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Mathematics

Grade One
Interim Edition

Curriculum Guide
September 2009

TABLE OF Contents

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements......................................iii
Foreword..........................................v
Background............................................1
Introduction




Purpose of the Document........................................2


Beliefs About Students and Mathematics Learning.....................................2
Affective Domain...........................................3
Early Childhood..........................................3
Goal for Students...........................................4

Conceptual Framework for K9 Mathematics..........................................4


Mathematical Processes................................................5
Nature of Mathematics............................................9
Strands....................................................12
Outcomes and Achievement Indicators.......................................13
Summary.................................................13

Instructional Focus
Planning for Instruction............................................ 14
Resources................................................14
Teaching Sequence..........................................15
Instruction Time per Unit..................................................15

General and Specific Outcomes..........................................................................16


General and Specific Outcomes by Strand K - 2..................................17
Representing Numbers to 20.........................................................29
Patterning...........................................................73
Addition and Subtraction to 12.............................................85
Measurement ..............................................113
Numbers to 100...................................................125
Addition and Subtraction to 20..............................................135
Geometry ....................................................149

Appendix A: Outcomes with Achievement Indicators (Strand)....161


References........................................................................169

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

ii

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

acknowledgements

Acknowledgements
The Department of Education would like to thank Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP)
for Collaboration in Education, The Common Curriculum Framework for K-9 Mathematics - May 2006 and
The Common Curriculum Framework for Grades 10-12 - January 2008. Reproduced (and/or adapted) by
permission. All rights reserved.
We would also like to thank the provincial Grade 1 Mathematics curriculum committee, the Alberta
Department of Education, the New Brunswick Department of Education, and the following people for their
contribution:
Trudy Porter, Program Development Specialist Mathematics, Division
of Program Development, Department of Education
Theresa Bryant, Numeracy Support Teacher Eastern School District
Valerie Fleming, Teacher Upper Gullies Elementary,
Conception Bay South
Karen Keough, Teacher Roncolli, St. Johns
Nancy Pelley, Teacher Upper Gullies Elementary,
Conception Bay South
Lois Petten, Teacher Numeracy Support Teacher, Eastern School
District
Colleen Ryan, Teacher Stephenville Primary,
Stephenville
Patricia Maxwell Program Development Specialist Mathematics,
Division of Program Development, Department of Education
Rita Kennedy, Teacher St. Francis of Assisi, St. Johns
Laura Feltham, Teacher Cowan Heights Elementary, St. Johns
Ruth Power-Blackmore, Teacher Larkhall Academy, St. Johns

Every effort has been made to acknowledge all sources that contributed to the development of this document.
Any omissions or errors will be amended in final print.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

iii

iv

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

foreword

Foreword
The Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8
Mathematics released in 2006 by the National Council of Teachers
in Mathematics (NCTM) and the WNCP Common Curriculum
Frameworks for Mathematics K 9 (WNCP, 2006), assists many
provinces in developing a mathematics curriculum framework.
Newfoundland and Labrador has used this curriculum framework to
direct the development of this curriculum guide.
This curriculum guide is intended to provide teachers with the
overview of the outcomes framework for mathematics education. It also
includes suggestions to assist teachers in designing learning experiences
and assessment tasks.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

vi

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

Introduction

BACKGROUND

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador commissioned an


independent review of mathematics curriculum in the summer of 2007.
This review resulted in a number of significant recommendations.
In March of 2008, it was announced that this province accepted
all recommendations. The first and perhaps most significiant of the
recommendations were as follows:
That the WNCP Common Curriculum Frameworks for
Mathematics K 9 and Mathematics 10 12 (WNCP, 2006 and
2008) be adopted as the basis for the K 12 mathematics curriculum
in this province.
That implementation commence with Grades K, 1, 4, 7 in
September 2008, followed by in Grades 2, 5, 8 in 2009 and Grades
3, 6, 9 in 2010.
That textbooks and other resources specifically designed to match the
WNCP frameworks be adopted as an integral part of the proposed
program change.
That implementation be accompanied by an introductory
professional development program designed to introduce the
curriculum to all mathematics teachers at the appropriate grade levels
prior to the first year of implementation.
As recommended, the implementation schedule for K-6 mathematics is
as follows:

Implementation Year
2008
2009
2010

Grade Level
K, 1 and 4
2, 5
3, 6

All teachers assigned to these grades will receive professional development


opportunities related to the new curriculum and resources.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the
Document
The curriculum guide
communicates high
expectations for students.

The Mathematics Curriculum Guides for Newfoundland and Labrador


have been derived from The Common Curriculum Framework for K9
Mathematics: Western and Northern Canadian Protocol, May 2006
(the Common Curriculum Framework). These guides incorporate the
conceptual framework for Kindergarten to Grade 9 Mathematics and
the general outcomes, specific outcomes and achievement indicators
established in the common curriculum framework. They also include
suggestions for teaching and learning, suggested assessment strategies,
and an identification of the associated resource match between the
curriculum and authorized, as well as recommended, resource materials.

Beliefs About
Students and
Mathematics
Learning

Students are curious, active learners with individual interests, abilities


and needs. They come to classrooms with varying knowledge, life
experiences and backgrounds. A key component in successfully
developing numeracy is making connections to these backgrounds and
experiences.

Mathematical
understanding is fostered
when students build on
their own experiences and
prior knowledge.

Students learn by attaching meaning to what they do, and they need
to construct their own meaning of mathematics. This meaning is best
developed when learners encounter mathematical experiences that
proceed from the simple to the complex and from the concrete to the
abstract. Through the use of manipulatives and a variety of pedagogical
approaches, teachers can address the diverse learning styles, cultural
backgrounds and developmental stages of students, and enhance
within them the formation of sound, transferable mathematical
understandings. At all levels, students benefit from working with a
variety of materials, tools and contexts when constructing meaning
about new mathematical ideas. Meaningful student discussions provide
essential links among concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations
of mathematical concepts.
The learning environment should value and respect the diversity
of students experiences and ways of thinking, so that students are
comfortable taking intellectual risks, asking questions and posing
conjectures. Students need to explore problem-solving situations in
order to develop personal strategies and become mathematically literate.
They must realize that it is acceptable to solve problems in a variety of
ways and that a variety of solutions may be acceptable.

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

introduction

Affective Domain

To experience success,
students must be taught
to set achievable goals and
assess themselves as they
work toward these goals.

A positive attitude is an important aspect of the affective domain and


has a profound impact on learning. Environments that create a sense of
belonging, encourage risk taking and provide opportunities for success
help develop and maintain positive attitudes and self-confidence within
students. Students with positive attitudes toward learning mathematics
are likely to be motivated and prepared to learn, participate willingly
in classroom activities, persist in challenging situations and engage in
reflective practices.
Teachers, students and parents need to recognize the relationship
between the affective and cognitive domains, and attempt to nurture
those aspects of the affective domain that contribute to positive
attitudes. To experience success, students must be taught to set
achievable goals and assess themselves as they work toward these goals.
Striving toward success and becoming autonomous and responsible
learners are ongoing, reflective processes that involve revisiting the
setting and assessing of personal goals.

Early Childhood

Curiosity about mathematics


is fostered when children
are actively engaged in their
environment.

Young children are naturally curious and develop a variety of


mathematical ideas before they enter Kindergarten. Children make
sense of their environment through observations and interactions at
home, in daycares, in preschools and in the community. Mathematics
learning is embedded in everyday activities, such as playing, reading,
beading, baking, storytelling and helping around the home.
Activities can contribute to the development of number and spatial
sense in children. Curiosity about mathematics is fostered when
children are engaged in, and talking about, such activities as comparing
quantities, searching for patterns, sorting objects, ordering objects,
creating designs and building with blocks.
Positive early experiences in mathematics are as critical to child
development as are early literacy experiences.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

introduction

Goals For
Students

The main goals of mathematics education are to prepare students to:


use mathematics confidently to solve problems
communicate and reason mathematically
appreciate and value mathematics
make connections between mathematics and its applications
commit themselves to lifelong learning

Mathematics education
must prepare students
to use mathematics
confidently to solve
problems.

become mathematically literate adults, using mathematics to


contribute to society.
Students who have met these goals will:
gain understanding and appreciation of the contributions of
mathematics as a science, philosophy and art
exhibit a positive attitude toward mathematics
engage and persevere in mathematical tasks and projects
contribute to mathematical discussions
take risks in performing mathematical tasks
exhibit curiosity.

CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
FOR K-9
MATHEMATICS

The chart below provides an overview of how mathematical processes


and the nature of mathematics influence learning outcomes.

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

PROCESS STANDARDS

MATHEMATICAL
PROCESSES

There are critical components that students must encounter in a


mathematics program in order to achieve the goals of mathematics
education and embrace lifelong learning in mathematics.
Students are expected to:

Communication [C]

communicate in order to learn and express their understanding

Connections [CN]

connect mathematical ideas to other concepts in mathematics, to


everyday experiences and to other disciplines

Mental Mathematics
and Estimation [ME]
Problem Solving [PS]
Reasoning [R]
Technology [T]
Visualization [V]

demonstrate fluency with mental mathematics and estimation


develop and apply new mathematical knowledge through problem
solving
develop mathematical reasoning
select and use technologies as tools for learning and for solving
problems
develop visualization skills to assist in processing information,
making connections and solving problems.
The program of studies incorporates these seven interrelated
mathematical processes that are intended to permeate teaching and
learning.

Communication [C]

Students must be able to


communicate mathematical
ideas in a variety of ways
and contexts.

Students need opportunities to read about, represent, view, write about,


listen to and discuss mathematical ideas. These opportunities allow
students to create links between their own language and ideas, and the
formal language and symbols of mathematics.
Communication is important in clarifying, reinforcing and modifying
ideas, attitudes and beliefs about mathematics. Students should be
encouraged to use a variety of forms of communication while learning
mathematics. Students also need to communicate their learning using
mathematical terminology.
Communication helps students make connections among concrete,
pictorial, symbolic, oral, written and mental representations of
mathematical ideas.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

process standards

Connections [CN]

Through connections,
students begin to view
mathematics as useful and
relevant.

Contextualization and making connections to the experiences


of learners are powerful processes in developing mathematical
understanding. This can be particularly true for First Nations, Mtis
and Inuit learners. When mathematical ideas are connected to each
other or to real-world phenomena, students begin to view mathematics
as useful, relevant and integrated.
Learning mathematics within contexts and making connections relevant
to learners can validate past experiences and increase student willingness
to participate and be actively engaged.
The brain is constantly looking for and making connections. Because
the learner is constantly searching for connections on many levels,
educators need to orchestrate the experiences from which learners extract
understanding. Brain research establishes and confirms that multiple
complex and concrete experiences are essential for meaningful learning
and teaching (Caine and Caine, 1991, p.5).

Mental Mathematics and


Estimation [ME]

Mental mathematics is a combination of cognitive strategies that


enhance flexible thinking and number sense. It is calculating mentally
without the use of external memory aids.
Mental mathematics enables students to determine answers without
paper and pencil. It improves computational fluency by developing
efficiency, accuracy and flexibility.

Mental mathematics and


estimation are fundamental
components of number sense.

Even more important than performing computational procedures or


using calculators is the greater facility that students needmore than
ever beforewith estimation and mental math (National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics, May 2005).
Students proficient with mental mathematics become liberated from
calculator dependence, build confidence in doing mathematics, become
more flexible thinkers and are more able to use multiple approaches to
problem solving (Rubenstein, 2001, p. 442).
Mental mathematics provides the cornerstone for all estimation
processes, offering a variety of alternative algorithms and nonstandard
techniques for finding answers (Hope, 1988, p. v).
Estimation is used for determining approximate values or quantities or
for determining the reasonableness of calculated values. It often uses
benchmarks or referents. Students need to know when to estimate, how
to estimate and what strategy to use.
Estimation assists individuals in making mathematical judgements and
in developing useful, efficient strategies for dealing with situations in
daily life.

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

process standards

Problem Solving [PS]

Learning through problem


solving should be the focus
of mathematics at all grade
levels.

Learning through problem solving should be the focus of mathematics


at all grade levels. When students encounter new situations and
respond to questions of the type How would you? or How could you?,
the problem-solving approach is being modelled. Students develop their
own problem-solving strategies by listening to, discussing and trying
different strategies.
A problem-solving activity must ask students to determine a way to get
from what is known to what is sought. If students have already been
given ways to solve the problem, it is not a problem, but practice. A
true problem requires students to use prior learnings in new ways and
contexts. Problem solving requires and builds depth of conceptual
understanding and student engagement.
Problem solving is a powerful teaching tool that fosters multiple,
creative and innovative solutions. Creating an environment where
students openly look for, and engage in, finding a variety of strategies
for solving problems empowers students to explore alternatives and
develops confident, cognitive mathematical risk takers.

Reasoning [R]

Mathematical reasoning
helps students think
logically and make sense of
mathematics.

Mathematical reasoning helps students think logically and make sense


of mathematics. Students need to develop confidence in their abilities to
reason and justify their mathematical thinking. High-order questions
challenge students to think and develop a sense of wonder about
mathematics.
Mathematical experiences in and out of the classroom provide
opportunities for students to develop their ability to reason. Students
can explore and record results, analyze observations, make and test
generalizations from patterns, and reach new conclusions by building
upon what is already known or assumed to be true.
Reasoning skills allow students to use a logical process to analyze a
problem, reach a conclusion and justify or defend that conclusion.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

process standards

Technology [T]

Technology contributes
to the learning of a wide
range of mathematical
outcomes and enables
students to explore
and create patterns,
examine relationships,
test conjectures and solve
problems.

Technology contributes to the learning of a wide range of mathematical


outcomes and enables students to explore and create patterns, examine
relationships, test conjectures and solve problems.
Calculators and computers can be used to:
explore and demonstrate mathematical relationships and patterns
organize and display data
extrapolate and interpolate
assist with calculation procedures as part of solving problems
decrease the time spent on computations when other mathematical
learning is the focus
reinforce the learning of basic facts
develop personal procedures for mathematical operations
create geometric patterns
simulate situations
develop number sense.
Technology contributes to a learning environment in which the
growing curiosity of students can lead to rich mathematical discoveries
at all grade levels.

Visualization [V]

Visualization is fostered
through the use of concrete
materials, technology
and a variety of visual
representations.

Visualization involves thinking in pictures and images, and the ability


to perceive, transform and recreate different aspects of the visual-spatial
world (Armstrong, 1993, p. 10). The use of visualization in the study
of mathematics provides students with opportunities to understand
mathematical concepts and make connections among them.
Visual images and visual reasoning are important components of
number, spatial and measurement sense. Number visualization occurs
when students create mental representations of numbers.
Being able to create, interpret and describe a visual representation is
part of spatial sense and spatial reasoning. Spatial visualization and
reasoning enable students to describe the relationships among and
between 3-D objects and 2-D shapes.
Measurement visualization goes beyond the acquisition of specific
measurement skills. Measurement sense includes the ability to
determine when to measure, when to estimate and which estimation
strategies to use (Shaw and Cliatt, 1989).

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

nature of mathematics

NATURE OF
MATHEMATICS
Change
Constancy

Mathematics is one way of trying to understand, interpret and describe


our world. There are a number of components that define the nature of
mathematics and these are woven throughout this program of studies.
The components are change, constancy, number sense, patterns,
relationships, spatial sense and uncertainty.

Number Sense
Patterns
Relationships
Spatial Sense
Uncertainty

Change

Change is an integral part


of mathematics and the
learning of mathematics.

It is important for students to understand that mathematics is dynamic


and not static. As a result, recognizing change is a key component in
understanding and developing mathematics.
Within mathematics, students encounter conditions of change and are
required to search for explanations of that change. To make predictions,
students need to describe and quantify their observations, look for
patterns, and describe those quantities that remain fixed and those that
change. For example, the sequence 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, can be described
as:
the number of a specific colour of beads in each row of a beaded
design
skip counting by 2s, starting from 4
an arithmetic sequence, with first term 4 and a common difference
of 2
a linear function with a discrete domain
(Steen, 1990, p. 184).

Constancy

Constancy is described by the


terms stability, conservation,
equilibrium, steady state and
symmetry.

Different aspects of constancy are described by the terms stability,


conservation, equilibrium, steady state and symmetry (AAAS
Benchmarks, 1993, p. 270). Many important properties in mathematics
and science relate to properties that do not change when outside
conditions change. Examples of constancy include the following:
The ratio of the circumference of a teepee to its diameter is the
same regardless of the length of the teepee poles.
The sum of the interior angles of any triangle is 180.
The theoretical probability of flipping a coin and getting heads is
0.5.
Some problems in mathematics require students to focus on properties
that remain constant. The recognition of constancy enables students to
solve problems involving constant rates of change, lines with constant
slope, direct variation situations or the angle sums of polygons.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

nature of mathematics

Number Sense

An intuition about number


is the most important
foundation of a numerate
child.

Number sense, which can be thought of as intuition about numbers,


is the most important foundation of numeracy (British Columbia
Ministry of Education, 2000, p. 146).
A true sense of number goes well beyond the skills of simply counting,
memorizing facts and the situational rote use of algorithms. Mastery
of number facts is expected to be attained by students as they develop
their number sense. This mastery allows for facility with more
complex computations but should not be attained at the expense of an
understanding of number.
Number sense develops when students connect numbers to their own
real-life experiences and when students use benchmarks and referents.
This results in students who are computationally fluent and flexible
with numbers and who have intuition about numbers. The evolving
number sense typically comes as a by product of learning rather than
through direct instruction. However, number sense can be developed
by providing rich mathematical tasks that allow students to make
connections to their own experiences and their previous learning.

Patterns

Mathematics is about
recognizing, describing and
working with numerical
and non-numerical
patterns.

Mathematics is about recognizing, describing and working with


numerical and non-numerical patterns. Patterns exist in all strands of
this program of studies.
Working with patterns enables students to make connections within
and beyond mathematics. These skills contribute to students
interaction with, and understanding of, their environment.
Patterns may be represented in concrete, visual or symbolic form.
Students should develop fluency in moving from one representation to
another.
Students must learn to recognize, extend, create and use mathematical
patterns. Patterns allow students to make predictions and justify their
reasoning when solving routine and nonroutine problems.
Learning to work with patterns in the early grades helps students
develop algebraic thinking, which is foundational for working with
more abstract mathematics in higher grades.

10

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

nature of mathematics

Relationships
Mathematics is used to
describe and explain
relationships.

Spatial Sense

Spatial sense offers a way to


interpret and reflect on the
physical environment.

Uncertainty

Uncertainty is an inherent
part of making predictions.

Mathematics is one way to describe interconnectedness in a holistic


worldview. Mathematics is used to describe and explain relationships.
As part of the study of mathematics, students look for relationships
among numbers, sets, shapes, objects and concepts. The search for
possible relationships involves collecting and analyzing data and
describing relationships visually, symbolically, orally or in written form.

Spatial sense involves visualization, mental imagery and spatial


reasoning. These skills are central to the understanding of mathematics.
Spatial sense is developed through a variety of experiences and
interactions within the environment. The development of spatial sense
enables students to solve problems involving 3-D objects and 2-D
shapes and to interpret and reflect on the physical environment and its
3-D or 2-D representations.
Some problems involve attaching numerals and appropriate units
(measurement) to dimensions of shapes and objects. Spatial sense
allows students to make predictions about the results of changing these
dimensions; e.g., doubling the length of the side of a square increases
the area by a factor of four. Ultimately, spatial sense enables students
to communicate about shapes and objects and to create their own
representations.

In mathematics, interpretations of data and the predictions made from


data may lack certainty.
Events and experiments generate statistical data that can be used to
make predictions. It is important to recognize that these predictions
(interpolations and extrapolations) are based upon patterns that have a
degree of uncertainty.
The quality of the interpretation is directly related to the quality of
the data. An awareness of uncertainty allows students to assess the
reliability of data and data interpretation.
Chance addresses the predictability of the occurrence of an outcome.
As students develop their understanding of probability, the language
of mathematics becomes more specific and describes the degree of
uncertainty more accurately.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

11

strands

STRANDS
Number
Patterns and Relations
Shape and Space
Statistics and
Probability

Number

The learning outcomes in the program of studies are organized into


four strands across the grades K9. Some strands are subdivided into
substrands. There is one general outcome per substrand across the
grades K9.
The strands and substrands, including the general outcome for each,
follow.

Number
Develop number sense.

Patterns and Relations

Patterns
Use patterns to describe the world and to solve problems.
Variables and Equations
Represent algebraic expressions in multiple ways.

Shape and Space

Measurement
Use direct and indirect measurement to solve problems.
3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes
Describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and
analyze the relationships among them.
Transformations
Describe and analyze position and motion of objects and shapes.

Statistics and Probability

Data Analysis
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
Chance and Uncertainty
Use experimental or theoretical probabilities to represent and solve
problems involving uncertainty.

12

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

outcomes

OUTCOMES AND
ACHIEVEMENT
INDICATORS

The program of studies is stated in terms of general outcomes, specific


outcomes and achievement indicators.

General Outcomes

General outcomes are overarching statements about what students are


expected to learn in each strand/substrand. The general outcome for
each strand/substrand is the same throughout the grades.

Specific Outcomes

Specific outcomes are statements that identify the specific skills,


understanding and knowledge that students are required to attain by
the end of a given grade.
In the specific outcomes, the word including indicates that any ensuing
items must be addressed to fully meet the learning outcome. The phrase
such as indicates that the ensuing items are provided for illustrative
purposes or clarification, and are not requirements that must be
addressed to fully meet the learning outcome.

Achievement Indicators

Achievement indicators are samples of how students may demonstrate


their achievement of the goals of a specific outcome. The range of
samples provided is meant to reflect the scope of the specific outcome.
Achievement indicators are context-free.

SUMMARY

The conceptual framework for K9 mathematics describes the nature


of mathematics, mathematical processes and the mathematical concepts
to be addressed in Kindergarten to Grade 9 mathematics. The
components are not meant to stand alone. Activities that take place
in the mathematics classroom should stem from a problem-solving
approach, be based on mathematical processes and lead students
to an understanding of the nature of mathematics through specific
knowledge, skills and attitudes among and between strands.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

13

instructional focus

INSTRUCTIONAL
FOCUS
Planning for Instruction

Consider the following when planning for instruction:


Integration of the mathematical processes within each strand is
expected.
By decreasing emphasis on rote calculation, drill and practice, and the
size of numbers used in paper and pencil calculations, more time is
available for concept development.
Problem solving, reasoning and connections are vital to increasing
mathematical fluency and must be integrated throughout the
program.
There is to be a balance among mental mathematics and estimation,
paper and pencil exercises, and the use of technology, including
calculators and computers. Concepts should be introduced
using manipulatives and be developed concretely, pictorially and
symbolically.
Students bring a diversity of learning styles and cultural backgrounds
to the classroom. They will be at varying developmental stages.

Resources

The resource selected by Newfoundland and Labrador for students and


teachers is Math Makes Sense 1 (Pearson). Schools and teachers have
this as their primary resource offered by the Department of Education.
Column four of the curriculum guide references Math Makes Sense 1 for
this reason.
Teachers may use any resource or combination of resources to meet the
required specific outcomes listed in column one of the curriculum guide.

14

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

instructional focus

Teaching Sequence

The curriculum guide for Grade 1 is organized by units from Unit 1 to


Unit 7. The purpose of this timeline is to assist in planning. The use of
this timeline is not mandatory; however, it is mandtory that all outcomes
are taught during the school year so a long term plan is advised. There
are a number of combinations of sequences that would be appropriate for
teaching this course. The arrow showing estimated focus does not mean
the outcomes are never addressed again. The teaching of the outcomes is
ongoing and may be revisited as necessary.

Instruction Time Per Unit

The suggested number of weeks of instruction per unit is listed in the


guide at the beginning of each unit. The number of suggested weeks
includes time for completing assessment activities, reviewing and
evaluating.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

15

general and specific outcomes

GENERAL
AND SPECIFIC
OUTCOMES

GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OUTCOMES BY STRAND


(pages 1728)
This section presents the general and specific outcomes for each strand,
for Kindergarten, Grade 1 and 2.
Refer to Appendix A for the general and specific outcomes with
corresponding achievement indicators organized by strand for Grade 1.

GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OUTCOMES WITH ACHIEVEMENT


INDICATORS (beginning at page 29)
This section presents general and specific outcomes with corresponding
achievement indicators and is organized by unit. The list of indicators
contained in this section is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to
provide teachers with examples of evidence of understanding to be used
to determine whether or not students have achieved a given specific
outcome. Teachers should use these indicators but other indicators
may be added as evidence that the desired learning has been achieved.
Achievement indicators should also help teachers form a clear picture of
the intent and scope of each specific outcome.

16

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OUTCOMES BY


STRAND
(Kindergarten, Grades 1 and 2)

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

17

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
1. Say the number sequence by 1s:
- starting anywhere from 1 to 10
and from 10 to 1.
- forward from 1 to 30
[C, CN, V]
2. Subitize (recognize at a glance)
and name familiar arrangements
of 1 to 6 objects, dots or pictures.
[C, CN, ME, V]

Grade 1
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
1. Say the number sequence 0 to
100 by:
1s forward between any two
given numbers
1s backward from 20 to 0
2s forward from 0 to 20
5s and 10s forward from 0 to
100.
[C, CN, ME, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
1. Say the number sequence 0 to
100 by:
2s, 5s and 10s, forward and
backward, using starting points
that are multiples of 2, 5 and 10
respectively
10s, using starting points from
1 to 9
2s, starting from 1.
[C, CN, ME, R]

2. Subitize (recognize at a glance)


3. Relate a numeral, 1 to 10, to its and name familiar arrangements
respective quantity.
of 1 to 10 objects or dots.
[CN, R, V]
[C, CN, ME, V]

2. Demonstrate if a number (up to


100) is even or odd.
[C, CN, PS, R]

4. Represent and describe


numbers 2 to 10, in two parts,
concretely and pictorially.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

3. Describe order or relative


position, using ordinal numbers
(up to tenth).
[C, CN, R]

5. Compare quantities 1 to 10,


- using one-to-one
correspondence
- by ordering numbers
representing different
quantities
[C, CN, V]

18

3. Demonstrate an understanding
of counting by:
indicating that the last number
said identifies how many
showing that any set has only
one count
using the counting-on strategy
using parts or equal groups to
count sets.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

4. Represent and describe


numbers to 100, concretely,
pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 1
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
4. Represent and describe
numbers to 20, concretely,
pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, V]
5. Compare sets containing up to
20 elements, using:
referents
one-to-one correspondence
to solve problems.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
6. Estimate quantities to 20 by
using referents.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
7. (No Outcome)

Grade 2
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
5. Compare and order numbers
up to 100.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
6. Estimate quantities to 100,
using referents.
[C, ME, PS, R]
7. Illustrate, concretely and
pictorially, the meaning of place
value for numerals to 100.
[C, CN, R, V]
8. Demonstrate and explain
the effect of adding zero to,
or subtracting zero from, any
number.
[C, R]

8. Identify the number, up to 20,


that is:
one more
two more
one less
two less
than a given number.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - Interim

19

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes

20

Grade 1
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
9. Demonstrate an understanding
of addition of numbers with
answers to 20 and their
corresponding subtraction
facts, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically, by:
using familiar mathematical
language to describe additive
and subtractive actions
creating and solving problems
in context that involve addition
and subtraction
modelling addition and
subtraction, using a variety
of concrete and visual
representations, and recording
the process symbolically.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
9. Demonstrate an understanding
of addition (limited to 1- and
2-digit numerals) with answers
to 100 and the corresponding
subtraction by:
using personal strategies for
adding and subtracting with
and without the support of
manipulatives
creating and solving problems
that involve addition and
subtraction
using the commutative
property of addition (the order
in which numbers are added
does not affect the sum)
using the associative property
of addition (grouping a set of
numbers in different ways does
not affect the sum)
explaining that the order in
which numbers are subtracted
may affect the difference.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 1
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
10. Describe and use mental
mathematics strategies
(memorization not intended),
such as:
counting on and counting
back
making 10
using doubles
thinking addition for
subtraction
for basic addition facts and
related subtraction facts to 18.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - Interim

Grade 2
General Outcome
Develop number sense.
Specific Outcomes
10. Apply mental mathematics
strategies, such as:
counting on and counting
back
making 10
using doubles
using addition to subtract
for basic addition facts and related
subtraction facts
to 18.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

21

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Patterns and Relations


(Patterns)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Demonstrate an understanding
of repeating patterns (two or three
elements) by:
identifying
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using manipulatives,
sounds and actions.
[C, CN, PS, V]

Grade 1
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Demonstrate an understanding
of repeating patterns (two to four
elements) by:
describing
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using manipulatives,
diagrams, sounds and actions.
[C, PS, R, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Demonstrate an understanding
of repeating patterns (three to five
elements) by:
describing
extending
comparing
creating
patterns using manipulatives,
diagrams, sounds and actions.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

2. Translate repeating patterns


from one representation to
another.
[C, CN, R, V]

2. Demonstrate an understanding
of increasing patterns by:
describing
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using manipulatives,
diagrams, sounds and actions
(numbers to 100).
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

3. Sort objects, using one


attribute, and explain the sorting
rule.
[C, CN, R, V]

22

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Patterns and Relations


(Variables and Equations)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 1
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
4. Describe equality as a balance
and inequality as an imbalance,
concretely and pictorially (0 to
20).
[C, CN, R, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Use patterns to describe the
world and to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
3. Demonstrate and explain the
meaning of equality by using
manipulatives and diagrams
(0 100)
[C, CN, R, V]

5. Record equalities, using the


equal symbol.
[C, CN, PS, V]

4. Record equalities and


inequalities symbolically, using
the equal symbol or the not equal
symbol.
[C, CN, R, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - Interim

23

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Shape and Space


(Measurement)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Use direct comparison to
compare two objects based on a
single attribute, such as - length
including height
- mass
- capacity
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 1
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Demonstrate an understanding
of measurement as a process of
comparing by:
identifying attributes that can
be compared
ordering objects
making statements of
comparison
filling, covering or matching.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Relate the number of days to a
week and the number of months
to a year in a problem-solving
context.
[C, CN, PS, R]
2. Relate the size of a unit of
measure to the number of units
(limited to nonstandard units)
used to measure length and mass .
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
3. Compare and order objects by
length, height, distance around
and mass, using nonstandard
units, and make statements of
comparison.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
4. Measure length to the nearest
nonstandard unit by:
using multiple copies of a unit
using a single copy of a unit
(iteration process).
[C, ME, R, V]

24

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Shape and Space


(Measurement)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 1
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - Interim

Grade 2
General Outcome
Use direct or indirect
measurement to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
5. Demonstrate that changing
the orientation of an object does
not alter the measurements of its
attributes.
[C, R, V]

25

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Shape and Space


(3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Describe the characteristics of
3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and
analyze the relationships among
them.
Specific Outcomes
2. Sort objects, including 3-D
objects, using a single attribute
and explain the sorting rule.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 1
General Outcome
Describe the characteristics of
3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and
analyze the relationships among
them.
Specific Outcomes
2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D
shapes, using one attribute, and
explain the sorting rule.
[C, CN, R, V]

Grade 2
General Outcome
Describe the characteristics of
3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and
analyze the relationships among
them.
Specific Outcomes
6. Sort 2-D shapes and 3-D
objects, using two attributes, and
explain the sorting rule.
[C, CN, R, V]

3. Build and describe 3-D objects. 3. Replicate composite 2-D shapes 7. Describe, compare and
[CN, PS, V]
and 3-D objects.
construct 3-D objects, including:
[CN, PS, V]
cubes
spheres
4. Compare 2-D shapes to parts of
cones
3-D objects in the environment.
cylinders
[C, CN, V]
pyramids.
[C, CN, R, V]
8. Describe, compare and
construct 2-D shapes, including:
triangles
squares
rectangles
circles.
[C, CN, R, V]
9. Identify 2-D shapes as parts of
3-D objects in the environment.
[C, CN, R, V]

26

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

general and specific outcomes by strand

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics
and Estimation

[PS] Problem Solving


[R] Reasoning
[T] Technology
[V] Visualization

Statistics and Probability


(Data Analysis)
Kindergarten
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data
to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 1
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data
to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes

Grade 2
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data
to solve problems.
Specific Outcomes
1. Gather and record data
about self and others to answer
questions.
[C, CN, PS, V]
2. Construct and interpret
concrete graphs and pictographs
to solve problems.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - Interim

27

28

Grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

Representing Numbers to 20

Suggested Time: 7 Weeks

This is the first explicit focus on numbers to 20, but as with other outcomes,
it is ongoing throughout the year.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Unit Overview

30

Focus and Context

In Kindergarten, number concepts were explored while focusing


numbers 1 to 10. An understanding of the number combinations to
10 is critical in building a strong mathematics foundation. If students
are to develop strong number concepts and number sense, considerable
instructional time must be devoted to number and numeration. In
Grade One, students will be provided with meaningful experiences
using numbers to 20 and later in the year they will be introduced to
numbers to 100. In this unit, sufficient time must be given for students
to deepen their understanding first of the numbers to 10 and then to
20. Students will learn and practice skills for counting, estimating and
grouping objects into sets. There will be a focus on developing the
part-part-whole relationship of numbers to 20. It is important that
students experience activities using a variety of manipulative such as ten
frames, number lines, and snap cubes.

Math Connects

Number concepts are an important link to the world around us.


Applying number relationships to the real world marks the beginning
of making sense of the world in a mathematical manner. Number sense
develops naturally when students connect numbers to their own life
experiences, and begin to use numbers as benchmarks and referents.
Students will develop multiple ways of thinking about and representing
numbers. Opportunities to explain their thinking and reasoning
through questions and discussion will strengthen their connections and
deepen their sense of number concepts.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Process Standards
Key

Curriculum
Outcomes

[C]
[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

Number

Number

Number

Number

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

OUTCOME
1N1 Say the number sequence 0 to 100 by:
1s forward between any two given
numbers
1s backward from 20 to 0
2s forward from 0 to 20
5s and 10s forward from 0 to 100.
1N2 Subitize (recognize at a glance) and
name familiar arrangements of 1 to 10
objects, dots or pictures.
1N3 Demonstrate an understanding of
counting by:
indicating that the last number said
identifies how many
showing that any set has only one count
using the counting-on strategy
using parts or equal groups to count
sets.
1N4 Represent and describe numbers to 20,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically.

PROCESS
STANDARDS

[C, CN, ME, V]

[C, CN, ME, V]

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

[C, CN, V]

1N5 Compare and order sets containing up


to 20 elements to solve problems, using:
Number
referents (known quantities)
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
one-to-one correspondence
to solve problems.
1N6 Estimate quantities to 20 by using
Number
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
referents.
1N8 Identify the number, up to 20, that is
Number
one more, two more, one less and two less
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
than a given number.
Patterns and 1PR3 Describe equality as a balance and inequality as an imbalance, concretely and
Relations
[C, CN, R, V]
pictorially (0 to 20).
(Variables and
Equations)
Patterns and 1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal
symbol (0 to 20)
Relations
[C, CN, PS, V]
(Variables and
Equations)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

31

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N1. Say the number sequence 0
to 100 by:
1s forward between any two
given numbers
1s backward from 20 to 0
2s forward from 0 to 20
5s and 10s forward from 0 to
100.
[C, CN, ME, V]

This outcome is an important prerequisite for counting items in a set.


Before there can be any meaningful counting, students must be able
to recite the sequence beginning 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc (Small, 2008, p. 84).
There is a difference between being able to recite the number words
(1, 2, 3) and understanding how counting is used to describe a set.
The counting sequence itself is a rote procedure; however, the meaning
attached to counting is the key conceptual idea on which all other
number concepts are developed (Van de Walle, 2006, p. 39).
As students learn the number sequences, practice should be provided
through learning activities integrated throughout the number strand.
Many suggestions for teaching and learning in outcome N3 on pages 36
- 41 will provide opportunities to learn number sequences.
Students early understandings of saying the number sequence and
counting can be naturally nurtured through exposure to rich, quality
literature. For example, use literature such as The Wonderful Pigs Of
Jillian Jiggs by Phoebe Gilman or Two Ways to Count to Ten by Dee to
show various ways of counting.

Achievement Indicators:

1N1.1 Recite forward by 1s, the


number sequence between two
given numbers (0 to 100).

1N1.2 Recite backward by 1s,


the number sequence between two
given numbers (20 to 0).

Daily Routines - The calendar is an effective visual aid for counting.


Daily calendar routines provide opportunities for students to hear and
speak mathematical vocabulary in a natural setting. A calendar exposes
students to counting to and from larger numbers each day as the month
progresses. Good questioning techniques during calendar activities
provide occasions for students to learn the number that comes before,
the number that comes after, and the number (s) that comes in
between.
Through experience, students become comfortable with saying the
number sequence forwards and backwards and should be provided with
many opportunities to do so throughout the day. For example, as a
way to get students attention, call out a forwards or backwards number
sequence starting at different numbers and have students join in (e.g.,
10, 9, 8 or 17, 16, 15 or 21, 22, 23).

Continued

32

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Pass the Counting - Begin by counting aloud, saying the first two or
three numbers (1, 2, 3). Then, pass the counting on to a student
by tapping him/her on the shoulder. The student continues the
counting from where you left off, saying the next few numbers (4, 5,
6), until you tap another student. Continue to pass the counting
from one student to another until the count reaches 100. This
activity can be modified for counting backwards from 20 to 0, as
well as skip counting.
(1N1.1, 1.2)

Launch

Copy one set of numeral wands for each student on heavy paper.
Have students cut out their set of cards, punch holes in them and
put each set onto a single paper fastener as shown below. Using the
numeral wands, begin counting in sequence aloud 2 or 3 numbers
(9, 10, 11). Have students hold up the card that comes next. This
activity can be done for counting backwards as well. These can be
used throughout the year to allow students to display answers to
questions during morning routine and various other activities.

Audio CD 1

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 17


Lesson 1: Counting to 20
1N1, 1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 18 - 21

Selections: 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12,


13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
Depending on your class, you may
choose to introduce this lesson using
numbers to 10 and later work with
numbers 11-20.
Lesson 1 in the resource asks students
to read number words eleven
to twenty. This goes beyond the
expectation for this grade level.

(1N1.1, 1.2)

Unit Centres:
TG p. 15
Numbers Everywhere

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

33

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N1.1 Continued
1N1.2 Continued

Playing games, in which students roll a number cube and say the
numbers aloud as they count the number of spaces to move, is a
valuable task to engage students in reciting a number sequence. As well,
invite students to sing songs and recite poems which involve counting
forwards and backwards, and skip counting. For example: Ten In A
Bed, One, Two, Buckle My Shoe and This Old Man.
Have students practice responsive counting from 0 to 100 with the
teacher or a classmate, beginning at different starting points. For
example, begin by saying 10, then they say 11, you say 12, they
say 13, and so on, as far as they can count. Repeat the same activity
counting backward, beginning at 20.

1N1.3 Record a given numeral


(0 to 100) symbolically when it is
presented orally.

Because it is important that students develop an efficient means of


recording numerals, numeral writing should be taught. As students are
ready to record information by recording the appropriate numeral(s),
specific instruction and practice will be necessary. Allow the students to
experiment freely on lined and unlined paper, whiteboards, chart paper,
and other mediums. Observe students as they write their numerals, both
when copying from a model and when forming them from memory.
Students should be encouraged to start at the top when printing
numerals. One suggestion for practice is to use their index fingers to
form the numerals on their desks or in the air.
Numeral writing should not be taught in isolation but in relationship
with the quantities they represent. Numeral symbols have meaning
for children only when they are introduced as labels for quantities.
Learning to write symbols is a separate task from learning to associate
numerals with specific quantities. Therefore, because a student has
learned to write the numerals we must be very careful not to assume that
students are learning anything about the quantities they represent.

1N1.4 Read a given numeral


(0 to 100) when it is presented
symbolically.

34

As part of a morning routine, randomly cover numbers on a hundred


chart and ask students to uncover and read the numbers that are hidden.
In daily routines, use a hundred chart (a chart showing the numbers
from 1 to 100 in lines of 10) or calendar, and ask students to read the
numerals that are presented. The hundred chart is also a valuable tool to
provide practice saying the number sequence from 0 to 100, as well as
skip counting by 2s, 5s, and 10s. For example, when skip counting by
5s, the student may place a counter on every fifth number, reading the
number as the counter is placed on the numeral.
Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Hide various quantities of counters under plastic tubs. Lift the tubs
one at a time and have the students count and record the number of
counters that are hidden under each tub.
(1N1.3)

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 1 (Continued): Counting
to 20
1N1, 1N3, 1N4

Provide students with a tub containing a variety of


colored linking cubes. Ask students to sort the cubes
by color and then count and record the number of
each. (1N1.3)

Name:
Red
Yellow
Green
Blue
Black

6
2
0
3
__

TG pp. 18 - 21

Grab Bag Counting Provide students with a paper bag containing


10 linking cubes. Students take turns grabbing handfuls of cubes
from the grab bag. They
count and record the number
4
of cubes in their hand on
4
6
8
a recording sheet. As an
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
extension to this activity, use
smaller counters to work with quantities 11 to 20.
(1N1.3)

Attach a string or a clothesline to a wall in the classroom with


number cards displaying any number sequence from 0 to 20. Have
students take turns choosing a number card on the string and
reading their numbers aloud. (The number cards can be turned
around so that students are unable to see the number until it is
selected).
(1N1.4)

Using a walk-on number line and bean bags, have students take
turns tossing a bean bag on the number line and reading the number
where the bean bag landed. They then walk to the number, counting
as they go.
(1N1.4)
Find the Counters - Hide sets of counters under plastic containers to
match the numerals on a number cube. Students roll the cube, and
say the number rolled, to determine the number of counters that
they are to look for. Students take turns lifting the tubs and counting
to see who can find the number of counters matching the number
rolled.

(1N1.4)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

35

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Demonstrate an
understanding of counting by:
indicating that the last number
said identifies how many
showing that any set has only
one count

Counting is very significant for students as it enables them to decide


how many are in a collection. Contrasted with rote counting,
meaningful counting involves an understanding that:
one number is said for each item in the group and is counted only
once (one-to-one correspondence).

using the counting-on strategy

counting begins at the number 1 and there is a set number sequence


(stable order).

using parts or equal groups to


count sets

the starting point and order of counting the objects does not affect
the quantity (conservation).

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

the arrangement or types of objects does not affect the count


(conservation).
the number in the set is the last number said (cardinality).
The meaning attached to counting is the foundation on which all other
number concepts are developed. For this reason, it is necessary to assess
each student individually in order to determine their understanding
of number, not only in the oral expression of numbers, but also in
counting abilities and sense of number.

Achievement Indicator:

1N3.1 Answer the question,


How many are in the set?, using
the last number counted in a
given set.

Students should be encouraged to count items in natural situations


that arise in the classroom. All other work with numbers, whether
representing quantities or performing operations, is dependent on
students learning to count. Students should also experience a wide
variety of situations which require counting beyond 10. Students will be
expected to work with only 2-digit numbers at this grade level.
Counting tells how many things are in a set. When counting a set of
objects, the last number in the counting sequence, names the quantity
for that set. Provide a number of objects for students to count. Observe
students to determine their understanding of each of the principles
underlying meaningful counting.
Do they touch each object as they count?
Do they set items aside as they count them?
Do they show confidence in their count or feel the need to check?
Do they check their counting in the same order as the first count or a
different order?

Continued
36

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with a tub filled with different objects, such as


buttons, blocks, and beans. Have students take a handful (or a small
scoop) of items from the collection. Students then sort the items,
count, and record the numeral to match each set. The size of the
items in the collection, and the readiness level of your students, will
determine the appropriate number of items to use.
(1N3.1)

Lesson 1 (Continued): Counting


to 20
1N1, 1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 18 - 21

Make animals or shapes using Unifix cubes. Ask students to replicate,


count, and record the number of cubes used to make the design.
(1N3.1)
Display a set of objects. Ask the student, How many are in your
set? Observe whether the student:
says the numbers in the correct order
moves the objects to avoid confusion
realizes that the last number said is the number in the set.
Repeat this activity varying the number of objects for students to
count.
(1N3.1)
Walk around the room, stop and make a noise (e.g., ring a bell, clap
hands). Students show the number of sounds using their Numeral
Wand (described on page 33).
(1N3.1)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

37

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N3.1 Continued

1N4 Represent and describe


numbers to 20, concretely,
pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, V]
Achievement Indicator:

1N4.2 Read given number words


to 10.

When students have an understanding of counting a set, they will


display confidence in answering the question, How many are in the
set? without having to recount. Provide a set of nine objects and ask,
How many are here? The student counts correctly and says, Nine.
Ask, Are there nine? Students who understand that the last number
counted is the quantity of the set (cardinality) will not need to recount.

Students need various opportunities to explore the numbers between


ten and twenty and to develop a deep understanding of these numbers.
The uniqueness of the teen numbers must not be overlooked. When
dealing with numbers such as 28 or 46, we hear the tens number first;
that is, we say the twenty and the forty first. This is not the case with
eleven, twelve, or the teen numbers. Students need opportunities to
investigate these numbers with concrete materials before moving on to
pictorial and symbolic representations.
Number words to twenty can be displayed in the classroom, with
pictorial and symbolic representations. However, students are not
expected to read number words eleven to twenty.

38

eight

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Shuffle a pile of number word cards from zero to ten. Have students
remove one card from the pile and identify the number that is
written on the card.
(1N4.2)

Lesson 1 (Continued): Counting


to 20
1N1, 1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 18 - 21

Provide students with counters. Show them a number word card


from zero to ten and ask them to read the word on the card and
make a corresponding set with their counters
(1N4.2)
Using number word cards (zero to ten) and numeral cards (0-10),
have students play a game of memory matching the numeral to the
word card.
(1N4.2)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

39

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N3.3 Show that the count of


the number of objects in a given
set does not change regardless of
the order in which the objects are
counted

To continue to build on the concept of counting, students must have


an understanding that the number of objects does not change if they are
counted in a different order.

1N3.4 Count the number of


objects in a given set, rearrange
the objects, predict the new
count and recount to verify the
prediction

Conservation of number, or the understanding that the number of


objects does not change when the objects are moved, rearranged, or
hidden, is something that occurs with experience and maturity. As
students mature cognitively, they begin to realize that the arrangement
of items is irrelevant to the total number in the set. Therefore, it is
important to provide students with opportunities to count sets of
objects where they realize that they get the same total regardless of the
order in which the objects were counted.
Have students count out a number of counters and lay them in a
row. Ask, How many counters do you have? Then, spread out the
counters or change their formation as the students are watching. Ask,
How many are there now? If the student can tell you that there are 8
counters without recounting, then they are demonstrating conservation
of number. If they recount the counters, conservation of number is not
evident.

1N3.7 Record the number of


objects in a given set (up to 100).

1N4 Continued

Numeral symbols have meaning for students only when they are
introduced as labels for quantities. Students learn to write numbers as
they gain a deeper understanding of number. Opportunities should
begin at first by focusing on counting and recording numbers to 10. As
students acquire a deeper understanding of number, students should
count and record numbers up to 100.

Achievement Indicator:

1N4.4 Model a given number,


using two different objects; e.g.,
10 desks represents the same
number as 10 pencils.
40

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Put 10 counters on the overhead projector and count them in


different orders (left to right, right to left, starting in the middle).
Ask the students to predict what the count would be if they counted
in a different order. Have them count.
(1N3.3)

Lesson 2: Number Search

Have students line up. A student will count how many students
are in the line. Have the student count the line again starting at a
different place.
(1N3.3)

Audio CD 1:

Ask students to count out fourteen blocks/counters on the table.


Rearrange them by moving them around and displaying them in
two groups. For example, 5 in one group and 9 in the other. Ask
students to identify how many there are altogether. Repeat using
different combinations and observe students method of determining
how many in all. Observe whether the students have to re-count the
objects or do they recognize that the amount has not changed.
(1N3.4)

1N1, 1N3, 1N4


TG pp. 22 - 25

Selection 21
Audio CD 2:
Selections 1, 2 & 3

Lesson 3: Number Arrangements


1N3, 1N4, 1N5
TG pp. 26 - 29

Using the overhead projector, display 12 counters, have a student


count the number of counters out loud. Rearrange the counters and
have the student predict and verify the count.
(1N3.4)
Scavenger Hunt Ask students to find a given number of items in
the classroom. For example, for the number 12, students may find
twelve erasers, chairs, blocks, pencils, etc. Have students present their
findings to the class.
(1N4.4)
Pencil and Paper
Extend the counting activities by having students record the number.
(1N3.7)
Provide each pair of students with paper bags (labelled
A, B, C, D) containing different numbers of cubes.
Have the students count the objects in each bag and
record the number.

(1N3.7)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

41

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N4 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N4.1 Represent a given number


up to 20, using a variety of
manipulatives, including ten
frames and base ten materials.

A ten-frame is a 2 x 5 array in which dots or counters are placed to


illustrate numbers. How students use the ten-frame provides insight into
students number concept development. Students would have already
been introduced to a five-frame in kindergarten. The ten-frame is simply
an extension of the five-frame. E.g.,

Ten-frames focus on the relationship to five and ten as anchors for


numbers. Introduce the following rules for showing numbers on a tenframe:
only one counter, of the same color, is permitted in each box of the
ten-frame
always fill the top row first starting from left to right (the same way
you read or write)
when the top row is filled, counters can be placed in the bottom
row, also from left to right
Show the class a ten frame with 9 counters and ask how many counters
there are. Some possible responses are:

1N2.2 Identify the number


represented by a given
arrangement of dots on a ten
frame and describe the numbers
relationship to 5 and/or 10.

42

I saw 9. There are 5 on the top and 4 more on the bottom make 9
I know there are 9 because there is one empty space and one less
than 10 is 9.
If it was full, it would be 10. But, there is one empty space, so
that makes 9.
Relating numbers to benchmark numbers, specifically 5 and 10, is a
useful tool for thinking about various combinations of numbers. For
example, 6 is the number that is 1 more than 5, or 9 is the number that
is 1 less than 10.
Note: There are different views on the placement of counters on the
ten-frame. However, it is important to consider why ten-frames are
used. The main purpose of a ten-frame is to visualize numbers in
relation to 5 and 10, or relate numbers to 5 and 10 as benchmarks.
Hence, in Grade 1, filling left to right with no empty spaces is
strongly recommended so that children internally visualize that when
you have three counters, you need two more to make five; it is two
away from five; or three and two make five.
Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

(1N2.2)Performance
Ten-Frame Flash Flash ten-frame cards to the class. Ask, How
many counters do you see on this ten-frame? How do you know?
How many more will make ten? Repeat using other numbers.
Record the configurations that each student recognizes without
counting and those that he/she must count to recognize.
(1N2.2)

Math Makes Sense 1

Memory Place matching sets of ten frame cards face down in


an array. Students take turns turning over any two cards to find
matches. They identify the amount on each card and if they are the
same, they take both cards. Play continues until all matches havent
(1N2.2)
been found.

Audio CD 1:

Tell Me Fast Provide students with a set of counters. Flash a ten


frame card for approximately three seconds. Have the students take
the number of counters they think they would need to cover the dots
displayed on the ten-frame. After students have made their sets, place
the card in front of one student who should then place his or her
counters on the dots, while the other students count and check. Ask
the student to explain how they identified the number represented
on the ten frame.

Lesson 4: Terrific Ten


1N2, 1N3, 1N4, 1N8
TG pp. 30 - 33

Selections 17 & 18
In this lesson, students will work
with numbers 0 - 10. The focus on
numbers 11 - 12 is in lesson 9.
Disregard MMS Teacher Guide,
Unit 2, pages 94 & 95, in which
ten-frames are displayed showing
counters placed in a random order.

For the above ten frame, a student might respond, I know there
are 8 because there are 5 on the top row and 3 more make 8. The
student might also respond, I know if the frame is full, there are 10
but there are 2 missing so that makes 8. Repeat this activity using
other ten frame cards with different representations of numbers to
10.
Ten Frame Match - using music. Half the students have prepared
ten-frames, the other half have numeral cards. Play the music, when
the music stops have students find their partner matching the ten
frame with the numeral card.
(1N4.1)
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Ask students to explain why it might be easier to count the number
of counters on the left than the number on the right.
(1N2.2)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

43

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N8 Identify the number, up to
20, that is one more, two more,
one less and two less than a given
number.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

When simply counting, students do not necessarily reflect on the


connection between two numbers. In order to relate numbers such as 6
and 8, students need to explore the two more than and two less than
relationship and understand that the relationship between 6 and 8 can
be described as six is two less than eight and eight is two more than
six. Numbers with a difference of one should be similarly explored.
Students initial exploration of numbers that are one more than, one less
than, two more than, and two less than should be done concretely using
sets of objects.
Dot plates/cards, ten frames and dominoes are worthwhile tools to
use to facilitate development of the concepts of one more/less and two
more/less.

Achievement Indicators:

1N8.1 Name the number that is


one more, two more, one less or
two less than a given number, up
to 20.

44

Have students use counters to create a set equal in number to a given


set. Ask them to change their set to equal a number that is one more/less
or two more/less than their current set. For example, Change your
set of 8 counters to show 10. Have students explain what they did to
create the new set. Observe those who are aware that they have to add 2
more to make the set of 10 and students who wipe away the initial set of
8 counters and begin counting from 1. To encourage counting on rather
than beginning the count again, ask students how many more counters
need to be added to the set of 8 to make the set of 10.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Show students a set of objects and count the objects to find the
total. Say, I am adding one more to the set. How many objects
are there now? Observe whether students can name the number
without having to recount. Repeat using other quantities and assess if
students can identify one more, one less, two more, and two less.
(1N8.1)

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 4 (Continued): Terrific
Ten
1N2, 1N3, 1N4, 1N8
TG pp. 30 - 33

Have students count out a set of 6 counters by placing a counter


above the numbers one to six on a number line. Ask, What number
would be two more than six? Repeat using other numbers. (1N8.1)
In groups of 2 to 4 players, have the students play More or Less
Bingo.

FREE

Lesson 12: One and Two More,


One and Two Less
1N3, 1N8
(1N8.1)

Take turns rolling a standard number cube and a spinner labeled


with the words one more, one less, two more, and two less.
Cover the number on the game board to correspond with the
number rolled and the direction on the spinner.
The first player to get a straight line is the winner.
(1N8.1)

TG pp. 54 - 57
This lesson provides extra practice
and can be used now or later as
follow up.

Give each student a number between one and ten to make on their
ten-frame, or between one and twenty to make on their double
ten-frame. Students make up a riddle about their number using only
the language one more, one less, two more, two less. For example,
My number is two more than 10. What is my number? This
activity could also be done using the number wands.
(1N8.2)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

45

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N2 Subitize (recognize at
a glance) and name familiar
arrangements of 1 to 10 objects,
dots or pictures.

Subitizing is the ability to recognize dot arrangements in different


patterns. Students should recognize that there are many ways to arrange
a set of objects and that some arrangements are easier to recognize more
quickly than others.

[C, CN, ME, V]

E.g.

Achievement Indicator:

1N2.1 Look briefly at a given


familiar arrangement of objects,
dots or pictures and identify the
number represented without
counting.

versus

Recognition of small arrangements of objects helps students understand


the process of counting on, composing and decomposing numbers,
and that a number can be represented in many ways. Subitizing also
encourages reflective thinking while deepening number sense. It will be
useful with respect to:
addition; for example, 5 = 4 + 1 (or 2 + 1 + 2) is apparent from:

and 6 = 3 + 3 or 2 + 2 + 2 is apparent from:




place value; for example, groups of 10 can be easily observed in:


Materials such as dot plates or cards, ten-frames, and number cubes are
useful for the development of subitizing configurations of numbers from
1 to 10.

46

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Dot Plate Flash - Use prepared dot arrangements for numbers 0


to 10. Hold up a dot plate for one to three seconds. Say, How
many? How did you see it? Students might say, I saw 6. I saw 3
on one side and 3 on the other. Observe how quickly students can
recognize the number of dots without counting.
(1N2.1)

Lesson 5: Seeing Numbers

Snap Provide partners with two sets of dot cards in two different
colors. Each student gets one set of cards. Play begins with each
student flipping over their top card. If they are the same amount,
they say Snap. The student who says Snap first gets both cards.
Play continues until all cards have been matched.

(1N2.1)

1N2, 1N4
TG pp. 34 - 35

This lesson should focus on


subitizing.
MMS Teacher Guide, Unit 2, pages
94 and 95, in which ten frames
are displayed showing counters
in random places, should be
disregarded.

Place one to ten counters on an overhead projector and cover them.


Have students look at the screen and uncover the counters for a few
seconds only. Ask students to tell you how many counters they saw
and to explain their answer. Ask, How did you know there are 5?
The student might respond, There are 5 because I saw two on one
side and three on the other. Repeat with different numbers and
different arrangements for each number.


(1N2.1)
Concentration - Begin by having students place a selection of dot
cards and number cards face down on a table. Students take turns
turning over cards to find matching sets. When they find a match,
they remove the pair of cards from play.

(1N2.1)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

47

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N2 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N2.1 Look briefly at a given


familiar arrangement of objects,
dots or pictures and identify the
number represented without
counting.

At first, students will count the dots or the objects. Eventually, students
must be able to recognize the arrangements without counting. To avoid
the misconception that an arrangement can only represent a specific
quantity if it is arranged in a certain way, it is VERY important to vary
the orientation of the objects, dots, or pictures. When asking students
to identify the number of fingers, use different combinations of fingers
so that students do not believe that there is only one way to represent
the number. For example, the number six can be represented with five
fingers on one hand and one on the other, two fingers on one hand and
four on the other, three fingers on each hand, etc.
Subitizing should initially focus on arrangements of numbers from 1
to 5 and gradually increase for numbers of items up to 10. For most
numbers, there are several common arrangements. Configurations can
also be made up of two or more easier arrangements of smaller numbers.
For example:
This dot configuration shows 7 as:
a set of 3 and a set of 4
a set of 2, a set of 3, and a set of 2

Dot Plates - Prepare dot arrangements using stickers on recipe cards


or on paper plates to create a variety of arrangements for numbers 0 to
10. (For some dot arrangements, see Van de Walle, Teaching Student
Centered Mathematics Grade K-3, p. 44). The use of paper plates as
opposed to cards provides numerous opportunities for students to see
various configurations as the plates are rotated.
Number Cubes Game materials such as number cubes and dominoes
are useful for recognizing familiar configurations (subitizing).

48

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide opportunities for students to discover which configurations


are easier to recognize. For example, ask students to show 7 in several
ways, and then decide which configuration(s) is (are) easiest to
identify. E.g.,

Lesson 5 (Continued): Seeing


Numbers
1N2, 1N4
TG pp. 34 - 35

(1N2.1)

Attach a string to a wall in the classroom. Provide each student with


a numeral card and a random dot card. Have students match their
cards by pinning them together with a clothespin. Students then
sequence the cards by attaching them to the string.
(1N2.1)

Unit Centre:
TG p. 15
Whats My Number?

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

49

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N3.5 Determine the total


number of objects in a given set,
starting from a known quantity
and counting on.

When counting on, students should say aloud the number they are
counting on from while pointing to that group, and then count on from
there, pointing to each item as they continue the counting sequence. For
example, to count on to find the total of a dot plate of three and a dot
plate of two, students point to the plate showing three and say three.
They count on by pointing to each dot on the other plate and saying,
four, five. Students who are not yet counting on, will recognize there
are three dots on the first dot plate; however will recount the dots on the
plate (e.g., 1, 2, 3) and then count the other dots (e.g., 4, 5).
Counting on and counting back are fundamental prerequisites
for addition and subtraction and their importance should not be
underestimated.
Have students place 8 blocks in a straight line across the top of their
desk and cover 3 with one hand. Ask them to count the total number
of blocks, beginning with the number hidden and counting on to
include the others that are in view. Observe whether students point to
the hidden counters saying, three and then point to each counter in
view and count on, four, five, six, seven, eight. Repeat using different
numbers.

50

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

This game is played in pairs and requires a spinner, cup, counters,


and recording sheet. The first player spins and places the indicated
number of counters in the cup. The second student spins and places
that number of counters next to the cup. Together, they decide how
many counters in all and record the numerals on the recording sheet.

Lesson 6: Representing Numbers


10 to 20
1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 36 - 39

(1N3.5)
Roll two number cubes (one standard die and one labeled with
numerals 10 - 14). Students find the total by starting their count
with the numeral on one cube and counting on to determine the
total of both cubes. For example, to count on to find the sum of a
roll of the numeral 14 on one cube and the dot configuration of 3
on the other cube, students can say, 14, while pointing to the die
showing 14, and then say 15, 16, 17, as they point to each dot on
the other cube.
(1N3.5)
Make two groups of objects. Hide one group under a sheet of
paper and write the numeral on the paper for the student to see.
Leave the other group exposed. Ask: How many counters are there
altogether? Because the student cannot see the hidden counters,
he/she is forced to count on from the number they see written on the
paper covering the hidden counters. For example:

Students may respond to this task by pointing to the paper, saying


5, and then counting on, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
(1N3.5)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

51

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N4 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N4.3 Partition any given


quantity up to 20 into 2 parts,
and identify the number of objects
in each part.

The ability to think about a number in terms of its parts is an important


milestone in the development of number. It is important not to rush
students to work with larger numbers until they are able to deal
confidently with smaller numbers. In Kindergarten, students would have
explored part-part-whole relationships of numbers to 10. Students need
to be confident with number combinations to ten as this work is critical
to building a strong mathematical foundation that will serve students
in later grades. In Grade One, students need to be provided with many
opportunities to explore part-part-whole relationships of numbers to 20.
To assess students understanding of number combinations, it is
important to use hands-on activities whereby students manipulate the
materials to break a number into two different
parts. For example, provide students with
counters and a part-part-whole mat and ask
them to show the number 12 broken into two
separate parts. One possible combination would
be:
Then, ask the students to find other ways to partition the number into
two parts. Repeat using other numbers up to 20.
Snap It Students sit in a circle with the same number of Unifix cubes.
Count, one, two, three, and everyone says, Snap It! Students break
off some of the Unifix cubes and hide them behind their back. Taking
turns, each student shows how many cubes are left in their hand while
the other students guess how many are hidden. For example, if each
student has 12 cubes, they may snap it into two parts hiding five behind
their back and seven in view. Students then show how they snapped
their cubes and verbalize the part-part-whole combination. For example,
Ive got seven in my hand, and five hiding behind my back. Now Ive
got 12. This activity can be used as part of your daily routine.

52

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Provide each student with a number of two-sided counters. Have
students shake the counters in a cup and spill them onto a plate.
Have students say the number combinations that make up the
whole. E.g.
Students may verbalize I have three red counters and
seven white counters. Three and seven more make
10.
Students may shake and spill the same number of
counters again and verbalize the resulting number
combinations.
(1N4.3)
Tell stories such as:

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 6 (Continued):
Representing Numbers 10 to 20
1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 36 - 39
Unit Centre:
TG p. 15
Grouping Madness

There are 16 monkeys at the zoo. In their cage, there are two trees.
When it rains, the monkeys like to climb up the trees. One day
when I visited the zoo, all the monkeys were in the trees. How
many monkeys could be in each tree? Are there other answers?
In my bowl, I have apples and bananas. There are 14 pieces of fruit
altogether. How many apples and bananas do I have? Are there
any other answers?
Have students use a part-part-whole mat and counters to represent
the story.
(1N4.3)
Whats My Hidden Number? Provide counters, numeral cards
from 0 to 20, and a small container. In pairs, one student selects a
numeral card and counts the number of counters to represent the
number selected. The other student hides some of the counters
under the small container and then asks, How many do you think
are hidden? How do you know? The partner guesses the number
hidden and explains his/her answer. The number hidden is revealed
to check the answer. Model this activity with the whole group prior
to having students work in small groups.
(1N4.3)
Ask students to use two different colors of snap cubes to build three
different cube trains to represent a number up to 20. For example, to
represent the number 12, students may build the following trains:
Ten and two more make twelve.
Six and six more make twelve
Seven and five make twelve`

(1N4.3)
Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

53

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


Problem Solving

A students earliest experience with mathematics is through solving


problems. NCTM (2000) states that problem solving means engaging
in a task for which the solution method is not known in advance
(p.52). Solving problems is naturally embedded within the curriculum.
To find solutions, students must draw on knowledge, and through
this process they will often develop new mathematical understanding.
By engaging in problem solving tasks, students will develop new ways
of thinking, perseverance, curiosity and confidence with unfamiliar
situations. Good problem solvers are able to tackle everyday situations
effectively.
A true problem requires students to use prior learning in new ways
and contexts. If students have already been given ways to solve the
problem, it is not a problem, but practice. They should be comprised
of problems arising from daily routines as well as non-routine tasks.
Problem solving requires student engagement and builds depth of
conceptual understanding. Engaging students in rich problem solving
tasks gives them the opportunity to solidify and extend upon what they
already know, thus stimulating their mathematical learning. Setting
up an environment that encourages risk taking persistence in order
for students to solve worthwhile problems athat are meaningful, is
important. Problems can be presented orally, visually or by writtenand-oral approach. Your role is to choose worthwhile problems that
are meaningful to the student, and to provide an environment that
encourages risk taking and persistence.
It is important to explicitly discuss problem solving strategies with
students, preferably as they come up naturally in the classroom activities
and discussions. There is value in naming the strategies so that students
can discuss and recall them readily. (You may consider posting the
strategies in your classroom where they are taught).

54

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes
Math Makes Sense 1
Lesson 7: Strategies Toolkit
TG pp. 40 - 41

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

55

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


Problem Solving (Continued)
Make a Model

Each unit will focus on one specific problem solving strategy with
suggested ideas to practice. Although certain strategies are highlighted
within specific units, students are essentially filling their toolboxes with
problem solving tools that can be used at any time. Here is a list of the
strategies covered and their corresponding unit of focus:
Strategy
Act it Out
Make a Model
Look for a Pattern
Draw a Picture
Guess and Check
Use an Object
Choose a Strategy

Unit of Focus
Numbers to 20
Numbers to 20
Patterning
Numbers to 100
Addition and Subtraction to 12
Measurement
Addition and Subtraction to 20
Geometry

Act it Out

In Act it Out students physically act out the problem to find the
solution.

Make a Model

Make a Model is very similar to Act it Out, but students use a variety
of materials or manipulatives available in the classroom to represent the
elements in the problem.

56

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Ask the student to solve this problem by physically acting it out:

Lesson 7 (Continued): Strategies


Toolkit

15 (use the number of students in your class) students are in the


classroom, some are sitting and some are standing. How many are
sitting? How many are standing? Ask certain groups to stand up
while others remain seated. Have students count the number of
students sitting and the number of students standing.

TG pp. 40 - 41

Have students solve this problem using concrete materials available:


12 crayons fell on the floor. Some were red and some were blue. How
many are red? How many are blue? (If necessary, adjust the colors in
the problem to match the cubes you have available.)
Use red and blue snap cubes to represent the red and blue crayons.
Count the red cubes to determine the number of red crayons, count
the blue cubes to determine the number of blue crayons.
Lesson 8:
Omitted

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

57

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N4 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N4.1 Represent a given number


up to 20, using a variety of
manipulatives, including ten
frames and base ten materials.

Physical models, provided through the use of ten-frames, Unifix cubes,


and later, base ten materials, play a key role in helping students develop
the idea of a ten as both a single entity and as a set of 10 units. Models
should be proportional, that is, a ten model should be ten times larger
than a model for a one. Students should group materials themselves, as
would be the case with popsicle sticks, straws, ten-frames, and Unifix
cubes. Pre-grouped models, like base-ten blocks, should be used later
only when students realize the value of the model. It is not appropriate
to discuss place-value concepts at this time (e.g., expecting the students
to tell what the 1 in 16 represents). However, making the group
of ten is explored when developing number meanings for 11 19. For
example, using 10 as the benchmark, students will see 13 as ten and
three more; however, they do not need to understand that the 1 in 13
represents the tens place.
Provide 2 ten-frames and counters for each student. Ask the students to
model a number between 11 and 19 with the counters. For example, ask
students to model the number sixteen. Next ask them to show thirteen
on their ten frame,

Observe:
Do they make the ten first?
Do they remove all the counters?
Do they add to/remove counters on the bottom frame?
Are they able to verbalize appropriately saying, Ten and six are
sixteen?

58

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Number Trains Provide students with a spinner with numbers 11


to 20, and Unifix cubes (or interlocking base-ten units). Students
spin the spinner and count that number of cubes. They link the
cubes together to from a train of 10 and leave the remaining cubes
separate. Observe whether they use appropriate verbalization to tell
how many (e.g., ten and three more are thirteen).
(1N4.1)

Lesson 9: Numbers to 20
1N1, 1N4, 1N8
TG pp. 44 - 45

Spill It Out! Provide students with bags of objects, such as lima


beans, buttons, or counters, to represent numbers from 11 to 20.
Have students choose a bag and spill the objects onto their desks.
They place one object in each block of their ten-frame and count
how many altogether. Observe if they count on from ten or begin
counting at one. Have students record the total number (N3.7).
Repeat using other bags of objects with various quantities.
(1N3.7, 4.1)
Ten Frame Counting - Provide each student with a different number
(0-20). On a blank ten frame students will represent their number
using a bingo dabber. As a class, place the ten frames in order from
0-20 and display in the class for future use.
(1N4.1)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

59

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N4 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N4.5 Place given numerals on a


number line with benchmarks 0,
5, 10 and 20.

1N8 Continued

It is essential for students to have a strong number sense to prepare


them for other outcomes where the relationships of one more than,
two more than, one less than, and two less than are explored. Making
connections to benchmarks of 5 and 10 (and their multiples) are critical.
For example, students need to understand that eleven is 10 and 1 more,
twelve is 10 and 2 more, and 16 is 10 and 6 more. A number line is a
valuable tool to encourage reference to benchmarks.
Create a walk-on number line with benchmarks 5, 10, 15 and 20.
Distribute different numbers to students and have them either stand
on the number line in place or place the number where it should go. At
first each number can be marked then after students develop confidence
placing numbers on the line, it can just have the benchmarks.

Achievement Indicator:

1N8.2 Represent a number on a


ten frame that is one more, two
more, one less or two less than a
given number.

Have students show a number between one and ten on their ten-frames.
Ask them to add/remove counters to make the number that is one
more/less, two more/less. Students must change their ten-frame to show
the new number. Use a double ten-frame to explore the numbers from
one to twenty.

Using a number line throughout the year helps students develop a


stronger understanding of number. At first, you may start a number line
from only 0 to 5 and have students place 1, 2, 3, and 4 one it and explay
why they placed the number where they placed it. (e.g., I placed 1 there
because it is closer to 0 than to 5). As students become more confident,
increase the numbers on the number line.
Provide students with strips of adding paper and different number cards
from 1 to 20. Have students work with a partner and place the numbers
on the number line. Number lines can range from 0 - 5, 0 - 10, 0 - 20
or even 10 - 20 depending on your students.

60

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Use beads in two different colors to create number lines on strings.
Alternate colors every 5 beads. Label the beads at the benchmarks 5,
10, 15, and 20. Call out a number between zero and twenty. Have
students find the bead corresponding to the number and identify its
place in relation to the benchmark number. For example, 8 can be
seen as 3 more than 5 or 2 less than 10.
(1N4.5)

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 9 (Continued): Numbers
to 20
1N1, 1N4, 1N8
TG pp. 44 - 45

Number Ladders The benchmark numbers 5, 10, 15, and 20 are


placed across the table, with spaces between each number. In small
groups, students take turns selecting a numeral card and placing it
on the number ladder, explaining their placement. For example, if a
student selects the number 12, he or she might place the card a little
above 10 and say, It goes here because it is two more than ten. Play
continues until the ladder is completed will all numbers from zero
to twenty placed in correct order on the ladder. (Model this activity
with the whole group prior to having students work in small groups).
(1N4.5)
Give each student a number card (the card may have the number
word, the numeral, and/or a dot configuration) Have students with
the numbers 5, 10, 15 and 20 line up in order, spacing themselves
out. Have the remaining students place themselves in order according
to their number.
(1N8.2)
Clear the Deck Provide students with a double ten frame and
ask them to use counters to fill their ten-frames to show 20 (some
students may need to fill one ten frame to show 10). Students take
turns spinning a spinner with the words one more, two more, one
less, and two less, to see whether to add or remove counters. If the
player spins a direction that cannot be followed, the player loses
a turn. Therefore, to begin the game, students must spin one less
or two less as they cannot add one more or two more to their ten
frames. The first player to clear their double ten-frame is the winner.
(1N8.2)
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Record, tape, or pin the benchmark numbers on a section of adding
machine tape, sentence strip paper, or a skipping rope. Have students
place numbers between zero and twenty in the appropriate places
on the number line. Ask students to identify where they placed their
number and why. For example, I placed the number twelve 3 spaces
past the number nine because 12 is 3 more than 9.
(1N4.5)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

61

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N6.Estimate quantities to 20 by
using referents.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

1N6.1 Estimate a given quantity


by comparing it to a given referent
(known quantity).

Estimation helps to develop useful benchmarks for thinking about


numbers. To develop estimation skills, students should be provided
with collections of objects and asked to estimate the size of the group.
Referents such as 5, 10, 15, and 20 are useful benchmarks to facilitate
the development of estimation skills. For smaller collections, one
might be asking whether it is closer to 5 or 10. For larger collections,
one might be asking whether the group is closer to 10 or 20. Include
situations in which sets have the same number of items but differ in
the amount of physical space they cover. The ability to estimate, a key
reasoning skill in mathematics, should develop with regular practice over
the course of the year, with larger collections being examined later in the
year.
Randomly scatter 6 or 8 objects on an overhead projector. Turn on the
projector long enough for students to see the objects but not to count
them. Turn off the projector and ask:
Do you think there were more or fewer than 10?
About how many objects did you see?
Record students estimates on chart paper. Turn on the projector and
begin to count the objects together. After counting three or four of the
counters, pause counting, and ask if any students would like to revise
their estimates and then continue counting. Record the actual number
counted. Compare the actual number to the estimates given. Determine
which estimates were the most reasonable. Have students, whose
estimates were closest to the actual count, share how they arrived at their
estimates.
Repeat the overhead activity several times throughout the year using a
variety of objects representing quantities up to 20. As well, place the
objects in regular and irregular patterns. For example, place 7 objects
as they would appear on a ten-frame or scattered randomly on the
overhead

1N6.2 Select an estimate for a


given quantity from at least two
possible options, and explain the
choice.

62

It is important for students to understand what makes a good estimate.


All counting activities can be modified to include estimation. Students
may estimate how many are in a set prior to finding the actual count.
Prepare daily estimation tasks by placing several objects in a jar and
having students record their names and estimates. Sometime throughout
the day, empty the jar, count the objects, and compare the estimates to
the actual number. Be sure to have students share how they arrived at
their estimates.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Prepare plastic baggies with varying quantities of objects from 1 to


20. Show students the collections, one at a time, and ask them to
estimate the quantity by relating it to the benchmark of 5, 10, 15,
or 20. Count the objects to determine the reasonableness of their
estimates.
(1N6.1)

Lesson 10: Estimating Quantities


1N4, 1N6
TG pp. 46 - 49

Show students a group of 12 buttons. Ask: Do you think there are


about 10 or 20 buttons in the group? Explain your choice. Repeat
using different objects and quantities.
(1N6.1, 6.2)
Prepare three transparent containers, one with 3 objects, one with
11 objects and one with 18 objects. The objects and containers must
be the same. Provide students with three numeral cards with the
numbers 1, 9, and 20. Ask them to match the container with the
numeral card that shows the most reasonable estimate and explain
their choice.
(1N6.2)
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Provide four or more sets of objects such as a set of interlocking
cubes, a set of marbles, a set of clothespins, or a set of blocks. Have
students look at each set separately and ask, How many interlocking
cubes do you think will fit in your hand? Would the number be
closer to 5, 10, 15, or 20? After students have made their estimates,
they take a handful of objects from the set and count them. When
students have counted, ask: Did you make a good estimate? Why or
why not? Repeat using other sets of objects.
(1N6.1, 6.2)
Place 18 cubes in a container. Show it to the students and ask:
How many cubes do you think are in the container?
Do you think there are more than 20 or fewer than 20 cubes?
Why or why not? A lot more/fewer or just a few more/fewer?
Have the students count the cubes and then ask, Are there more
cubes or fewer cubes than you predicted? Repeat using a variety of
objects and quantities.
(1N6.1, 6.2)
If I showed you a set of 7 objects, would 1 be a good estimate? What
about 15? Why or why not?
If I showed you a set of 18 objects, would 100 be a good estimate?
What about 20? Why or why not?
What do you think makes a good estimate?
Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

(1N6.1, 6.2)
63

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N5 Compare and order sets
containing up to 20 elements to
solve problems, using:
referents (known quantities)
one-to-one correspondence
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Students should compare the size of sets in many different contexts.


Include situations in which:
the size of the sets are the same
the size of the sets differ
This will lead to exploring number relationships such as one more
than, one less than, two more than, etc. When students compare
sets, ensure that the two sets are:
lined up side by side and the students pair the items; or
grouped in clusters and the students need to move the items to
match them one-to-one and compare the size of the sets.
It is desirable, at times, that the items in the sets go together naturally
(e.g., left glove/right glove), and that at other times the items are
unrelated (e.g., desks and pencils). Concrete objects should be used
when exploring one-to-one correspondence.

Achievement Indicators:

1N5.1 Build a set equal to a


given set that contains up to 20
elements.

Students might be encouraged to compare amounts to benchmarks such


as 5, 10, 15 or 20, so as to get a feel for the relative size of quantities.
For example, for smaller collections, is it closer to 5 or 10? For larger
collections, is it closer to 10 or 20?

1N5.2 Build a set that has more


elements than, fewer elements
than or as many elements as a
given set.

The term fewer than is used when describing sets of objects. Later,
when numbers are compared, the term less than is more appropriate.
When talking about sets that have the same number of objects, use the
terms the same number and as many as.
The concept of fewer (or less) is often more difficult for students because
thinking about what is not there is harder than thinking about what is
there. It is easier for students to see the relationships between quantities,
and tell how many more or how many fewer, when the difference
between the quantities is small.
Provide students with a set of objects and ask them to build a set that
has more, a set that has less, and a set that is the same as the given set.

64

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide pairs of students with a strip of six to eight mixed-up


numbers ranging from 0 to 20 (consider beginning with numbers 0
to 10 if needed). E.g.

Lesson 11: More, Fewer or the


Same?

6
9
12
14

Beginning at the top of the strip, one student reads a number


and the other student builds it with counters. As each number
is read, the builder must change the quantity of objects to
reflect the number being read. Both students must identify
how many objects need to be added or removed in order to
move from one number to the next.
(1N5.1, 5.2)

1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4


TG pp. 50 - 53

8
5
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Give students a set of interlocking cubes and ask them to build
towers using more than, fewer than, or the same as in the directions.
For example,
Build a tower that is one more than 11.
Build a tower that is two fewer than 18.
Build a tower that is the same as mine.

(1N5.1, 5.2)

Give each student two ten-frames and 20 counters. Have all students
show you the number fourteen on the ten-frames, filling from left to
right. Ask students what they will do to display the number twelve.
Ask: Will you add or remove counters to the ten-frames? Is twelve
more or less than fourteen? How do you know?
(1N5.2)
Show the student a set of objects representing a number between 1
and 20. Ask the student to build a set that is the same as the given
set. Observe if the student uses one-to-one correspondence to build
the set. Then, ask him/her to build a set that has more and a set that
has fewer. Observe whether the student can manipulate his or her set
to demonstrate these concepts.
(1N5.1, 5.2)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

65

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N5 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N5.3 Compare two given sets,


using one-to-one correspondence,
and describe them, using
comparative words such as more,
fewer or as many.

One-to-one correspondence is a very important concept to understand


in relationships among numbers, in problem solving, and later in
constructing and analyzing graphs. Most students use one-to-one
correspondence when comparing sets of concrete objects. Students
should be able to create and compare sets, using comparative words,
by matching one-to-one. Graphing is not specifically identified as
an outcome for Grade One; however, it can be used as a strategy for
comparing sets.
Label two paper bags, one with Yes and one with No. Ask students
a yes or no question such as Do you like strawberries? To answer the
question, students place a cube in either the Yes or the No bag.
The cubes are then counted and the numbers are compared using the
comparative language more, fewer, and as many as. (Consider including
students from other classes for this activity to compare larger numbers).

1N5.4 Solve a given story


problem (pictures and words) that
involves the comparison of two
quantities.

Problem solving enables students to make sense of mathematical


concepts. Problems should be relevant and there should be multiple
paths to arrive at a solution. Students need many opportunities to
model and solve a variety of problems involving the comparison of two
quantities. Examples of problems include:
There are 15 students in our class. Nine are girls and six are boys.
How many more girls are there than boys? (Students may physically
arrange themselves into two groups and then solve the problem).
Mark blew up 10 balloons. Four were red and six were green. How
many more balloons does Mark have to blow up to have the same
number of red and green balloons? (Students may draw a picture to
solve this problem).

66

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies
Performance
In pairs, give each student 20 interlocking cubes. They snap their
cubes together to form a tower and compare their towers to show
that they are the same. Students put their towers behind their back
and simultaneously break off part of their tower and place one of the
pieces in view. One player spins a spinner, with the words more and
fewer. If the spinner lands on more, the student with more cubes
in view takes both stacks. If the spinner lands on fewer, the student
with fewer cubes in view takes both stacks. Play continues until one
player runs out of cubes.
(1N5.2, 5.3)

Resources/Notes
Math Makes Sense 1
Lesson 11 (Continued): More,
Fewer or the Same?
1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4
TG pp. 50 - 53

Ask students to record their first and last names and compare the
number of letters in his/her first name to the number in his/her last
name to see which name has more.
(1N5.3)
Line up 7 boys and 3 girls. Ask: What must be changed to make the
number of girls equal to the number of boys?
(1N5.3)
Prepare a set of 30 cards displaying objects up to 20. Shuffle the
cards and deal ten to each player. Each player places their cards
face down on the table. Players take turns flipping cards from their
respective piles. Students compare sets to determine who has the set
with fewer. That student earns a counter. Play continues until all
cards have been played. The student with the most counters is the
winner.
(1N5.3)
In pairs, students take turns spinning a spinner with any
combination of numbers to 20. Using interlocking cubes, they build
a set that is the same as the number on the spinner. They compare
their sets to determine who has more/fewer/same. The student who
has more/fewer/same (depending on the rule), earns a counter. The
first student to earn ten counters is the winner.
(1N5.3)
Present problems such as the following:
I have 12 stickers in my collection. My friend says she has fewer.
How many stickers might my friend have in her collection? (Any
number less that twelve is acceptable for this problem).
There are 15 flowers in the green pot and 18 flowers in the blue
pot. Which pot has more (or fewer) flowers? How do you know?
Molly has 2 more toy cars that Jack. Jack has 5 cars. How many
more cars does Molly have?
Ask students to solve the problems using pictures, numbers, and
words and present their work to the class.
(1N5.4)
Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

67

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR3 Describe equality as a
balance and inequality as an
imbalance, concretely and
pictorially (0 to 20).
[C, CN, R, V]

Achievement Indicator:

PR3.1 Construct two equal sets,


using the same objects (same
shape and mass), and demonstrate
their equality of number, using a
balance scale.

In everyday life, we sort things by comparison relationships. For


example, we may observe that Ron is taller than Mary or that Monica
takes more time than Valerie to complete her homework. Relationships
also apply to number. We may observe that five is two less than seven or
twelve is three more than nine. Many opportunities should be provided
to allow students to learn the relationships between numbers to ten and
then to twenty.
It is important for students to focus on comparing numbers and
learning the language used to describe these relationships. Students
should use the vocabulary: more/greater, fewer/less, same as, and equal,
and as well as talk about the strategies they use to compare groups.
Balance activities form a basis for understanding equality. Working with
balance scale problems, students build the foundation for further study
in the area of algebra and solving equations.
Using concrete materials, students can examine how a balance operates
like the seesaw in the playground. Place an equal sign between the two
arms of the scale. This will help students begin to make the connection
between the relationship of the quantities on each side of the scale and
the equal sign.
Place six red cubes on one side of a balance scale and four yellow cubes
on the other. Ask students to predict how many more cubes they would
need to make the scale balance. Have students place blue cubes, one at a
time, onto the scale until it balances. Students then count the number
of cubes on each side, reinforcing the idea that both sides have the same
number of cubes by saying, Both sides are equal. Draw attention to
the fact that one side of the balance scale is represented by 6 red cubes.
The other side of the balance scale is represented by 4 yellow and 2 blue
cubes.

PR3.2 Construct two unequal


sets, using the same objects (same
shape and mass), and demonstrate
their inequality of number, using
a balance scale

68

When comparing numbers, many students may recognize that 5 is


greater than 4, but not automatically realize, that 4 is less than 5. Both
sides of the relationship need to be considered when completing the
tasks.
Whenever possible, use mathematical language (e.g., 5 is greater than
4 and 3 is less than 5). Eventually students will use the greater-than
symbol and less-than symbol (e.g., 5 > 4 or 3 < 5), but is not required at
this grade level.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance:

Math Makes Sense 1

Working in partners, one student puts cubes in a paper bag and


places the bag on a balance scale. The partner predicts the number
of cubes in the bag. (He/she may change their prediction as the scale
begins to balance). The partner then begins to add cubes to the other
side of the balance to verify his/her prediction. Once the scale is
balanced, ask: How many cubes do you think are in the bag? How
do you know? The partners count and compare the number of cubes
on both sides.

Lesson 11 (Continued): More,


Fewer or the Same
1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4
TG pp. 50 - 53

Provide a balance scale and two colors of Unifix cubes seperated into
two paper bags. Have a student take a handful of cubes from one bag
and count and then take another handful of cubes from the second
bag and count. The student puts each set on opposite sides of the
balance scale. He/she compares the sets and states which one has
more cubes and which has fewer cubes (e.g., 3 is less than 6 or 6 is
greater than 3).
Provide two colors of Unifix cubes in two paper bags, a balance scale,
and a spinner labeled more/less. Working in partners, one student
takes a handful of cubes from one bag and counts. The other
student spins the spinner. If the spinner lands on greater, he/she
must make a set greater than their partner. If the spinner lands on
less, he/she must make a set that is less than their partner. The sets
are placed on the balance scale to confirm the inequality of the two
sets.

Indicators 1PR3.1 and 1PR3.2


are not covered by the text.

Pencil and Paper


Students write the letters of their name, one letter in a square on
a grid. Students compare the number of letters in their names to
determine which has more or less. Ask:
Who in your group has the greater/most number of letters in
their name?
Does anyone in your group have the same/equal number of letters
in their name(s) as in your name? How do you know?
Who in your group has the least/fewest number of letters in their
name? How do you know?
(1PR3.3)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

69

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR3 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1PR3.3 Determine if two given


concrete sets are equal or unequal,
and explain the process used.

Line up students in two unequal groups. The groups could represent


the number of boys and number of girls in the class or the groups could
represent two teams. Students from each group line up across from each
other, showing one to one correspondence. The group that has students
left over is the larger group and the number representing it is the greater
number. Give examples where both groups are equal as well. Repeat
with different groupings of students.
The interpretation of simple bar graphs is another way in which
students may demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of equality
and inequality. For example, students could indicate the way they come
to school by placing a cube on the tower that represents their means of
getting to school. By observing the towers, students should determine if
the sets are equal or unequal.

1PR4 Record equalities, using the


equal symbol (0 to 20)
[C, CN, PS, V]

Achievement Indicator:

1PR4.1 Represent a given


equality, using manipulatives or
pictures.

70

When students begin the study of equality, it is important for them to


see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells
us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.
Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they
know about the relationship. Using the words the same as for the equal
sign will help them further understand this relation.
Provide students with task cards showing pictures of given equalities
using the equal sign. Students should use a variety of manipulatives to
represent equalities by making sets.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with two bags of counters and ask them to


determine if the sets are equal or unequal and to explain how they
know.

Lesson 11 (Continued): More,


Fewer or the Same

(1PR3.3)
Prepare two sets of cards, one set containing numerals 11-20,
the other set displaying pictures of 11-20 objects. Students are
given a numeral or picture card and are to find a partner with the
corresponding card. In their math journals, students will record the
equalities using the equal sign.

1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4


TG pp. 50 - 53

Unit Centre:
TG p. 15
Dare to Compare
(1PR4.1)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

71

Patterning

Suggested Time: 2 Weeks

This is the first explicit focus on patterning, but as with other outcomes,
it is ongoing throughout the year.

PATTERNING

Unit Overview

74

Focus and Context

In Grade One, students are formally introduced to repeating patterns


of two to four elements. They learn that repeating patterns can be
represented in a variety of ways using a variety of materials, sounds,
movements or visuals. Students verbalize and communicate rules
to help them understand the predictability of a pattern. As students
have more experiences with this, they will begin to understand that
the patterns exist all around us and can be used to solve a variety
of everyday problems. In Kindergarten, students were exposed to
repeating patterns of two to three elements. This patterning concept
is essential to help students understand repeating patterns as they
continue to study patterning up to four elements in Grade One.
Students will continue working with repeating patterns, extending their
knowledge to include five elements and will explore increasing patterns
in Grade Two.

Math Connects

Through working with patterns, students learn to see relationships


and make connections, generalizations, and predictions about the
world around them. These experiences are important in all aspects
of mathematics at this age. Looking for patterns is natural for young
children. Even before Kindergarten, students develop concepts related
to patterns, functions and algebra. They learn predictable poems,
repetitive songs, and rhythmic chants that are based on repeating
patterns. Patterns can be extended and described with both words and
symbols. The same pattern can be found in many different forms.
Patterns are found in physical and geometric situations, as well as in
numbers. Pattern experiences at this grade level will give students the
opportunity to explore repeating patterns. It is these experiences that
are the foundation of the development of algebraic thinking that will be
built upon during the year.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

PATTERNING

Process Standards
Key

Curriculum
Outcomes

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

STRAND

Patterns and
Relations
(Patterns)

Patterns and
Relations
(Patterns)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

OUTCOME
1PR1 Demonstrate
an understanding of
repeating patterns (two
to four elements) by:
describing
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using
manipulatives,
pictures, sounds and
actions.
1PR2 Translate
repeating patterns from
one representation to
another.

PROCESS
STANDARDS

[C, PS, R, V]

[C, CN, R, V]

75

PATTERNING

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR1 Demonstrate an
understanding of repeating
patterns (two to four elements)
by:
describing
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using manipulatives,
pictures, sounds and actions.
[C, PS, R, V]

Pattern experiences should be an ongoing part of Math throughout the


year. Students should begin the year interpreting patterns using a variety
of manipulatives. Suggested manipulatives for creating patterns include:
connecting cubes
rubber stamps and adding machine paper rolls
stickers
color tiles
link its
pattern Blocks
collections (each collection should consist of 60 100
small items of one kind, such as bread tags, buttons, shells, small
plastic animals, etc.)
two-color counters
Students should have many opportunities to work with these materials
before using materials, such as attribute blocks, that have more than one
visible attribute.
Young students first need to experience repeating patterns in a variety
of different ways. They need both teacher-directed and independent
activities. Teacher-directed activities should encourage students to
analyze a variety of patterns. Independent activities provide students
with the opportunity to explore, reproduce, extend, and create patterns
appropriate to their level of understanding. Examples of patterns young
students should describe, reproduce, extend, and create include:
Rhythmic/Sound patterns

e.g., clap, snap, clap, snap, clap, snap,
Action pattern

e.g., sit, sit, stand, sit, sit, stand, sit, sit, stand,
Color patterns

e.g. red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow,
Shape patterns

e.g., circle, square, triangle, circle, square, triangle,
Patterns of attributes

e.g., using buttons: four holes, two holes, four holes, two holes,
Patterns of size

e.g., long, long, short, short, long, long, short, short, long,
Number patterns

76

e.g., 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3,

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
In circle time or when lining up, begin a repeating pattern using the
children (e.g., sit, stand, sit, stand, , boy, boy, girl, girl, boy, boy,
girl, girl , etc). Ask students to describe and extend the pattern.
Have students take turns creating and extending other repeating
patterns.
(1PR1.1, 1.4, 1.5)
Ask students to repeat a rhythmic pattern presented to them (e.g.,
clap, clap, stamp, clap, clap, stamp, clap, clap, stamp . . .). (1PR1.1)

Math Makes Sense 1


Launch
Teacher Guide (TG) p. 9
Lesson 1: Recognize and Copy
a Pattern
1PR1
TG pp. 10 - 13
Audio CD 1:
Selections 1, 2, 3 & 4

Create a Border Provide students with 2 to 4 rubber stamps and


ask them to create a patterned border around the edge of a picture
frame, place mat, or a piece of paper. Have them describe their
patterns to the class.
(1PR1.4)
Have students brainstorm events that occur during each school day
(e.g., I eat breakfast. I go to school. I go home from school. I eat
supper.) Ask students to illustrate each of the events in the order
they occur.
(1PR1.7)
Use connecting cubes to create a color pattern with one element
missing (e.g., red, yellow, green, red, yellow, green, red yellow, green,
red, ___, green). Ask :
Are there colors missing?
What color is missing from the pattern? How do you know?
Repeat using other patterns. Objects, such as attribute blocks, with
more than one visible attribute may be used.
(1PR1.3)
Have students look at a repeating visual pattern, or listen to a
repeating sound pattern, that contains an error or omission. Ask
students to correct the error or omission and explain how they know.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

(1PR1.3, 1.3)

77

PATTERNING

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

PR1.1 Describe a given repeating


pattern containing two to four
elements in its core.

Students should be given the opportunity to describe patterns orally, as


it helps them interpret the patterns they experience visually and solidify
their understanding of the concept. It also allows other students to learn
from each other.
The core of a repeating pattern is the shortest string of elements that
repeats. For example, the color pattern, red, yellow, green, red, yellow,
green, , has a core of three different elements that repeat over and
over. The pattern, red, red, yellow, yellow, red, red, yellow, yellow, is
also a four element pattern even though the elements are repeated. It is
important to repeat the core of the pattern at least three times before
expecting students to describe, reproduce, or extend a pattern.

PR1.5 Reproduce and extend


a given repeating pattern using
manipulatives, diagrams, sounds
and actions.

When presenting a pattern for students to reproduce or extend, repeat


the core three times (e.g., red, red, blue, red, red, blue, red, red, blue,...).
As students become more efficient reproducing and extending patterns,
repeat the core three times and begin the fourth repetition (e.g., red,
red, blue, red, red, blue, red, red, blue, red, ). Observe whether the
student is able to continue the pattern from the last element given or
repeats the entire core.

1PR1.6 Describe, using every


day language, a repeating pattern
in the environment, e.g., in the
classroom, outdoors.

Patterning becomes more meaningful to students when it is evident in


many areas of their daily life (e.g., clothing, signs, food packages, etc).
Ask students to look for and describe patterns in the classroom and/or
outdoors.

1PR1.7 Identify repeating events;


e.g., days of the week, birthdays,
seasons.

Students should recognize that there are many patterns that occur in
cycles such as the seasons, the days of the week, the months of the year,
and some daily routines. The exploration of repeating events can be
experienced during morning calendar routines ongoing throughout the
school year.

1PR1.2 Identify and describe


errors in a given repeating
pattern.

Provide students with repeating patterns containing two to four


elements in which there are errors or missing elements. Ask students to
identify the errors or omissions in the repeating patterns.

1PR1.3 Identify and describe


the missing element(s) in a given
repeating pattern.

78

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Patterning Ourselves Choose one student to go to the far side of
the room. Instruct the student to turn away from the group and
cover his/her ears. Have the remainder of the group form a circle
or a line. Begin a people pattern by directing the students to do a
particular action. Point to each student in order, as you say:
hands up, hands up, hands down, hands down, hands up,
hands up, hands down, hands down . . .
After the core has been repeated three times make an error in the
pattern (e.g., hands up, hands up, hands up, hands down). Ask the
students to return to the group and identify the error in the pattern
and explain how they know. Repeat this task leaving a gap in the
pattern and asking the student to identify the missing element and
explaining how they know.
(1PR1.2, 1.3)

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 1 (Continued):
Recognize and Copy a Pattern
1PR1
TG pp. 10 - 13
Unit Centres:
TG p. 7
Paper Plate Garden

Presentation
Say, I made a pattern with red and green cubes and then it fell
apart. This is whats left (show a piece of a pattern). Ask students to
use cubes to show what the pattern might have looked like. Working
with a partner, have students create possible patterns which may
contain a different number of elements in its core. Ask students to
present their patterns to the class.
(1PR 1.1, 1.4, 1.5)
Take students on a walk around the inside and outside of the school
looking for patterns. Students can draw a pattern they found and
describe the pattern to a classmate.
(1PR1.6)
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Provide students with a pattern of linking cubes (e.g., red, green,
green, red, green, green, red, green, green). This task involves
describing a three element pattern using objects with one attribute
(color). Ask students to describe the pattern, using color words. This
task can be repeated with patterns with two to four elements in its
core.
(1PR 1.1)
Display a collection of objects from the environment, some with
visible patterns and some without. Discuss each object by naming it
and observing its features. Ask:
Did anyone see an object with a pattern? How do you know?
Did anyone see an object that did not have a pattern? How do
you know?
(1PR1.6)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

79

PATTERNING

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

PR1.5 Reproduce and extend


a given repeating pattern using
manipulatives, diagrams, sounds
and actions.

1PR1.4 Create and describe a


repeating pattern, using a variety
of manipulatives, diagrams,
sounds and actions.

Students should be encouraged to create and describe patterns as


soon as they have an understanding of what patterns are. By changing
the number of elements presented in teacher-directed lessons and
independent activities, students working at all levels can be supported
and challenged.
A Patterning Learning Center will give children opportunities to
make patterns on an informal and independent basis. The choice of
manipulatives can affect the difficulty of the task. Connecting cubes and
color tiles are the easiest manipulatives from which children can make
patterns, as they have only one visible attribute.

Problem Solving

80

Students surroundings contain many patterns such as their clothing,


in structures and buildings, and the classroom. Mathematics is full of
patterns. Students can look for patterns to help them solve problems.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with a variety of manipulatives and ask them to


create and describe a repeating pattern. Ask another student to
extend the pattern that has been created.
(1PR1.4, 1.5)

Lesson 2: Make and Extend a


Pattern
1PR1
TG pp. 14 - 17

Make One Like Mine Use pattern blocks to create a repeating


pattern on the overhead projector. Ask the students to reproduce and
extend the pattern on their desks.
(1PR1.5)

Unit Centres:

Color Towers Use interlocking cubes to create a tower with a


repeating pattern. Ask students to extend the pattern to determine
the color of the 11th cube.
(1PR1.5)

Show students a snap cube train with a simple AB colour pattern.


Patterns must have three repeats. Have them find (E.g., red, blue,
red, blue) and extend the pattern. What colour comes next? This can
be modified to include more complex patterns to meet the students
instructional needs.
(KPR1.5)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

TG p. 7
Pattern Cards

Lesson 3: Strategies Toolkit


TG pp. 18 - 19

81

PATTERNING

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR2 Translate repeating
patterns from one representation
to another.
[C, CN, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

1PR2.1 Represent a given


repeating pattern, using another
mode; e.g., actions to sound,
colour to shape, ABC ABC to
moose, puffin, bear, moose puffin
bear.

1PR2.2 Describe a given


repeating pattern, using a letter
code; e.g., ABC ABC,

Students should recognize many different forms of the same pattern.


They need to see that patterns constructed with different materials are
the same pattern. Translating two or more alike patterns (e.g., snap, clap,
snap, clap, snap, clap and red, green, red, green red, green ) to a
common format (e.g., ABABAB) helps children see beyond the materials
making up the pattern. Using some form of symbolism (in this case
the letter code, ABABAB) to represent the structure of a pattern is the
beginning of algebraic reasoning.
When given a repeating pattern, students should represent that pattern
using another form of pattern described in PR1.1 (i.e. rhythmic/sound
patterns, action patterns, color patterns, shape patterns, patterns of
attributes, patterns of size, and number patterns). For example, if
students are given the repeating rhythmic pattern - clap, clap, snap,
clap, clap, snap . . . they may represent the pattern in other forms such
as a color pattern (e.g., red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow ) or a shape
pattern (e.g., square, square, triangle, square, square, triangle).
Repeating patterns are sometimes described using a letter code.
Labeling patterns with ABC helps students name and compare patterns.
Use interlocking cubes to represent a two-element repeating pattern.
(e.g., red, yellow, red, yellow, red, yellow). With the students, describe
the pattern using a letter code (e.g., ABABAB). Repeat using two
different colors of interlocking cubes. Draw students attention to the
fact that although different colors have been used, the letter code has not
changed. Extend these activities to include repeating patterns with a core
of three and four different elements.
Students should be provided with many experiences describing repeating
patterns using letters. It is important to use many forms of patterns
containing two to four elements such as AB, AAB, ABB, ABC, AABB,
and other combinations, so students realize they do not always have to
make the same pattern. E.g.,

82

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
During Circle Time, spread out the connecting cubes on the floor so
that all students have access to them. Begin by acting out a rhythmic
pattern and have students join in (e.g., clap, slap, slap, clap, slap,
slap, clap, slap, slap). Once they are able to copy the pattern,
stop the actions and ask the students to use the connecting cubes to
represent the same pattern.
(1PR2.1)

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide a collection of manipulatives and task cards of pattern-train


outlines. For example:
R
G
Y
R
G
Y
R
G
Y

Unit Centres

Have the students choose a card and use the manipulatives to


reproduce and extend the pattern shown. Ask another student to
represent the same pattern using different manipulatives. (1PR2.1)

Lesson 4: Translate a Pattern


1PR1, 1PR2
TG: pp. 14 - 17

TG: p. 7
Treasure Boxes
Stamp It

Provide students with pattern cards. E.g.,

Ask children to use buttons or blocks to represent and extend the


patterns. Students then label the patterns using a letter code.

(1PR2.1, 2.2)

Sing the song Old MacDonald had a Farm. Have the students
make sound patterns (e.g., woof-woof-oink-woof-woof oink).
Record these patterns on a chart. Ask students to translate the
pattern into a colour pattern using interlocking cubes. Ask, What
colour cube would you like for the dog sound? How many cubes
will we need each time we come to that sound? Choose one student
to translate the pattern using a letter code (e.g., AABAAB). Have
students look at their own patterns and see if there is another pattern
on the chart similar to theirs. Students may sort the patterns based
on their letter codes.
(1PR2.1, 2.2)
Begin a rhythmic pattern (e.g., clap, snap, clap, snap, clap, snap, ).
Ask the students to extend the pattern and label it, while performing
the actions, using a letter code. Repeat using other modes of
patterns.
(1PR2.2)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

83

Addition and Subtraction to 12

Suggested Time: 5 Weeks

This is the first explicit focus on addition and subtraction, but as


with other outcomes, it is ongoing throughout the year.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Unit Overview
Focus and Context

In Grade One, students will have many opportunities to develop


a strong sense of numbers to 20. As they develop number sense,
students simultaneously build their understanding of the operations
for addition and subtraction. This occurs naturally as students count
and compare numbers in everyday situations. The focus of this unit
is to provide meaningful learning so students will be able to see the
connection between the process of addition and subtraction and the
world they live in. They will have opportunities to act out problems
and use a variety of mainipulatives to develop an understanding of these
processes of addition and subtraction. Both mathematical language
and every day language should by used when presenting problems to
students. As they think about number problems involving addition
and subtraction, young students devise personal strategies to compute.
Through discussion and explanation, students will refine their
strategies for addition and subtraction and deepen their understanding
of number operations. It is with this understanding that students
are then introduced to the symbols used to represent the processes.
Symbolic tasks should not be presented in isolation, nor should they
be emphasized until after the addition and subtraction processes have
been modeled using real life problem solving. Students must be given
sufficient time and opportunity to internalize the concepts. The equal
sign will be introduced using a balance scale and the symbol must be
thought of as a relationship, not an operation. In this unit, students
will work with numbers to 12, laying the foundation for future work in
the unit Addition and Subtraction to 20.

Math Connects

Work on number and computation should occur throughout the year


and not in isolated parts. Students need experiences where they see
how number and computation can be used on a daily basis in different
forms. This can be done through cross-curricular activities, as a part
of a morning routine or through informal lessons. Doing this, will
provide students with different opportunities throughout the entire
year to develop this essential understanding; it gives everyone a chance
to learn. It is essential to give students meaningful contexts to learn,
showing them real life situations where computational skills are needed
to solve a problem.

Process Standards
Key

86

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Curriculum
Outcomes

STRAND

OUTCOME

PROCESS
STANDARDS

1N3 Demonstrate an understanding of


counting by:
indicating that the last number said

identifies how many

Number

showing that any set has only one count

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

using the counting-on strategy


using parts or equal groups to count
sets.

Number

1N4 Represent and describe numbers to 20,


concretely, pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

Number

1N8 Identify the number, up to 20, that is


one more, two more, one less and two less
than a given number.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

1N9 Demonstrate an understanding of


addition of numbers with answers to 20
and their corresponding subtraction facts,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically, by:

Number

using familiar and mathematical


language to describe additive and
subtractive actions from their personal
experience
creating and solving problems in
context that involve addition and
subtraction

[C, CN, ME, PS, R,


V]

modelling addition and subtraction,


using a variety of concrete and visual
representations, and recording the process
symbolically.
1N10 Describe and use mental mathematics
strategies (memorization not intended), such
as:
counting on and counting back

Number

making 10
using doubles

[C, CN, ME, PS,


R, V]

using addition to subtract


to determine the basic addition facts to 18
and related subtraction facts.

Patterns and
Relations
(Variables and
Equations)

1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal


symbol (0 to 20)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

[C, CN, PS, V]

87

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Demonstrate an
understanding of counting by:

Students should have a good understanding of number (N3, N4) before


beginning Addition and Subtraction to 12.

indicating that the last


number said identifies
how many
showing that any set has
only one count
using the counting-on
strategy
using parts or equal groups
to count sets
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
1N4 Represent and describe
numbers to 20, concretely,
pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, V]

88

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes
Math Makes Sense 1
Launch
Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15
Consider reviewing Representing
Numbers to 20 (Lesson 6) TG pp.
36-39
Lesson 1: Different Combinations
of a Number
1N3, 1N4
TG pp. 16 - 20
Unit Centres: Shake the Counters
TG p. 13

Audio CD 2:
Selection 6

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

89

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Demonstrate an
understanding of addition of
numbers with answers to 20 and
their corresponding subtraction
facts, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically, by:
using familiar and
mathematical language
to describe additive and
subtractive actions from
their personal experience
creating and solving
problems in context that
involve addition and
subtraction
modeling addition and
subtraction, using a
variety of concrete and
visual representations,
and recording the process
symbolically.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

As with many early concepts, the development of the meaning of


addition cannot be rushed. It is desirable to explore adding situations in
meaningful contexts. Experiences should be provided in which students
use a variety of concrete materials to model addition situations prior to
recording the process symbolically.
Students require experience interpreting how addition situations are
portrayed in print. Include examples of:
Active situations which involve the physical joining of sets.
E.g., I had 4 pencils and my teacher gave me 3 more. How many do I
have now?
Static situations involve the implied joining of sets that are not
physically joined to form a whole.
E.g., There are 4 cars parked on one side of the road and 3 cars parked
on the other side of the road. Altogether, how many cars are parked on
the road?

Achievement Indicators:

1N9.1 Act out a given problem


presented orally or through shared
reading.
1N9.3 Represent the numbers
and actions presented in a
given story problem by using
manipulatives, and record them
using sketches and/or number
sentences.

90

In joining problems there are three quantities involved: an initial


amount, a change amount (the part being added or joined), and the
resulting amount (the amount after the action is over). This generates
3 types of joining problems where either the result, change or initial is
unknown. It is important to give equal opportunities for students to
explore all three types of joining problems.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Present addition stories. Have students act out the story, represent
concretely, pictorially and/or symbolically. The following examples
may be used:

Lesson 2: Addition Stories


1N9, PR4

Joining Problems

TG pp. 21 - 25

Result Unknown - Sarah placed 4 pencils on the table. Stephen


placed 3 more pencils on the table. How many pencils are on the
table altogether?

Audio CD 2:

Change Unknown Sarah placed 4 pencils on the table.


Stephen placed some pencils on the table. There are 7 pencils
altogether. How many pencils did Stephen place on the table?

Selections 8 & 9

Initial Unknown - Sarah placed some pencils on the table and


Stephen placed 3 more. There are 7 pencils altogether. How many
pencils did Sarah place on the table?
(1N9.1, 9.2, 9.3)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

91

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

N9.3 Represent the numbers and


actions presented in a given story
problem by using manipulatives,
and record them using sketches
and/or number sentences.
N9.4 Create a story problem for
addition that connects to personal
experience, and simulate the
action with counters.
N9.6 Create a word problem for
a given addition or subtraction
number sentence.

Students need experiences where they model number stories. They can
take a number sentence (3 + 7) and be asked to develop the script
and then act out the story. At this time students are not required to use
words to record the story.
By applying their own experiences to the numbers they will create
many different scripts. Students tend to create word problems where
the result or the difference is unknown. Encourage the creation of join
and separate problems with the result, change or initial unknown,
and compare problems with the difference, larger or smaller number
unknown.
Students need many opportunities to make connections between
personal experiences and the symbols they represent. When recording
addition number sentences, the use of both horizontal and vertical
representations should be encouraged to familiarize students with
both methods. Models should continue to be used as long as students
find them helpful. When students are ready to use addition symbols,
they can be introduced in the context of solving story problems.
When students become comfortable recording addition sentences, it
is important that they make connections between the equations and
the stories they represent. At this stage, students not only model and
symbolize word problems but should have practice providing a number
story when a model and/or the equations are provided.
When explaining the symbols for addition, it is important that the
addition sign be referred to as and rather than plus. The equality
sign should be referred to as equals or is the same as. Students need
to realize that the equal sign represents a balance between both sides of
the equation.

92

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Have students create their own story problems for addition and
demonstrate the additive action with counters. Incorporate the use of
manipulatives, such as dominoes and dice, to generate numbers for
story problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5)

Lesson 2 (Continued): Addition


Stories
1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 21 - 25

Bean Bag Addition - Draw a line down the center of a plastic


sandwich bag. Provide students with number cards for numerals 2
to 12, 12 beans (or another manipulative) and blank pieces of paper.
Student chooses a number card and places that number of beans into
the bag and then seals the bag. The student moves the beans to either
side of the line to create a number combination, and records that
number sentence on the paper. The student continues to manipulate
the beans until he/she generates as many number sentences as they
can.
(1N9.3)
Provide story boards for students to use with manipulatives to create,
model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by
drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper
can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a
beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be
created using the same story boards. Students should share their story
problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence
for each of their problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7)
Have students use the overhead, whiteboard, felt board, counters,
etc., to create story problems for a variety of addition and subtraction
number sentences.
(1N9.6)
Double Dice - Students roll two dice and create a word problem to
match the two numbers shown. They can develop a subtraction or
addition problem. (Dominoes can be used instead of dice.) (1N9.6)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

93

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


PR4 Record equalities, using the
equal symbol (0 to 20)
[C, CN, PS, V]

Achievement Indicators:

PR4.1 Represent a given equality,


using manipulatives or pictures.

When students begin the study of equality, it is important for them to


see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells
us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.
Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they
know about the relationship. Using the words is the same as for the
equal sign will help them further understand this relation.
Provide students with task cards showing given equalities using the equal
sign. Examples of task cards at various levels of complexity include:
8=8

PR4.2 Represent a given pictorial


or concrete equality in symbolic
form.

5+3=8
5+3=6+2
Students should use a variety of manipulatives to represent the equality
by making sets to show each side of the equal symbol. For example:

5+3=8

5+3=6+2

As students develop confidence with this concept, they may move on to


represent the equalities using pictures.

94

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Show students a balance scale with an equal number of snap cubes


on each side. The snap cubes may be of two colors to represent parts
of a number on the either side of the balance.

Lesson 2 (Continued): Addition


Stories
1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 21 - 25

(1PR4.2)
Students should represent the following equations using two colors
of snap cubes:

8=8

8=5+3

5+3=8

5+3=2+6

(1PR4.2)

Show the students two number trains: one train with 6 red and 1
green and the other with 4 red and 3 green.
Students should represent the trains in symbolic form: e.g.,

6 + 1

4 + 3

6 + 1

4 + 3

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

(1PR4.2)

95

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR4 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

PR4.4 Record different


representations of the same
quantity (0 to 20) as equalities

Working with number combinations to 10 is critical for children in


building a strong foundation for working with larger numbers. Begin
working with number combinations to 6. Do not move on to numbers
from 7 to 10 until children have a strong understanding of numbers to
6.
When a child can confidently break up a number to 10 and put the
parts together again, then they will be able to work with larger numbers.
Memorizing basic math facts is very different from internalizing number
combinations.

PR4.3 Provide examples of


equalities where the given sum or
difference is on either the left or
right side of the equal symbol (=).

Introducing the recording of number combinations should be done in


three stages. In the first stage, the teacher models the recording of the
number combinations where the sum is on either the left or right side
of the equal sign. In the second stage, the students record the number
combinations by copying what the teacher has written. In the final
stage, students record the number combinations independently.
Students should read number sentences from left to right and from right
to left.

96

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Students sit in a circle. Each student is given a train of the specified


number (e.g., 6) of cubes of one color. On the signal, break it
children will break their train into two parts and hold one part in
each hand behind their back. Students may choose not to break
their train apart and keep the train in one hand to represent the
combination using 0.

Lesson 2 (Continued): Addition


Stories

Going around the circle, each student takes a turn showing first what
is in one hand and then what is in the other. The other students say
the number combination shown. (e.g., 4 and 2, 5 and 1 ) When
everyone has had a turn, repeat the activity several times modeling
the recording of the equation.
(1PR4.4)

1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 21 - 25

Unit Centres:
TG p. 13
Addition Stories

Paper and Pencil


Provide students with snap cubes and number-train outlines for
a specified number. Students snap together as many different
combinations of cubes of two colors for the specified number. They
record their work by coloring the individual outlines cut from the
sheet to match the number- trains they have created. The outlines
are stapled together as a book and students write an equation for
each combination.
(1PR4.4)

1PR4.3 is not covered by the text.

Provide students with a number train that represents 7. The number


train could be 3 red cubes and 4 blue cubes.
Ask students to represent the number train using numbers. Their
answers may look like this:
4 + 3 = 7 or 7 = 4 + 3
Ensure that students learn to read number sentences from left to
right and right to left.
(1PR4.3)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

97

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N10 Describe and use
mental mathematics strategies
(memorization not intended),
such as:
counting on and counting
back
making 10
using doubles
using addition to subtract

When students thinking has developed to the point where they are
counting on from the large number, strategy learning should begin.
Students should be encouraged to use the relationships between facts to
learn new facts, rather than counting to compute sums or differences.
For example, if students want to add 4 + 3 and know that 3 + 3 = 6,
they might think that 4 + 3 is one more than 3 + 3, so it must be 7.

to determine the basic


addition facts to 18 and related
subtraction facts.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Achievement Indicators:

1N10.1 Use and describe a


personal strategy for determining
a given sum.

Students will construct number relationships by making connections


with prior knowledge. These relationships will lead to the development
of patterns that students will be able to access to recall number facts.
If we focus on over-practicing or rote practicing without ensuring
that students understand the process, they often forget or incorrectly
remember computational methods. It is not intended that students
recall the basic facts but become familiar with the strategies to mentally
determine sums and differences. Students need many rich experiences
to explore strategies concretely and pictorially as this will lead to an
understanding that all of the facts are conceptually related. As students
develop and share strategies for addition and subtraction, they become
more comfortable with numbers, develop flexibility when thinking
about numbers, and become more fluent in computing.
When engaging in mental math activities students should be given
opportunities to:
Develop their own strategies for determining a given sum or
difference
Invent strategies for solving problems that include making doubles,
making 10, using compensation (using addition to solve subtraction
problems) and using known facts.
Employ as many representations as possible for determining sums
and differences, including physically acting out.

98

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with addition sentences and ask them to explain the
strategy they used to find the given sum.

Lesson 3: Using Doubles to Add

Observe whether the student:


begins counting at one
counts on from the larger or smaller number
can communicate the strategy used
can solve any of the problems without needing to figure them out
(e.g., using doubles, one more, sum to 5)
(1N10.1, 10.2)
is confident in their answer

1N9, 1N10
TG pp. 26 - 29

The text focuses on doubles.


Attention needs to be given to all the
strategies.

Performance
Simon Says Play the game Simon Says, giving directions that
involve using strategies to solve a mathematical equation. Examples
include: Simon says:
o

Do 7 and 6 more jumping jacks

Do 7 and 7 and 1 more bunny hops

Do 5 and 3 toe touches

Students solve the additive action mentally, explain the strategy they
(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)
used, and complete the action.
Give students a bag with 8 counters and have them remove some
of the counters. Ask: How many are still in the bag? How do you
know? Repeat using other numbers.
(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)
Think About It! Provide students with a number of scenarios in
which they visualize the action that is taking place and mentally solve
each problem.
If I put 5 counters in the bag and then added 3 more, how
many counters would be in the bag? How do you know?
(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

99

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N10 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N10.1 Continued

An addition table might be useful to help students visualize


relationships. For example, all the sums for 4 can be found by taking a
known fact (e.g., 4 + 0 = 4) and reducing one number while the other is
increased (e.g., 3 + 1 = 4). Notice that all of these are along a diagonal of
the table.

The use of strategies provide a foundation for mental mathematics.


Solving problems mentally provides opportunities for students to focus
on the relationships between numbers and operations.
Some students will be able to respond instantly when an addition or
subtraction fact is presented. Others will need an extra few seconds in
order to use a strategy to find the answer. Eventually, it is helpful to
the student to have instant recall, but it is not essential that all facts be
recalled in Grade 1.
By using facts frequently in games and problems, most students will
commit them to memory.

Problem Solving
Guess and Check

The student makes a guess and checks to see if they are correct. If it
does not work they revise their initial guess based on what was tried and
learned. This continues until the correct answer is found. Students do
not like to be wrong, therefore it is important to be cognizant of your
language and not refer to a guess as incorrect or correct. It is important
that they learn to be risk takers and learn from the initial guess.
Place 14 snap cubes of the same color in a paper bag. Reach in and
remove 5 cubes. Ask students: If I had 14 cubes in the bag and I took out
5, how many are left in the bag? Students guess 6. On a chart or white
board write 5 + 6 = 11. That is a great guess but was there more or less
than 11 in the bag? Lets try again. Students guess 9. Write 5 + 9 = 14.
That is the number we were looking for. So there are 9 cubes still in the
bag. Count the remaining cubes in the bag to confirm the guess.

100

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Cover Up Prepare a variety of 3 X 3 cards with the numbers 0 to


20. Call out addition and subtraction facts where students use their
mental strategies to solve. E.g.

Lesson 3 (Continued): Using


Doubles to Add

3 and 3

7 and 7 and 1 more

10 and 5 more

15

1N9, 1N10

12

18

TG pp. 26 - 29

10

Students cover the sum with a counter. The first player to cover all of
the numbers on their card is the winner.
(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)
Pose a task such as the following to the class: If you did not know
the answer to 9 + 6, what are some really good strategies you can use
to get the answer? Encourage students to come up with more than
one strategy to solve the equation. Students discuss their ideas with a
partner and then present their ideas to the class.
(1N10.1, 10.3)
Pick up Stacks - Show the student five stacks of snap cubes of
different colour and amounts.

Ask: Can you pick up 4 (5 or 6)?


The Student may pick up more than one stack at a time to represent
the number. Ask the student to explain the strategy they used.
An an extension of this activity, you could ask the student to make
another combination of the same number using the remaining stacks
or the original configuration of stacks.
(1N10.1)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

Lesson 4: Strategy Toolkit


TG pp. 30 - 31

101

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Demonstrate an
understanding of addition of
numbers with answers to 20 and
their corresponding subtraction
facts, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically, by:
using familiar and
mathematical language
to describe additive and
subtractive actions from
their personal experience
creating and solving
problems in context that
involve addition and
subtraction
modeling addition and
subtraction, using a
variety of concrete and
visual representations,
and recording the process
symbolically.

As with addition, the development of the meaning of subtraction


cannot be rushed. Students should be provided ample opportunity
to use concrete materials to model subtraction prior to recording it
symbolically.
Students require experience interpreting how subtraction situations are
portrayed in print. Include examples of:
Active situations which involve the physical separating of sets.
I had 8 pencils. I gave 4 of them to my friend. How many do I have left?
Static situations involve the implied separating of sets that are not
physically joined to form a whole.
There are 7 red and green cars parked on the road. Four of them are
red. How many cars are green? (In this situation, the group or the whole
remains the same, nothing is added or taken away, we are looking to
find the 2 parts that make up the whole)

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Achievement Indicators:

N9.1 Act out a given problem


presented orally or through shared
reading.
N9.3 Represent the numbers and
actions presented in a given story
problem by using manipulatives,
and record them using sketches
and/or number sentences.

102

As with joining problems, separating problems have three quantities:


initial, change, and result amounts. In separate problems, the initial
amount is the largest amount. Addition and subtraction cannot be
simply defined as put together and take away. Students need
opportunities to be exposed to all structures of problems: result
unknown, change unknown, and initial unknown.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Present subtraction stories for each structure. Have students act out
the problem and represent the problem concretely, pictorially and/or
symbolically.

Lesson 5: Subtraction Stories


1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 32 - 36

Separate Problems
Result Unknown Five children are sitting on the story mat.
Two children left the circle to go back to their seats. How many
children stayed on the mat?
Change Unknown Five children are sitting on the story mat.
Some of the children left the circle to go back to their seats. There
are three children left sitting on the mat. How many children went
back to their seats?
Initial Unknown - Some children are sitting on the story mat.
Two children left the circle to go back to their seats and there are 3
children left sitting on the mat. How many children were on the mat
in the beginning?
Compare Problems
Difference Unknown - Mark has 12 stickers. Julia has 8
stickers. How many more stickers does Mark have than Julia?
Comparing Quantity Unknown - Mark has 4 more stickers
than Julia. Mark has 12 stickers. How many stickers does Julia have?
Referent Quantity Unknown - Mark has 4 more stickers than
Julia. Julia has 8 stickers. How many stickers does Mark have?
(1N9.1, 9.2, 9.3)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

103

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N9.5 Create a story problem


for subtraction that connects to
personal experience, and simulate
the action with counters.
1N9.6 Create a word problem for
a given addition or subtraction
number sentence.

In each of the structures, keep in mind that there may be several


interpretations to a situation. For example: There are 9 children. Three
are boys. How many are girls? Some students see this as an addition.
(Three and how many more make 9?). Others see it as a subtraction.
(There are 9 in all. Remove the 3 boys. How many girls would be
left?) Some students might think of a subtraction sentence (9 - 3 = 6),
whereas others might think of an addition sentence (6 + 3 = 9). Students
should be aware that every time they encounter either an addition or a
subtraction situation, the other operation is implicit.
While addition always relates to the combining of things, subtraction
is much more complex and is not simply the opposite of addition. In
its simplest form subtraction is the taking away or separating of objects.
In its more complex forms, subtraction is what allows us to compare
two quantities or to find a missing addend. It is important that students
realize the connections between subtraction as taking away, subtraction
as comparing, and subtraction as missing addend.

104

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Have students create their own story problems for subtraction and
demonstrate the subtractive action with counters. Incorporate the use
of manipulatives, such as dominoes and dice, to generate numbers
for story problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5)

Lesson 5 (Continued):
Subtraction Stories
1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 32 - 36

Provide story boards for students to use with manipulatives to create,


model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by
drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper
can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a
beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be
created using the same story boards. Students should share their story
problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence
for each of their problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7, 1PR4.1, 4.2)
Have students use the overhead, whiteboard, felt board, counters,
etc., to create word problems for a variety of subtraction number
sentences.
(1N9.6)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

105

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR4 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1PR4.1 Represent a given


equality using manipulatives or
pictures.
1PR4.2 Represent a given
pictorial or concrete equality in
symbolic form.
1PR4.3 Provide examples of
equalities where the given sum or
difference is on either the left or
right side of the equal symbol (=).

106

When recording subtraction number sentences, the use of both


horizontal and vertical representations should be encouraged to
familiarize students with both methods. Models should continue to be
used as long as students find them helpful. When students are ready
to use subtraction symbols, they can be introduced in the context of
solving story problems. When students become comfortable recording
subtraction sentences, it is important that they make connections
between the equations and the stories they represent. At this stage,
students not only model and symbolize word problems but should have
practice providing a number story when a model and/or the equations
are provided.
When explaining the symbols for subtraction it is important that the
minus sign be referred to as minus or subtract rather than take
away. Students need to realize that the equal sign represents a balance
between both sides of the equation.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Paper and Pencil

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with a number train that represents 7. The number


train could be 3 red cubes and 4 blue cubes.

Lesson 5 (Continued):
Subtraction Stories

Ask students to show this using numbers. Their answers may look
like this:

1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 32 - 36

7 - 4 = 3 or 3 = 7 - 4
Ensure that students learn to read number sentences from left to
right.
(1PR4.2, 4.3)

Unit Centres:
TG p. 13
Make a Number Fact

1PR4.3 is not covered by the text.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

107

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N10 Describe and use
mental mathematics strategies
(memorization not intended),
such as:
counting on and counting
back
making 10
using doubles
using addition to subtract
to determine the basic
addition facts to 18 and related
subtraction facts.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

1N10.1 Use and describe a


personal strategy for determining
a given sum.

Mental Mathematics strategies allow students to make sense of


algorithms. They need to become flexible in working with numbers
and operations. Before memorizing facts, students must have many
opportunities to use concrete materials and mental math strategies to see
number relations.
When engaging in mental math activities students should be given
opportunities to:
Develop their own strategies for determining a given sum or
difference
Invent strategies for solving problems that include making doubles,
making 10, using compensation (using addition to solve subtraction
problems) and using known facts.
Employ as many representations as possible for determining sums
and differences, including physically acting out.
Addition Strategy
Counting on

Explanation and Example


This strategy is used for adding one or two
to a given number.
7 + 2 = __ think 7... 8, 9
When presented with a more difficult
equation, 8 + 4, think 8 + 2 is 10 and 2
more is 12
Add two of the same number together 5 +
5 = 10

Making ten

Using doubles
1N10.2 Use and describe a
personal strategy for determining
a given difference.
1N10.3 Refine personal strategies
to increase their efficiency.

Subtraction Strategy
Counting On

Counting Back

Doubles
Using Addition to
Subtract

108

Explanation and Example


Start with the number you are subtracting
and count on to the other number: 11 - 8
think
8... 9, 10, 11 the answer would be
3 because we counted 3 numbers
Start with the minuend (larger number) and
count back: 8 - 2 think 8... 7, 6 the answer
is 6
We have 12 - 6 think 6 + 6
We see 7 - 5, we think of the related addition
fact 5 + 2 = 7 so 7 - 5 = 2

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with subtraction sentences and ask them to explain


the strategy they used to find the given difference.

Lesson 6: Another Way to Use


Subtraction

Observe whether the student:

1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 37 - 40

count on from the smaller number


count back from the larger number
can communicate the strategy used
can solve any of the problems without needing to figure them out
(e.g., differences less than five, one-less)
is confident in their answer
(1N10.1, 10.2)
Think About It! Provide children with a number of scenarios in
which they visualize the action that is taking place and mentally solve
each problem.
If I have 12 counters in a bag and I remove 4. How many counters
remain in the bag?

Lesson 7: Mental Math


1N8, 1N9, 1N10
TG pp. 41 - 45

Performance
Cover Up Prepare a variety of 3 X 3 cards with the numbers 0
to 20. Call out subtraction facts where students use their mental
strategies to solve. E.g.
6
9
15

10 take away 4

6 and 6 and 2 less

2 less than 9

12

18

10

Students cover difference with a counter. The first player to cover


all of the numbers on their card is the winner. Have students use
concrete materials to verufy their answer.
(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)
Pose a task such as the following to the class: If you did not know
the answer to 6 + 6, what are some really good strategies you can use
to get the answer? Encourage students to come up with more than
one strategy to solve the equation. Students discuss their ideas with a
partner and then present their ideas to the class.
(1N10.1, 10.3)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

109

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N9.2 Indicate if the scenario in


a given story problem represents
additive or subtractive action.
1N9.3 Represent the numbers
and actions presented in a
given story problem by using
manipulatives, and record them
using sketches and/or number
sentences.
1N9.7 Represent a given story
problem pictorially or symbolically
to show the additive or subtractive
action, and solve the problem

110

When interpreting number stories, students need to make sense of the


story and not just listen for key words. Therefore, present a variety of
addition and subtraction problems, alternating mathematical terms and
everyday language. The use of everyday language helps children make
connections between the real work and the mathematical concepts they
are learning. For example:
Mathematical Language: Mary stacked 13 books on the table. She
added 4 more books to the stack. How many books are in the stack
altogether?
Everyday Language: Mary stacked 13 books on the table. She piled 4
more books to the stack. How many books are in the stack now?

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 12

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Using everyday experiences and the names of your students will


make math meaningful. Give students the opportunity to use pencil
and paper and/or manipulatives to solve everyday problems.

Lesson 8: Combining and


Separating Stories

Jimmy has 12 marbles. Amy takes 7. How many marbles does


Jimmy have left?
Students will represent and solve the problem pictorially and
symbolically.
(1N9.2, 9.3, 9.7)

1N3, 1N9
TG pp. 46 - 50
Audio CD 2:
Selection 17
Unit Centres:
TG p. 13
Toy Store

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

111

Measurement

Suggested Time: 4 Weeks

This is the first explicit focus on measurement, but


as with other outcomes, it is ongoing throughout the
year.

MEASUREMENT

Unit Overview

114

Focus and Context

In this unit, students compare two or more objects using a single


attribute. In Kindergarten, children used direct comparison to compare
two objects based on a single attribute of length, mass and capacity. In
Grade One, students will compare two or more objects using a single
attribute and will expand their experiences to include area. Students
will also make statements of comparison in communicating their
understanding of measurement.

Math Connects

Measurement is a fundamental mathematical process that pervades all


branches of mathematics, as well as many other disciplines and every
day activities. Early measurement experiences enable students to make
connections to their own experiences and their environment by using
concrete materials to solve real world problems. Measurement can be
easily integrated into other subject areas in the grade one curriculum,
such as social studies, science, language arts and health.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

MEASUREMENT

Process Standards
Key

Curriculum
Outcomes

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

STRAND

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

PROCESS
STANDARDS

1SS1 Demonstrate an
understanding of
measurement as a process
of comparing by:
Shape and Space
(Measurement)

identifying attributes
that can be compared

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

ordering objects
making statements of
comparison

Patterns and
Relations
(Variables and
Equations)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

filling, covering or
matching.
1PR3 Describe equality as a
balance and inequality as
an imbalance, concretely
and pictorially (0 to 20).

[C, CN, R, V]

115

MEASUREMENT

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS1 Demonstrate an
understanding of measurement as
a process of comparing by:
identifying attributes that
can be compared
ordering objects
making statements of
comparison
filling, covering or
matching.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Measurement involves identifying and comparing similar attributes.


Through measurement activities students should realize that the
same object can have many measurable attributes. Students should
use terminology involving measurement including, longest, shortest,
heaviest, lightest, most, least, etc. It is important that students explore
measurement in context throughout each day using direct comparison.
This involves students lining up items side by side to compare. In the
development of measurement skills, students must engage in a wide
variety of activities that promote measurement experiences. Students
must have first hand practices to gain true understanding of this skill.
Measuring activities will enable students to better incorporate both
computational skills and make the connection between basic geometric
concepts and number concepts.

Achievement Indicators:

1SS1.1 Identify common


attributes, such as length, height,
mass, capacity and area that
could be used to compare two
given objects.

Using two objects of different lengths, ask students how they would
compare the objects. Working with a variety of objects will allow many
opportunities for students to compare lengths.

1SS1.3 Compare two given


objects, and identify the attributes
used to compare.

Provide two books and ask students to compare the books by length.
Students should recognize that length tells about the extent of an object
along one dimension. When describing measurement in one dimension
we use the term length, or linear measure. This includes measurements
of height, width, length, depth, and distance. Direct measurement
consists of comparing lengths by lining up items side by side beginning
at a common base. Students should understand why a common starting
point is important. Although length is usually the first attribute students
learn to measure, it is not immediately understood by young children.

1SS1.4 Determine which of


two or more objects is longest or
shortest by matching, and explain
the reasoning.

The students should recognize that there are certain size objects that are
best suited for measuring certain things. For example, it would not be
efficient to use a penny to measure the length of a classroom.
1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by
length, height, mass, capacity or
area, and explain their ordering.

116

Students should order objects from shortest to longest and shortest


to tallest. Include situations in which students are dealing with an
extraneous variable, such as objects which are not straight and objects
which are also wide or thick.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

MEASUREMENT

General Outcome: Use Direct or Indirect Measurement to Solve Problems


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Math Makes Sense 1

Ask students to make two snakes using plasticine. Ask: Which snake
is longest? How do you know?
(1SS1.4)

Launch
Teacher Guide (TG) p. 11

Performance

Lesson 1: Comparing Lengths


1SS1
TG pp. 12 - 15

Provide students with two objects such as an eraser and a book. Ask:
Can you tell which of these two objects is longer?

(1SS1.1)

Have students work with a partner to trace and cut out their shoe
print. Ask students to compare their shoe prints using lengths.
Repeat this activity using other objects to compare.
(1SS1.3)

Unit Centre:
TG p. 9
Comparing Lengths

Have students prepare a set of ribbons for first, second, and third
places in a race, so that the first place runner gets the longer ribbon
and the third place runner gets the shortest ribbon.
(1SS1.2)
Provide students with hands-on activities to order length and height.
Explain their reasoning. The following tasks may be used:
Length Provide students with trains of various lengths made from
interlocking cubes. Have students order the trains from shortest to
longest.
Height - Ask five or more children to line-up at the front of the
room. Have them order themselves from tallest to shortest or shortest
to tallest. Repeat this activity using different children.
(1SS1.2)

Lesson 2: Ordering Lengths


1SS1
TG pp. 16 - 19
Unit Centre:
TG p. 9
Ordering Lengths

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

117

MEASUREMENT

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


Problem Solving
Use an Object

Use an Object to help solve a problem. This is similar to Make a


Model. Students use simple objects such as string, paper clips, snap
cubes or any non-standard measuring tool to solve the problem.

1SS1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1SS1.1 Identify common


attributes, such as length, height,
mass, capacity and area that
could be used to compare two
given objects.
1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by
length, height, mass, capacity or
area, and explain their ordering.

1SS1.3 Compare two given


objects, and identify the attributes
used to compare.
1SS1.7 Determine which of two
or more objects has the greatest
or least area by covering, and
explain the reasoning.

118

Students should recognize that area tells about the amount of space
taken up by an object. You may wish to use tangrams, pentominoes or
pattern blocks to cover the area of given objects.

Students should order objects that cover the least amount of space to the
most amount of space.

Provide two objects and ask students to compare the area.

To compare areas, students examine the amount of space taken up


by an object. For example, one book might take up more of the desk
than another. Direct measurement involves placing one surface on top
of another similar object to see which sticks out. While developing
measurement skills for area, students should use terms such as greatest/
most area and least/smallest area.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

MEASUREMENT

General Outcome: Use Direct or Indirect Measurement to Solve Problems


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Working in pairs, students are directed to compare the length of


their forearms from the wrist to the elbow. Give students paper
clips or string to measure the length of their forearms and compare
the object(s) used to see who has the longest arm and who has the
shortest arm.

Lesson 3: Strategy Toolkit


TG pp. 20 - 21

Provide students with hands-on activities to order area and explain


their reasoning.
Area - Provide students with three books. Ask students to order the
books from the greatest area to the least area or vice versa. Repeat
using different objects. (Objects that are used should be similar in
shape).
(1SS1.2)
Give students a trapezoid, or other shape. Ask them to draw another
shape with a larger area. As them to explain their thinking. (1SS1.7)

Lesson 4: Comparing by
Covering
1SS1
TG pp. 22 - 23
Unit Centre:
TG p. 9

Provide students with a set of tangrams and ask them to compare the
areas of the triangles in the set. Ask students to order the triangles
from the greatest area to the least area.
(1SS1.3)
Provide students with two objects. Ask: Can you tell which of these
two objects takes up the most space?
(1SS1.3, 1.2)

Exploring Area with Pattern


Blocks

Audio CD 2:
Selection 18

Have students work in pairs to trace and cut out their shoe print.
Using colored tiles the students will cover their shoe print and count
the number of tiles used in order to compare the area of both prints.
(1SS1.1, 1.3)
Provide each student with two equal amounts of plasticine. Students
will roll one piece the hotdog way (long and skinny) and the other
piece the hamburger way (short and fat). Cover each piece with
counters to determine which piece holds the most.
(1SS1.3, 1.7)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

119

MEASUREMENT

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1SS1.1 Identify common


attributes, such as length, height,
mass, capacity and area that
could be used to compare two
given objects.

Using two objects of different sizes, ask student how they could
compare the objects. For example, two glasses could be compared by
height as well as capacity. Working with a variety of objects will allow
many opportunities for students to make comparisons relating to
measurement, using many attributes.

1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by


length, height, mass, capacity or
area, and explain their ordering.

Students should order objects from those that hold least to those that
hold most. Include containers that have the same height but different
capacities.

1SS1.3 Compare two given


objects, and identify the attributes
used to compare.
1SS1.6 Determine which of two
or more objects holds the most or
least by filling, and explain the
reasoning.

120

Students should recognize that capacity tells how much something


will hold. They should investigate strategies to directly compare the
capacities of two or more containers.
Direct measurement involves filling one container and then pouring the
contents into another to find out which holds more. While developing
measurement skills for capacity, students should use terms such as holds
more, holds less, holds the same, full and empty.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

MEASUREMENT

General Outcome: Use Direct or Indirect Measurement to Solve Problems


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with two objects. Ask:

Lesson 5: Comparing by Filling

Can you tell which of these two objects holds more? (Students
should recognize that capacity is an attribute that can not be used to
measure these objects). Repeat the activity with other sets containing
two objects.
(1SS1.3)

1SS1
TG pp. 24 - 27
Unit Centre:

Provide students with hands-on activities to order capacity.

TG p. 9

Provide students with three (or more) containers of various sizes.


Using rice or macaroni, ask students to order the containers from
holds more to holds less. Repeat using different containers.

At the Water Table

(1SS1.2)
Provide students with rice/macaroni and two containers of different
sizes, such as a coffee mug and a drinking glass. Ask: Which
container holds more rice? How do you know? Repeat using
different containers and materials with which to measure. (1SS1.6)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

121

MEASUREMENT

Strand: Shape and Space (Measurement)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1SS1.1 Identify common


attributes, such as length, height,
mass, capacity and area that
could be used to compare two
given objects.

Students should recognize that mass tells about the heaviness of an


object. It is important to work with a variety of different objects to
compare and explore mass.

1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by


length, height, mass, capacity or
area, and explain their ordering.

Students should order objects from lightest to heaviest.

1SS1.3 Compare two given


objects, and identify the attributes
used to compare.

When comparing the mass of two objects it is important that students


have experiences with objects that are smaller but have a greater mass.

1SS1.5 Determine which of


two or more objects is heaviest
or lightest by comparing, and
explain the reasoning.

Students should explore direct methods to compare and order masses.


Direct measurement involves placing two objects on a balance
simultaneously and comparing the mass of one with that of the other.
The most conceptual way for children to compare the mass of objects
is to hold the objects in their hands and compare. Have the students
collect items from around the classroom to compare masses. Students
take turns predicting and then lifting an item in each hand to feel
which is heavier and which is lighter. More than one student should
do the same comparison. Observe if there is agreement. Students may
then use a pan balance to confirm their predictions. While developing
measurement skills for mass, students should use terms such as heavier
and lighter.

122

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

MEASUREMENT

General Outcome: Use Direct or Indirect Measurement to Solve Problems


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with two objects such as an eraser and a book. Ask:

Lesson 6: Comparing Mass

Can you tell which of these two objects is heavier?

(1SS1.1)

1SS1, 1PR3
TG pp. 28 - 31

Provide students with a set of three objects. Using a pan balance to


measure, ask children to order the objects from heaviest to lightest or
lightest to heaviest. Repeat using different objects. (The number of
objects used may vary depending on the students understanding of
mass).
(1SS1.2)
Provide students with two objects, such as two pieces of fruit, and a
two-pan balance. Ask: Which piece of fruit is the heaviest? How do
you know? Repeat using other objects.
(1SS1.5)

Investigation 2: At the Fire Hall


Optional
Audio CD 3:

Ask students to make two balls out of play dough, predict which
ball is the heaviest by placing one in each hand, and confirm their
predictions using a pan balance.
(1SS1.5)

Selections 1 & 2

Have students predict which is heaviest - a large bag of cotton balls


or a small ball bearing.
(1SS1.3, 1.5)
Show the students three balls of similar size but different mass.
Ask them to predict which ball has the greatest mass. Verify the
predictions using a pan balance.
(1SS1.2, 1.5)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

123

Numbers to 100

Suggested Time: 4 Weeks

This is the first explicit focus, but as with other


outcomes, number sense is ongoing throughout the
year

NUMBERS TO 100

Unit Overview

126

Focus and Context

Earlier work in Grade One explored the number concepts for numbers
to 20. Students will build new understanding of the numbers to 100
on the foundation of their prior knowledge of numbers to 20. They will
learn and practice approaches for counting, estimating and grouping
objects into sets for numbers to 100. It is important that students
experience activities using a variety of manipulatives, such as ten frames,
number lines, and snap cubes. This unit is an introduction to numbers
to 100, which will be further explored and developed in Grade Two.

Math Connects

Number sense develops naturally as students connect numbers to their


own real life experiences and use numbers as benchmarks and referents.
Making connections is the heart of doing mathematics. With larger
numbers, students will make connections to their prior knowledge and
experiences working with smaller numbers. They will make connections
with other mathematical concepts and procedures. As well, students will
make connections with their daily life experiences and see connections
with mathematics across the curriculum. As students make these
connections, they will build a deeper, richer understanding of number
concepts.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

NUMBERS TO 100

Process Standards
Key

Curriculum
Outcomes

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

STRAND

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

PROCESS
STANDARDS

N1. Say the number


sequence 0 to 100 by:
1s forward between
any two given
numbers
Number

1s backward from 20
to 0

[C, CN, ME, V]

2s forward from 0
to 20

Number

5s and 10s forward


from 0 to 100
N3 Demonstrate an
understanding of
counting by:
indicating that the
last number said
identifies how
many

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

showing that any set


has only one count
using the countingon strategy
using parts or equal
groups to count sets

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

127

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N1. Say the number sequence 0
to 100 by:
1s forward between any
two given numbers
1s backward from 20 to 0
2s forward from 0 to 20
5s and 10s forward from 0
to 100.
[C, CN, ME, V]
Achievement Indicators:

1N1.1 Recite forward by 1s the


number sequence between two
given numbers (0 - 100).

Students have worked on counting forwards and backwards to 20 in a


previous unit. At this time, many of the same outcomes are addressed
but now we will be extending the numbers to 100.

1N1.2 Recite backward by 1s the


number sequence between two
given numbers (20 - 0).
N3 Demonstrate an
understanding of counting by:
indicating that the last
number said identifies how
many
showing that any set has only
one count
using the counting-on strategy
using parts or equal groups to
count sets
[C, CN, ME, R, V]
Achievement Indicator:

1N3.2 Identify and correct errors


in a given counting sequence.

128

Throughout daily counting activities, where objects are counted


meaningfully, make errors in counting sequences for children to identify
and correct. Students will gain increased confidence in their counting
abilities as many opportunities are provided for meaningful counting.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

NUMBERS TO 100

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide each student with a number card from 0-20. Have students
line up in order. Have students count the number sequence (lowest
to highest or highest to lowest). This activity can be modified
counting forward with larger numbers.
(1N1.1, 1.2)

Launch
Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15
Lesson 1: Counting to 50

Provide a set of objects for students to count. After students have


counted, count the set making an error in the counting sequence.
Have students identify and correct the error.
(N3.2)

1N1
TG pp. 16 - 17
Audio CD 3:
Selection 3

Lesson 2: Counting Sets to 50


1N1, 1N3, 1N6
TG pp. 18 - 21

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

129

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N3 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N3.6 Count quantity, using


groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting
on.

1N3.7 Record the number of


objects in a given set (up to 100).

1N1 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N1.5 Skip count by 2s to 20,


starting at 0.

Counting larger collections is more efficient using skip counting as a


strategy. With frequent opportunities to count collections, students will
be able to count larger quantities more efficiently using groups of 2, 5,
or 10. Provide students with a collection of objects such as counters,
snap cubes, or pennies. Have them count the objects by 2s, using their
fingers to touch and move the objects as they count (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8). To
count by 5s and 10s, have students sort the collection into groups of 5
or 10, and then count the collection by touching the groups (e.g., 5, 10,
15, 20 or 10, 20, 30, 40). For collections that cannot be sorted evenly
into groups of 5 or 10, students should be able to sort the items into
groups of 2, 5, or 10 and then count on to find the total. For example,
if provided with a set of 34 counters, students should make three groups
of 10 and one group of 4, and count, 10, 20, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34.
At this time students record numerals to 50. Later in this unit, they will
be given opportunities to record numerals to 100. Numeral symbols
have meaning for students only when they are introduced as labels
for quantities. Students learn to write numbers as they gain a deeper
understanding of number. Opportunities should begin at first by
focusing on counting and recording numbers to 10. As students acquire
a deeper understanding of number, students should count and record
numbers up to 100.
Provide counting opportunities for various number sequences including:
multiples of 2, beginning at zero (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8,... 20)
multiples of 5, beginning at zero (e.g. 5, 10, 15 50)

1N1.6 Skip count by 5s to 100,


starting at 0.

130

At this point, students will skip count to 20 and to 50. Later,


opportunities to skip count to 100 will be provided.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

NUMBERS TO 100

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with a bag of counters. Tell them they must find
out how many there are in total without counting by ones. Have
students illustrate or demonstrate to the class how they counted and
decide which way of counting was the most efficient.

Lesson 2 (Continued): Counting


Sets to 50

(1N3.6, 1N1.5, 1.6)


Provide students with a hundred chart. Ask them to colour the
numbers they land on when they count by 5 and 10. (A number
strip from 0 to 20 can be used when counting by 2s). (1N1.6)

1N1, 1N3, 1N6


TG: pp. 18 - 21
Unit Centres:
TG p. 13
Picture Perfect

Use pennies to have students practice counting by 1s and 2s. Have


students drop the coins into a transparent piggy bank or container as
they count. For example, when counting by 2s, students can count
on every second penny dropped into the bank. Using a transparent
bank provides a visual and auditory means for students as they
count.
(1N1.5, 1.6)
Have students count the number of eyes at their table by 2s and the
number of fingers by 5s and the number of toes by 10s. (1N1.5, 1.6)
Student-Teacher Dialogue
Ask students how many ways they can count to 20 and record their
findings.
Ask: If you count by 2s, starting at zero, will you say the number 7?
Why or why not?
(1N1.5, 1.6)

Lesson 3: Skip Counting


1N1

Pencil and Paper


Many counting activities can be extended to meet this indicator by
having children record their answers.
(1N3.7)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

TG pp. 22 - 25
Audio CD 3:
Selections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10

131

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N1 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N1.8 Identify and correct errors/


omissions in a given number
sequence and explain.

Provide a number sequence, visually and/or orally, with one number


missing or one number that does not belong. Have students listen for,
identify, and/or record the missing or incorrect number and explain
their answer.

1N3 Continued
Achievement Indicator:

1N3.6 Count quantity, using


groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting
on.

Problem Solving
Draw a Picture

132

Counting larger collections is more efficient using skip counting as a


strategy. With frequent opportunities to count collections, students
will be able to count larger quantities more efficiently using groups
of 2, 5, or 10. Provide students with a collection of objects such as
counters, snap cubes, or pennies. Have them count the objects by 2s,
using their fingers to touch and move the objects as they count (e.g.,
2, 4, 6, 8). To count by 5s and 10s, have students sort the collection
into groups of 5 or 10, and then count the collection by touching
the groups (e.g., 5, 10, 15, 20 or 10, 20, 30, 40). For collections that
cannot be sorted evenly into groups of 5 or 10, students should be able
to sort the items into groups of 2, 5, or 10 and then count on to find
the total. For example, if provided with a set of 34 counters, students
should make three groups of 10 and one group of 4, and count, 10,
20, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34.

Students have already been introduced to the strategies of Guess


and Check and Use an Object and have had many opportunities
throughout the previous units to practice these strategies. In addition to
these strategies consider having students draw a picture of the problem
before attempting to solve it. This can be beneficial to visual learners.
Although students may think that drawing a picture to solve a problem
is easy, the thought that goes into creating the picture is important to
the success of the investigation and is helpful in presenting the solution.
Students draw a representation of the problem.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

NUMBERS TO 100

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Have students work with a partner to create a number sequence


with a missing number. Exchange sequence with another pair and
identify the missing number.
(1N1.8)
Find My Mistake - Say any number sequence (0-100) incorrectly.
Have the students identify the error, correct it, and explain their
answer.
(1N1.8)
Grab a Handful - Provide students with a variety of objects in paper
bags (e.g., link-its, beans, macaroni, counters). Students grab a
handful of objects from one bag and sort into groups of 2, 5 or 10.
Have students record how many groups of 2 / 5 / 10. How many are
left over and how many in all.

Lesson 4: The 100 - Chart


1N1
TG: pp. 26 - 27
Unit Centres:
100 Chart Puzzle
TG p. 13
Lesson 5: Grouping Sets
1N3
TG: pp. 28 - 31
Unit Centres:
Number Mix-Up
TG p. 13
Lesson 6: Groups of 10
1N3
TG: pp. 32 - 35
Audio CD 1:
Selection 17

(1N3.6)

Unit Centres:
Roll it and Build it
TG p. 13

Model this problem for the students:


There are 5 dogs in my neighbours back garden. When I look
over the fence how many dog legs do I see? Discuss how many
legs are on one dog and draw the five dogs. Count the number of
legs.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

Lesson 7: Strategies Toolkit


TG pp. 36 - 37

133

Addition and Subtraction to 20

Suggested Time: 7 Weeks

In this unit students will further develop their personal strategies for
addition and subtraction to 20. Continue practice throughout the
remainder of the year.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Unit Overview

136

Focus and Context

Earlier work in Grade One provided students with many opportunities


to develop personal strategies for solving addition and subtraction
problems to 12. In this unit, students will use their previous experiences
to refine their strategies, as well as develop new strategies for adding
and subtracting numbers to 20. The emphasis will continue to be a
problem solving approach using manipulatives, such as number lines,
ten frames and snap cubes. Students will be engaged in activities to
develop the relationship between addition and subtraction. As they
develop the understanding that addition and subtraction have an
inverse relationship, they will become more flexible in using strategies
to solve problems.

Math Connects

Problem solving should be the central focus of the mathematics


curriculum as it is a primary goal of all mathematical activities. It is not
a distinct topic but a process that should permeate the entire program
and provide the context in which concepts and skills can be learned.
(Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics,
NCTM, p.23). Students learn to add and subtract in order to solve
problems that make sense to them. As well, they must be able to
interpret the problem to know what the problem is asking. They must
have the skills and understanding of number to solve the problem.
Students should be encouraged to discuss their representations and
strategies used to solve problems to help deepen their understanding of
number and operations.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Process Standards
Key

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

STRAND

OUTCOME

PROCESS
STANDARDS

1N9 Demonstrate an understanding of


addition of numbers with answers to 20
and their corresponding subtraction facts,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically,
by:

Curriculum
Outcomes
Number

using familiar and mathematical


language to describe additive and
subtractive actions from their personal
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
experience
creating and solving problems in
context that involve addition and
subtraction
modelling addition and subtraction,
using a variety of concrete and visual
representations, and recording the
process symbolically.
1N10 Describe and use mental
mathematics strategies (memorization not
intended), such as:
counting on and counting back

Number

making 10

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

using doubles
using addition to subtract

Patterns and
Relations
(Variables and
Equations)

to determine the basic addition facts to


18 and related subtraction facts.
1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal
symbol (0 to 20)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

[C, CN, PS, V]

137

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N10 Describe and use
mental mathematics strategies
(memorization not intended),
such as:
counting on and counting
back
making 10
using doubles
using addition to subtract
to determine the basic
addition facts to 18 and related
subtraction facts.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Students will have worked with addition and subtraction to 12. They
will build on their prior knowledge and strategies to work with numerals
to 20. Students need to be proficient when working with numbers to
10 before we can expect them to see relationships with larger numbers.
When they begin working with numbers to 20 many students will
solve problems by counting. The focus in this unit is to see that the
relationships between numbers and the strategies they develop when
working with smaller numbers can be applied when working with larger
numbers. New strategies will be introduced to help students build their
repertoire of strategies for mathematical computations.
Make Ten - Give students flash cards with the addition facts where at
least one addend is 8 or 9. Students choose a card and build on the 8 or
9 to think 10 and so many more.

E.g.,
Make the 8 a ten so you have 10 and 3 more is 13.
Achievement Indicators:

1N10.1 Use and describe a


personal strategy for determining
a given sum.
1N10.2 Use and describe a
personal strategy for determining
a given difference.

138

Students should be provided with situations where they have


opportunities for solving problems in different ways. This will help
them recognize the value of various strategies for themselves and use the
strategies that are most meaningful to them. Students may not use all
strategies and only employ a strategy once it makes sense to them.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Double your Die - Using a 4 to 9 number cube (or spinner), students
roll the die and double the number shown on the die. Students
record the number sentence and solve.
(1N10.1)

Math Makes Sense 1

Double your Die plus one / less one - This is an extension of Double
your Die for students who are ready. Students roll and think double
plus one. They record the resulting equation and solve the problem.
As an extension, students can also do Double less One.

Lesson 1: Addition and


Subtraction Facts to 18

(1N10.1, 10.2)

Launch
Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15

1N10
TG pp. 16 - 17

Student-Teacher Dialogue
Provide students with addition and subtraction sentences and ask
them to explain the strategy they used to find the given sum or
difference. Observe whether students:
solve problems involving numbers to 10 in a different way than
numbers to 20
can explain the strategy used
is confident in their answer
(1N10.1, 10.2)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

139

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Variables and Equations)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1PR4 Record equalities, using the
equal symbol (0 to 20)

Students will have worked with recording equalities using the equal
symbol for numbers up to 12.

[C, CN, PS, V]

Using the words the same as for the equal sign will help them to
further understand this relation.

Achievement Indicators:

1PR4.1 Represent a given


equality, using manipulatives or
pictures.
1PR4.2 Represent a given
pictorial or concrete equality in
symbolic form.

When students begin the study of equality, it is important for them to


see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells
us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.
Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they
know about the relationship. Using the words the same as for the
equal sign will help them further understand this relation.

1PR4.4 Record different


representations of the same
quantity (0 to 20) as equalities

140

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple Ways


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Students sit in a circle. Each student is given a chain of the specified


number (e.g., 17) of links of one color. On the signal, break it
students will break their chain into two parts. Record it as an
equality. Repeat until students discover as many representations for
the same number (17) as they can find.
(1PR4.1, 4.2, 4.4)

Lesson 2: Addition to 20
1N9, 1N10, 1PR4
TG pp. 18 - 19

What is in the bag? Using a balance scale and counters students work
in pairs. Partner one puts 15 counters on one side of the scale. And
on the other side, a brown paper bag with 9 counters inside. Partner
two must add counters to the side of the scale holding the bag (not
in the bag) until both sides are balanced. Partner two then figures out
how many counters were in the bag and explains their strategy. Both
partners record the equality. Partners then switch roles and record a
different equality for the same number (15).
(1PR4.4)

Unit Centres:
Same Number, Different Ways
TG p. 13
Unit Centres:
Domino-me!
TG p. 13
Lesson 3: Subtraction to 20
1N9, 1N10, 1PR4
TG pp. 20 - 23
Audio CD 3:
Selection 13 & 14

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

141

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N10 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N10.3 Refine personal strategies


to increase their efficiency.

Previously, in this unit, students have worked through addition and


subtraction sentences and problems. At this point, students may be
already starting to refine their strategies. As students begin to take more
risks with different strategies, encourage them to compare their known
strategies with the new ones, asking which they think is better and why.
A discussion about using strategies that help students find the sums and
differences quickly may be needed. Provide plenty of opportunities for
students to share their thinking and their strategies with their classmates.
Once students have a good understanding of what a strategy is and
how to use it, the strategies listed in this outcome can be addressed
individually. They can be combined to expand students existing
repertoire of strategies. This will increase their efficiency with number
computation. It is important to remember that students computation
abilities will vary according to the strategies work best for them.

1N10.4 Write the related


subtraction fact for a given
addition fact.
1N10.5 Write the related
addition fact for a given
subtraction fact.

It is important that students recognize that every addition problem can


also be viewed as a subtraction problem and vice versa. Fact families
demonstrate that four number sentences, two addition sentences
and two subtraction sentences, are all related to the same situation or
problem.
Put 18 two sided counters in a cup. Spill them on the table. Separate the
red and yellow counters. Write a given subtraction sentence: 18 - 6 = 12.
Ask students to join the groups together and write the related addition
sentence.
Create two link it chains, one with 14 red links and one with 6 blue
links. Have students join the two together and give them the addition
sentence: 14 + 6 = 20.
Ask students to separate the two colors and write the related subtraction
sentence.

142

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Tell me how - As students the following question, If you did not


know the answer to 8 + 7, what are some really good ways to find the
answer? Tell me how you found the answer.

Lesson 4: Strategies for Addition


and Subtraction
1N9, 1N10
TG pp. 24 - 27

This activity can be done as a whole class activity or a think-pairshare approach.


(1N10.3)

Audio CD 2:
Selections 6, 7, 15 & 16
Audio CD 3:
Selections 6, 7, 8, 9, 13 & 14

Performance
Ask students to write a related addition/subtraction fact for the
following facts:

Lesson 5: Relating Addition and


Subtraction Facts

12 + 6 = 18

1N10

14 + 3 = 17

TG pp. 28 - 30

16 - 9 = 7

12 8 = 4

(1N10.4, 10.5)

When using story boards to create problems for addition and


subtraction, ask students to record the related addition/subtraction
fact for each problem they create.
(1N10.4, 10.5)

Unit Centres:
Connect It!
TG p. 13

Whats Hiding? - Working in pairs, students use a two part mat (or
part-part-whole mat), counters and number cards 8 to 20. Students
choose a number card and count out that many counters. Partner
one covers their eyes while partner two splits the counters into two
parts, placing them on the two part mat. Partner two covers one side
of the mat with a piece of paper. Partner one then has to find the
hidden number and record it as either an addition or subtraction
sentence depending on the strategy they used.
(1N10.4, 10.5)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

143

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Demonstrate an
understanding of addition of
numbers with answers to 20 and
their corresponding subtraction
facts, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically, by:
using familiar and
mathematical language
to describe additive and
subtractive actions from
their personal experience
creating and solving
problems in context that
involve addition and
subtraction
modeling addition and
subtraction, using a
variety of concrete and
visual representations,
and recording the process
symbolically.

In the demonstration of understanding of addition and subtraction


students need to be able to explain how they got their answers. By
observing students at work we can assess their understanding of how
they solve addition and subtraction problems.
Addition and subtraction problems can be categorized based on the
kinds of relationships they represent. It is important that all of the
following categories of problems be presented and that these are derived
from students experiences.
These categories include
Join Problems: result unknown, change unknown, initial
unknown
Separate Problems: result unknown, change unknown, initial
unknown
Compare Problems: difference unknown, larger unknown, smaller
unknown
(Van de Walle and Lovin, 2006, pp. 67-69)

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Achievement Indicators:

1N9.4 Create a story problem for


addition that connects to personal
experience, and simulate the
action with counters.
1N9.5 Create a story problem
for subtraction that connects to
personal experience, and simulate
the action with counters.
1N9.7 Represent a given story
problem pictorially or symbolically
to show the additive or subtractive
action, and solve the problem

144

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance
Have students create their own story problems for addition and
subtraction and demonstrate the additive or subtractive action with
counters. Incorporate the use of manipulatives, such as dominoes
and dice, to generate numbers for story problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5)
Provide story boards for students to use with manipulatives to create,
model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by
drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper
can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a
beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be
created using the same story boards. Students should share their story
problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence
for each of their problems.
(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7)

Math Makes Sense 1


Lesson 6: Creating and Solving
Story Problems
1N9, 1PR4
TG pp. 31 - 32

Joining Problems
Result Unknown - There are 7 children in line at the water
fountain. 6 more join the line. How many students are in the line
now?
Change Unknown - There are 7 children lined up at the water
fountain. More children join the line. There are now 13 children
in the line. How many children joined the line?
Initial Unknown - There are some children lined up at the water
fountain. 6 children join the line. There are now 13 children in
the line. How many children were there first?
Separate Problems
Result Unknown - There are 14 candles on Julies birthday cake.
Chris blows 5 of the candles out. How many candles are still
burning?
Change Unknown - There are 14 candles on Julies birthday cake.
Chris blows some of the candles out. There are 8 candles still
burning. How many candles did Chris blow out?
Initial Unknown - There are candles on Julies birthday cake.
Chris blows 5 of the candles out. Now there are 8 candles still
burning. How many candles were first burning on the cake?
Compare Problems
Difference Unknown - Bob has 18 stickers. Julie has 9 stickers.
How many more stickers does Bob have?
Larger Unknown - Bob has 8 more stickers than Julie. Julie has 9
stickers. How many stickers does Bob have?
Smaller Unknown - Julie has 10 fewer stickers than Bob. Bob has
15 stickers. How many stickers does Julie have?
(1N9.7)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

145

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

Strand: Number
Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1N9 Continued
Achievement Indicators:

1N9.6 Create a word problem for


a given addition or subtraction
number sentence.

Students need to be exposed to a variety of word problems from the


three categories of problems:
Join Problems
Separate Problems
Compare Problems
It is important that they observe problems being created so they can
model the language and the process. Word problems created by students
are more meaningful to them ad reflect their experiences and interests.

Problem Solving
Choose a Strategy

Students have been introduced to the problem solving strategies:


Act it Out
Make a Model
Find a Pattern
Draw a Picture
Guess and Check
Use an Object
Review these strategies and help them determine the best strategy for
them to use to solve the given problem.
Present the problem:
Bobby and Luke own 18 toy cars. When they were cleaning up their
room they could only find 9. How many cars are missing?
Students can choose to Act it Out, Make a Model, Draw a Picture,
Guess and Check, or Use and Object. The strategy they choose may
be determined by their style of learning or their developmental phase.
Encourage them to use the strategy that they are most confident using.

146

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION TO 20

General Outcome: Develop Number Sense


Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Have students create their own story problems for addition and
subtraction and demonstrate the additive or subtractive action with
counters. Incorporate the use of manipulatives, such as dominoes
and dice, to generate numbers for story problems.
(1N9.6)

Lesson 7: Further Strategies for


Solving Story Problems
1N9, 1N10
TG pp. 33 - 36

Storytellers - In a container put simple number sentences


Unit Centres: Word Problems
TG p. 13
Students draw a card and then must develop two different stories for
the same sentence. Students can be asked to act out their story.
(1N9.6)

Lesson 8: Strategies Toolkit


TG pp. 37 - 38

Investigation 3: Classroom Plants


TG pp. 41 - 45
Use as time permits.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

147

Geometry

Suggested Time: 4 Weeks

Although geometry concepts have been explored, this is the first explicit focus.

GEOMETRY

Unit Overview

150

Focus and Context

This unit provides students with experiences sorting, comparing,


describing, constructing and representing 2-D shapes and 3-D objects.
In Kindergarten, students sorted, built and described 3-D objects. In
Grade One, students will continue working with 3-D objects and will
be formally introduced to 2-D shapes. The focus is on sorting and
comparing 2-D shapes and 3-D objects using one attribute, rather than
on naming the shapes and objects.

Math Connects

Geometry enables us to describe, analyze, and understand our physical


world and therefore, requires a focus throughout the Math curriculum.
It also complements and supports the study of other aspects of
mathematics such as number and measurement. Geometry offers
powerful tools for representing and solving problems in all areas of
mathematics.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

GEOMETRY

Process Standards
Key

Curriculum
Outcomes

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

STRAND

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

1SS2 Sort 3-D objects


Space and Shape
and 2-D shapes, using
(3D Objects and
one attribute, and
2D Shapes)
explain the sorting rule.
Shape and Space 1SS3 Replicate
(3D Objects and composite 2-D shapes
2D Shapes)
and 3-D objects.
1SS4 Compare 2Space and Shape
D shapes to parts of
(3D Objects and
3-D objects in the
2D Shapes)
environment.

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTerim

PROCESS
STANDARDS
[C, CN, R, V]

[CN, PS, V]

[C, CN, V]

151

GEOMETRY

Strand: Shape and Space (3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D
shapes, using one attribute, and
explain the sorting rule.
[C, CN, R, V]

The study of two dimensional shapes and three dimensional objects is


essential as we strive to describe, analyze, and understanding the world
we live in. Activities selected in geometry should provide students with
the opportunity to explore. They need to see and feel, to build and take
apart, to sort and identify their rule(s), and to share their observations
with their classmates. It is through such activities that students will
become familiar with the names of 2-D shapes and 3-D objects and
begin to recognize their attributes. It is very important to encourage
students to use accurate language when describing shapes. As pattern
blocks are regularly used for geometric inquiry, it would seem reasonable
that students become familiar with the terms that describe them which
include circle. triangle, square and rectangle. Students should be
comfortable using such terms as cylinder, sphere, cone, and cube, and
may extend their exploration to rectangular prisms and square pyramids.

Achievement Indicators:

1SS2.1 Sort a set of familiar 3-D


objects or 2-D shapes, using a
given sorting rule.

Attributes of 3-D objects that children might explore include:


the number of edges
the number of vertices
the number of faces
Will it roll? Stack? Slide?
With this knowledge, the students should sort a set of objects or shapes
using a given sorting rule.

1SS2.2 Sort a set of familiar 3-D


objects using a single attribute,
determined by the student, and
explain the sorting rule.

Before expecting students to generate their own sorting rule(s), it is important to guide explorations about sets of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes
by asking questions such as:
How are these objects alike?
How are these objects different?
How many faces/vertices/edges does this object have?
What would happen if I tried to stack this object on top of another
object just like it?
Can you find another example of this type of geometric solid/shape
in our classroom?
When objects have been explored, ask: How can we sort these objects?
It is important to allow students to use their own ideas and
understanding of 3-D objects to generate their own sorting rules.

152

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and
Analyze the Relationships Among Them
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Seat the students in a circle and distribute familiar 3-D objects such
as a water bottle, soup can, small box, tennis ball, etc. Using two
hula hoops, placed side by side, ask students to sort their objects
based on a given rule. Students take turns placing their 3-D object
in the hula hoop that matches its sorting rule. Possible sorting rules
include:

Launch

Stack or does not stack?


Roll or does not roll?
Slide or does not slide?
Edges or no edges?
Square faces or no square faces?

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 13


Lesson 1: Sorting 3-D Objects
1SS2
TG pp. 14 - 15

(1SS2.1)

Provide students with a set of familiar 3-D objects to sort based on


a single attribute. Have the students explain their sorting rule to the
class.
(1SS2.2)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

153

GEOMETRY

Strand: Shape and Space (3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS3. Replicate composite 2-D
shapes and 3-D objects.
[CN, PS, V]

Experimentation, including free play, with 2-D shapes and 3-D objects
provide students with opportunities to explore the attributes of shapes,
and how they can be put together and taken apart to make other shapes.
Pattern blocks, attribute blocks, and tangram pieces are useful tools with
which students can explore these relationships.

Achievement Indicators:

1SS3.2 Select 3-D objects from a


set to reproduce a composite 3-D
object.

Students should develop the ability to replicate composite 3-D objects.


It is through such replication that students become familiar with the
attributes of 3-D objects.

1SS3.4 Predict and select the


3-D objects used to produce a
composite 3-D object, and verify
by deconstructing the composite
object.

Students will use their knowledge of the properties of 3-D objects to


predict and select which shapes are necessary to produce a composite
shape/object. To verify their predictions and selections they will then
deconstruct the original shape/object and compare the two sets.

154

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and
Analyze the Relationships Among Them
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Set up a barrier for pairs of students. One student will use geometric
solids to create a composite 3-D object. When completed, remove
the barrier, and the partner replicates the object.
(1SS3.2, 3.4)

Lesson 2: Replicating Composite


Objects
1SS3
TG pp. 16 - 19

Provide students with a variety of 3-D solids. Show a composite 3-D


object, such as a tower, and ask students to predict and select which
solids they need to replicate the object. Students build the object
using the solids they selected. They may then decompose the given
object to verify their predictions.
(1SS3.2, 3.4)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

Unit Centres:
Build This!
TG p. 11

155

GEOMETRY

Strand: Shape and Space (3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D
shapes, using one attribute, and
explain the sorting rule.
[C, CN, R, V]
Achievement Indicators:

1SS2.1 Sort a set of familiar 3-D


objects or 2-D shapes, using a
given sorting rule.

Attributes of 2-D shapes that children might explore include:


the number of sides (edges)
the number of corners (vertices)
With this knowledge, the students should sort a set of objects or shapes
using a given sorting rule.

1SS2.3 Sort a set of 2-D


shapes using a single attribute,
determined by the student, and
explain the sorting rule.

Before expecting students to generate their own sorting rule(s), it is important to guide explorations about sets 2-D shapes by asking questions
such as:

How are these objects alike?

How are these objects different?

How many sides and corners does this object have?

Can you find another example of this shape in our classroom?
When objects have been explored, ask: How can we sort these objects?
It is important to allow students to use their own ideas and understanding of 2-D shapes to generate their own sorting rules.

1SS2.4 Determine the difference


between two pre-sorted sets of
familiar 3-D objects or 2-D
shapes, and explain a possible
sorting rule used to sort them.
Problem Solving
Choose a Strategy to solve the
problem

Students need ample opportunity to recognize and discuss the sorting


rule for two pre-sorted sets of familiar 2-D shapes. During circle time
or whole group activities, sort 2-D shapes while students observe. Have
them predict where each object would be placed, explaining the possible
sorting rules used.

Students have been introduced to the problem solving strategies:


Act it Out
Make a Model
Find a Pattern
Draw a Picture
Guess and Check
Use an Object
Review these strategies and help them to determine the best strategy for
them to use to solve the given problem.

156

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and
Analyze the Relationships Among Them
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Seat the students in a circle and distribute familiar 2-D shapes. Using
two hula hoops, placed side by side, ask students to sort their objects
based on a given rule. Students take turns placing their 2-D shape
in the hula hoop that matches its sorting rule. Possible sorting rules
include:

Lesson 3: Sorting 2-D Shapes

number of sides
number of corners
curved lines / straight lines
colour
size

1SS2
TG pp. 20 - 23
Unit Centres: Sort and Match
TG p. 11

(1SS2.1)

Provide students with a set of familiar 2-D shapes to sort based on


a single attribute. Have the students explain their sorting rule to the
class.

(1SS2.3)

Indictor SS2.1 is nor directly covered


in resource. You may wish to add
tasks from other resources.

Provide sets of shapes that have been pre-sorted into two groups. Ask
students to determine the sorting rule and explain how they know.
(1SS2.4)
Give students a target shape and have them find others in the
environment that is alike in some way. Discuss strategies that could
be used to help solve this problem.

Lesson 4: Strategies Toolkit


TG pp. 24 - 25

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

157

GEOMETRY

Strand: Shape and Space (3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)


Outcomes

ElaborationsStrategies for Learning and Teaching

Students will be expected to


1SS3. Replicate composite 2-D
shapes and 3-D objects.
[CN, PS, V]
Achievement Indicators:

1SS3.1 Select 2-D shapes from a


set to reproduce a composite 2-D
shape.

1SS3.3 Predict and select the


2-D shapes used to produce a
composite 2-D shape, and verify
by deconstructing the composite
shape.

1SS4. Compare 2-D shapes


to parts of 3-D objects in the
environment.
[C, CN, V]

1SS4.1 Identify 3-D objects


(cylinder, cone, cube, sphere) in
the environment that have parts
similar to a 2-D shape (circle,
triangle, square, rectangle).

Students should develop the ability to replicate composite 2-D shapes.


It is through such replication that students become familiar with the
attributes of various 2-D shapes as well as 3-D objects.

Students will use their knowledge of the properties of 2-D shapes to


predict and select which shapes are necessary to produce a composite
shape. To verify their predictions and selections they will then
deconstruct the original shape and compare the two sets.

Students should recognize 2-D shapes and 3-D objects in their


environment. These real-world associations are most important in the
development of geometric concepts. Students should become familiar
with the 2-D shapes that are the faces of 3-D objects. They should learn
to describe 3-D objects in relation to the shape of its faces.
Prior to identifying 3-D objects in the environment, students
need many opportunities to explore the properties of 3-D objects.
Explorations may include tracing the faces of the solids, or pressing the
faces in plasticine to identify the 2-D shapes.
Take students for a Shape Hunt around the school or the playground
looking for 2-D shapes in 3-D objects. For example, the door to the
classroom has a rectangular shape, the trash can has a circular face, etc.
Some students may need to move or touch the objects to determine the
2-D shapes. As students become more familiar with finding 2-D shapes
in 3-D objects, they may use magazines, flyers, or catalogues to identify
3-D objects that have parts similar to a 2-D shape.

158

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and
Analyze the Relationships Among Them
Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Math Makes Sense 1

Provide students with a tangram puzzle (with only an outside


outline) and ask them to predict and select the tangram pieces
required to replicate the shape. Students may then replicate the shape
to verify their predictions. Pattern blocks may also be used for this
activity.
(1SS3.3)

Lesson 5: Replicating Composite


Shapes

Use pattern blocks to make an animal such as a pet cat. Show this
design to the students and ask them to use the set of pattern blocks
provided to replicate the design.

(1SS3.1)

1SS3
TG pp. 26 - 30
Unit Centres: Shape Patterns and
Pictures
TG p. 11

Provide students with a set of paper 2-D shapes and have them
circulate in the classroom or another environment, finding parts
of 3-D objects. Students may record their findings in their Math
journal. E.g.,

(1SS4.1)

Lesson 6: Comparing 3-D


Objects and 2-D Shapes
1SS4

Before going to lunch, ask students to open their lunch boxes to find
2-D shapes in 3-D objects. For example, a sandwich container has a
square face, a yogurt container has a circular face, and a juice box has
a rectangular face. Ask students to choose one object and name the
2-D shape(s).
(1SS4.1)

grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - interim

TG pp. 31 - 34
Unit Centres: Sand Prints
TG p. 11

159

Appendix A
Outcomes by Strand
(with page references)

161

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

Strand: Number
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

General Outcome: Develop number sense


Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1N1 Say the number sequence 0 to 100 by:


1s forward between any two given numbers
1s backward between any two given
numbers
1s backward from 20 to 0
2s forward from 0 to 20
5s and 10s forward from 0 to 100.
[C, CN, ME, V]

1N1.1 Recite forward by 1s the number sequence between two given


numbers (0 to 100).
1N1.2 Recite backward by 1s the number sequence between two given
numbers (20 to 0).
1N1.3 Record a given numeral (0 to 100) symbolically when it is presented
orally.
1N1.4 Read a given numeral (0 to 100) when it is presented symbolically.
1N1.5 Skip count by 2s to 20, starting at 0.
1N1.6 Skip count by 5s to 100, starting at 0.
1N1.7 Skip count forward by 10s to 100, starting at 0.
1N1.8 Identify and correct errors/omissions in a given number sequence and
explain.

pp. 32, 128

1N2 Subitize (recognize at a glance) and name


familiar arrangements of 1 to 10 objects, dots or
pictures.
[C, CN, ME, V]

1N2.1 Look briefly at a given familiar arrangement of objects, dots or


pictures and identify the number represented without counting.
1N2.2 Identify the number represented by a given arrangement of dots on a
ten frame and describe the numbers relationship to 5 and/or 10.

p. 46

1N3 Demonstrate an understanding of


counting by:
indicating that the last number said
identifies how many
showing that any set has only one
count
using the counting-on strategy
using parts or equal groups to count
sets.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

1N3.1 Answer the question, How many are in the set?, using the last
number counted in a given set.
1N3.2 Identify and correct counting errors in a given counting sequence.
1N3.3 Show that the count of the number of objects in a given set does not
change regardless of the order in which the objects are counted.
1N3.4 Count the number of objects in a given set, rearrange the objects,
predict the new count and recount to verify the prediction.
1N3.5 Determine the total number of objects in a given set, starting from a
known quantity and counting on.
1N3.6 Count quantity, using groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting on.
1N3.7 Record the number of objects in a given set (up to 100).

pp. 36, 40, 50, 88, 128


1N4 Represent and describe numbers to 20, 1N4.1 Represent a given number up to 20, using a variety of manipulatives,
including ten frames and base ten materials.
concretely, pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, V]
pp. 38, 40, 52, 58

162

1N4.2 Read given number words to 20.


1N4.3 Partition any given quantity up to 20 into 2 parts, and identify the
number of objects in each part.
1N4.4 Model a given number, using two different objects; e.g., 10 desks
represents the same number as 10 pencils.
1N4.5 Place given numerals on a number line with benchmarks 0, 5, 10 and
20.
grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

Strand: Number (Continued)


Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

General Outcome: Develop number sense


Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1N5 Compare and order sets containing up


to 20 elements to solve problems, using:
referents (known quantities)
one-to-one correspondence
to solve problems.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
p. 64

1N5.1 Build a set equal to a given set that contains up to 20 elements.


1N5.2 Build a set that has more elements than, fewer elements than or as
many elements as a given set.
1N5.3 Compare two given sets, using one-to-one correspondence, and
describe them, using comparative words such as more, fewer or as
many.
1N5.4 Solve a given story problem (pictures and words) that involves the
comparison of two quantities.

1N6 Estimate quantities to 20 by using


referents.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
p. 62
1N7
1N8 Identify the number, up to 20, that is
one more, two more, one less and two less
than a given number.
[C, CN, ME, R, V]

1N6.1 Estimate a given quantity by comparing it to a given referent (known


quantity).
1N6.2 Select an estimate for a given quantity from at least two possible
options, and explain the choice.

pp.44, 60
1N9 Demonstrate an understanding of
addition of numbers with answers to 20
and their corresponding subtraction facts,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically, by:
using familiar and mathematical
language to describe additive and
subtractive actions from their personal
experience
creating and solving problems in
context that involve addition and
subtraction
modelling addition and subtraction,
using a variety of concrete and visual
representations, and recording the
process symbolically.

No Outcome
1N8.1 Name the number that is one more, two more, one less or two less
than a given number, up to 20.
1N8.2 Represent a number on a ten frame that is one more, two more, one
less or two less than a given number.

1N9.1 Act out a given problem presented orally or through shared reading.
1N9.2 Indicate if the scenario in a given story problem represents additive or
subtractive action.
1N9.3 Represent the numbers and actions presented in a given story problem
by using manipulatives, and record them using sketches and/or
number sentences.
1N9.4 Create a story problem for addition that connects to personal
experience, and simulate the action with counters.
1N9.5 Create a story problem for subtraction that connects to personal
experience, and simulate the action with counters.
1N9.6 Create a word problem for a given addition or subtraction number
sentence.
1N9.7 Represent a given story problem pictorially or symbolically to show
the additive or subtractive action, and solve the problem.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


pp. 90, 102, 110, 144
grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

163

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Strand: Number (Continued)
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

General Outcome: Develop number sense


Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1N10 Describe and use mental mathematics (It is not intended that students recall the basic facts but become familiar
with strategies to mentally determine sums and differences.)
strategies (memorization not intended),
1N10.1 Use and describe a personal strategy for determining a given sum.
such as:
counting on and counting back
making 10
using doubles
using addition to subtract

1N10.2 Use and describe a personal strategy for determining a given


difference.
1N10.3 Refine personal strategies to increase their efficiency.
1N10.4 Write the related subtraction fact for a given addition fact.
1N10.5 Write the related addition fact for a given subtraction fact.

to determine the basic addition facts to 18


and related subtraction facts.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
pp. 98, 108, 138, 142

164

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

General Outcome: Use patterns to describe the world and to


solve problems.
Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1PR1.1 Describe a given repeating pattern containing two to four elements


1PR1 Demonstrate an understanding of
in its core.
repeating patterns (two to four elements) by:

describing
reproducing
extending
creating
patterns using manipulatives, diagrams,
sounds and actions.
[C, PS, R, V]
p. 76
1PR2 Translate repeating patterns from one
representation to another.
[C, CN, R, V]
p. 82

1PR1.2 Identify and describe errors in a given repeating pattern.


1PR1.3 Identify and describe the missing element(s) in a given repeating
pattern.
1PR1.4 Create and describe a repeating pattern, using a variety of
manipulatives, diagrams, sounds and actions.
1PR1.5 Reproduce and extend a given repeating pattern using
manipulatives, diagrams, sounds and actions.
1PR1.6 Describe, using every day language, a repeating pattern in the
environment, e.g., in the classroom, outdoors.
1PR1.7 Identify repeating events; e.g., days of the week, birthdays, seasons.
1PR2.1 Represent a given repeating pattern, using another mode; e.g.,
actions to sound, colour to shape, ABC ABC to moose puffin bear
moose puffin bear.
1PR2.2 Describe a given repeating pattern, using a letter code; e.g., ABC
ABC,

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

165

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

Strand: Patterns and Relations


(Variables and Equations)
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

General Outcome: Represent Algebraic Expressions in Multiple


Ways.
Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1PR3 Describe equality as a balance and


inequality as an imbalance, concretely and
pictorially (0 to 20).

1PR3.1 Construct two equal sets, using the same objects (same shape and
mass), and demonstrate their equality of number, using a balance
scale.
1PR3.2 Construct two unequal sets, using the same objects (same shape and
mass), and demonstrate their inequality of number, using a balance
scale.
1PR3.3 Determine if two given concrete sets are equal or unequal, and
explain the process used.

[C, CN, R, V]
p. 68

1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal


symbol (0 to 20)
[C, CN, PS, V]
pp. 70, 94, 106, 140

166

1PR4.1 Represent a given equality, using manipulatives or pictures.


1PR4.2 Represent a given pictorial or concrete equality in symbolic form.
1PR4.3 Provide examples of equalities where the given sum or difference is
on either the left or right side of the equal symbol (=).
1PR4.4 Record different representations of the same quantity (0 to 20) as
equalities.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

Strand: Shape and Space


(Measurement)
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

General Outcome: Use direct or indirect measurement to


solve problems.
Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1SS1 Demonstrate an understanding of


measurement as a process of comparing by:

1SS1.1 Identify common attributes, such as length, height, mass, capacity


and area, that could be used to compare two given objects.
1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by length, height, mass, capacity or area, and
explain their ordering.
1SS1.3 Compare two given objects, and identify the attributes used to
compare.
1SS1.4 Determine which of two or more objects is longest or shortest by
matching, and explain the reasoning.
1SS1.5 Determine which of two or more objects is heaviest or lightest by
comparing, and explain the reasoning.
1SS1.6 Determine which of two or more objects holds the most or least by
filling, and explain the reasoning.
SS1.7 Determine which of two or more objects has the greatest or least area
by covering, and explain the reasoning.

identifying attributes that can be


compared
ordering objects
making statements of comparison
filling, covering or matching.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]
pp. 116, 120

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

167

appendix a

[C]
[CN]
[ME]

Communication
[PS] Problem Solving
Connections
[R] Reasoning
Mental Mathematics [T] Technology
and Estimation
[V] Visualization

Strand: Shape and Space


(Measurement)
Specific Outcomes
It is expected that students will:

General Outcome: Use direct or indirect measurement to solve


problems.
Achievement Indicators
The following set of indicators help determine whether students
have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1SS2 Sort 3-D objects and 2-D shapes,


using one attribute, and explain the sorting
rule.

1SS2.1 Sort a set of familiar 3-D objects or 2-D shapes, using a given sorting
rule.
1SS2.2 Sort a set of familiar 3-D objects using a single attribute, determined
by the student, and explain the sorting rule.
1SS2.3 Sort a set of 2-D shapes using a single attribute, determined by the
student, and explain the sorting rule.
1SS2.4 Determine the difference between two pre-sorted sets of familiar 3-D
objects or 2-D shapes, and explain a possible sorting rule used to sort
them.

[C, CN, R, V]
pp. 152, 156

1SS3 Replicate composite 2-D shapes and


3-D objects.
[CN, PS, V]
pp. 154, 158
1SS4 Compare 2-D shapes to parts of 3-D
objects in the environment.
[C, CN, V]

1SS3.1 Select 2-D shapes from a set to reproduce a composite 2-D shape.
1SS3.2 Select 3-D objects from a set to reproduce a composite 3-D object.
1SS3.3 Predict and select the 2-D shapes used to produce a composite 2-D
shape, and verify by deconstructing the composite shape.
1SS3.4 Predict and select the 3-D objects used to produce a composite 3-D
object, and verify by deconstructing the composite object.
SS4.1 Identify 3-D objects (cylinder, cone, cube, sphere) in the environment
that have parts similar to a 2-D shape (circle, triangle, square,
rectangle).

p. 158

168

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

Appendix B
References

169

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix b

REFERENCES
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American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS-Benchmarks]. Benchmark for Science Literacy.
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Banks, J.A. and C.A.M. Banks. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
1993.
Black, Paul and Dylan Wiliam. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment.
Phi Delta Kappan, 20, October 1998, pp.139-148.
British Columbia. Ministry of Education. The Primary Program: A Framework for Teaching, 2000.
Burns, M. (2000). About teaching mathematics: A K-8 resource. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications
Caine, Renate Numella and Geoffrey Caine. Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. Menlo
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Computation, Calculators, and Common Sense. May 2005, NCTM.
Davies, Anne. Making Classroom Assessment Work. British Columbia: Classroom Connections International, Inc., 2000.
Hope, Jack A. et.al. Mental Math in the Primary Grades (p. v). Dale Seymour Publications, 1988.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten
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National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Principals and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA:
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OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in
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Publishing, 2006.
Proulx, Jerome. Making the Transition to Algebraic Thinking: Taking Students Arithmetic Modes of Reasoning into Account. Selta-K44, 1(2006)
Richardson, K.. Developing number concepts addition and subtraction book 2. Pearson Education, Inc.
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Richardson, K. Counting comparing and pattern. Pearson Education, Inc. 1999
Rubenstein, Rheta N. Mental Mathematics beyond the Middle School: Why? What? How? September 2001,
Vol. 94, Issue 6, p. 442.
Shaw, J.M. and Cliatt, M.F.P. (1989). Developing Measurement Sense. In P.R. Trafton (Ed.), New Di-

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appendix b

rections for Elementary School Mathematics (pp. 149155). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of
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Small, M. (2008). Making math meaningful to canadian students, K-8. Toronto, Ontario: Nelson Education
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Steen, L.A. (ed.). On the Shoulders of Giants New Approaches to Numeracy. Washington, DC: National
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Stenmark, Jean Kerr and William S. Bush, Editor. Mathematics Assessment: A Practical Handbook for
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Van de Walle, John A. and Louann H. Lovin. Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics, Grades K-3. Boston:
Pearson Education, Inc. 2006.
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171