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# THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

## Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

ECNG 3001
Semester 1, 2008/2009
1. Show that H(X) 0 with equality holding if and only if X is deterministic.
2. An information source can be modeled as a bandlimited process with a bandwidth of 6000 Hz. This
process is sampled at a rate higher than the Nyquist rate to provide a guard band of 2000 Hz. We
observe that the resulting samples take values in the set A = {-4, -3, -1, 2, 4, 7} with probabilities 0.2,
0.1, 0.15, 0.05, 0.3, 0.2. What is the entropy of the discrete time source in bits per source output
(sample)? What is the information generated by this source in bits per second?
3. A discrete memoryless source (DMS) has an alphabet {a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, a6} with corresponding
probabilities {0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.05, 0.15, 0.2}. Find the entropy of this source. Compare this entropy with
that of a uniformly distributed source with the same alphabet.
4. Let X denote a random variable distributed on the set A = {a1, a2, , aN} with corresponding
probabilities {p1, p2, , pN}. Let Y be another random variable defined on the same set, but distributed
uniformly. Show that
H(X) H(Y),
with equality if and only if X is also uniformly distributed.
5. Assume x(t) has a bandwidth of 40 kHz.
a. What is the minimum sampling rate for this signal?
b. What is the minimum sampling rate if a guardband of 10 kHz is required?
c. What is the maximum sampling interval for the signal x1(t) = x(t)cos(80,000t)?
6. Determine the quantization error for a signal s(t) = sint, 0 t 10 linearly quantized to 8 and then to 32
levels. What is the quantization noise in dB for either case?
7. For the signal in question 6, quantitatively determine what improvement, if any, is gained by quantizing
non-linearly using a -law compression level of = 135. Assume that the condition 2 >> m2/m2(t) is
satisfied.
8. A DMS generates an alphabet A = {x1, x2, x3, , x10}with corresponding probabilities
p = {0.03, 0.2, 0.08, 0.17, 0.05, 0.04, 0.3, 0.1, 0.01, 0.02}.
a. Determine the entropy of this source
b. Consider the case in which the source generates outputs (one out of A) every 25s. What is the
source information rate, in bits per second?
c. Calculate the number of bits required to represent the sources alphabet using uniform PCM
d. Is it suitable to use non-uniform PCM in this case? Briefly explain
e. Determine the efficiency of the PCM encoding for this source
f. Design a Huffman code for the source and determine its efficiency. Compare the average
codeword length of the Huffman code with that obtained using PCM, and state the implication of
this on channel requirements. For the case of the source generating outputs every 25s,
determine the difference in source-generated bit rate for the Huffman and PCM codes
g. Show, using the Huffman coding algorithm, that compression using Huffman coding is not
possible for the case of the sources alphabet containing equiprobable xi.
h. The information generated by the source is then transmitted over a channel with a capacity of
500 kbps. Determine the SNR, in dB, at which the channel fails to provide this capacity if its

bandwidth is 25 kHz. It is suggested to you that the channel can be made to support a higher
transmission rate. Verify this and calculate the maximum rate it can support.
i. Explain what is meant by the terms signaling rate, baud rate, and data rate.
j. The nominal data rate of a channel is defined by its baud rate. Justify this statement using
Shannons limit, and describe how the channels data rate can be maximised without changing its
baud rate.
9. Represent the data string 00101000010000000010001 using AMI, Manchester, Pseudo-ternary, B8ZS
and HDB3 line codes, and briefly discuss how, and the extent to which, each coding technique facilitates
synchronization and error detection.
10. The data string in question 9 is transmitted over a wireless channel that supports, at maximum, the
transmission of one symbol every 40s.
a. For the case in which 8-QAM is employed for transmission, determine the number of unique
symbols possible with this transmission scheme, and the number of times each one occurs in the
given data string. Calculate the channels signaling and data rates.
b. If 32-QAM were utilized instead, with the same transmitter power, state the effect of this change
on the systems signaling and data rates, and on its noise performance.
11. Assume that the data string in question 9 represents the number of bits generated by a source in a
plesiochronous TDM scheme. If the multiplexing scheme employs frames with data length 25 bits,
suggest a mechanism that can be employed to ensure this source can be accommodated. Briefly explain
how your mechanism can be implemented.
12. Derive an expression for the error performance of a standard bipolar line code.
13. Differentiate between a source coding scheme and a channel coding scheme.
14. Differentiate between digital line coding and digital modulation.
15. The term symbol can refer to a source or transmission entity. Describe what is meant by each term and
16. Explain how Gray Codes can improve the error performance of a digital transmission coding scheme
17. Determine the received SNR, channel capacity, and receiver Eb/N0 in the case of a wireless digital
transmission system with the following specifications:
Transmitter Output Power: +3 dBW
Transmit Antenna Gain: +20 dBi
Receive Antenna Gain: + 3 dBi
Connector Loss: 0.2 dB each
No. of Tx Connectors (between transmitter and antenna): 2
No. of Rx Connectors (between antenna and receiver): 2
Modulation scheme: 256-QAM
Center Frequency: 1.2 GHz
Channel Bandwidth: 25 MHz
Channel Length: 17 km
Measured Channel Noise Density: 12 x 10-16 W/Hz
Hence state whether the link is feasible or not, and if not, suggest one improvement that can make the
link feasible. Draw a block diagram of the system, indicating all connectors, antennae, and other
components.
18. State the relationships among the terms energy per symbol, energy per bit, and received power. Illustrate