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Lecture 1: Cement and Concrete components & cement

1. The advantages of concrete readily available worldwide, easy to
transport, mould, high strength, durable, inexpensive compared to other
2. Some characteristics of concrete. ageing material (strength increases,
porosity decreases), high compression strength (20-45MPa for ordinary, 45120MPa for High Performance), low tensile strength, density = 2.3t/m^3, can
3. Concrete mix constituents and proportions (volume).
Cement (7-14%) hydraulic binder
Water (14-22%)
Aggregates (60-70%) sand and rocks/gravel/stones
Chemical Admixtures ( marginal-2%)
4. Cementitious products
Cement + water = paste/grout
Paste + fine aggregate (sand) = mortar/render
Mortar + coarse aggregate = concrete
5. Portland Cement manufacturing process
Clinker produced by burning of limestone and clay, Portland Cement
produced by grinding clinker with some gypsum
Raw material for clinker: Lime (91%), Silica (4%), Alumina (4%), Iron
Oxide (1%)
1300-1450 degrees Celsius to burn limestone and clay
6. Burning process to obtain the clinker (temperatures and products of
different stages)
1. 750oC: Limestone, Quartz, Clay, Iron Oxides
2. 950oC: Decarbonation of limestone (CaCO3 CaO + CO2) high CO2
release (44%)
3. 1350OC: Reaction CaO and Silicon and Aluminium
4. 1450oC: Liquid formation with C3A and C4AF, formation of C3S from C2S
and CaO
5. Cooling process few minutes from 1400 to 80 degrees, stabilises C3S
C3S = tricalcium silicates
7. Chemistry of the clinker

Oxide composition of

C3S 50-60%
C2S 15-25%
C3A 12%
C4AF 8%, Gypsum 5%
Drinking water only!


8. Portland Cement and Sustainability

Limestone sampling (environment deterioration, consume natural
Decarbonation of limestone = CO2 gases
High energy process require fossil fuels
1 tonne cement = 1 tonne CO2
9. Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) in cements. (Names, sources
size, and proportion of replacement in cement for the three types of SCMs)
SCMs replace part of clinker in cement. Can improve concrete
properties, reduce clinker production, reduce dumping of by-products
from power plants into environment
Australian Standards permits up to 7.5% of clinker to be SCMs
Fly Ash by-product from power stations. Spherical, similar size to
cement, 20-40%
Ground Granulated Iron Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) formed at high
temp in iron blast furnace. Quenched with water spray and ground to
fine particles with water. similar size to cement, up to 60% replacement
Amorphous Silica by-product form silicon production. Spherical, Very
fine material (0.1um), 5-10% replacement
10. 7 standard cements in Australia (full name and abbreviation, was in the
GP General Purpose
GB Blended Cement
GL General Purpose Limestone Cement
HE High Early strength cement
LH low heat cement
SR sulphate resisting
SL shrinkage limited
11. The composition and characteristics of these 7 cements.
GP clinker, minerals, minor additionals, gypsum
GL 8-20% limestone, reduce carbon footprint of manufacture
GB fly ash/slag and silica reduce carbon footprint more, higher long
term strength, chloride and sulphate resistant (low early strength)
HE high C3S (quicker hydration at early age and higher heat)
LH low C3S and C3A (lower heat, slower hydration)
SR low C3A (low heat)
12. Difference in Cement composition. Table in page 58

Lecture 2: Portland cement hydration process

1. Hydration process general
Chemical reaction starting at surface of cement grain, exothermic
Dissolution and precipitation process (leading to hydration products)
C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF react at same time but at different rates
Small grains hydrate first, large grains never fully hydrate (barrier
2. Influence of Fineness of Cement grains on hydration the finer the grains, the

higher the rate of hydration (more surface area). Fineness increases heat released,
accelerates strength development initially
3. Definitions of w/c, cement paste, fresh paste/cement, setting, hardening paste.
w/c water:cement ratio by mass
cement paste cement-water mix allowing hardening to occur: w/c = 0.3-0.6
fresh paste/concrete plastic stage of concrete, workability
setting solidification of cement paste without increase in strength
hardening paste period of strength development post-setting

4. Stages of cement paste hydration process.

Plastic stage up to limits of handling
Setting period 45-175min for intial set, 3-6hrs for final set, transition
Hardening beginning of mechanical strength, infinite
5. Hydration of calcium silicates. (Figure out what is CSH and CH)
CSH = calcium silicates hydrate: Main Portland cement hydrate, major
cohesive strength
CH = calcium hydroxide: called Portlandite, thick hexagonal plates.
Blocks capillary pores (reduces permeability), contributes to strength
6. Hydration of calcium aluminate (the reaction mechanism of Flash Set).
C3A + H2O reacts fast flash set. When gypsum added at same time,
produces ettringite instead (long needles, no long term strength)
Ettringite + C3A + water monosulfoaluminate (thin, irregular plates,
reacts with sulphate leading to internal expansion). Low contribution to
7. Flash Set (definition, prevention)
Addition of gypsum prevents flash set
Gypsum = hydrated calcium sulphate (delays hydration)
C3A + water creates immediate stiffening of paste
Flash Set fresh paste with no workability at early age
8. Hydration of Ferrite phase C4AF + CH + H2O tetracalcium hydrate
(small amount of gypsum used)
9. The successive phases of hydration process
Cement paste (w/c 0.4), 1hr hydration at surface of grains, no
interconnections, liquid stage
Cement paste (w/c 0.4), 2hr ettringite formation, no interconnection,
liquid stage
Cement paste (w/c 0.4), 3hr plastic to solid stage, increase precip of
CH, formation of CSH begins, continued ettringite formation,
interconnection of grains leads to setting

Hardening, 24hr voids filled by CSH, compressive strength increases,

sulphates depleted then ettringite turns to monosulfoaluminate

10. Capillary porosity of hydrated cement paste.

Some parts of cement paste remain unhydrated
11. Correlation between Porosity and w/c ratio porosity increases with w/c
ratio increase
Increase porosity = increase permeability = decrease strength
12. Strength increase versus time. Increased hydration over time leads to
increased strength (C3S hydration controls early strength, C2S controls long
term strength)
13. Heat of hydration. Heat mainly produced during setting and early
14. Functions of C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF. P33-37
C3S hardens rapidly, responsible for initial set and strength, higher
percent increases early strength and heat of hydration
C2S slow hydration, effects strength beyond a week (long term)
C3A reaction with gypsum controls setting time, causes high heat of
hydration, poor sulphate resistance
C4AF allow low clinkering temp, hydrates rapidly but low strength,
grey colour in cement
15. Control of C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF proportions. P38
Change raw material (before burning) ie reduce clay quantity
Change max temp during burning process
Change duration of burning esp. time at peak temp
16. Effects of impurities in mixing water. P40-41
Affect setting time, strength, white salt on surface, staining, corrosion of
reinforcement, volume change, reduced durability
17. Water/Cement Ratio. P42-47
w/c = 0.3 for High performance, w/c = 0.6 for low strength concretes
low water content decreases voids and increases strength, reduces
too low water prevents complete hydration, so loss in strength and
increase porosity
low water also reduces workability time

Lecture 3: Aggregate in Concrete

1. Aggregate function and properties.

Functions: provide mass of particles to resist action of applied loads and
more durable than cement, cheap filler for cementing material, reduce
volume changes from setting and hardening process and moisture
Properties: Mineral character affects strength/durability/elasticity,
surface characteristics affect workability and bond between aggregate
and cement (rough = low workability and increase bond strength), size
affects workability/density/economy
Good aggregate chemically inert, free of organic matter, good grading
(particle size distribution), good shape, low void volume, surface texture
and strength must allow good bond
2. Classification of aggregates (geological, size, weight, shape&size etc.). P920





Natural aggregate native deposits that can be washed, crushed and

Artificial aggregate obtained as by-product or special manufacturing
Geological: Igneous rocks formed on cooling of magma (intrusive or
Sedimentary rocks obtained by deposition of weathered and
transported natural rock
Metamorphic rocks formed under high heat/pressure, usually harder
and denser
Size: Fine aggregate <= 5mm natural sand from natural disintegration
of rock (pass #4 sieve)
Coarse aggregate >5mm gravel, river rock or crushed aggregate
(retained on #4 sieve)
Weight: Heavy >2.4t/m^3 Hematite, magnetite
Normal weight 2.2-2.4t/m^3 gravel, snad, crushed stone (most
Light weight <2.2t/m^3 expanded perlite, burned clay
Weight affects density of concrete produced
Shape angular, rounded, flaky, elongated (flaky/elongated are bad
easy breakage, less workability)
o High friction shape = strength, low friction shape = workability
Surface texture glassy, smooth, granular, rough, crystalline,
honeycombed (weak)
Aggregate characteristics. P26-28
Toughness (strength, hardness, resistance to abrasion)
Density (light, normal, heavy weight)
Porosity (water absorption)
Particle size distribution (grading)
Cleanliness (free of silt, clay, organic matter)
Compressive strength varies according to aggregate used, must be
higher than expected concrete strength (assessed during lab testing)
Aggregate production. P21-24
Mining, Crushing, Sizing, Testing
Rounded/smooth collected in natural river terraces/beds/glacial
Moisture Conditions of Aggregates. P29-30
Oven dry absorbent
Air dry full dry at surface but some internal moisture
Saturated surface dry (SSD) neither absorbing water or contributing
water to concrete
Wet/moist excess of moisture on surface
Oven dry and wet/moist not recommended, as they affect water content
of mix
Porosity and density of aggregates. P31-32
% Absorption = (SSD wt Oven-dry wt)/(Oven-dry wt) x100%

Bulk Density = Mass of aggregate/volume of solids + voids

True density = mass of aggregate/ volume of solids
7. Gradation of aggregate. P33-35, P51
Particle size distribution = gradation
Strength development relies on compaction concrete should compact
to max density
8. Sieve Analysis (understand the example, cumulative retained/passing,
modulus<inversely related to aggregate fineness >) P37-43
Produce an aggregate grading curve
Nominal Maximum Size (NMS) sieve size through which 95% passes
Fineness Modulus (FM) adding sum of cumulative % by mass of
aggregate retained on each sieve and dividing by 100
#4 Sieve = 4.75mm opening; #200 sieve = 0.075mm opening
Gradation curves vertical axis = percent passing, horizontal = sieve
Starts top right and goes down to bottom left
Continuous grading has straight line, good for concrete
9. Uniform, continuous, gap gradation. P45-48
Uniform all particles same size, large void volume, paste requirement
is high
Continuous minimises void volume but increase particle surface area,
Gap missing one or more particle sizes, used for aesthetic purposes
Specified upper and lower limits for grading curve
10. Hardness/Resistance to abrasion. P52
Determine weight retained in #12 sieve, run through LA Abrasion
Machine, weigh passing of #12 sieve again, LA loss = (change in
wt/original wt) x100%, should be <45%
11. Aggregate Segregation and concrete bleeding. P53-55
Segregation coarse aggregate segregates due to gravity (sinks to
Bleeding water rising to surface (increase porosity, decreases
Causes lack of fine aggregate, too much water
Remedies more fines, adjust grading, reduce water content

Lecture 3b: Chemical Admixtures in Concrete

1. Classification and function of admixtures. P4-5, P36

For all kinds of admixtures, we should be familiar with the working
function and several practical applications for each of them.
Added to improve properties of concrete, less than 5%, and added to
Used to reduce cost, increase strength, maintain quality of concrete
before setting (esp in weather), and improve durability
2. Water-reducing admixtures (difference to SuperPlasticizers). P6-10

Reduce w/c (by 5%) but maintain workability. Also increases strength of
Prevents cement particles clumping, so increases surface area,
workability, hydration
Creates repulsion between cement and aggregate, releases entrapped
Lignosulfonates, carbohydrates, hydroxylated carboxylic acids
3. SuperPlasticizers (high workability; dose rate; bleeding and segregation).
Added to concrete with low workability and w/c ratio to make highworkability flowing concrete (fluid concrete requires little vibration or
compaction). Produce high performance concrete with w/c of 0.25-0.35
Completely separated cement grains best hydration and workability
Used in high performance concrete, thin-section pavement, areas of
closed space/congested reinforcing steel, pumped concrete (reduce
pressure, increase lift and distance possible), reduced handling costs
Ideal in chloride environment low porosity concrete with low
permeability. Increased durability and reduced bleeding/segregation
Excessive dosage may cause severe bleeding and segregation
Sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates,
4. Accelerating admixtures (various applications, salts). P21-26
Increase rate of hydration, shorten setting time, accelerate strength
development early
Massive increase in hydration heat though
Used in precast concrete plants accelerate production rate & lower
manufacture cost
Used in cold weather low temp decreases hydration rate, so admixture
used to counter
Used in prestressed concrete increase early strength of member
Used in tidal zone construction must be cast and hardened before tide
Typically a salt calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium nitrite, NaCl
5. Retarding admixtures (disadvantages, sugars). P27-30
Delay setting time of concrete for longer dormant period, longer
workability period, reduce hydration heat
Disadvantages: Some reduction in strength at early ages, may promote
Used for long-distance delivery of concrete (prevent setting in drum), to
offset hot temp (which increase rate of hydration), to delay setting for
special finishing process (ie exposed aggregate surface), reduce hear of
hydration in large construction (dams)
Sugars or acrylic retarder used (create coat which prevent hydration)
6. Air-entraining admixtures (specific application). P31-35

Introduce and stabilise air bubbles in concrete improve durability of

concrete exposed to freezing and thawing, greatly improves resistance
to surface scaling by chemical de-icers
Air bubbles provide space for freezing water expansion
Causes decreased durability and compressive strength if too much air
Salts of wood resin, synthetic detergents, salts of petroleum acids
Several chemical admixtures can be used in same concrete, lab tests
should be carried out though
6b. Others:
Colouring admixtures (pigments) for aesthetics
7. Concrete Batching. P38-40
Concrete mixer in batching plants (up to 9m^3)
Process: Introduce aggregate (coarse then fine)
o Introduce cement, then dry mixing 3-5min
o Introduce water and premixed chemical admixtures, then wet
mixing 3-5min
Control room allows setup of mixtures in computer, automatic batching
Plants provide ready mixed concretes and delivery to construction site
8. Ordering ready Mixed Concrete (performance/prescription based, transport)
Performance based specify compressive strength and environmental
Prescription based specify cement content, water content, admixture
type and content
For short distance, central-mixed concrete used: mixed in stationary
mixer then delivered in truck mixer/agitator
For long distance (<1.5hrs), shrink-mixed concrete used: wet mixed
partially in stationary mixer and completed in truck mixer OR truckmixed concrete: wet mixed completely in truck

Lecture 4: Fresh Concrete Properties

1. Workability definition. P3, 5

Ability of fresh concrete mix to be transported, placed and fill mould
properly with desired work (compaction/vibration) and without reducing
concrete quality
Represents the amount of energy require to overcome internal friction
force between particles and produce complete compaction (energy for
compaction = vibration)
Concrete must also be cohesive prevent segregation and beeling during
Good workability measured using slump test
2. Measure of concrete workability (be familiar with the slum test procedure).
300mm cone filled with concrete in 3 stages, at each stage concrete
compacted with tamping rod (10 times per layer). Cone is removed and
slump is measured
Slump: 0-25mm = very low, 25-50mm = low, 50-100mm = medium, 100175mm = high workability
3. Factors affection workability. P11

Water content (high w/c = higher workability)

Aggregate shape (smooth/rounded allows high workability)
Grading (continuous grading allows higher workability)
Chemical admixtures
Fineness of cement (finer cement = faster loss of workability)
Time (workability reduces with hydration)
Temperature (high temp reduces workability)
4. Compacting factor test (compacting factor). P12-16
Measures the amount of work needed for full compaction (high value =
more workable the concrete)
Principle: standard amount of work applied to the concrete and degree
of compaction measured in comparison with fully compacted concrete
Work applied by dropping concrete through a standard height into
o Concrete placed in upper hopper
o Door opened and allowed to lower into second hopper until
o Door opened again and sample falls into cylinder until overflowing
o Surplus cement removed from top of cylinder
o Outside of cylinder wiped and cleaned
o Cylinder weight recorded, as weight of partially compacted
o Cylinder emptied, then filled with layers at most 50mm in
thickness (each layer compacted fully with rod)
o Cylinder again weighed (weight of fully compacted concrete)
o Compacting factor = weight of partially compacted / weight of
fully compacted
5. Initial setting time of concrete (definition, times, test). P18-20
Setting time initiation of stiffening of cement paste
o Initial set when Vicat needle penetrates less than 25mm into
paste after 30sec
o Final set when no penetration
o Minimum initial setting time of Portland cement is 60min
Initial set around 100min, final set between 180 and 360min
6. Bleeding and segregation (definition and cause). P21-25
Bleeding water in mix rises to surface while aggregate falls. Occurs
when concrete not cohesive enough (cement paste cant hold
constituents). Top layer becomes too wet, causing excessively porous
and permeable layer
o Cause: too much water, not enough fines in mix, poor grading of
aggregates, overworking of concrete, inappropriate chemical
admixtures (ie superplasticisers)
Segregation excessive inability of cement paste to hold solid
constituents (poor cohesiveness). Coarse aggregate accumulates at
bottom, cause low quality concrete

o Cause: too much water, not enough fines, poor aggregates

grading, overworking concrete, inappropriate admixtures.
o Segregation always leads to concrete bleeding

7. Plastic shrinkage (definition and mechanism).P26-34

Plastic Shrinkage drying shrinkage occurring during setting period

o Cracking occurring when concrete still plastic
o Cracks parallel to each other
o Caused by moisture loss from surface
o Evaporation increased by high temp, high wind, low humidity
Free shrinkage causes volume change but no stresses
Restrained shrinkage creates stresses, which may cause cracking
(cracks perpendicular to direction of shrinkage)
Bleeding: More water evaporating = more shrinkage = more cracking
Affects flexural strength
8. Air content. P35-37
Via entrapped air (bubbles), capillary air in capillary porosity (with
water), or entrained air (using chemical admixture)
Air content between 3 and 7%
Air content measured by pressure meter
For low air content, addition of air entraining admixtures
9. Concrete handling (various methods and tools). P39-45
Belt conveyor conveys concrete horizontally or higher/lower level.
Advantage: adjust reach, traveling diverter, variable speed
Truck mounted conveyors convey concrete as above. Advantage:
conveyor arrives with concrete, adjustable speed and reach
Buckets used with cranes, cableways, helicopters. Advantages:
enables full versatility of crane, clean discharge
Cranes and buckets used for work above ground level. Advantages:
can handle concrete, reinforcing steel, formwork, sundry items
Pumps used for conveying concrete from central discharge point to
formwork. Advantages: pipelines take up little space, can be extended,
continuous stream, moveable. Constant supply of fresh concrete
required without segregation. Needs Superplasticisers
Wet sprayed concrete needs superplasticisers
10. Concrete compacting process (vibration, compaction systems). P46-52
Needs compaction allows concrete with minimum porosity and fill
formwork properly. Leads to better strength and durability, better steelconcrete bond, better surface
Needle vibrator (for slabs or beams) compaction by high frequency
needle in concrete, 20-40 sec in each location. Very noisy though
Formwork vibrator external vibration for columns or walls
Over compaction and under compaction both bad for concrete
11. Concrete curing (definition, highly recommended conditions). P54-60

Curing is maintenance of satisfactory moisture content of concrete immediately after

compacting and until desired strength reached. Involves protection of surfaces
exposed to water evaporation for consistent quality throughout concrete
Good cure reduces porosity and increases durability
Required for dry weather, high temp, wind, large surface area exposed, long setting

Water spraying, membrane curing compounds, curing agent (resin or polymers

Keep formwork up for a few days to assist

Lecture 5 Hardened Concrete

Strength = Applied force (max) / Area

Tensile strength lower than compressive failure of concrete is brittle
(low strain required for failure)
Standard sampling curing conditions 28days at 20degrees and 100%
humidity, removed from moulds after 24hrs
Ends of sample must be smooth and parallel (grinding or sulphur cap
Lateral compression applied at sample ends, as load increased
Failure: splits with cracks parallel to ends, leaves frictional cones at
ends due to restraint
Cubes vs cylinders capping not needed for cube samples, cylinder
strength = 0.8* cube strength (cubes over-estimate the actual
strength), cylinders used in Australia
Load rate for sample is 0.3MPa/sec, 3000kN machine can test 300MPa in
Minimum three tests required, mean is taken
Concrete standard grade = Design compressive strength after 28days
standard cure
Mean compressive strength fcm > fc + kcs; kc = constant, s = standard
Compressive strength affected by aggregate type/content, cement
type/fineness, water:cement ratio, admixtures, degree of compaction,
extent of curing, temperature
o Increase in w/c ratio reduces compressive strength
o Increase in max size aggregate reduces strength (at low w/c
o Increase aggregate roughness increases strength
o Air-entrainment admixtures increase porosity and reduce strength
o Low temp reduces early strength but can increase final strength
o Moist cured (high humidity) increases final strength
Modulus of Elasticity (E) = stress / strain of initial linear/elastic
Strain = (l l0)/l0 it is unitless, so E has units of MPa
Stress-Strain curve:
o Phase 1 elastic behaviour ( <0.5*fc)
o Phase 2 first damage, microcracks propagate in cement paste
o Phase 3 after yield strength/fc, cracks propagate
o Phase 4 brittle failure
Brittle material low strain at failure; ductile high strain at failure
Concrete tension: flexural strength (bending), splitting strength, or
direct tension

Direct tension is accurate but difficult to set up

Splitting strength (load applied to round concrete, splits at
top) easy setup but over-estimates tensile strength
Same cylinders used as compression test, similar
setup to compression
ft = 2*P/(Pi*D*L)
Flexural strength has accurate result, harder to set up than
splitting (basic determinate beam situation)
o Similar modulus of elasticity in tension and compression
Concrete creep sustained load in compression leads to increase in
strain over time this is creep. Caused by water moving in porosity of
concrete, redistributing pressure
o Increases with high w/c ratio, low aggregate content, high air
entrainment, low humidity, high temp, early loading, sustained
o Causes increased deflection, transfer of load from concrete to
reinforcing steel, loss of prestressing force
o Effect is maximum in first 3-6 months
o Increases with time at a decreasing rate
o Affected by properties of concrete mix, environment, size and
shape of specimen
Uniaxial tensile strength fct = 0.6*fct.f (flexural strength) or fct = 0.9*fct.sp
In absence of data, fct = 0.36*sqrt(fc) dash () indicates lower
characteristic strength
Shrinkage time-dependent strain in unloaded and unrestrained
specimen at constant temp
o Plastic shrinkage drying shrinkage during setting period only
o Drying shrinkage shrinkage of hardened concrete due to loss of
o Thermal shrinkage contraction of hardened concrete as it cools
(follows thermal expansion from hydration heat)
o Autogenous shrinkage contraction of hardened concrete due to
hydration (HPC)
Shrinkage strain increases with time at a decreasing rate (approaches
Drying shrinkage in HPC (high performance) is smaller but greater
autogenous shrinkage
Shrinkage can be determined by standard 56 day prism test

Lecture 6 Sustainable Concrete

Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without

compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs

16 billion tonnes of concrete produced in 2010

Concrete challenge population grows, increased need of infrastructure,
aging/deteriorating infrastructure, natural resources/sources of energy
becoming an issue, need to reduce greenhouse gas emission (global
o 11% of greenhouse gas emissions from life cycle on concrete and
its structures
Reduce environmental impacts of cement production CO2 emissions,
energy use, natural materials use
o Use of alternative fuels, use of recycled by-products as raw
materials, modernisation of machinery = reduced energy
Greater use of Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM) recovers
industrial by-product, uses less energy, less greenhouse gases, less raw
materials, improves durability
o Fly ash, ground-granulated blast-furnace slag, silica fume,
o Barriers existing specifications and codes (limit %, early strength
requirement), education and technology transfer, risk of the
unknown for engineers
Recycle and reuse concrete construction and demolition waste, can be
used for road base, coarse aggregate
o Local aggregates may be limited, landfill sites overused and have
enviro impact
o Need to improve demolition, processing and handling
technologies to improve quality/lower cost, develop
design/construction specs for recycled concrete
Composite structures that are easy to divide up (bolted not
Research/use of emerging technologies develop ultra-high
strength/durable concrete
o Repair and rehabilitation technology long-term monitoring
systems, performance-based durability designs, repair systems,
smart materials (w. computing), improved management
techniques of existing structures (non-destructive techniques to
assess health of structures)
Ultra-high strength concrete good qualities (strength, durable, ductile,
lighter) require less raw materials, less energy, less CO2 emissions
Use of FRP (Fibre-Reinforced Polymers) to strengthen/repair structures
Current infrastructure aging/deteriorating
o Caused by corrosion of embedded metals, freezing and thawing,
shrinkage, thermal stress, acid/sulfate attack, alkali aggregate
Poor quality concrete deteriorate prematurely, require repairs,
waste resources and energy

Durable concrete structures extending service life requires less

resources/energy than rebuilding (use life cycle coast approach rather
than initial cost better enviro impact)
Durability ability of concrete structures to resist weathering, chemical
attack, abrasion, without maintenance (keep desired engineering
properties during expected service life)
o Normal service life is 50yrs, special construction up to 150yrs

Lecture 7 Durability

Concrete has high pH = 12.5, good natural protection against corrosion

to steel
o Passive steels do not corrode in concrete
Corrosion of reinforcement chloride-induced or carbonation-induced
o Causes cracking, stains, aesthetics, spalling, delamination, loss of
cross-section, reduced load capacity, structural failure
o Anode (Fe produces Fe ions, cathode produces OH ions)
Chloride corrosion chloride ions create potential
difference, pitted corrosion
Phase 1 diffusion of chloride ions through porosity in
Phase 2 propagation of oxidation along bar. Severe if
high moisture and oxygen. Concrete in tidal zone has
moisture and dry time, so most corrosion
o Use of deicing salts in cold weather causes severe corrosion (esp.
in North America/Europe)
o Different oxides produce different volumes causes cracking
o Carbonation-induced corrosion
Reaction atmospheric CO2 and calcium hydroxide in
CO2 diffuses into concrete and dissolves in pore
solution of cement paste, produces carbonate ions
which react with calcium to produce calcium
carbonate CaCO3
If concrete too dry, CO2 cant dissolve
If concrete too wet, CO2 cant enter concrete (need RH of
Carbonation reduces pH to 9, allowing corrosion to occur
Increased risk in environments with high CO2 content
Corrosion rates are moderate mainly aesthetics affected
(20yrs to reach steel bar with 20mm covering)

Deterioration modelling non-linear, must consider carbonation and

chloride, consider environmental changes in future
Prevention against corrosion high quality concrete (adequate concrete
cover of steel, high cement content, low w/c ratio, proper compaction
and curing)
Sulphate attack chemical mechanism in which sulphate ions attack
concrete hydrates
o Internal source of sulphates too much gypsum added to clinker
o External sulphates high sulphate soils/groundwater,
atmospheric/industrial water pollution
SO42- must diffuse through concrete porosity
o Sulphate ion +components of cement paste + water ettringite,
as it grows it cracks concrete from inside
o Factors affecting sulphate attack
Cement type and content C3A and C4AF hydration
produces monosulfoaluminates that react with sulphate ions
(reduce C3A content, increase cement content)
o Addition of fly ash reduces C3A content in SR (sulfate resisting
Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) reaction of siliceous aggregate with
concrete alkalis
o Causes cracking and fragmentation with water present
o Controlled by testing reactivity of aggregate with alkalis, crushing
aggregates, use low-alkali Portland cement, replacing high-alkali
cement with SCMs, prevent contact between concrete and
external water

Lecture 8 Concrete Mix Design