concretes 22

4.1

4.4

20

ratio

water-binder ratio

or

Durability, sustainability,

4.3

personal progression of

17

References
4

17

ratio: the

P.-C.Aitcin

3.8

16

16

99

Water

102

6.1

Introduction

6.2

The crucial roles

6.3

Water and

6.4

Water and

6.5
6.6
6.7

97

98

102

of water

103

fresh
rheology
hydration 105
Water and shrinkage 106
Water and alkali/aggregate reaction
Internal curing 108
concrete

104

108

6.8

of special waters
References 109
Use

108

Superplasticizers
7.1

Introduction

7.2

Definitions
Dispersion of cement particles 113
Compatibility and robustness 117
Utilization of superplasticizers 123
Commercial superplasticizers 124
Polysulfonates 124
Polycarboxylates 131
Practical use of superplasticizers 132
Concluding remarks 137

7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10

References

138

8 Natural aggregates
8.1
Introduction
8.2
8.3

110
111

The SSD

139

state: the

reference state for aggregates


the
mechanical
Influence of
properties of the
coarse aggregate on the corresponding concrete

140

properties 144
8.4

Partial substitution
a

saturated

of a normal weight aggregate by


lightweight aggregate 154

References
9

Aggregates derived from industrial


9.1

Introduction

9.2

Recycled

9.3

Other industrial

9.4

Other

waste

wastes

157

concrete

References
10

155

158

wastes

materials

162
165

165

Entrained air
10.1

Introduction

10.2

Myths of entrained

10.3

Beneficial

10.4

10.5
10.6
10.7

168

action

concrete

170

Beneficial

action

on

air

the

168

workability of fresh

against damage 171


Beneficial action on permeability and sorptivity 171
Beneficial action against expansive reactions 171
Beneficial action on freeze-thaw durability 172

xii

Contents
10.8

Entrained air and


materials

References
11

Hydration

174

reactions

11.1

Introduction

11.2

The

11.3

Powers'work

11.5

Composition of the

cement

11.6

Heat

of hydration
References 198

196

12.1

Introduction

12.2

Types of shrinkage

12.3

Plastic

12.4

Autogenous shrinkage

12.5

Thermal shrinkage

12.6
12.7

Limiting the risk of cracking due


gradients 208
Aggregates and shrinkage 208

12.8

Conclusion 209

200

shrinkage

201

202
203

207
to thermal

209

Curing
13.1

Introduction

13.2

Curing
Curing
Curing

13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6

13.7

212

function of its wlc ratio 213


plastic shrinkage 216
concrete to avoid autogenous shrinkage
218
Curing concrete to mitigate drying shrinkage 221
Implementing concrete curing in the field 222
concrete as a
concrete to

Conclusion

References
14

189

gel

Shrinkage

References
13

176

paradoxical experiment of he Chatelier 177


181
on hydration
Schematic representation of the hydration reaction
(after Jensen and Hansen) 182

11.4

12

supplementary cementitious

173

avoid

223
223

Specifying durable and sustainable

concrete

14.1

Introduction

14.2

Controlling

14.3

Entrained air

14.4

External

14.5

Internal curing

14.6

Expansive admixtures 234


Shrinkage reducing admixtures

14.7

225

the initial temperature


230
or not?

225

curing 231
233
234

Contents

xiii

14.8

Slip-forming 234
Specifying testing age and testing
14.10 Quality control 236
Acknowledgement 238
References 238
14.9

15

Performance
15.1
15.2

What is
How do

15.5
15.6

240

240

performance specification? 241


from prescription to

we move

performance? 242
Sustainability and specifications 243
Establishing performance specifications
Examples of performance specifications

References

246
246

248

16 Statistical evaluation of
16.1

Introduction

16.2

Normal

concrete

249

quality

249

16.5

frequency curve 249


Controlling the quality of concrete production
Specifying concrete compressive strength 261
Limitations of a statistical analysis 264

16.6

Conclusion

16.3
16.4

References
17

235

specifications

Introduction

15.3
15.4

conditions

267
267

Producing sustainable
impact

concrete

Introduction 269

17.2

Transportation

17.4

Index

with minimal environmental


269

17.1

17.3

253

of materials

of modern

269

Examples
ready-mix plants
Concluding remarks 287

272

288