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CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter presents a brief discussion of methodology-related aspects


of the study, including the research design or method, the source of data, the
kinds of data, the data collection method and procedures, the data analysis
techniques.

A. Reseach Design
The main focus of this research is the exploration and description examine
texts that are not public and the goal is to find the meaning contained in the texts
adopted in the text which is not common in terms of their creation, perception,
and effects, and to explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena.
Therefore, the qualitative study approach. This study is exploratory, descriptive,
and contextual. It employs discourse and conversation analysis approaches and
methodologies for researching the text as an "object of analysis." Can be very
detailed analysis, see the specific structure of discourse and interaction between
two or more speakers to understand how meaning is shared socially constructed.
In the study, researchers act as a human instrument.The technique of collecting
data used in this research is documentation. The steps are as follows:
a) Finding the English song lyrics of slang in making new words album by Kndric
Lamar.
b) Reading the English song lyrics of slang in making new words album by
Kendric Lamar.

c) Noting the words which contain slang in English song lyrics of making new
words album by Kendric Lamar..
d) Coding the data to make readers or researchers easier if they will look at again
the data which contain song in English song lyrics of making new words album by
Kendric Lamar. Coding the data: the researcher makes code for every data for
example:

I got a bone to pick


Aku punya tulang untuk memilih
I don't want you monkey mouth motherfuckers sittin' in my throne again
Aku tidak ingin kau perempuan monyet dengan mulut sinting pemburu tahta
(Aye aye nigga whats happenin' nigga, K Dot back in the hood nigga)
(hey kamu berkulit hitam)
I'm mad (He mad), but I ain't stressin'
Aku marah (Dia gila), tapi saya tidak apa-apa

The steps of the data analyzing are as follows: a) classifying word formation
by using salng that found in the song lyrics b) describing the meaning of from
what the word formation by using slang are that found in the song lyrics c)
making conclusions and suggestion based on the data analysis.

B. Source of Data and Data


The slang texts is the object of the investigation. The main data of
this study is slang that consists of three approaches. They obtained
explanations disampaian by (Elisa Mattielo, 2008: 35) "The explanation is,
that slang is hard to classify, though. Slang is part of language variety and
slang is not the same as cant, jargon and dialect, vernacular, accent, and
colloquial language. " approaches slang that is the sociological approach,
the stylistic approach, the linguistic approach.
According to Eble, slang thus seems to serve a purpose which is
the establishment of social identity for the speaker and the people with
whom they are interacting. Michael Adams agrees and says that slang
serves to fill the following purposes: to identify members of a group, to
change the level of discourse in the direction of informality, and to oppose
established authority (Adams 2009: 16). Adams and Eble definitions show
that slang is not just a set of words/phrases used by particular groups, but
that it is something that are used by people to establish groups. The
difference between these two notions is that slang can be used by anyone
with the aim of wanting to establish group identity and to oppose
established authority. However, how can one establish what constitutes
slang? Eble mentions Dumas and Lighter who proposes four identifying
criteria for slang (Dumas & Lighter 1978 14-16 in Eble 1996: 11-12):
1. Its presence will markedly lower, at least for the moment, the dignity of
formal or serious speech or writing.

2. Its use implies the users familiarity either with the referent or with that
less statusful or less responsible class of people who have such familiarity
and use the term. Eriksen Translating the use of slang - A study of
microstrategies in subtitling with a view to researching the transfer of the
use of slang from source text to target text with I Love You, Man as
empirical example, including a study of the function of slang
3. It is a tabooed term in ordinary discourse with persons of higher social
status or greater responsibility.
4. It is used in place of the well-known conventional synonym, especially
in order (a) to protect the user from the discomfort caused by the
conventional item or (b) to protect the user from the discomfort or
annoyance of further elaboration.

C. DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is important to determine the result of the study. In this
study the procedure used in the data collection are: (1) reading and
comprehending the lyrics; (2) identifying the slang words used in the lyrics; (3)
Marking the slang words found in the lyrics; (4) finding and classify the meaning
of the slang words.
Observation methods are useful to researchers in a variety of ways. They
provide researchers with ways to check for nonverbal expression of feelings,
determine who interacts with whom, grasp how participants communicate with

each other, and check for how much time is spent on various activities
(SCHMUCK, 1997). Participant observation allows researchers to check
definitions of terms that participants use in interviews, observe events that
informants may be unable or unwilling to share when doing so would be
impolitic, impolite, or insensitive, and observe situations informants have
described in interviews, thereby making them aware of distortions or inaccuracies
in description provided by those informants (MARSHALL & ROSSMAN, 1995).
[8]
DeWALT and DeWALT (2002) believe that "the goal for design of
research using participant observation as a method is to develop a holistic
understanding of the phenomena under study that is as objective and accurate as
possible given the limitations of the method" (p.92). They suggest that participant
observation be used as a way to increase the validity1)of the study, as observations
may help the researcher have a better understanding of the context and
phenomenon under study. Validity is stronger with the use of additional strategies
used with observation, such as interviewing, document analysis, or surveys,
questionnaires, or other more quantitative methods. Participant observation can be
used to help answer descriptive research questions, to build theory, or to generate
or test hypotheses (DeWALT & DeWALT, 2002). [9]
When designing a research study and determining whether to use
observation as a data collection method, one must consider the types of questions
guiding the study, the site under study, what opportunities are available at the site
for observation, the representativeness of the participants of the population at that

site, and the strategies to be used to record and analyze the data (DeWALT &
DeWALT, 2002). [10]
Participant observation is a beginning step in ethnographic studies.
SCHENSUL, SCHENSUL, and LeCOMPTE (1999) list the following reasons for
using participant observation in research:

to identify and guide relationships with informants;

to help the researcher get the feel for how things are organized and prioritized,
how people interrelate, and what are the cultural parameters;

to show the researcher what the cultural members deem to be important in


manners, leadership, politics, social interaction, and taboos;

to help the researcher become known to the cultural members, thereby easing
facilitation of the research process; and

to provide the researcher with a source of questions to be addressed with


participants (p.91). [11]

D. DATA ANALYSIS
The data analyzed in this study are the slang findings in Maroon 5 song
lyrics. Maroon 5 began in 1994 while members Adam Levine, Jesse Carmichael,
and Mickey Madden were still in high school. The band's original name was
Kara's Flowers and they played garage/grunge music. Their first gig was at
Whisky a Go Go in West Hollywood in September 1995. They scored a deal as

Kara's Flowers with Reprise Records but was dropped after only 6 months. The
band's album The Fourth World came out in 1997 but was a massive failure,
only selling 5,000 copies. The poor sales numbers were discouraging and nearly
caused the band to breakup in 1998. Maroon 5's debut album Songs About
Jane became a sleeper hit in 2002. Five songs from the record were released as
singles which helped it become the seventh best-selling album of 2002, with sales
of 2.7 million copies. Vocalist and lyricist Adam Levine did make up with the
album's muse and by 2007 he was referring to Jane as a "close friend." Maroon 5
singer Adam Levine has Jewish ancestry on both sides of his family. In an
interview with London newspaper The Jewish Chronicle, Levine explained that
while he considers himself a Jew, he does not practice traditional Judaism but
favors a "more generalized spiritual way of life." In 1997, Maroon 5 (then known
as Kara's Flowers) appeared on an episode of the TV show Beverly Hills 90210.
Kara's Flowers released a single called "Soap Disco" the same year but it failed to
gain any commercial success.
After collecting

the data,

the writer analyzed

them

the

processing the data are as follows:


(1) tabulating the slang words that have been found in the lyrics;
(2) giving the meaning of the slang words;
(3) dividing the characteristics of the slang words;
(4) and drawing conclusion

E. TRUSTWORTHINESS

step of

Trustwothiness is the truth which is derived from description, conclusion,


interpretation and other kinds of report (Alwasilah, 2002). The trustwothiness of
data consist of credibility (validity) and dependability (reability) (Sugiono,
Wahyuningsih, 2007 , p,40).
In conducting this research, there is awareness that there might be biases.
Therefore, to avoid the two treats, the present study applied triangulation to
enhance the trustwothiness of qualitative data as Cresswell (2008, p.266) states :
Qualitative inquires triangulation among different data sources to enhance the
accuracy of the study. Triangulation is the process of corroborating evidence from
different individuals (e,g. Principal and a student), type or data (e,g. Observation
field notes and interviews), or method of data collection (e,g. Documents and
interview) in descriptions and themes in qualitative research.

Thus, in gathering data and information, the study applied more than one
techniques which are observation, questionnaires, and interview that was collected
from different subject of study or participants.