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Gas preparation properties and uses

Oxygen(O2)
Starting materials:
Method
1.
compounds.

describe the
laboratory
preparation of gases;
Preparation of O2, CO2,
NH3. Relate methods
of drying and collection to
the
properties of gas
(density, solubility and
reaction with drying
agents).

Heating

oxygen

2PbO2(s)

2PbO(s) + O2(g)

2KNO3(s)

2KNO2(s) + O2(g)

rich

Method 2. Decomposition of hydrogen


peroxideMnO (catalyst)
2

2H2O2(l)

2H 2O(l) + O2(g)

If the gas is to be collected dry then it must be


bubbled through conc sulphuric acid(drying
agent) and then collected straight into a gas jar
or in a syringe.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)


Starting materials:

OR

Method 1. Heat on carbonates or hydrogen


carbonates
NB. Carbonates of group 1 elements do not decompose

CuCO3(s)

heat

CuCO 3(s)

ZnCO3(s)

heat

ZnO (s)

+ CO2(g)
+ CO2(g)

2NaHCO3(s)
Na 2CO2(s) + CO2(g)
+ H2O(l)
Method 2. Action of acid on carbonates or
hydrogen
Carbonates.
CaCO3(s) + HCl(aq)
CaCl 2(aq) +H2O(l)
+ CO2(g)
Carbon dioxide is moderately soluble and does
make 'carbonated water

Ammonia(NH3)
Action of an alkali on an ammonium salt.
+

NH4(aq)
H2O(g)

ammonium
salt

heat

+ OH -(aq)

NH 3(g)

alkali

NB Ammonia turns red litmus blue


explain the use of
gases based on their
properties;
Example: carbon
dioxide in fire
extinguishers, oxygen
in hospitals and for
welding.
Refer to SO A7.4.

Use of ammonia
The major use of ammonia is as a fertilizer. It is most commonly applied directly to the soil from
tanks containing the liquefied gas. The ammonia can be applied directly or in the form of
ammonium salts, such as ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, and various
ammonium phosphates. Urea, (H2N)2C=O, is also used as a source of nitrogen for fertilizer.
Ammonia is also used in the manufacture of commercial explosives (e.g., trinitrotoluene (TNT),
nitroglycerin, and nitrocellulose).

In the textile industry, ammonia is used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, such as nylon and rayon. In
addition, it is employed in the dyeing and scouring of cotton, wool, and silk. Ammonia serves as a catalyst in the
production of some synthetic resins. More important, it neutralizes acidic by-products of petroleum refining, and
in the rubber industry it prevents the coagulation of raw latex during transportation from plantation to factory.
Ammonia also finds application in both the ammonia-soda process (also called Solvay process), a widely used
method for producing soda ash, and the Ostwald process, a method for converting ammonia into nitric acid.
Ammonia is used in various metallurgical processes, including the nitriding of alloy sheets to harden their
surfaces. Because ammonia can be decomposed easily to yield hydrogen, it is a convenient portable source of
atomic hydrogen for welding. In addition, ammonia can absorb substantial amounts of heat from its
surroundings (i.e., one gram of ammonia absorbs 327 calories of heat), which makes it useful as a coolant in
refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. Finally, among its minor uses is inclusion in certain household
cleansing agents.

USES OF OXYGEN GAS

Use of carbon dioxide


It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example,
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

(vi)

as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers,


as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery,
as a chemical feedstock and in liquid form
as a solvent in decaffeination of coffee and
supercritical drying.
It is added to drinking water and carbonated
beverages including beer and champagne to add
sparkle.
The frozen solid form of CO2, known as "dry ice" is
used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice
blasting