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The 03/11/2011 Mw9.

0 Tohoku,
Japan Earthquake
Educational Slides

Created & Compiled by Gavin Hayes & David Wald


U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center
Contributions from:
Kuo-Wan Lin, USGS NEIC
Mike Hearne, USGS NEIC
Lisa Wald, USGS NEIC
Harley Benz, USGS NEIC
Erol Kalkan, USGS Menlo Park
Volkan Sevilgen, USGS Menlo Park

Jascha Polet, Cal Poly Pomona


Charles Ammon, Penn State University
Guangfu Shao, U. California, Santa Barbara

Gavin Hayes and Mike Hearne are contracted to work for the USGS NEIC by Synergetics Inc., Fort Collins, CO.

Offshore Honshu, Japan Earthquake, 03/09/2011, Mw 7.2


USGS ShakeMap : NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN
Wed Mar 9, 2011 02:45:20 GMT M 7.2 N38.42 E142.84 Depth: 32.0km ID:b0001r57

M 7.2, NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN

PAGER
Version 4

Origin Time: Wed 2011-03-09 02:45:20 UTC (11:45:20 local)


o
o
Location: 38.42 N 142.84 E Depth: 32 km
FOR TSUNAMI INFORMATION, SEE: tsunami.noaa.gov

Hachinohe

Estimated Fatalities

odate

Created: 21 hours, 44 minutes after earthquake

Estimated Economic Losses

Green alert for shaking-related fatalities


and economic losses. There is a low
likelihood of casualties and damage.

Iwate

40
Akita

Miyako

Estimated Population Exposed to Earthquake Shaking

Kitakami

ESTIMATED POPULATION
EXPOSURE (k = x1000)

- -*

2,462k* 5,120k*

2,708k

17

ESTIMATED MODIFIED
MERCALLI INTENSITY

Ichinoseki

PERCEIVED SHAKING
POTENTIAL
DAMAGE

Furukawa

Resistant
Structures
Vulnerable
Structures

Not felt

Weak

Light

Moderate

Strong

Very Strong

Severe

Violent

Extreme

none

none

none

V. Light

Light

Moderate

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

none

none

none

Light

Moderate

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

V. Heavy

*Estimated exposure only includes population within the map area.

Population Exposure

Sendai

population per ~1 sq. km from Landscan

Nanyo

38
Fukushima

Historical Earthquakes (with MMI levels):


Date
Dist. Mag.
Max
Shaking
(UTC)
(km)
MMI(#)
Deaths
2003-10-31 73 7.0 V(7,236k)
0
1980-09-23 388 5.3 V(12,718k)
1
1983-05-26 385 7.7 VII(174k)
104
Recent earthquakes in this area have caused
secondary hazards such as tsunamis,
landslides, and fires that might have
contributed to losses.

Koriyama
Iwaki
Takahagi

km

Mito

50

Structures:
Overall, the population in this region resides
in structures that are resistant to earthquake
shaking, though some vulnerable structures
exist.

100

Selected City Exposure


from GeoNames.org

144

142

140

MMI City
V Ishinomaki
V Otsuchi
V Kamaishi
V Hanamaki
V Yamada
V Yamoto
V Sendai
IV Morioka
IV Fukushima
III Utsunomiya
III Yamagata

Map Version 4 Processed Wed Mar 9, 2011 05:27:14 PM MST -- NOT REVIEWED BY HUMAN
PERCEIVED
SHAKING
POTENTIAL
DAMAGE

Not felt Weak

Light

Moderate Strong Very strong

none

none

none

Very light

PEAK ACC.(%g)

<.17

.17-1.4

1.4-3.9

PEAK VEL.(cm/s)

<0.1

0.1-1.1 1.1-3.4

INSTRUMENTAL
INTENSITY

II-III

IV

Severe

Violent

Extreme

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

Very Heavy

Light

Moderate

3.9-9.2

9.2-18

18-34

34-65

65-124

>124

3.4-8.1

8.1-16

16-31

31-60

60-116

>116

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X+

PAGER content is automatically generated, and only considers losses due to structural damage.
Limitations of input data, shaking estimates, and loss models may add uncertainty.

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/pager

bold cities appear on map

Population
117k
16k
43k
73k
20k
32k
1,038k
295k
294k
450k
255k
(k = x1000)

Event ID: usb0001r57

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake, 03/11/2011, Mw 9.0


USGS ShakeMap : NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN
Fri Mar 11, 2011 05:46:23 GMT M 9.0 N38.32 E142.37 Depth: 32.0km ID:c0001xgp

M 9.0, NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN


Estimated Fatalities

40

PAGER
Version 7

Origin Time: Fri 2011-03-11 05:46:23 UTC (14:46:23 local)


o
o
Location: 38.32 N 142.37 E Depth: 32 km
FOR TSUNAMI INFORMATION, SEE: tsunami.noaa.gov

odate

Created: 4 days, 9 hours after earthquake

Red alert level for economic losses. Extensive


damage is probable and the disaster is likely
widespread. Estimated economic losses are
0-1% GDP of Japan. Past events with this alert
level have required a national or international
level response.

Akita
Kitakami

Estimated Economic Losses

Orange alert level for shaking-related fatalities.


Significant casualties are likely.

Sakata

Estimated Population Exposed to Earthquake Shaking


ESTIMATED POPULATION
EXPOSURE (k = x1000)

Sendai

PERCEIVED SHAKING

Niigata

38

POTENTIAL
DAMAGE

Suzu

Koriyama

anazawa

6k*

Resistant
Structures
Vulnerable
Structures

Not felt

Weak

Light

Moderate

Strong

none

none

none

V. Light

Light

none

none

none

Light

Moderate

2,483k* 15,269k* 10,864k*

36,088k*

6,781k*

66k

Very Strong

Severe

Violent

Extreme

Moderate

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

V. Heavy

*Estimated exposure only includes population within the map area.

Population Exposure

Muika

Nanao

- -*

ESTIMATED MODIFIED
MERCALLI INTENSITY

population per ~1 sq. km from Landscan

Iwaki

Utsunomiya

Historical Earthquakes (with MMI levels):

Kumagaya

36

Date
Dist. Mag.
Max
Shaking
(UTC)
(km)
MMI(#)
Deaths
1998-06-14 363 5.7 VII(428k)
0
1994-12-28 263 7.7 VII(132k)
3
1983-05-26 369 7.7 VII(174k)
104
Recent earthquakes in this area have caused
secondary hazards such as tsunamis,
landslides, and fires that might have
contributed to losses.

Ina
Tokyo

Mino
Nagoya

Yokosuka

km
Hamamatsu

75

Structures:
Overall, the population in this region resides
in structures that are resistant to earthquake
shaking, though some vulnerable structures
exist. The predominant vulnerable building
types are non-ductile reinforced concrete
frame and heavy wood frame construction.

150

Selected City Exposure


from GeoNames.org

144

142

140

138

MMI City
IX Iwanuma
IX Rifu
IX Shiogama
IX Hitachi
VIII Takahagi
VIII Ishinomaki
VIII Sendai
VIII Chiba
VII Yokohama
VII Tokyo
V Nagoya

Map Version 6 Processed Tue Mar 15, 2011 08:39:58 AM MDT -- NOT REVIEWED BY HUMAN
PERCEIVED
SHAKING
POTENTIAL
DAMAGE

Not felt Weak

Light

Moderate Strong Very strong

none

none

none

Very light

PEAK ACC.(%g)

<.17

.17-1.4

1.4-3.9

PEAK VEL.(cm/s)

<0.1

0.1-1.1 1.1-3.4

INSTRUMENTAL
INTENSITY

II-III

IV

Severe

Violent

Extreme

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

Very Heavy

Light

Moderate

3.9-9.2

9.2-18

18-34

34-65

65-124

>124

3.4-8.1

8.1-16

16-31

31-60

60-116

>116

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X+

PAGER content is automatically generated, and only considers losses due to structural damage.
Limitations of input data, shaking estimates, and loss models may add uncertainty.

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/pager

bold cities appear on map

Population
42k
35k
60k
186k
34k
117k
1,038k
920k
3,574k
8,337k
2,191k
(k = x1000)

Event ID: usc0001xgp

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: ShakeMap Evolution


V1: O.T. +21 min M7.9

V2: O.T. +40 min M8.8

(Led to PAGER RED Alert


42.9 minutes after origin)

V3: O.T. +1 hr 9 min M8.9

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: ShakeMap Evolution

V4: O.T. +2 h 22 min


M8.9
DYFI data
Finite fault inferred
from aftershocks

V5: OT +2 d 11 hr
M9.0
DYFI Data
12 K-NET stations
Finite fault inferred
from aftershocks

V6: OT +3 d 9 hr
M9.0
DYFI Data
273 K-NET stations
Finite fault from KNET (NIED) inversion

Mainshock ShakeMap,
assumed fault
(rectangle), and
JMA Intensity Map

M 8.9, NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN

PAGER
Version 5

Origin Time: Fri 2011-03-11 05:46:23 UTC (14:46:23 local)


o
o
Location: 38.32 N 142.37 E Depth: 24 km
FOR TSUNAMI INFORMATION, SEE: tsunami.noaa.gov

Estimated Fatalities

Created: 2 hours, 44 minutes after earthquake

Red alert level for economic losses. Extensive


damage is probable and the disaster is likely
widespread. Estimated economic losses are less
than 1% of GDP of Japan. Past events with this
alert level have required a national or
international level response.

Estimated Economic Losses

Orange alert level for shaking-related fatalities.


Significant casualties are likely.

Estimated Population Exposed to Earthquake Shaking


ESTIMATED POPULATION
EXPOSURE (k = x1000)

- -*

- -*

- -*

7,071k*

19,695k*

29,969k*

2,144k

Not felt

Weak

Light

Moderate

Strong

Very Strong

Severe

Violent

Extreme

none

none

none

V. Light

Light

Moderate

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

none

none

none

Light

Moderate

Moderate/Heavy

Heavy

V. Heavy

V. Heavy

ESTIMATED MODIFIED
MERCALLI INTENSITY
PERCEIVED SHAKING
POTENTIAL
DAMAGE

Resistant
Structures
Vulnerable
Structures

*Estimated exposure only includes population within the map area.

Population Exposure

population per ~1 sq. km from Landscan

Structures:
Overall, the population in this region resides
in structures that are resistant to earthquake
shaking, though some vulnerable structures
exist. The predominant vulnerable building
types are non-ductile reinforced concrete
frame and heavy wood frame construction.
Historical Earthquakes (with MMI levels):
Date
Dist. Mag.
Max
Shaking
(UTC)
(km)
MMI(#)
Deaths
1998-06-14 363 5.7 VII(428k)
0
1994-12-28 263 7.7 VII(132k)
3
1983-05-26 369 7.7 VII(174k)
104
Recent earthquakes in this area have caused
secondary hazards such as tsunamis,
landslides, and fires that might have
contributed to losses.

Selected City Exposure


from GeoNames.org

MMI City
VIII Omigawa
VIII Oarai
VIII Hasaki
VIII Itako
VIII Ofunato
VIII Takahagi
VII Sendai
VII Chiba
VII Tokyo
VI Yokohama
V Shizuoka
PAGER content is automatically generated, and only considers losses due to structural damage.
Limitations of input data, shaking estimates, and loss models may add uncertainty.

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/pager

bold cities appear on map

Population
26k
19k
39k
26k
35k
34k
1,038k
920k
8,337k
3,574k
702k
(k = x1000)

Event ID: usc0001xgp

Shaking & Aftershocks


(as of March 13th)

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Shaking Duration in Tokyo,


Ground Acceleration

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Shaking Duration in Tokyo,


Ground Velocity



Peak Ground Motion Acceleration (PGA) of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku M=9.0 earthquake

K-Net
stations

KiK-Net
(surface)

KiK-Net
(downhole
100 m)

 

Send
Sendai

11 March 2011
M=9.0

PGA(g)







Tokyo



Strong-motion
stations

Maximum PGA of 2.7g was recorded at Miyagi Prefecture





    

 





  















Erol Kalkan & Volkan Sevilgen (USGS)


March 17, 2011

Peak Ground Motion Acceleration (PGA) of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku M=9.0 earthquake
Tokyo Metropolitan and its surroundings

KiK-Net
(Surface)

Peak Ground
Acceleration (g)

KiK-Net
Downhole
(100 m)

Latitude()

K-NET

Tokyo

50 Km

Longitude()
Population Density (Landscan)

Strong motion stations

Maximum PGA of 0.16g was recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan

March 17, 2011


Erol Kalkan & Volkan Sevilgen (USGS)

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Aftershock (and Foreshock)


Sequence, 03/08/11 - 03/16/11
Slab Contours from Slab1.0, every 20 km
Mw 7.3 Foreshock
Mw 9.0 Mainshock





Mw 7.7 Aftershock
Mw 7.9 Aftershock





03/09

03/11

03/13

03/15

03/17 03/19

Date (Month/Day)
Note that the magnitudes of the 2011/03/11 06:15 (Mw 7.9) and 2011/03/11 06:25 (Mw 7.7) aftershocks were
updated from earlier, lower estimates. Updates occurred on 03/16 and 03/18, respectively.

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Aftershock (and Foreshock)


Sequence, M:Time History

Magnitude (M)

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0
03/09

03/11

03/13

03/15

Date (Month/Day)

03/17

03/19

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Tectonic Summary


The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11,
2011, which occurred near the northeast coast of
Honshu, Japan, resulted from thrust faulting on or
near the subduction zone plate boundary between the
Pacific and North America plates. At the latitude of
this earthquake, the Pacific plate moves approximately
westwards with respect to the North America plate at
a rate of 83 mm/yr, and begins its westward descent
beneath Japan at the Japan Trench.







Eurasia Plate
North America Plate





The location, depth, and focal mechanism of the March


11 earthquake are consistent with the event having
occurred on the subduction zone plate boundary.






Modeling of the rupture of this earthquake (red


shading, approx.) indicate that the fault moved
upwards of 30-40 m, and slipped over an area
approximately 300 km long (along-strike) by 150 km
wide (in the down-dip direction). The rupture zone is
roughly centered on the earthquake epicenter alongstrike, while peak slips were up-dip of the hypocenter,
towards the Japan Trench axis. The March 11
earthquake was preceded by a series of large
foreshocks over the previous two days, beginning on
March 9th with a M 7.2 event approximately 40 km
from the epicenter of the March 11 earthquake, and
continuing with another three earthquakes greater
than M 6 on the same day.




83 mm/yr



Pacific Plate






Philippine Sea Plate



         
         
1

Japan Regional Seismicity, 1900-2007


USGS Poster/Open File Report 2010-1083-D

IA

gh
ou
r

1973
Ch'ongjin

Taejon

Pusan

n
H o

St

ra

1906

Fukuoka

Got Rett

Hiroshima

it

Shimonoseki
Kita
Kyushu

Matsuyama

Sh

iko

1944

ku
To s a
Bank

Nagasaki

a
1968

Kyushu
1909

1946

n o

1931

1961 1941

s)

C
N

sl
a

u
y

T
O
T

A
K
T

c
28

-300

O g
a s a
w a r a

e a
P l a t

26

PROFILE D

24

lc
(Vo

-600

an
oI

sl a

0
10

ds

0
20

Mangetsu
Basin

132

134

100 C'

136

30
0

138

140

Albers Equal Area Conic Projection


SCALE 1:6 000 000
100

200

400

22

2000

S E A

2007

1914

600

800
Kilometers

i Daikoku

d
n

N C H
R E

100

60

145

20
0

10
0

-ret t

-300
140

Ka za n

Others

-100

-500

142

Magnitude classes

144

Depth of focus

45.9

069 km

66.4

70299 km

6.56.9

300700 km

77.4

7.9
8.0

Nucleation points
Active volcanoes

Earth structure
Air
Crust
Upper mantle
Transition zone

PROFILE C

-200

-200

Iwo-jima

7.8
45

-300

D'

Kita-io-jim a

7.7

-200

135

130
0

-400

-400

7.6

25

130

Ridge
w a r a ( Bonin Is lands)
asa
ot
O g awara- S h
s
O ga

-100

30

7.5

67

125

100

128
-200

-100

Transform

120

n
a i
C h

70

25

Subduction

0
60

63

n t
o u
a m
S e

-300

Divergent
Suggested citation:
Rhea, Susan, Tarr, A.C., Hayes, Gavin, Villaseor,
Antonio, and Benz, H.M., 2010, Seismicity of the earth
19002007, Japan and vicinity: U.S. Geological Survey
Open-File Report 20101083-D, scale 1:6,000,000.

-400

Manuscript approved for publication July 28, 2010

49

PHILIPPINE SEA
PLATE

126
C

PROFILE B

D -500

Hahajima-rett

124

30

57

i s

Digital map database and cartography by Susan Rhea and Arthur Tarr

53

51

122

Albers Equal Area Conic Projection

32

asi
hda B

-100

i t
o

P H I L I P P I N E

30

80.0100.0

Plate boundaries

56

PACIFIC
PLATE

100 B'

-400

.
35

47

1998

120

90
39

EURASIA (AMUR)
PLATE

R i
d g e

ara

Nadez

rett
Mukojima--jima
Yome
Chichijimarett

JAPAN

-300

Tori-shima

SOUTH
KOREA

i t
o

OKHOTSK
PLATE

35

i n

A PDF for this map is available at


http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1083/d/

For sale by U.S. Geological Survey Information Services


Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225
1-888-ASK-USGS

60.079.9

I-

ge

This map was produced on request, directly from


digital files, on an electronic plotter.

N
N A

Ok i-Da it o
Te rrace
O
k
i

-100

-100

asaw
Izu - Og
Rise

Although this information product, for the most part, is in


the public domain, it also contains copyrighted materials
as noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted
items for other than personal use must be secured from
the copyright owner.

1915

1972

20.039.9
40.059.9

C'

id
oR

11.019.9

40

6.49.8

Relative plate motion

Naha

Koh

Kita-Daito Basin

3.26.4

Kaoshsiung

NORTH
KOREA

id

1959

22

83

0.81.6

T'ainan

RUSSIA

CHINA

1920

1951

0.40.8
40

1999

Okinaw
e a

P'e nghu
Ch'untao

145
45

0.20.4

Any use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only


and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

T'aichung

n
(R
o
ot
t
1938
Sh
o
h
e i o Jima- S
Miyak
s
60
an
i
N aki
Iriom ote Jima Ishig
Jiman s e
Ya
S
ey a
t t
Na
m a - re

O100

1910

1922

24

00.2 m/s

Taipei

TA I WA

140

8 - 8.7

135

200

130

Fuzhou

SEISMIC HAZARD AND RELATIVE PLATE MOTION

26

a
r i

-200

-200

Tokuno Shima

A m a m i

1911

60

e
is

125

n
n a
K i

28

Amami Shima

-300

34

B'

1972

R i d g e

120

50
0

Kikai
Basin

45

1953

-400

Cipa
1909

60

EAST CHIN
A SEA

1923

Sumis u-shim a

Hangzhou

-500

Aoga-shima

0
40

30

Others

36

-600

Hachij o-shim a

Divergent

300700 km

A S

Shanghai

Transform

069 km
70299 km

O G

Nanjing

Hefei

re

38

1923

Ko

Subduction

Depth of focus

Beck, S.L., and Ruff, L.J., 1987, Rupture process of the great 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake sequenceAsperity
interaction and multiple event rupture: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 92, no. B13, p. 1412314138.
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DeMets, C., Gordon, R.G., Argus, D.F., and Stein, S., 1994, Effects of recent revisions to the geomagnetic time scale
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Engdahl, E.R., and Villaseor, Antonio, 2002, Global seismicity 19001999, in Lee, W.H.K., Jennings,
P., Kisslinger, C., and Kanamori, H., eds, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering
Seismology, v. 81(A), chap. 41, p. 126.
ESRI, 2002, ESRI Data and Maps: ESRI, Redlands, CA
Fukao, Yoshio, and Furumoto, Muneyoshi, 1979, Stress drops, wave spectra and recurrence intervals of
PRE-INSTRUMENTAL SEISMICITY 15001899
great earthquakesImplications of the Etorofu earthquake of 1958 November 6: Geophysical Journal
M 7.5, tsunami, or deaths
International, v. 57, p. 2340.
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http://www.gebco.net/.
Giardini, D., Grnthal, G., Shedlock, K., Zhang, P., and Global Seismic Hazards Program, 1999, Global
Seismic Hazards Map, accessed January 9, 2007 at http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP.
1843
Hayes, G,. and Wald, D., 2010, Slab models for subduction zones: U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake
1679
1763
Hazards Program, accessed February 23, 2010 at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/data/slab/.
1677
1897
1896
Kawakatsu, H. and Seno, Tetsuo, 1983, Triple seismic zone and the regional variation of seismicity
1611
along the northern Honshu arc: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, no. B5, p. 42154230.
1897
1847
1793
Kikuchi, Matsayuki, and Kanamori, Hiroo, 1995, The Shikotan earthquake of October 4, 1994
Lithospheric earthquake: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 22, no. 9, p. 10251028.
1891
1898
Miyazaki, Shin-ichi, Segall, Paul, Fukuda, Junichi, and Kato, Teryyuki, 2004, Space time distribution of
1586
afterslip following the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquakeImplications for variations in fault zone
1668
1703
frictional properties: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, no. L06623, p. 14.
1707
NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 2010, : U.S. Dept of Commerce, accessed March 31, 2010
1854
at
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1854
Siebert, L., and Simkin, T., 2002, Volcanoes of the worldAn illustrated catalog of Holocene
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Tarr, A.C., Villaseor, Antonio, Furlong, K.P., Rhea, Susan, and Benz, H.M, 2010, Seismicity of the
Earth 19002007: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064,
1604
Magnitude
scale 1:25,000,000.
0 - 7.9

Cheju-do

600

8.2

I Z U

32

1938

-shima
Nii-shi ma
Kzu-shima Miyaki-shim a
Mikura-shima

Osaka

g e
R i d
s ) 00
i m a
l an d 2
- O z
zu Is
i t o
o t (I
S i t
Izu-Sh
300
h i t o
- S h i c
N i s h i

CHIN

REFERENCES

500

8.1

Kawasaki

10
0

Kyoto
Kobe

Base map data sources include GEBCO 2008, Volcanoes of the World dataset (Siebert and Simkin, 2002),
plate boundaries (Bird, 2003), Digital Chart of the World, and ESRI (2002).

400

Plate boundaries

Tokyo
Yokohama

Nagoya

34
ShimonoTsushima
Shima

300

8.0

8.1
8.2

Lower mantle

DEPTH
146 PROFILE EXPLANATION
Distance (km)

Profiles of earthquake and volcano


locations are constructed from the
mapped data. Locations of the profile
intersection with the surface are drawn
in the map and labeled to coincide with
the profile label. Box defines extent of
earthquakes included in profile. Length
of the profile graphic is the same as in
the map. Distance in kilometers from the
trench axis is indicated in the X
direction, depth in kilometers is
indicated in the Y direction. There is no
vertical exaggeration. See Explanation
at side for color key. Not all earth layers,
earthquake depths or magnitudes, are
visible on every map.

100

200

TRENCH AXIS
0
-100
Depth (km)

Kwangju

60

Gifu

Pre-instrumental seismicity was obtained from the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (2010) database
of significant earthquakes; locations are approximate, based on macro-seismic reports and field investigations.
We selected for earthquakes with associated reports of moderate to major damage, deaths, an estimated
magnitude of 7.5 or greater, or tsunami generation.

200

7.9

Taegu

100

Dgo
Dzen

A'

100

7.8

ot

Chonju

ki

1933

60 km

7.7

uy

SEA

Mean slab depth

7.6

YELLOW

The Seismic Hazard and Relative Plate Motion panel displays the generalized seismic hazard of the region
(Giardini and others, 1999) and representative relative plate motion vectors using the NUVEL-1A model
(DeMets, et.al., 1994.)

1938
1938 1938

Tu s i m a
Basin

Ch'ungju

The nucleation points of great earthquakes (M8.3) are designated with a label showing the year of
occurrence. Their rupture areas are shown as pale yellow polygons. Major earthquakes (7.5M8.2) are
labeled with the year of occurrence. Slab contours are from Hayes and Wald (2010).

1915

1978

40

Qingdao

J A PA N

e
dg

Active volcanoes

77.4

SOUTH
KOREA

36

Syun-Yo
Rise

Rupture zones

6.56.9

Ya m a t o
Basin

Dokdo
(Admin by S. Korea)

Nucleation points

45.9
66.4

Inch`on
Seoul

Honshu

60

Jinan

nk

Kaesong

PROFILE A
-600

Ba

-500

Ris

Sendai

Ko

DATA SOURCES
The earthquakes portrayed on the main map and the depth profiles are taken from two sources: (a) the
Centennial earthquake catalog (Engdahl and Villaseor, 2002) and annual supplements for the interval 19002007, where the magnitude floor is 5.5 globally, and (b) a catalog of earthquakes having high-quality depth
determinations for the period 1964-2002 and a magnitude range of 5.0M5.4 (Engdahl, personal comm.
2003)

1960

1964

re

an

Ya

at

at

1994

n
Ba

MAP EXPLANATION
Magnitude classes

42

38

te

Wonsan

P'yongyang

Korea Bay

Dalian

la

BO HA
I
-400

1931

1983

to

a-

NORTH
KOREA

Tianjin

-300

500

Sinuiju

Tangshan

7.5

1901

Aomori

600

1976

1994

1968

200

it

-200

44

n
e

1968

400

Beijing

Anshan

40

1952

300

bo

2003

i n

Fushun

Shenyang

Ha

1993

Bogorov
Ridge

-100

1973

60

1993

Several relevant tectonic elements, plate boundaries and active volcanoes, provide a context for the
seismicity presented on the main map. The plate boundaries (Bird, 2003) are known most accurately
along the axis of the trenches and are more diffuse or speculative in the Sea of Japan, China, and Russia.
The active volcanic arcs (Siebert and Simkin, 2002) follow the Izu, Volcano, and Ryukyu island chains
and the main Japanese islands parallel to the Japan trench.

100

Hokkaido
Sapporo

Vladivostok

1969

s.

Tr

R
Jilin

A'

100

1978

Kunish ir

sh

1995
1978

is

-100

1963

1978

1958

1978

-200

T R E N C H

-300

IL

OPEN-FILE REPORT 20101083-D


Version 1.0

152

1963

-400

ta

-500

Ta

-600

150

IturupA N
L
IS

S
S
U
-700

-800

-900

42

Subduction zones at the Japanese island arcs are geologically complex and produce numerous
earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding plates generates shallow crustal
earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from
near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Japanese arc earthquakes occur
within the subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and can reach depths of nearly 700 km. Since
1900, two great earthquakes occurred off Japan and three north of Hokkaido. They are the M8.4 1933
Sanriku-oki earthquake (Kawakatsu and Seno, 1983), the M8.3 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Miyazaki
and others, 2004), M8.4 1958 Etorofu earthquake (Fukao and Furamoto, 1979), the M8.5 1963 Kuril
earthquake (Beck and Ruff, 1987), and the M8.3 1994 Shikotan earthquake (Kikuchi and Kanamori,
1995).

1.63.2

148

-1000

-1100

-1200

1940

Changchun

sa

TECTONIC SUMMARY

Kit ami - 200


Yam a tu
Ban k

and Harley Benz

This map shows details of Japan and vicinity not visible in an earlier publication (Tarr and others, 2010).
Japan and its island possessions lie across four major tectonic plates: Pacific plate; North America plate;
Eurasia plate; and Philippine Sea plate. The Pacific plate is subducted into the mantle, beneath Hokkaido
and northern Honshu, along the eastern margin of the Okhotsk microplate, a proposed subdivision of the
North America plate (Bird, 2003). Farther south, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath volcanic islands
along the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. This 2,200 km-long zone of subduction of the
Pacific plate is responsible for the creation of the deep offshore Ogasawara and Japan trenches as well as
parallel chains of islands and volcanoes, typical of Circumpacific island arcs. Similarly, the Philippine
Sea plate is itself subducting under the Eurasia plate along a zone, extending from Taiwan to southern
Honshu, that comprises the Ryukyu Islands and the Nansei-Shoto trench.

115

146

300

44

Institute of Earth Sciences, CSIC, Lluis Sol i Sabars s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Peak ground acceleration

144

La Perouse Strai

Harbin

Villaseor*,

FIGURE EXPLANATION

142

140

138

136

134

1950

Japan and Vicinity

Compiled by Susan Rhea, Arthur C. Tarr, Gavin Hayes, Antonio

132

Seismicity of the Earth 19002007

130

128

126

124

ei

122

120

118

116

114

J a
p a
n

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

-200
-300
-400
-500
-600
-700
-800

PROFILE X

300

400

500

600 X'

D'

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Summary Poster


USGS V1 - 4.5 hrs after OT

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Summary Poster


USGS Current Version

Web Traffic Statistics

Average 400,000 visits/day & 1.5 million page views/day


Peak 900,000 visits/day & 2.5 million page views/day
Christchurch
(M6.1) NZ

Tohoku
(M9.0) JP

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Source


Region Slab Geometry

NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

120

TRENCH

80

40

-40

Depth (km)

0
20
40

Slab1.0
Cross-section through hypocenter

60

Gold CMTs used to constrain slab geomety,


with active seismic data (maroon diamonds) and deep seismicity (not shown)
Grey circles & CMTs are background seismicity

80

Dip ()

0
Slab1.0
Red dashed line represents dip of slab. Grey circles
are dips of mechanisms used to constrain geometry

20
40

240

200

160
120
80
40
Distance Perpendicular to Average CMT Strike (km)

-40

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Source


Region Slab Geometry
NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

120

TRENCH

80

40

-40

Depth (km)

0
20
40

Slab1.0
Cross-section through hypocenter

60

Gold CMTs used to constrain slab geomety,


with active seismic data (maroon diamonds) and deep seismicity (not shown)
Grey circles & CMTs are background seismicity

80

Dip ()

0
Slab1.0
Red dashed line represents dip of slab. Grey circles
are dips of mechanisms used to constrain geometry

20
40

240

200

160
120
80
40
Distance Perpendicular to Average CMT Strike (km)

-40

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Moment Tensor Solutions


(Faulting Mechanisms)
USGS Research Centroid
Moment Tensor
Mw 8.9
Distributed ~34 minutes
after OT

global Centroid Moment


Tensor V1
Mw 9.1
Released 7 hrs after OT

(Jascha Polet, Cal Poly Pomona)

USGS W-Phase V1
Mw 8.9
Released 1 hr after OT

global Centroid Moment


Tensor V2
Mw 9.1
Released ~ 3 days after OT

USGS W-Phase V2
Mw 9.0
Released 6 hrs after OT

Earthquake Research
Institute, Japan, CMT V1
Mw 9.0

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Source


Region Slab Geometry
NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

120

TRENCH

80

40

-40

Depth (km)

0
20
40

Slab1.0
Cross-section through hypocenter

60

Gold CMTs used to constrain slab geomety,


with active seismic data (maroon diamonds) and deep seismicity (not shown)
Grey circles & CMTs are background seismicity

80

Dip ()

0
Slab1.0
Red dashed line represents dip of slab. Grey circles
are dips of mechanisms used to constrain geometry

20
40

240

200

160
120
80
40
Distance Perpendicular to Average CMT Strike (km)

-40

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Moment Tensor Analysis


Dip/Depth Sensitivity
NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

TRENCH

120

80

40

-40

Mww 9.04
Mww 8.99
Mww 9.03

Depth (km)

PREM interface

20

PREM interface

Mww 9.02

Mww 9.07

Mww 9.07
Mww 9.10

40
60
80

W-Phase Results
Fixed centroid locations, vary hypocenter to match slab geometry

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Moment Tensor Analysis


Dip/Depth Sensitivity
NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

TRENCH

120

80

40

-40

Depth (km)

PREM interface

20

Mww 9.03

gCMT, V1
(Mw 9.12)

PREM interface
gCMT, V2
(Mw 9.08)

40
60
80

W-Phase vs gCMT
WP at the gCMT centroid recovers Mww 9.03 (not shown)

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Moment Tensor Analysis


Dip/Depth Sensitivity
NEIC Epicenter

240

200

160

TRENCH

120

80

40

-40

Depth (km)

PREM interface

-20

PREM interface

-40

3. Mww 9.07
2. Mww 9.08

-60
-80

W-Phase
Start at PDE location
Reiterate (1-3) with new centroid location until MT no longer shifts
Update depths using Slab1.0 at each iteration
1. Mww 8.99

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Finite Fault Model


USGS V1 - 7 hrs after OT


Compact rupture, mostly


bilateral about epicenter, peak
slip up dip of hypocenter.
Rupture was likely restricted
to the shallow trench, and GPS
vectors suggest slip did not
reach the plate boundary
beneath the coastline.
Peak slips closer to 30+ m,
inferred from updated
modeling.






Slip (cm)

1800
1600


1400
1200
1000
800


50 km

600

Dept

40 km

30 km

400
20 km

200

10 km

0

















14 6

Finite Fault Model USGS V1 Comparison with locking


estimates (Hashimoto et al. ,
2009, Nat. Geo.)

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Population Exposure &


Shaking Intensities vs Slab Geometry & Slip Extent

Instrumental Intensity (USGS Shakemap)


II
IV
VI
VIII
X

1
0
0
40
e
Plan
FFM

Depth (km)

80
120
160
200
240
280

560

480
400
320
240
160
80
Distance Perpendicular to Average CMT Strike (km)

-40

FFM Slip
(as fraction of
max slip)

Extent of major slip


(USGS FFM V1)

FFM Slip
(as fraction of
max slip)

Population (per sq. km), summed along strike


of USGS slip model V1 (240 km, sampled
every 10 km)

Note that slip during


the earthquake likely
did not extend to the
depths of the plate
boundary directly
under the Japan
coastline as shown
here, because GPS data
indicate that the
coastline moved down
coseismically.

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Finite Fault Model


USGS V2 - 2011/03/18


Updated modeling shows peak


slips of 30+ m, depending on
the parameterization of
rupture velocity. This updated
model shows peak slip of ~32
m, using a range of rupture
velocity from 1.25 - 3 km/s.





Models with constant rupture


velocity show slips of 40-50 m,
all at shallow depths. This may
imply that the up-dip nature of
rupture is well resolved, but
peak slips are not.



Slip (cm)

Low slip regions near the


fault edges, and fault base, are
also poorly resolved.

3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0


50 km
40 km

Dept

30 km
20 km
10 km




















1

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Finite Fault Model


U. California, Santa Barbara

Version 1
NEIC Hypocenter

Version 2
JMA Hypocenter
(50 km ESE)

Version 3
Body & Surface Waves
realigned using the
03/09/2011 Mw 7.3
foreshock.

Figures courtesy of Guangfu Shao, U. California, Santa Barbara

Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: GPS Displacements


Geospatial Information Authority of Japan



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40

40

39

39

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38

38

2011/3/11 M9.0

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37

37

36

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50cm
138

139

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140

141

142

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138

139

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Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Other Groups

Many groups have published (online) slip models for this earthquake; below is a list
of some of these (note this is not complete):
Geospatial Information Authority, Japan (using regional GPS data):
http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic110315-index-e.html
Charles Ammon, Penn State; Thorne Lay, UCSC; Hiroo Kanamori, Caltech:
http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu/~cammon/Japan2011EQ/
Caltech Tectonics Observatory:
http://tectonics.caltech.edu/slip_history/
Yuji Yagi, Naoki Nishimura, University of Tsukuba:
http://www.geol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~yagi-y/EQ/Tohoku/

For a more comprehensive list of models, and results from other analyses, see the
special IRIS website:
http://www.iris.edu/news/events/japan2011/

A History Of Large Earthquakes

Data: USGS PAGERCAT 1900-2008, USGS-NEIC & gCMT 2008-present


Figure courtesy of Charles Ammon, after Ammon et al., SRL, 2010