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Grade One

Interim Edition

Curriculum Guide

September 2009

TABLE OF Contents

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements......................................iii

Foreword..........................................v

Background............................................1

Introduction

Beliefs About Students and Mathematics Learning.....................................2

Affective Domain...........................................3

Early Childhood..........................................3

Goal for Students...........................................4

Mathematical Processes................................................5

Nature of Mathematics............................................9

Strands....................................................12

Outcomes and Achievement Indicators.......................................13

Summary.................................................13

Instructional Focus

Planning for Instruction............................................ 14

Resources................................................14

Teaching Sequence..........................................15

Instruction Time per Unit..................................................15

General and Specific Outcomes by Strand K - 2..................................17

Representing Numbers to 20.........................................................29

Patterning...........................................................73

Addition and Subtraction to 12.............................................85

Measurement ..............................................113

Numbers to 100...................................................125

Addition and Subtraction to 20..............................................135

Geometry ....................................................149

References........................................................................169

ii

acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The Department of Education would like to thank Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP)

for Collaboration in Education, The Common Curriculum Framework for K-9 Mathematics - May 2006 and

The Common Curriculum Framework for Grades 10-12 - January 2008. Reproduced (and/or adapted) by

permission. All rights reserved.

We would also like to thank the provincial Grade 1 Mathematics curriculum committee, the Alberta

Department of Education, the New Brunswick Department of Education, and the following people for their

contribution:

Trudy Porter, Program Development Specialist Mathematics, Division

of Program Development, Department of Education

Theresa Bryant, Numeracy Support Teacher Eastern School District

Valerie Fleming, Teacher Upper Gullies Elementary,

Conception Bay South

Karen Keough, Teacher Roncolli, St. Johns

Nancy Pelley, Teacher Upper Gullies Elementary,

Conception Bay South

Lois Petten, Teacher Numeracy Support Teacher, Eastern School

District

Colleen Ryan, Teacher Stephenville Primary,

Stephenville

Patricia Maxwell Program Development Specialist Mathematics,

Division of Program Development, Department of Education

Rita Kennedy, Teacher St. Francis of Assisi, St. Johns

Laura Feltham, Teacher Cowan Heights Elementary, St. Johns

Ruth Power-Blackmore, Teacher Larkhall Academy, St. Johns

Every effort has been made to acknowledge all sources that contributed to the development of this document.

Any omissions or errors will be amended in final print.

iii

iv

foreword

Foreword

The Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8

Mathematics released in 2006 by the National Council of Teachers

in Mathematics (NCTM) and the WNCP Common Curriculum

Frameworks for Mathematics K 9 (WNCP, 2006), assists many

provinces in developing a mathematics curriculum framework.

Newfoundland and Labrador has used this curriculum framework to

direct the development of this curriculum guide.

This curriculum guide is intended to provide teachers with the

overview of the outcomes framework for mathematics education. It also

includes suggestions to assist teachers in designing learning experiences

and assessment tasks.

vi

Introduction

BACKGROUND

independent review of mathematics curriculum in the summer of 2007.

This review resulted in a number of significant recommendations.

In March of 2008, it was announced that this province accepted

all recommendations. The first and perhaps most significiant of the

recommendations were as follows:

That the WNCP Common Curriculum Frameworks for

Mathematics K 9 and Mathematics 10 12 (WNCP, 2006 and

2008) be adopted as the basis for the K 12 mathematics curriculum

in this province.

That implementation commence with Grades K, 1, 4, 7 in

September 2008, followed by in Grades 2, 5, 8 in 2009 and Grades

3, 6, 9 in 2010.

That textbooks and other resources specifically designed to match the

WNCP frameworks be adopted as an integral part of the proposed

program change.

That implementation be accompanied by an introductory

professional development program designed to introduce the

curriculum to all mathematics teachers at the appropriate grade levels

prior to the first year of implementation.

As recommended, the implementation schedule for K-6 mathematics is

as follows:

Implementation Year

2008

2009

2010

Grade Level

K, 1 and 4

2, 5

3, 6

opportunities related to the new curriculum and resources.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the

Document

The curriculum guide

communicates high

expectations for students.

have been derived from The Common Curriculum Framework for K9

Mathematics: Western and Northern Canadian Protocol, May 2006

(the Common Curriculum Framework). These guides incorporate the

conceptual framework for Kindergarten to Grade 9 Mathematics and

the general outcomes, specific outcomes and achievement indicators

established in the common curriculum framework. They also include

suggestions for teaching and learning, suggested assessment strategies,

and an identification of the associated resource match between the

curriculum and authorized, as well as recommended, resource materials.

Beliefs About

Students and

Mathematics

Learning

and needs. They come to classrooms with varying knowledge, life

experiences and backgrounds. A key component in successfully

developing numeracy is making connections to these backgrounds and

experiences.

Mathematical

understanding is fostered

when students build on

their own experiences and

prior knowledge.

Students learn by attaching meaning to what they do, and they need

to construct their own meaning of mathematics. This meaning is best

developed when learners encounter mathematical experiences that

proceed from the simple to the complex and from the concrete to the

abstract. Through the use of manipulatives and a variety of pedagogical

approaches, teachers can address the diverse learning styles, cultural

backgrounds and developmental stages of students, and enhance

within them the formation of sound, transferable mathematical

understandings. At all levels, students benefit from working with a

variety of materials, tools and contexts when constructing meaning

about new mathematical ideas. Meaningful student discussions provide

essential links among concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations

of mathematical concepts.

The learning environment should value and respect the diversity

of students experiences and ways of thinking, so that students are

comfortable taking intellectual risks, asking questions and posing

conjectures. Students need to explore problem-solving situations in

order to develop personal strategies and become mathematically literate.

They must realize that it is acceptable to solve problems in a variety of

ways and that a variety of solutions may be acceptable.

introduction

Affective Domain

To experience success,

students must be taught

to set achievable goals and

assess themselves as they

work toward these goals.

has a profound impact on learning. Environments that create a sense of

belonging, encourage risk taking and provide opportunities for success

help develop and maintain positive attitudes and self-confidence within

students. Students with positive attitudes toward learning mathematics

are likely to be motivated and prepared to learn, participate willingly

in classroom activities, persist in challenging situations and engage in

reflective practices.

Teachers, students and parents need to recognize the relationship

between the affective and cognitive domains, and attempt to nurture

those aspects of the affective domain that contribute to positive

attitudes. To experience success, students must be taught to set

achievable goals and assess themselves as they work toward these goals.

Striving toward success and becoming autonomous and responsible

learners are ongoing, reflective processes that involve revisiting the

setting and assessing of personal goals.

Early Childhood

is fostered when children

are actively engaged in their

environment.

mathematical ideas before they enter Kindergarten. Children make

sense of their environment through observations and interactions at

home, in daycares, in preschools and in the community. Mathematics

learning is embedded in everyday activities, such as playing, reading,

beading, baking, storytelling and helping around the home.

Activities can contribute to the development of number and spatial

sense in children. Curiosity about mathematics is fostered when

children are engaged in, and talking about, such activities as comparing

quantities, searching for patterns, sorting objects, ordering objects,

creating designs and building with blocks.

Positive early experiences in mathematics are as critical to child

development as are early literacy experiences.

introduction

Goals For

Students

use mathematics confidently to solve problems

communicate and reason mathematically

appreciate and value mathematics

make connections between mathematics and its applications

commit themselves to lifelong learning

Mathematics education

must prepare students

to use mathematics

confidently to solve

problems.

contribute to society.

Students who have met these goals will:

gain understanding and appreciation of the contributions of

mathematics as a science, philosophy and art

exhibit a positive attitude toward mathematics

engage and persevere in mathematical tasks and projects

contribute to mathematical discussions

take risks in performing mathematical tasks

exhibit curiosity.

CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK

FOR K-9

MATHEMATICS

and the nature of mathematics influence learning outcomes.

PROCESS STANDARDS

MATHEMATICAL

PROCESSES

mathematics program in order to achieve the goals of mathematics

education and embrace lifelong learning in mathematics.

Students are expected to:

Communication [C]

Connections [CN]

everyday experiences and to other disciplines

Mental Mathematics

and Estimation [ME]

Problem Solving [PS]

Reasoning [R]

Technology [T]

Visualization [V]

develop and apply new mathematical knowledge through problem

solving

develop mathematical reasoning

select and use technologies as tools for learning and for solving

problems

develop visualization skills to assist in processing information,

making connections and solving problems.

The program of studies incorporates these seven interrelated

mathematical processes that are intended to permeate teaching and

learning.

Communication [C]

communicate mathematical

ideas in a variety of ways

and contexts.

listen to and discuss mathematical ideas. These opportunities allow

students to create links between their own language and ideas, and the

formal language and symbols of mathematics.

Communication is important in clarifying, reinforcing and modifying

ideas, attitudes and beliefs about mathematics. Students should be

encouraged to use a variety of forms of communication while learning

mathematics. Students also need to communicate their learning using

mathematical terminology.

Communication helps students make connections among concrete,

pictorial, symbolic, oral, written and mental representations of

mathematical ideas.

process standards

Connections [CN]

Through connections,

students begin to view

mathematics as useful and

relevant.

of learners are powerful processes in developing mathematical

understanding. This can be particularly true for First Nations, Mtis

and Inuit learners. When mathematical ideas are connected to each

other or to real-world phenomena, students begin to view mathematics

as useful, relevant and integrated.

Learning mathematics within contexts and making connections relevant

to learners can validate past experiences and increase student willingness

to participate and be actively engaged.

The brain is constantly looking for and making connections. Because

the learner is constantly searching for connections on many levels,

educators need to orchestrate the experiences from which learners extract

understanding. Brain research establishes and confirms that multiple

complex and concrete experiences are essential for meaningful learning

and teaching (Caine and Caine, 1991, p.5).

Estimation [ME]

enhance flexible thinking and number sense. It is calculating mentally

without the use of external memory aids.

Mental mathematics enables students to determine answers without

paper and pencil. It improves computational fluency by developing

efficiency, accuracy and flexibility.

estimation are fundamental

components of number sense.

using calculators is the greater facility that students needmore than

ever beforewith estimation and mental math (National Council of

Teachers of Mathematics, May 2005).

Students proficient with mental mathematics become liberated from

calculator dependence, build confidence in doing mathematics, become

more flexible thinkers and are more able to use multiple approaches to

problem solving (Rubenstein, 2001, p. 442).

Mental mathematics provides the cornerstone for all estimation

processes, offering a variety of alternative algorithms and nonstandard

techniques for finding answers (Hope, 1988, p. v).

Estimation is used for determining approximate values or quantities or

for determining the reasonableness of calculated values. It often uses

benchmarks or referents. Students need to know when to estimate, how

to estimate and what strategy to use.

Estimation assists individuals in making mathematical judgements and

in developing useful, efficient strategies for dealing with situations in

daily life.

process standards

solving should be the focus

of mathematics at all grade

levels.

at all grade levels. When students encounter new situations and

respond to questions of the type How would you? or How could you?,

the problem-solving approach is being modelled. Students develop their

own problem-solving strategies by listening to, discussing and trying

different strategies.

A problem-solving activity must ask students to determine a way to get

from what is known to what is sought. If students have already been

given ways to solve the problem, it is not a problem, but practice. A

true problem requires students to use prior learnings in new ways and

contexts. Problem solving requires and builds depth of conceptual

understanding and student engagement.

Problem solving is a powerful teaching tool that fosters multiple,

creative and innovative solutions. Creating an environment where

students openly look for, and engage in, finding a variety of strategies

for solving problems empowers students to explore alternatives and

develops confident, cognitive mathematical risk takers.

Reasoning [R]

Mathematical reasoning

helps students think

logically and make sense of

mathematics.

of mathematics. Students need to develop confidence in their abilities to

reason and justify their mathematical thinking. High-order questions

challenge students to think and develop a sense of wonder about

mathematics.

Mathematical experiences in and out of the classroom provide

opportunities for students to develop their ability to reason. Students

can explore and record results, analyze observations, make and test

generalizations from patterns, and reach new conclusions by building

upon what is already known or assumed to be true.

Reasoning skills allow students to use a logical process to analyze a

problem, reach a conclusion and justify or defend that conclusion.

process standards

Technology [T]

Technology contributes

to the learning of a wide

range of mathematical

outcomes and enables

students to explore

and create patterns,

examine relationships,

test conjectures and solve

problems.

outcomes and enables students to explore and create patterns, examine

relationships, test conjectures and solve problems.

Calculators and computers can be used to:

explore and demonstrate mathematical relationships and patterns

organize and display data

extrapolate and interpolate

assist with calculation procedures as part of solving problems

decrease the time spent on computations when other mathematical

learning is the focus

reinforce the learning of basic facts

develop personal procedures for mathematical operations

create geometric patterns

simulate situations

develop number sense.

Technology contributes to a learning environment in which the

growing curiosity of students can lead to rich mathematical discoveries

at all grade levels.

Visualization [V]

Visualization is fostered

through the use of concrete

materials, technology

and a variety of visual

representations.

to perceive, transform and recreate different aspects of the visual-spatial

world (Armstrong, 1993, p. 10). The use of visualization in the study

of mathematics provides students with opportunities to understand

mathematical concepts and make connections among them.

Visual images and visual reasoning are important components of

number, spatial and measurement sense. Number visualization occurs

when students create mental representations of numbers.

Being able to create, interpret and describe a visual representation is

part of spatial sense and spatial reasoning. Spatial visualization and

reasoning enable students to describe the relationships among and

between 3-D objects and 2-D shapes.

Measurement visualization goes beyond the acquisition of specific

measurement skills. Measurement sense includes the ability to

determine when to measure, when to estimate and which estimation

strategies to use (Shaw and Cliatt, 1989).

nature of mathematics

NATURE OF

MATHEMATICS

Change

Constancy

our world. There are a number of components that define the nature of

mathematics and these are woven throughout this program of studies.

The components are change, constancy, number sense, patterns,

relationships, spatial sense and uncertainty.

Number Sense

Patterns

Relationships

Spatial Sense

Uncertainty

Change

of mathematics and the

learning of mathematics.

and not static. As a result, recognizing change is a key component in

understanding and developing mathematics.

Within mathematics, students encounter conditions of change and are

required to search for explanations of that change. To make predictions,

students need to describe and quantify their observations, look for

patterns, and describe those quantities that remain fixed and those that

change. For example, the sequence 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, can be described

as:

the number of a specific colour of beads in each row of a beaded

design

skip counting by 2s, starting from 4

an arithmetic sequence, with first term 4 and a common difference

of 2

a linear function with a discrete domain

(Steen, 1990, p. 184).

Constancy

terms stability, conservation,

equilibrium, steady state and

symmetry.

conservation, equilibrium, steady state and symmetry (AAAS

Benchmarks, 1993, p. 270). Many important properties in mathematics

and science relate to properties that do not change when outside

conditions change. Examples of constancy include the following:

The ratio of the circumference of a teepee to its diameter is the

same regardless of the length of the teepee poles.

The sum of the interior angles of any triangle is 180.

The theoretical probability of flipping a coin and getting heads is

0.5.

Some problems in mathematics require students to focus on properties

that remain constant. The recognition of constancy enables students to

solve problems involving constant rates of change, lines with constant

slope, direct variation situations or the angle sums of polygons.

nature of mathematics

Number Sense

is the most important

foundation of a numerate

child.

is the most important foundation of numeracy (British Columbia

Ministry of Education, 2000, p. 146).

A true sense of number goes well beyond the skills of simply counting,

memorizing facts and the situational rote use of algorithms. Mastery

of number facts is expected to be attained by students as they develop

their number sense. This mastery allows for facility with more

complex computations but should not be attained at the expense of an

understanding of number.

Number sense develops when students connect numbers to their own

real-life experiences and when students use benchmarks and referents.

This results in students who are computationally fluent and flexible

with numbers and who have intuition about numbers. The evolving

number sense typically comes as a by product of learning rather than

through direct instruction. However, number sense can be developed

by providing rich mathematical tasks that allow students to make

connections to their own experiences and their previous learning.

Patterns

Mathematics is about

recognizing, describing and

working with numerical

and non-numerical

patterns.

numerical and non-numerical patterns. Patterns exist in all strands of

this program of studies.

Working with patterns enables students to make connections within

and beyond mathematics. These skills contribute to students

interaction with, and understanding of, their environment.

Patterns may be represented in concrete, visual or symbolic form.

Students should develop fluency in moving from one representation to

another.

Students must learn to recognize, extend, create and use mathematical

patterns. Patterns allow students to make predictions and justify their

reasoning when solving routine and nonroutine problems.

Learning to work with patterns in the early grades helps students

develop algebraic thinking, which is foundational for working with

more abstract mathematics in higher grades.

10

nature of mathematics

Relationships

Mathematics is used to

describe and explain

relationships.

Spatial Sense

interpret and reflect on the

physical environment.

Uncertainty

Uncertainty is an inherent

part of making predictions.

worldview. Mathematics is used to describe and explain relationships.

As part of the study of mathematics, students look for relationships

among numbers, sets, shapes, objects and concepts. The search for

possible relationships involves collecting and analyzing data and

describing relationships visually, symbolically, orally or in written form.

reasoning. These skills are central to the understanding of mathematics.

Spatial sense is developed through a variety of experiences and

interactions within the environment. The development of spatial sense

enables students to solve problems involving 3-D objects and 2-D

shapes and to interpret and reflect on the physical environment and its

3-D or 2-D representations.

Some problems involve attaching numerals and appropriate units

(measurement) to dimensions of shapes and objects. Spatial sense

allows students to make predictions about the results of changing these

dimensions; e.g., doubling the length of the side of a square increases

the area by a factor of four. Ultimately, spatial sense enables students

to communicate about shapes and objects and to create their own

representations.

data may lack certainty.

Events and experiments generate statistical data that can be used to

make predictions. It is important to recognize that these predictions

(interpolations and extrapolations) are based upon patterns that have a

degree of uncertainty.

The quality of the interpretation is directly related to the quality of

the data. An awareness of uncertainty allows students to assess the

reliability of data and data interpretation.

Chance addresses the predictability of the occurrence of an outcome.

As students develop their understanding of probability, the language

of mathematics becomes more specific and describes the degree of

uncertainty more accurately.

11

strands

STRANDS

Number

Patterns and Relations

Shape and Space

Statistics and

Probability

Number

four strands across the grades K9. Some strands are subdivided into

substrands. There is one general outcome per substrand across the

grades K9.

The strands and substrands, including the general outcome for each,

follow.

Number

Develop number sense.

Patterns

Use patterns to describe the world and to solve problems.

Variables and Equations

Represent algebraic expressions in multiple ways.

Measurement

Use direct and indirect measurement to solve problems.

3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes

Describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and

analyze the relationships among them.

Transformations

Describe and analyze position and motion of objects and shapes.

Data Analysis

Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.

Chance and Uncertainty

Use experimental or theoretical probabilities to represent and solve

problems involving uncertainty.

12

outcomes

OUTCOMES AND

ACHIEVEMENT

INDICATORS

outcomes and achievement indicators.

General Outcomes

expected to learn in each strand/substrand. The general outcome for

each strand/substrand is the same throughout the grades.

Specific Outcomes

understanding and knowledge that students are required to attain by

the end of a given grade.

In the specific outcomes, the word including indicates that any ensuing

items must be addressed to fully meet the learning outcome. The phrase

such as indicates that the ensuing items are provided for illustrative

purposes or clarification, and are not requirements that must be

addressed to fully meet the learning outcome.

Achievement Indicators

their achievement of the goals of a specific outcome. The range of

samples provided is meant to reflect the scope of the specific outcome.

Achievement indicators are context-free.

SUMMARY

of mathematics, mathematical processes and the mathematical concepts

to be addressed in Kindergarten to Grade 9 mathematics. The

components are not meant to stand alone. Activities that take place

in the mathematics classroom should stem from a problem-solving

approach, be based on mathematical processes and lead students

to an understanding of the nature of mathematics through specific

knowledge, skills and attitudes among and between strands.

13

instructional focus

INSTRUCTIONAL

FOCUS

Planning for Instruction

Integration of the mathematical processes within each strand is

expected.

By decreasing emphasis on rote calculation, drill and practice, and the

size of numbers used in paper and pencil calculations, more time is

available for concept development.

Problem solving, reasoning and connections are vital to increasing

mathematical fluency and must be integrated throughout the

program.

There is to be a balance among mental mathematics and estimation,

paper and pencil exercises, and the use of technology, including

calculators and computers. Concepts should be introduced

using manipulatives and be developed concretely, pictorially and

symbolically.

Students bring a diversity of learning styles and cultural backgrounds

to the classroom. They will be at varying developmental stages.

Resources

teachers is Math Makes Sense 1 (Pearson). Schools and teachers have

this as their primary resource offered by the Department of Education.

Column four of the curriculum guide references Math Makes Sense 1 for

this reason.

Teachers may use any resource or combination of resources to meet the

required specific outcomes listed in column one of the curriculum guide.

14

instructional focus

Teaching Sequence

Unit 7. The purpose of this timeline is to assist in planning. The use of

this timeline is not mandatory; however, it is mandtory that all outcomes

are taught during the school year so a long term plan is advised. There

are a number of combinations of sequences that would be appropriate for

teaching this course. The arrow showing estimated focus does not mean

the outcomes are never addressed again. The teaching of the outcomes is

ongoing and may be revisited as necessary.

guide at the beginning of each unit. The number of suggested weeks

includes time for completing assessment activities, reviewing and

evaluating.

15

GENERAL

AND SPECIFIC

OUTCOMES

(pages 1728)

This section presents the general and specific outcomes for each strand,

for Kindergarten, Grade 1 and 2.

Refer to Appendix A for the general and specific outcomes with

corresponding achievement indicators organized by strand for Grade 1.

INDICATORS (beginning at page 29)

This section presents general and specific outcomes with corresponding

achievement indicators and is organized by unit. The list of indicators

contained in this section is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to

provide teachers with examples of evidence of understanding to be used

to determine whether or not students have achieved a given specific

outcome. Teachers should use these indicators but other indicators

may be added as evidence that the desired learning has been achieved.

Achievement indicators should also help teachers form a clear picture of

the intent and scope of each specific outcome.

16

STRAND

(Kindergarten, Grades 1 and 2)

17

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

1. Say the number sequence by 1s:

- starting anywhere from 1 to 10

and from 10 to 1.

- forward from 1 to 30

[C, CN, V]

2. Subitize (recognize at a glance)

and name familiar arrangements

of 1 to 6 objects, dots or pictures.

[C, CN, ME, V]

Grade 1

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

1. Say the number sequence 0 to

100 by:

1s forward between any two

given numbers

1s backward from 20 to 0

2s forward from 0 to 20

5s and 10s forward from 0 to

100.

[C, CN, ME, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

1. Say the number sequence 0 to

100 by:

2s, 5s and 10s, forward and

backward, using starting points

that are multiples of 2, 5 and 10

respectively

10s, using starting points from

1 to 9

2s, starting from 1.

[C, CN, ME, R]

3. Relate a numeral, 1 to 10, to its and name familiar arrangements

respective quantity.

of 1 to 10 objects or dots.

[CN, R, V]

[C, CN, ME, V]

100) is even or odd.

[C, CN, PS, R]

numbers 2 to 10, in two parts,

concretely and pictorially.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

position, using ordinal numbers

(up to tenth).

[C, CN, R]

- using one-to-one

correspondence

- by ordering numbers

representing different

quantities

[C, CN, V]

18

3. Demonstrate an understanding

of counting by:

indicating that the last number

said identifies how many

showing that any set has only

one count

using the counting-on strategy

using parts or equal groups to

count sets.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

numbers to 100, concretely,

pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 1

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

4. Represent and describe

numbers to 20, concretely,

pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

5. Compare sets containing up to

20 elements, using:

referents

one-to-one correspondence

to solve problems.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

6. Estimate quantities to 20 by

using referents.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

7. (No Outcome)

Grade 2

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

5. Compare and order numbers

up to 100.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

6. Estimate quantities to 100,

using referents.

[C, ME, PS, R]

7. Illustrate, concretely and

pictorially, the meaning of place

value for numerals to 100.

[C, CN, R, V]

8. Demonstrate and explain

the effect of adding zero to,

or subtracting zero from, any

number.

[C, R]

that is:

one more

two more

one less

two less

than a given number.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

19

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

20

Grade 1

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

9. Demonstrate an understanding

of addition of numbers with

answers to 20 and their

corresponding subtraction

facts, concretely, pictorially and

symbolically, by:

using familiar mathematical

language to describe additive

and subtractive actions

creating and solving problems

in context that involve addition

and subtraction

modelling addition and

subtraction, using a variety

of concrete and visual

representations, and recording

the process symbolically.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

9. Demonstrate an understanding

of addition (limited to 1- and

2-digit numerals) with answers

to 100 and the corresponding

subtraction by:

using personal strategies for

adding and subtracting with

and without the support of

manipulatives

creating and solving problems

that involve addition and

subtraction

using the commutative

property of addition (the order

in which numbers are added

does not affect the sum)

using the associative property

of addition (grouping a set of

numbers in different ways does

not affect the sum)

explaining that the order in

which numbers are subtracted

may affect the difference.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

Number

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 1

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

10. Describe and use mental

mathematics strategies

(memorization not intended),

such as:

counting on and counting

back

making 10

using doubles

thinking addition for

subtraction

for basic addition facts and

related subtraction facts to 18.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Develop number sense.

Specific Outcomes

10. Apply mental mathematics

strategies, such as:

counting on and counting

back

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

for basic addition facts and related

subtraction facts

to 18.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

21

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(Patterns)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Demonstrate an understanding

of repeating patterns (two or three

elements) by:

identifying

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using manipulatives,

sounds and actions.

[C, CN, PS, V]

Grade 1

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Demonstrate an understanding

of repeating patterns (two to four

elements) by:

describing

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using manipulatives,

diagrams, sounds and actions.

[C, PS, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Demonstrate an understanding

of repeating patterns (three to five

elements) by:

describing

extending

comparing

creating

patterns using manipulatives,

diagrams, sounds and actions.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

from one representation to

another.

[C, CN, R, V]

2. Demonstrate an understanding

of increasing patterns by:

describing

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using manipulatives,

diagrams, sounds and actions

(numbers to 100).

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

attribute, and explain the sorting

rule.

[C, CN, R, V]

22

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(Variables and Equations)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 1

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

4. Describe equality as a balance

and inequality as an imbalance,

concretely and pictorially (0 to

20).

[C, CN, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Use patterns to describe the

world and to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

3. Demonstrate and explain the

meaning of equality by using

manipulatives and diagrams

(0 100)

[C, CN, R, V]

equal symbol.

[C, CN, PS, V]

inequalities symbolically, using

the equal symbol or the not equal

symbol.

[C, CN, R, V]

23

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(Measurement)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Use direct comparison to

compare two objects based on a

single attribute, such as - length

including height

- mass

- capacity

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 1

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Demonstrate an understanding

of measurement as a process of

comparing by:

identifying attributes that can

be compared

ordering objects

making statements of

comparison

filling, covering or matching.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Relate the number of days to a

week and the number of months

to a year in a problem-solving

context.

[C, CN, PS, R]

2. Relate the size of a unit of

measure to the number of units

(limited to nonstandard units)

used to measure length and mass .

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

3. Compare and order objects by

length, height, distance around

and mass, using nonstandard

units, and make statements of

comparison.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

4. Measure length to the nearest

nonstandard unit by:

using multiple copies of a unit

using a single copy of a unit

(iteration process).

[C, ME, R, V]

24

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(Measurement)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 1

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 2

General Outcome

Use direct or indirect

measurement to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

5. Demonstrate that changing

the orientation of an object does

not alter the measurements of its

attributes.

[C, R, V]

25

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Describe the characteristics of

3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and

analyze the relationships among

them.

Specific Outcomes

2. Sort objects, including 3-D

objects, using a single attribute

and explain the sorting rule.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Grade 1

General Outcome

Describe the characteristics of

3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and

analyze the relationships among

them.

Specific Outcomes

2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D

shapes, using one attribute, and

explain the sorting rule.

[C, CN, R, V]

Grade 2

General Outcome

Describe the characteristics of

3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and

analyze the relationships among

them.

Specific Outcomes

6. Sort 2-D shapes and 3-D

objects, using two attributes, and

explain the sorting rule.

[C, CN, R, V]

3. Build and describe 3-D objects. 3. Replicate composite 2-D shapes 7. Describe, compare and

[CN, PS, V]

and 3-D objects.

construct 3-D objects, including:

[CN, PS, V]

cubes

spheres

4. Compare 2-D shapes to parts of

cones

3-D objects in the environment.

cylinders

[C, CN, V]

pyramids.

[C, CN, R, V]

8. Describe, compare and

construct 2-D shapes, including:

triangles

squares

rectangles

circles.

[C, CN, R, V]

9. Identify 2-D shapes as parts of

3-D objects in the environment.

[C, CN, R, V]

26

[C] Communication

[CN] Connections

[ME] Mental Mathematics

and Estimation

[R] Reasoning

[T] Technology

[V] Visualization

(Data Analysis)

Kindergarten

General Outcome

Collect, display and analyze data

to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 1

General Outcome

Collect, display and analyze data

to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

Grade 2

General Outcome

Collect, display and analyze data

to solve problems.

Specific Outcomes

1. Gather and record data

about self and others to answer

questions.

[C, CN, PS, V]

2. Construct and interpret

concrete graphs and pictographs

to solve problems.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

27

28

Representing Numbers to 20

This is the first explicit focus on numbers to 20, but as with other outcomes,

it is ongoing throughout the year.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Unit Overview

30

numbers 1 to 10. An understanding of the number combinations to

10 is critical in building a strong mathematics foundation. If students

are to develop strong number concepts and number sense, considerable

instructional time must be devoted to number and numeration. In

Grade One, students will be provided with meaningful experiences

using numbers to 20 and later in the year they will be introduced to

numbers to 100. In this unit, sufficient time must be given for students

to deepen their understanding first of the numbers to 10 and then to

20. Students will learn and practice skills for counting, estimating and

grouping objects into sets. There will be a focus on developing the

part-part-whole relationship of numbers to 20. It is important that

students experience activities using a variety of manipulative such as ten

frames, number lines, and snap cubes.

Math Connects

Applying number relationships to the real world marks the beginning

of making sense of the world in a mathematical manner. Number sense

develops naturally when students connect numbers to their own life

experiences, and begin to use numbers as benchmarks and referents.

Students will develop multiple ways of thinking about and representing

numbers. Opportunities to explain their thinking and reasoning

through questions and discussion will strengthen their connections and

deepen their sense of number concepts.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Process Standards

Key

Curriculum

Outcomes

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

Number

Number

Number

Number

Communication

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

1N1 Say the number sequence 0 to 100 by:

1s forward between any two given

numbers

1s backward from 20 to 0

2s forward from 0 to 20

5s and 10s forward from 0 to 100.

1N2 Subitize (recognize at a glance) and

name familiar arrangements of 1 to 10

objects, dots or pictures.

1N3 Demonstrate an understanding of

counting by:

indicating that the last number said

identifies how many

showing that any set has only one count

using the counting-on strategy

using parts or equal groups to count

sets.

1N4 Represent and describe numbers to 20,

concretely, pictorially and symbolically.

PROCESS

STANDARDS

[C, CN, V]

to 20 elements to solve problems, using:

Number

referents (known quantities)

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

one-to-one correspondence

to solve problems.

1N6 Estimate quantities to 20 by using

Number

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

referents.

1N8 Identify the number, up to 20, that is

Number

one more, two more, one less and two less

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

than a given number.

Patterns and 1PR3 Describe equality as a balance and inequality as an imbalance, concretely and

Relations

[C, CN, R, V]

pictorially (0 to 20).

(Variables and

Equations)

Patterns and 1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal

symbol (0 to 20)

Relations

[C, CN, PS, V]

(Variables and

Equations)

31

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N1. Say the number sequence 0

to 100 by:

1s forward between any two

given numbers

1s backward from 20 to 0

2s forward from 0 to 20

5s and 10s forward from 0 to

100.

[C, CN, ME, V]

Before there can be any meaningful counting, students must be able

to recite the sequence beginning 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc (Small, 2008, p. 84).

There is a difference between being able to recite the number words

(1, 2, 3) and understanding how counting is used to describe a set.

The counting sequence itself is a rote procedure; however, the meaning

attached to counting is the key conceptual idea on which all other

number concepts are developed (Van de Walle, 2006, p. 39).

As students learn the number sequences, practice should be provided

through learning activities integrated throughout the number strand.

Many suggestions for teaching and learning in outcome N3 on pages 36

- 41 will provide opportunities to learn number sequences.

Students early understandings of saying the number sequence and

counting can be naturally nurtured through exposure to rich, quality

literature. For example, use literature such as The Wonderful Pigs Of

Jillian Jiggs by Phoebe Gilman or Two Ways to Count to Ten by Dee to

show various ways of counting.

Achievement Indicators:

number sequence between two

given numbers (0 to 100).

the number sequence between two

given numbers (20 to 0).

Daily calendar routines provide opportunities for students to hear and

speak mathematical vocabulary in a natural setting. A calendar exposes

students to counting to and from larger numbers each day as the month

progresses. Good questioning techniques during calendar activities

provide occasions for students to learn the number that comes before,

the number that comes after, and the number (s) that comes in

between.

Through experience, students become comfortable with saying the

number sequence forwards and backwards and should be provided with

many opportunities to do so throughout the day. For example, as a

way to get students attention, call out a forwards or backwards number

sequence starting at different numbers and have students join in (e.g.,

10, 9, 8 or 17, 16, 15 or 21, 22, 23).

Continued

32

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Pass the Counting - Begin by counting aloud, saying the first two or

three numbers (1, 2, 3). Then, pass the counting on to a student

by tapping him/her on the shoulder. The student continues the

counting from where you left off, saying the next few numbers (4, 5,

6), until you tap another student. Continue to pass the counting

from one student to another until the count reaches 100. This

activity can be modified for counting backwards from 20 to 0, as

well as skip counting.

(1N1.1, 1.2)

Launch

Copy one set of numeral wands for each student on heavy paper.

Have students cut out their set of cards, punch holes in them and

put each set onto a single paper fastener as shown below. Using the

numeral wands, begin counting in sequence aloud 2 or 3 numbers

(9, 10, 11). Have students hold up the card that comes next. This

activity can be done for counting backwards as well. These can be

used throughout the year to allow students to display answers to

questions during morning routine and various other activities.

Audio CD 1

Lesson 1: Counting to 20

1N1, 1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 18 - 21

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

Depending on your class, you may

choose to introduce this lesson using

numbers to 10 and later work with

numbers 11-20.

Lesson 1 in the resource asks students

to read number words eleven

to twenty. This goes beyond the

expectation for this grade level.

(1N1.1, 1.2)

Unit Centres:

TG p. 15

Numbers Everywhere

33

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

1N1.1 Continued

1N1.2 Continued

Playing games, in which students roll a number cube and say the

numbers aloud as they count the number of spaces to move, is a

valuable task to engage students in reciting a number sequence. As well,

invite students to sing songs and recite poems which involve counting

forwards and backwards, and skip counting. For example: Ten In A

Bed, One, Two, Buckle My Shoe and This Old Man.

Have students practice responsive counting from 0 to 100 with the

teacher or a classmate, beginning at different starting points. For

example, begin by saying 10, then they say 11, you say 12, they

say 13, and so on, as far as they can count. Repeat the same activity

counting backward, beginning at 20.

(0 to 100) symbolically when it is

presented orally.

recording numerals, numeral writing should be taught. As students are

ready to record information by recording the appropriate numeral(s),

specific instruction and practice will be necessary. Allow the students to

experiment freely on lined and unlined paper, whiteboards, chart paper,

and other mediums. Observe students as they write their numerals, both

when copying from a model and when forming them from memory.

Students should be encouraged to start at the top when printing

numerals. One suggestion for practice is to use their index fingers to

form the numerals on their desks or in the air.

Numeral writing should not be taught in isolation but in relationship

with the quantities they represent. Numeral symbols have meaning

for children only when they are introduced as labels for quantities.

Learning to write symbols is a separate task from learning to associate

numerals with specific quantities. Therefore, because a student has

learned to write the numerals we must be very careful not to assume that

students are learning anything about the quantities they represent.

(0 to 100) when it is presented

symbolically.

34

chart and ask students to uncover and read the numbers that are hidden.

In daily routines, use a hundred chart (a chart showing the numbers

from 1 to 100 in lines of 10) or calendar, and ask students to read the

numerals that are presented. The hundred chart is also a valuable tool to

provide practice saying the number sequence from 0 to 100, as well as

skip counting by 2s, 5s, and 10s. For example, when skip counting by

5s, the student may place a counter on every fifth number, reading the

number as the counter is placed on the numeral.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Hide various quantities of counters under plastic tubs. Lift the tubs

one at a time and have the students count and record the number of

counters that are hidden under each tub.

(1N1.3)

Lesson 1 (Continued): Counting

to 20

1N1, 1N3, 1N4

colored linking cubes. Ask students to sort the cubes

by color and then count and record the number of

each. (1N1.3)

Name:

Red

Yellow

Green

Blue

Black

6

2

0

3

__

TG pp. 18 - 21

10 linking cubes. Students take turns grabbing handfuls of cubes

from the grab bag. They

count and record the number

4

of cubes in their hand on

4

6

8

a recording sheet. As an

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

extension to this activity, use

smaller counters to work with quantities 11 to 20.

(1N1.3)

number cards displaying any number sequence from 0 to 20. Have

students take turns choosing a number card on the string and

reading their numbers aloud. (The number cards can be turned

around so that students are unable to see the number until it is

selected).

(1N1.4)

Using a walk-on number line and bean bags, have students take

turns tossing a bean bag on the number line and reading the number

where the bean bag landed. They then walk to the number, counting

as they go.

(1N1.4)

Find the Counters - Hide sets of counters under plastic containers to

match the numerals on a number cube. Students roll the cube, and

say the number rolled, to determine the number of counters that

they are to look for. Students take turns lifting the tubs and counting

to see who can find the number of counters matching the number

rolled.

(1N1.4)

35

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Demonstrate an

understanding of counting by:

indicating that the last number

said identifies how many

showing that any set has only

one count

how many are in a collection. Contrasted with rote counting,

meaningful counting involves an understanding that:

one number is said for each item in the group and is counted only

once (one-to-one correspondence).

(stable order).

count sets

the starting point and order of counting the objects does not affect

the quantity (conservation).

(conservation).

the number in the set is the last number said (cardinality).

The meaning attached to counting is the foundation on which all other

number concepts are developed. For this reason, it is necessary to assess

each student individually in order to determine their understanding

of number, not only in the oral expression of numbers, but also in

counting abilities and sense of number.

Achievement Indicator:

How many are in the set?, using

the last number counted in a

given set.

that arise in the classroom. All other work with numbers, whether

representing quantities or performing operations, is dependent on

students learning to count. Students should also experience a wide

variety of situations which require counting beyond 10. Students will be

expected to work with only 2-digit numbers at this grade level.

Counting tells how many things are in a set. When counting a set of

objects, the last number in the counting sequence, names the quantity

for that set. Provide a number of objects for students to count. Observe

students to determine their understanding of each of the principles

underlying meaningful counting.

Do they touch each object as they count?

Do they set items aside as they count them?

Do they show confidence in their count or feel the need to check?

Do they check their counting in the same order as the first count or a

different order?

Continued

36

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

buttons, blocks, and beans. Have students take a handful (or a small

scoop) of items from the collection. Students then sort the items,

count, and record the numeral to match each set. The size of the

items in the collection, and the readiness level of your students, will

determine the appropriate number of items to use.

(1N3.1)

to 20

1N1, 1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 18 - 21

count, and record the number of cubes used to make the design.

(1N3.1)

Display a set of objects. Ask the student, How many are in your

set? Observe whether the student:

says the numbers in the correct order

moves the objects to avoid confusion

realizes that the last number said is the number in the set.

Repeat this activity varying the number of objects for students to

count.

(1N3.1)

Walk around the room, stop and make a noise (e.g., ring a bell, clap

hands). Students show the number of sounds using their Numeral

Wand (described on page 33).

(1N3.1)

37

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

1N3.1 Continued

numbers to 20, concretely,

pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

Achievement Indicator:

to 10.

display confidence in answering the question, How many are in the

set? without having to recount. Provide a set of nine objects and ask,

How many are here? The student counts correctly and says, Nine.

Ask, Are there nine? Students who understand that the last number

counted is the quantity of the set (cardinality) will not need to recount.

ten and twenty and to develop a deep understanding of these numbers.

The uniqueness of the teen numbers must not be overlooked. When

dealing with numbers such as 28 or 46, we hear the tens number first;

that is, we say the twenty and the forty first. This is not the case with

eleven, twelve, or the teen numbers. Students need opportunities to

investigate these numbers with concrete materials before moving on to

pictorial and symbolic representations.

Number words to twenty can be displayed in the classroom, with

pictorial and symbolic representations. However, students are not

expected to read number words eleven to twenty.

38

eight

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Shuffle a pile of number word cards from zero to ten. Have students

remove one card from the pile and identify the number that is

written on the card.

(1N4.2)

to 20

1N1, 1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 18 - 21

from zero to ten and ask them to read the word on the card and

make a corresponding set with their counters

(1N4.2)

Using number word cards (zero to ten) and numeral cards (0-10),

have students play a game of memory matching the numeral to the

word card.

(1N4.2)

39

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

the number of objects in a given

set does not change regardless of

the order in which the objects are

counted

an understanding that the number of objects does not change if they are

counted in a different order.

objects in a given set, rearrange

the objects, predict the new

count and recount to verify the

prediction

objects does not change when the objects are moved, rearranged, or

hidden, is something that occurs with experience and maturity. As

students mature cognitively, they begin to realize that the arrangement

of items is irrelevant to the total number in the set. Therefore, it is

important to provide students with opportunities to count sets of

objects where they realize that they get the same total regardless of the

order in which the objects were counted.

Have students count out a number of counters and lay them in a

row. Ask, How many counters do you have? Then, spread out the

counters or change their formation as the students are watching. Ask,

How many are there now? If the student can tell you that there are 8

counters without recounting, then they are demonstrating conservation

of number. If they recount the counters, conservation of number is not

evident.

objects in a given set (up to 100).

1N4 Continued

Numeral symbols have meaning for students only when they are

introduced as labels for quantities. Students learn to write numbers as

they gain a deeper understanding of number. Opportunities should

begin at first by focusing on counting and recording numbers to 10. As

students acquire a deeper understanding of number, students should

count and record numbers up to 100.

Achievement Indicator:

using two different objects; e.g.,

10 desks represents the same

number as 10 pencils.

40

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

different orders (left to right, right to left, starting in the middle).

Ask the students to predict what the count would be if they counted

in a different order. Have them count.

(1N3.3)

Have students line up. A student will count how many students

are in the line. Have the student count the line again starting at a

different place.

(1N3.3)

Audio CD 1:

Rearrange them by moving them around and displaying them in

two groups. For example, 5 in one group and 9 in the other. Ask

students to identify how many there are altogether. Repeat using

different combinations and observe students method of determining

how many in all. Observe whether the students have to re-count the

objects or do they recognize that the amount has not changed.

(1N3.4)

TG pp. 22 - 25

Selection 21

Audio CD 2:

Selections 1, 2 & 3

1N3, 1N4, 1N5

TG pp. 26 - 29

count the number of counters out loud. Rearrange the counters and

have the student predict and verify the count.

(1N3.4)

Scavenger Hunt Ask students to find a given number of items in

the classroom. For example, for the number 12, students may find

twelve erasers, chairs, blocks, pencils, etc. Have students present their

findings to the class.

(1N4.4)

Pencil and Paper

Extend the counting activities by having students record the number.

(1N3.7)

Provide each pair of students with paper bags (labelled

A, B, C, D) containing different numbers of cubes.

Have the students count the objects in each bag and

record the number.

(1N3.7)

41

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N4 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

up to 20, using a variety of

manipulatives, including ten

frames and base ten materials.

illustrate numbers. How students use the ten-frame provides insight into

students number concept development. Students would have already

been introduced to a five-frame in kindergarten. The ten-frame is simply

an extension of the five-frame. E.g.,

numbers. Introduce the following rules for showing numbers on a tenframe:

only one counter, of the same color, is permitted in each box of the

ten-frame

always fill the top row first starting from left to right (the same way

you read or write)

when the top row is filled, counters can be placed in the bottom

row, also from left to right

Show the class a ten frame with 9 counters and ask how many counters

there are. Some possible responses are:

represented by a given

arrangement of dots on a ten

frame and describe the numbers

relationship to 5 and/or 10.

42

I saw 9. There are 5 on the top and 4 more on the bottom make 9

I know there are 9 because there is one empty space and one less

than 10 is 9.

If it was full, it would be 10. But, there is one empty space, so

that makes 9.

Relating numbers to benchmark numbers, specifically 5 and 10, is a

useful tool for thinking about various combinations of numbers. For

example, 6 is the number that is 1 more than 5, or 9 is the number that

is 1 less than 10.

Note: There are different views on the placement of counters on the

ten-frame. However, it is important to consider why ten-frames are

used. The main purpose of a ten-frame is to visualize numbers in

relation to 5 and 10, or relate numbers to 5 and 10 as benchmarks.

Hence, in Grade 1, filling left to right with no empty spaces is

strongly recommended so that children internally visualize that when

you have three counters, you need two more to make five; it is two

away from five; or three and two make five.

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INterim

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

(1N2.2)Performance

Ten-Frame Flash Flash ten-frame cards to the class. Ask, How

many counters do you see on this ten-frame? How do you know?

How many more will make ten? Repeat using other numbers.

Record the configurations that each student recognizes without

counting and those that he/she must count to recognize.

(1N2.2)

an array. Students take turns turning over any two cards to find

matches. They identify the amount on each card and if they are the

same, they take both cards. Play continues until all matches havent

(1N2.2)

been found.

Audio CD 1:

frame card for approximately three seconds. Have the students take

the number of counters they think they would need to cover the dots

displayed on the ten-frame. After students have made their sets, place

the card in front of one student who should then place his or her

counters on the dots, while the other students count and check. Ask

the student to explain how they identified the number represented

on the ten frame.

1N2, 1N3, 1N4, 1N8

TG pp. 30 - 33

Selections 17 & 18

In this lesson, students will work

with numbers 0 - 10. The focus on

numbers 11 - 12 is in lesson 9.

Disregard MMS Teacher Guide,

Unit 2, pages 94 & 95, in which

ten-frames are displayed showing

counters placed in a random order.

For the above ten frame, a student might respond, I know there

are 8 because there are 5 on the top row and 3 more make 8. The

student might also respond, I know if the frame is full, there are 10

but there are 2 missing so that makes 8. Repeat this activity using

other ten frame cards with different representations of numbers to

10.

Ten Frame Match - using music. Half the students have prepared

ten-frames, the other half have numeral cards. Play the music, when

the music stops have students find their partner matching the ten

frame with the numeral card.

(1N4.1)

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Ask students to explain why it might be easier to count the number

of counters on the left than the number on the right.

(1N2.2)

43

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N8 Identify the number, up to

20, that is one more, two more,

one less and two less than a given

number.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

connection between two numbers. In order to relate numbers such as 6

and 8, students need to explore the two more than and two less than

relationship and understand that the relationship between 6 and 8 can

be described as six is two less than eight and eight is two more than

six. Numbers with a difference of one should be similarly explored.

Students initial exploration of numbers that are one more than, one less

than, two more than, and two less than should be done concretely using

sets of objects.

Dot plates/cards, ten frames and dominoes are worthwhile tools to

use to facilitate development of the concepts of one more/less and two

more/less.

Achievement Indicators:

one more, two more, one less or

two less than a given number, up

to 20.

44

set. Ask them to change their set to equal a number that is one more/less

or two more/less than their current set. For example, Change your

set of 8 counters to show 10. Have students explain what they did to

create the new set. Observe those who are aware that they have to add 2

more to make the set of 10 and students who wipe away the initial set of

8 counters and begin counting from 1. To encourage counting on rather

than beginning the count again, ask students how many more counters

need to be added to the set of 8 to make the set of 10.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Show students a set of objects and count the objects to find the

total. Say, I am adding one more to the set. How many objects

are there now? Observe whether students can name the number

without having to recount. Repeat using other quantities and assess if

students can identify one more, one less, two more, and two less.

(1N8.1)

Lesson 4 (Continued): Terrific

Ten

1N2, 1N3, 1N4, 1N8

TG pp. 30 - 33

above the numbers one to six on a number line. Ask, What number

would be two more than six? Repeat using other numbers. (1N8.1)

In groups of 2 to 4 players, have the students play More or Less

Bingo.

FREE

One and Two Less

1N3, 1N8

(1N8.1)

with the words one more, one less, two more, and two less.

Cover the number on the game board to correspond with the

number rolled and the direction on the spinner.

The first player to get a straight line is the winner.

(1N8.1)

TG pp. 54 - 57

This lesson provides extra practice

and can be used now or later as

follow up.

Give each student a number between one and ten to make on their

ten-frame, or between one and twenty to make on their double

ten-frame. Students make up a riddle about their number using only

the language one more, one less, two more, two less. For example,

My number is two more than 10. What is my number? This

activity could also be done using the number wands.

(1N8.2)

45

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N2 Subitize (recognize at

a glance) and name familiar

arrangements of 1 to 10 objects,

dots or pictures.

patterns. Students should recognize that there are many ways to arrange

a set of objects and that some arrangements are easier to recognize more

quickly than others.

E.g.

Achievement Indicator:

familiar arrangement of objects,

dots or pictures and identify the

number represented without

counting.

versus

the process of counting on, composing and decomposing numbers,

and that a number can be represented in many ways. Subitizing also

encourages reflective thinking while deepening number sense. It will be

useful with respect to:

addition; for example, 5 = 4 + 1 (or 2 + 1 + 2) is apparent from:

Materials such as dot plates or cards, ten-frames, and number cubes are

useful for the development of subitizing configurations of numbers from

1 to 10.

46

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

to 10. Hold up a dot plate for one to three seconds. Say, How

many? How did you see it? Students might say, I saw 6. I saw 3

on one side and 3 on the other. Observe how quickly students can

recognize the number of dots without counting.

(1N2.1)

Snap Provide partners with two sets of dot cards in two different

colors. Each student gets one set of cards. Play begins with each

student flipping over their top card. If they are the same amount,

they say Snap. The student who says Snap first gets both cards.

Play continues until all cards have been matched.

(1N2.1)

1N2, 1N4

TG pp. 34 - 35

subitizing.

MMS Teacher Guide, Unit 2, pages

94 and 95, in which ten frames

are displayed showing counters

in random places, should be

disregarded.

Have students look at the screen and uncover the counters for a few

seconds only. Ask students to tell you how many counters they saw

and to explain their answer. Ask, How did you know there are 5?

The student might respond, There are 5 because I saw two on one

side and three on the other. Repeat with different numbers and

different arrangements for each number.

(1N2.1)

Concentration - Begin by having students place a selection of dot

cards and number cards face down on a table. Students take turns

turning over cards to find matching sets. When they find a match,

they remove the pair of cards from play.

(1N2.1)

47

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N2 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

familiar arrangement of objects,

dots or pictures and identify the

number represented without

counting.

At first, students will count the dots or the objects. Eventually, students

must be able to recognize the arrangements without counting. To avoid

the misconception that an arrangement can only represent a specific

quantity if it is arranged in a certain way, it is VERY important to vary

the orientation of the objects, dots, or pictures. When asking students

to identify the number of fingers, use different combinations of fingers

so that students do not believe that there is only one way to represent

the number. For example, the number six can be represented with five

fingers on one hand and one on the other, two fingers on one hand and

four on the other, three fingers on each hand, etc.

Subitizing should initially focus on arrangements of numbers from 1

to 5 and gradually increase for numbers of items up to 10. For most

numbers, there are several common arrangements. Configurations can

also be made up of two or more easier arrangements of smaller numbers.

For example:

This dot configuration shows 7 as:

a set of 3 and a set of 4

a set of 2, a set of 3, and a set of 2

or on paper plates to create a variety of arrangements for numbers 0 to

10. (For some dot arrangements, see Van de Walle, Teaching Student

Centered Mathematics Grade K-3, p. 44). The use of paper plates as

opposed to cards provides numerous opportunities for students to see

various configurations as the plates are rotated.

Number Cubes Game materials such as number cubes and dominoes

are useful for recognizing familiar configurations (subitizing).

48

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

are easier to recognize. For example, ask students to show 7 in several

ways, and then decide which configuration(s) is (are) easiest to

identify. E.g.,

Numbers

1N2, 1N4

TG pp. 34 - 35

(1N2.1)

a numeral card and a random dot card. Have students match their

cards by pinning them together with a clothespin. Students then

sequence the cards by attaching them to the string.

(1N2.1)

Unit Centre:

TG p. 15

Whats My Number?

49

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

number of objects in a given set,

starting from a known quantity

and counting on.

When counting on, students should say aloud the number they are

counting on from while pointing to that group, and then count on from

there, pointing to each item as they continue the counting sequence. For

example, to count on to find the total of a dot plate of three and a dot

plate of two, students point to the plate showing three and say three.

They count on by pointing to each dot on the other plate and saying,

four, five. Students who are not yet counting on, will recognize there

are three dots on the first dot plate; however will recount the dots on the

plate (e.g., 1, 2, 3) and then count the other dots (e.g., 4, 5).

Counting on and counting back are fundamental prerequisites

for addition and subtraction and their importance should not be

underestimated.

Have students place 8 blocks in a straight line across the top of their

desk and cover 3 with one hand. Ask them to count the total number

of blocks, beginning with the number hidden and counting on to

include the others that are in view. Observe whether students point to

the hidden counters saying, three and then point to each counter in

view and count on, four, five, six, seven, eight. Repeat using different

numbers.

50

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

and recording sheet. The first player spins and places the indicated

number of counters in the cup. The second student spins and places

that number of counters next to the cup. Together, they decide how

many counters in all and record the numerals on the recording sheet.

10 to 20

1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 36 - 39

(1N3.5)

Roll two number cubes (one standard die and one labeled with

numerals 10 - 14). Students find the total by starting their count

with the numeral on one cube and counting on to determine the

total of both cubes. For example, to count on to find the sum of a

roll of the numeral 14 on one cube and the dot configuration of 3

on the other cube, students can say, 14, while pointing to the die

showing 14, and then say 15, 16, 17, as they point to each dot on

the other cube.

(1N3.5)

Make two groups of objects. Hide one group under a sheet of

paper and write the numeral on the paper for the student to see.

Leave the other group exposed. Ask: How many counters are there

altogether? Because the student cannot see the hidden counters,

he/she is forced to count on from the number they see written on the

paper covering the hidden counters. For example:

5, and then counting on, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

(1N3.5)

51

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N4 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

quantity up to 20 into 2 parts,

and identify the number of objects

in each part.

milestone in the development of number. It is important not to rush

students to work with larger numbers until they are able to deal

confidently with smaller numbers. In Kindergarten, students would have

explored part-part-whole relationships of numbers to 10. Students need

to be confident with number combinations to ten as this work is critical

to building a strong mathematical foundation that will serve students

in later grades. In Grade One, students need to be provided with many

opportunities to explore part-part-whole relationships of numbers to 20.

To assess students understanding of number combinations, it is

important to use hands-on activities whereby students manipulate the

materials to break a number into two different

parts. For example, provide students with

counters and a part-part-whole mat and ask

them to show the number 12 broken into two

separate parts. One possible combination would

be:

Then, ask the students to find other ways to partition the number into

two parts. Repeat using other numbers up to 20.

Snap It Students sit in a circle with the same number of Unifix cubes.

Count, one, two, three, and everyone says, Snap It! Students break

off some of the Unifix cubes and hide them behind their back. Taking

turns, each student shows how many cubes are left in their hand while

the other students guess how many are hidden. For example, if each

student has 12 cubes, they may snap it into two parts hiding five behind

their back and seven in view. Students then show how they snapped

their cubes and verbalize the part-part-whole combination. For example,

Ive got seven in my hand, and five hiding behind my back. Now Ive

got 12. This activity can be used as part of your daily routine.

52

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Provide each student with a number of two-sided counters. Have

students shake the counters in a cup and spill them onto a plate.

Have students say the number combinations that make up the

whole. E.g.

Students may verbalize I have three red counters and

seven white counters. Three and seven more make

10.

Students may shake and spill the same number of

counters again and verbalize the resulting number

combinations.

(1N4.3)

Tell stories such as:

Lesson 6 (Continued):

Representing Numbers 10 to 20

1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 36 - 39

Unit Centre:

TG p. 15

Grouping Madness

There are 16 monkeys at the zoo. In their cage, there are two trees.

When it rains, the monkeys like to climb up the trees. One day

when I visited the zoo, all the monkeys were in the trees. How

many monkeys could be in each tree? Are there other answers?

In my bowl, I have apples and bananas. There are 14 pieces of fruit

altogether. How many apples and bananas do I have? Are there

any other answers?

Have students use a part-part-whole mat and counters to represent

the story.

(1N4.3)

Whats My Hidden Number? Provide counters, numeral cards

from 0 to 20, and a small container. In pairs, one student selects a

numeral card and counts the number of counters to represent the

number selected. The other student hides some of the counters

under the small container and then asks, How many do you think

are hidden? How do you know? The partner guesses the number

hidden and explains his/her answer. The number hidden is revealed

to check the answer. Model this activity with the whole group prior

to having students work in small groups.

(1N4.3)

Ask students to use two different colors of snap cubes to build three

different cube trains to represent a number up to 20. For example, to

represent the number 12, students may build the following trains:

Ten and two more make twelve.

Six and six more make twelve

Seven and five make twelve`

(1N4.3)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

53

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

Problem Solving

problems. NCTM (2000) states that problem solving means engaging

in a task for which the solution method is not known in advance

(p.52). Solving problems is naturally embedded within the curriculum.

To find solutions, students must draw on knowledge, and through

this process they will often develop new mathematical understanding.

By engaging in problem solving tasks, students will develop new ways

of thinking, perseverance, curiosity and confidence with unfamiliar

situations. Good problem solvers are able to tackle everyday situations

effectively.

A true problem requires students to use prior learning in new ways

and contexts. If students have already been given ways to solve the

problem, it is not a problem, but practice. They should be comprised

of problems arising from daily routines as well as non-routine tasks.

Problem solving requires student engagement and builds depth of

conceptual understanding. Engaging students in rich problem solving

tasks gives them the opportunity to solidify and extend upon what they

already know, thus stimulating their mathematical learning. Setting

up an environment that encourages risk taking persistence in order

for students to solve worthwhile problems athat are meaningful, is

important. Problems can be presented orally, visually or by writtenand-oral approach. Your role is to choose worthwhile problems that

are meaningful to the student, and to provide an environment that

encourages risk taking and persistence.

It is important to explicitly discuss problem solving strategies with

students, preferably as they come up naturally in the classroom activities

and discussions. There is value in naming the strategies so that students

can discuss and recall them readily. (You may consider posting the

strategies in your classroom where they are taught).

54

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Math Makes Sense 1

Lesson 7: Strategies Toolkit

TG pp. 40 - 41

55

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

Problem Solving (Continued)

Make a Model

Each unit will focus on one specific problem solving strategy with

suggested ideas to practice. Although certain strategies are highlighted

within specific units, students are essentially filling their toolboxes with

problem solving tools that can be used at any time. Here is a list of the

strategies covered and their corresponding unit of focus:

Strategy

Act it Out

Make a Model

Look for a Pattern

Draw a Picture

Guess and Check

Use an Object

Choose a Strategy

Unit of Focus

Numbers to 20

Numbers to 20

Patterning

Numbers to 100

Addition and Subtraction to 12

Measurement

Addition and Subtraction to 20

Geometry

Act it Out

In Act it Out students physically act out the problem to find the

solution.

Make a Model

Make a Model is very similar to Act it Out, but students use a variety

of materials or manipulatives available in the classroom to represent the

elements in the problem.

56

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Toolkit

classroom, some are sitting and some are standing. How many are

sitting? How many are standing? Ask certain groups to stand up

while others remain seated. Have students count the number of

students sitting and the number of students standing.

TG pp. 40 - 41

12 crayons fell on the floor. Some were red and some were blue. How

many are red? How many are blue? (If necessary, adjust the colors in

the problem to match the cubes you have available.)

Use red and blue snap cubes to represent the red and blue crayons.

Count the red cubes to determine the number of red crayons, count

the blue cubes to determine the number of blue crayons.

Lesson 8:

Omitted

57

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N4 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

up to 20, using a variety of

manipulatives, including ten

frames and base ten materials.

and later, base ten materials, play a key role in helping students develop

the idea of a ten as both a single entity and as a set of 10 units. Models

should be proportional, that is, a ten model should be ten times larger

than a model for a one. Students should group materials themselves, as

would be the case with popsicle sticks, straws, ten-frames, and Unifix

cubes. Pre-grouped models, like base-ten blocks, should be used later

only when students realize the value of the model. It is not appropriate

to discuss place-value concepts at this time (e.g., expecting the students

to tell what the 1 in 16 represents). However, making the group

of ten is explored when developing number meanings for 11 19. For

example, using 10 as the benchmark, students will see 13 as ten and

three more; however, they do not need to understand that the 1 in 13

represents the tens place.

Provide 2 ten-frames and counters for each student. Ask the students to

model a number between 11 and 19 with the counters. For example, ask

students to model the number sixteen. Next ask them to show thirteen

on their ten frame,

Observe:

Do they make the ten first?

Do they remove all the counters?

Do they add to/remove counters on the bottom frame?

Are they able to verbalize appropriately saying, Ten and six are

sixteen?

58

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

to 20, and Unifix cubes (or interlocking base-ten units). Students

spin the spinner and count that number of cubes. They link the

cubes together to from a train of 10 and leave the remaining cubes

separate. Observe whether they use appropriate verbalization to tell

how many (e.g., ten and three more are thirteen).

(1N4.1)

Lesson 9: Numbers to 20

1N1, 1N4, 1N8

TG pp. 44 - 45

beans, buttons, or counters, to represent numbers from 11 to 20.

Have students choose a bag and spill the objects onto their desks.

They place one object in each block of their ten-frame and count

how many altogether. Observe if they count on from ten or begin

counting at one. Have students record the total number (N3.7).

Repeat using other bags of objects with various quantities.

(1N3.7, 4.1)

Ten Frame Counting - Provide each student with a different number

(0-20). On a blank ten frame students will represent their number

using a bingo dabber. As a class, place the ten frames in order from

0-20 and display in the class for future use.

(1N4.1)

59

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N4 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

number line with benchmarks 0,

5, 10 and 20.

1N8 Continued

them for other outcomes where the relationships of one more than,

two more than, one less than, and two less than are explored. Making

connections to benchmarks of 5 and 10 (and their multiples) are critical.

For example, students need to understand that eleven is 10 and 1 more,

twelve is 10 and 2 more, and 16 is 10 and 6 more. A number line is a

valuable tool to encourage reference to benchmarks.

Create a walk-on number line with benchmarks 5, 10, 15 and 20.

Distribute different numbers to students and have them either stand

on the number line in place or place the number where it should go. At

first each number can be marked then after students develop confidence

placing numbers on the line, it can just have the benchmarks.

Achievement Indicator:

ten frame that is one more, two

more, one less or two less than a

given number.

Have students show a number between one and ten on their ten-frames.

Ask them to add/remove counters to make the number that is one

more/less, two more/less. Students must change their ten-frame to show

the new number. Use a double ten-frame to explore the numbers from

one to twenty.

stronger understanding of number. At first, you may start a number line

from only 0 to 5 and have students place 1, 2, 3, and 4 one it and explay

why they placed the number where they placed it. (e.g., I placed 1 there

because it is closer to 0 than to 5). As students become more confident,

increase the numbers on the number line.

Provide students with strips of adding paper and different number cards

from 1 to 20. Have students work with a partner and place the numbers

on the number line. Number lines can range from 0 - 5, 0 - 10, 0 - 20

or even 10 - 20 depending on your students.

60

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Use beads in two different colors to create number lines on strings.

Alternate colors every 5 beads. Label the beads at the benchmarks 5,

10, 15, and 20. Call out a number between zero and twenty. Have

students find the bead corresponding to the number and identify its

place in relation to the benchmark number. For example, 8 can be

seen as 3 more than 5 or 2 less than 10.

(1N4.5)

Lesson 9 (Continued): Numbers

to 20

1N1, 1N4, 1N8

TG pp. 44 - 45

placed across the table, with spaces between each number. In small

groups, students take turns selecting a numeral card and placing it

on the number ladder, explaining their placement. For example, if a

student selects the number 12, he or she might place the card a little

above 10 and say, It goes here because it is two more than ten. Play

continues until the ladder is completed will all numbers from zero

to twenty placed in correct order on the ladder. (Model this activity

with the whole group prior to having students work in small groups).

(1N4.5)

Give each student a number card (the card may have the number

word, the numeral, and/or a dot configuration) Have students with

the numbers 5, 10, 15 and 20 line up in order, spacing themselves

out. Have the remaining students place themselves in order according

to their number.

(1N8.2)

Clear the Deck Provide students with a double ten frame and

ask them to use counters to fill their ten-frames to show 20 (some

students may need to fill one ten frame to show 10). Students take

turns spinning a spinner with the words one more, two more, one

less, and two less, to see whether to add or remove counters. If the

player spins a direction that cannot be followed, the player loses

a turn. Therefore, to begin the game, students must spin one less

or two less as they cannot add one more or two more to their ten

frames. The first player to clear their double ten-frame is the winner.

(1N8.2)

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Record, tape, or pin the benchmark numbers on a section of adding

machine tape, sentence strip paper, or a skipping rope. Have students

place numbers between zero and twenty in the appropriate places

on the number line. Ask students to identify where they placed their

number and why. For example, I placed the number twelve 3 spaces

past the number nine because 12 is 3 more than 9.

(1N4.5)

61

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N6.Estimate quantities to 20 by

using referents.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

by comparing it to a given referent

(known quantity).

numbers. To develop estimation skills, students should be provided

with collections of objects and asked to estimate the size of the group.

Referents such as 5, 10, 15, and 20 are useful benchmarks to facilitate

the development of estimation skills. For smaller collections, one

might be asking whether it is closer to 5 or 10. For larger collections,

one might be asking whether the group is closer to 10 or 20. Include

situations in which sets have the same number of items but differ in

the amount of physical space they cover. The ability to estimate, a key

reasoning skill in mathematics, should develop with regular practice over

the course of the year, with larger collections being examined later in the

year.

Randomly scatter 6 or 8 objects on an overhead projector. Turn on the

projector long enough for students to see the objects but not to count

them. Turn off the projector and ask:

Do you think there were more or fewer than 10?

About how many objects did you see?

Record students estimates on chart paper. Turn on the projector and

begin to count the objects together. After counting three or four of the

counters, pause counting, and ask if any students would like to revise

their estimates and then continue counting. Record the actual number

counted. Compare the actual number to the estimates given. Determine

which estimates were the most reasonable. Have students, whose

estimates were closest to the actual count, share how they arrived at their

estimates.

Repeat the overhead activity several times throughout the year using a

variety of objects representing quantities up to 20. As well, place the

objects in regular and irregular patterns. For example, place 7 objects

as they would appear on a ten-frame or scattered randomly on the

overhead

given quantity from at least two

possible options, and explain the

choice.

62

All counting activities can be modified to include estimation. Students

may estimate how many are in a set prior to finding the actual count.

Prepare daily estimation tasks by placing several objects in a jar and

having students record their names and estimates. Sometime throughout

the day, empty the jar, count the objects, and compare the estimates to

the actual number. Be sure to have students share how they arrived at

their estimates.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

20. Show students the collections, one at a time, and ask them to

estimate the quantity by relating it to the benchmark of 5, 10, 15,

or 20. Count the objects to determine the reasonableness of their

estimates.

(1N6.1)

1N4, 1N6

TG pp. 46 - 49

about 10 or 20 buttons in the group? Explain your choice. Repeat

using different objects and quantities.

(1N6.1, 6.2)

Prepare three transparent containers, one with 3 objects, one with

11 objects and one with 18 objects. The objects and containers must

be the same. Provide students with three numeral cards with the

numbers 1, 9, and 20. Ask them to match the container with the

numeral card that shows the most reasonable estimate and explain

their choice.

(1N6.2)

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Provide four or more sets of objects such as a set of interlocking

cubes, a set of marbles, a set of clothespins, or a set of blocks. Have

students look at each set separately and ask, How many interlocking

cubes do you think will fit in your hand? Would the number be

closer to 5, 10, 15, or 20? After students have made their estimates,

they take a handful of objects from the set and count them. When

students have counted, ask: Did you make a good estimate? Why or

why not? Repeat using other sets of objects.

(1N6.1, 6.2)

Place 18 cubes in a container. Show it to the students and ask:

How many cubes do you think are in the container?

Do you think there are more than 20 or fewer than 20 cubes?

Why or why not? A lot more/fewer or just a few more/fewer?

Have the students count the cubes and then ask, Are there more

cubes or fewer cubes than you predicted? Repeat using a variety of

objects and quantities.

(1N6.1, 6.2)

If I showed you a set of 7 objects, would 1 be a good estimate? What

about 15? Why or why not?

If I showed you a set of 18 objects, would 100 be a good estimate?

What about 20? Why or why not?

What do you think makes a good estimate?

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

(1N6.1, 6.2)

63

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N5 Compare and order sets

containing up to 20 elements to

solve problems, using:

referents (known quantities)

one-to-one correspondence

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Include situations in which:

the size of the sets are the same

the size of the sets differ

This will lead to exploring number relationships such as one more

than, one less than, two more than, etc. When students compare

sets, ensure that the two sets are:

lined up side by side and the students pair the items; or

grouped in clusters and the students need to move the items to

match them one-to-one and compare the size of the sets.

It is desirable, at times, that the items in the sets go together naturally

(e.g., left glove/right glove), and that at other times the items are

unrelated (e.g., desks and pencils). Concrete objects should be used

when exploring one-to-one correspondence.

Achievement Indicators:

given set that contains up to 20

elements.

as 5, 10, 15 or 20, so as to get a feel for the relative size of quantities.

For example, for smaller collections, is it closer to 5 or 10? For larger

collections, is it closer to 10 or 20?

elements than, fewer elements

than or as many elements as a

given set.

The term fewer than is used when describing sets of objects. Later,

when numbers are compared, the term less than is more appropriate.

When talking about sets that have the same number of objects, use the

terms the same number and as many as.

The concept of fewer (or less) is often more difficult for students because

thinking about what is not there is harder than thinking about what is

there. It is easier for students to see the relationships between quantities,

and tell how many more or how many fewer, when the difference

between the quantities is small.

Provide students with a set of objects and ask them to build a set that

has more, a set that has less, and a set that is the same as the given set.

64

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

numbers ranging from 0 to 20 (consider beginning with numbers 0

to 10 if needed). E.g.

Same?

6

9

12

14

and the other student builds it with counters. As each number

is read, the builder must change the quantity of objects to

reflect the number being read. Both students must identify

how many objects need to be added or removed in order to

move from one number to the next.

(1N5.1, 5.2)

TG pp. 50 - 53

8

5

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Give students a set of interlocking cubes and ask them to build

towers using more than, fewer than, or the same as in the directions.

For example,

Build a tower that is one more than 11.

Build a tower that is two fewer than 18.

Build a tower that is the same as mine.

(1N5.1, 5.2)

Give each student two ten-frames and 20 counters. Have all students

show you the number fourteen on the ten-frames, filling from left to

right. Ask students what they will do to display the number twelve.

Ask: Will you add or remove counters to the ten-frames? Is twelve

more or less than fourteen? How do you know?

(1N5.2)

Show the student a set of objects representing a number between 1

and 20. Ask the student to build a set that is the same as the given

set. Observe if the student uses one-to-one correspondence to build

the set. Then, ask him/her to build a set that has more and a set that

has fewer. Observe whether the student can manipulate his or her set

to demonstrate these concepts.

(1N5.1, 5.2)

65

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N5 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

using one-to-one correspondence,

and describe them, using

comparative words such as more,

fewer or as many.

in relationships among numbers, in problem solving, and later in

constructing and analyzing graphs. Most students use one-to-one

correspondence when comparing sets of concrete objects. Students

should be able to create and compare sets, using comparative words,

by matching one-to-one. Graphing is not specifically identified as

an outcome for Grade One; however, it can be used as a strategy for

comparing sets.

Label two paper bags, one with Yes and one with No. Ask students

a yes or no question such as Do you like strawberries? To answer the

question, students place a cube in either the Yes or the No bag.

The cubes are then counted and the numbers are compared using the

comparative language more, fewer, and as many as. (Consider including

students from other classes for this activity to compare larger numbers).

problem (pictures and words) that

involves the comparison of two

quantities.

concepts. Problems should be relevant and there should be multiple

paths to arrive at a solution. Students need many opportunities to

model and solve a variety of problems involving the comparison of two

quantities. Examples of problems include:

There are 15 students in our class. Nine are girls and six are boys.

How many more girls are there than boys? (Students may physically

arrange themselves into two groups and then solve the problem).

Mark blew up 10 balloons. Four were red and six were green. How

many more balloons does Mark have to blow up to have the same

number of red and green balloons? (Students may draw a picture to

solve this problem).

66

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Performance

In pairs, give each student 20 interlocking cubes. They snap their

cubes together to form a tower and compare their towers to show

that they are the same. Students put their towers behind their back

and simultaneously break off part of their tower and place one of the

pieces in view. One player spins a spinner, with the words more and

fewer. If the spinner lands on more, the student with more cubes

in view takes both stacks. If the spinner lands on fewer, the student

with fewer cubes in view takes both stacks. Play continues until one

player runs out of cubes.

(1N5.2, 5.3)

Resources/Notes

Math Makes Sense 1

Lesson 11 (Continued): More,

Fewer or the Same?

1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4

TG pp. 50 - 53

Ask students to record their first and last names and compare the

number of letters in his/her first name to the number in his/her last

name to see which name has more.

(1N5.3)

Line up 7 boys and 3 girls. Ask: What must be changed to make the

number of girls equal to the number of boys?

(1N5.3)

Prepare a set of 30 cards displaying objects up to 20. Shuffle the

cards and deal ten to each player. Each player places their cards

face down on the table. Players take turns flipping cards from their

respective piles. Students compare sets to determine who has the set

with fewer. That student earns a counter. Play continues until all

cards have been played. The student with the most counters is the

winner.

(1N5.3)

In pairs, students take turns spinning a spinner with any

combination of numbers to 20. Using interlocking cubes, they build

a set that is the same as the number on the spinner. They compare

their sets to determine who has more/fewer/same. The student who

has more/fewer/same (depending on the rule), earns a counter. The

first student to earn ten counters is the winner.

(1N5.3)

Present problems such as the following:

I have 12 stickers in my collection. My friend says she has fewer.

How many stickers might my friend have in her collection? (Any

number less that twelve is acceptable for this problem).

There are 15 flowers in the green pot and 18 flowers in the blue

pot. Which pot has more (or fewer) flowers? How do you know?

Molly has 2 more toy cars that Jack. Jack has 5 cars. How many

more cars does Molly have?

Ask students to solve the problems using pictures, numbers, and

words and present their work to the class.

(1N5.4)

Grade 1 mathematics Curriculum Guide - INTERIM

67

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Outcomes

1PR3 Describe equality as a

balance and inequality as an

imbalance, concretely and

pictorially (0 to 20).

[C, CN, R, V]

Achievement Indicator:

using the same objects (same

shape and mass), and demonstrate

their equality of number, using a

balance scale.

example, we may observe that Ron is taller than Mary or that Monica

takes more time than Valerie to complete her homework. Relationships

also apply to number. We may observe that five is two less than seven or

twelve is three more than nine. Many opportunities should be provided

to allow students to learn the relationships between numbers to ten and

then to twenty.

It is important for students to focus on comparing numbers and

learning the language used to describe these relationships. Students

should use the vocabulary: more/greater, fewer/less, same as, and equal,

and as well as talk about the strategies they use to compare groups.

Balance activities form a basis for understanding equality. Working with

balance scale problems, students build the foundation for further study

in the area of algebra and solving equations.

Using concrete materials, students can examine how a balance operates

like the seesaw in the playground. Place an equal sign between the two

arms of the scale. This will help students begin to make the connection

between the relationship of the quantities on each side of the scale and

the equal sign.

Place six red cubes on one side of a balance scale and four yellow cubes

on the other. Ask students to predict how many more cubes they would

need to make the scale balance. Have students place blue cubes, one at a

time, onto the scale until it balances. Students then count the number

of cubes on each side, reinforcing the idea that both sides have the same

number of cubes by saying, Both sides are equal. Draw attention to

the fact that one side of the balance scale is represented by 6 red cubes.

The other side of the balance scale is represented by 4 yellow and 2 blue

cubes.

sets, using the same objects (same

shape and mass), and demonstrate

their inequality of number, using

a balance scale

68

greater than 4, but not automatically realize, that 4 is less than 5. Both

sides of the relationship need to be considered when completing the

tasks.

Whenever possible, use mathematical language (e.g., 5 is greater than

4 and 3 is less than 5). Eventually students will use the greater-than

symbol and less-than symbol (e.g., 5 > 4 or 3 < 5), but is not required at

this grade level.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance:

places the bag on a balance scale. The partner predicts the number

of cubes in the bag. (He/she may change their prediction as the scale

begins to balance). The partner then begins to add cubes to the other

side of the balance to verify his/her prediction. Once the scale is

balanced, ask: How many cubes do you think are in the bag? How

do you know? The partners count and compare the number of cubes

on both sides.

Fewer or the Same

1N5, 1PR3, 1PR4

TG pp. 50 - 53

Provide a balance scale and two colors of Unifix cubes seperated into

two paper bags. Have a student take a handful of cubes from one bag

and count and then take another handful of cubes from the second

bag and count. The student puts each set on opposite sides of the

balance scale. He/she compares the sets and states which one has

more cubes and which has fewer cubes (e.g., 3 is less than 6 or 6 is

greater than 3).

Provide two colors of Unifix cubes in two paper bags, a balance scale,

and a spinner labeled more/less. Working in partners, one student

takes a handful of cubes from one bag and counts. The other

student spins the spinner. If the spinner lands on greater, he/she

must make a set greater than their partner. If the spinner lands on

less, he/she must make a set that is less than their partner. The sets

are placed on the balance scale to confirm the inequality of the two

sets.

are not covered by the text.

Students write the letters of their name, one letter in a square on

a grid. Students compare the number of letters in their names to

determine which has more or less. Ask:

Who in your group has the greater/most number of letters in

their name?

Does anyone in your group have the same/equal number of letters

in their name(s) as in your name? How do you know?

Who in your group has the least/fewest number of letters in their

name? How do you know?

(1PR3.3)

69

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Outcomes

1PR3 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

concrete sets are equal or unequal,

and explain the process used.

the number of boys and number of girls in the class or the groups could

represent two teams. Students from each group line up across from each

other, showing one to one correspondence. The group that has students

left over is the larger group and the number representing it is the greater

number. Give examples where both groups are equal as well. Repeat

with different groupings of students.

The interpretation of simple bar graphs is another way in which

students may demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of equality

and inequality. For example, students could indicate the way they come

to school by placing a cube on the tower that represents their means of

getting to school. By observing the towers, students should determine if

the sets are equal or unequal.

equal symbol (0 to 20)

[C, CN, PS, V]

Achievement Indicator:

equality, using manipulatives or

pictures.

70

see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells

us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.

Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they

know about the relationship. Using the words the same as for the equal

sign will help them further understand this relation.

Provide students with task cards showing pictures of given equalities

using the equal sign. Students should use a variety of manipulatives to

represent equalities by making sets.

REPRESENTING NUMBERS TO 20

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

determine if the sets are equal or unequal and to explain how they

know.

Fewer or the Same

(1PR3.3)

Prepare two sets of cards, one set containing numerals 11-20,

the other set displaying pictures of 11-20 objects. Students are

given a numeral or picture card and are to find a partner with the

corresponding card. In their math journals, students will record the

equalities using the equal sign.

TG pp. 50 - 53

Unit Centre:

TG p. 15

Dare to Compare

(1PR4.1)

71

Patterning

This is the first explicit focus on patterning, but as with other outcomes,

it is ongoing throughout the year.

PATTERNING

Unit Overview

74

of two to four elements. They learn that repeating patterns can be

represented in a variety of ways using a variety of materials, sounds,

movements or visuals. Students verbalize and communicate rules

to help them understand the predictability of a pattern. As students

have more experiences with this, they will begin to understand that

the patterns exist all around us and can be used to solve a variety

of everyday problems. In Kindergarten, students were exposed to

repeating patterns of two to three elements. This patterning concept

is essential to help students understand repeating patterns as they

continue to study patterning up to four elements in Grade One.

Students will continue working with repeating patterns, extending their

knowledge to include five elements and will explore increasing patterns

in Grade Two.

Math Connects

and make connections, generalizations, and predictions about the

world around them. These experiences are important in all aspects

of mathematics at this age. Looking for patterns is natural for young

children. Even before Kindergarten, students develop concepts related

to patterns, functions and algebra. They learn predictable poems,

repetitive songs, and rhythmic chants that are based on repeating

patterns. Patterns can be extended and described with both words and

symbols. The same pattern can be found in many different forms.

Patterns are found in physical and geometric situations, as well as in

numbers. Pattern experiences at this grade level will give students the

opportunity to explore repeating patterns. It is these experiences that

are the foundation of the development of algebraic thinking that will be

built upon during the year.

PATTERNING

Process Standards

Key

Curriculum

Outcomes

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

Patterns and

Relations

(Patterns)

Patterns and

Relations

(Patterns)

Communication

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

1PR1 Demonstrate

an understanding of

repeating patterns (two

to four elements) by:

describing

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using

manipulatives,

pictures, sounds and

actions.

1PR2 Translate

repeating patterns from

one representation to

another.

PROCESS

STANDARDS

[C, PS, R, V]

[C, CN, R, V]

75

PATTERNING

Outcomes

1PR1 Demonstrate an

understanding of repeating

patterns (two to four elements)

by:

describing

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using manipulatives,

pictures, sounds and actions.

[C, PS, R, V]

year. Students should begin the year interpreting patterns using a variety

of manipulatives. Suggested manipulatives for creating patterns include:

connecting cubes

rubber stamps and adding machine paper rolls

stickers

color tiles

link its

pattern Blocks

collections (each collection should consist of 60 100

small items of one kind, such as bread tags, buttons, shells, small

plastic animals, etc.)

two-color counters

Students should have many opportunities to work with these materials

before using materials, such as attribute blocks, that have more than one

visible attribute.

Young students first need to experience repeating patterns in a variety

of different ways. They need both teacher-directed and independent

activities. Teacher-directed activities should encourage students to

analyze a variety of patterns. Independent activities provide students

with the opportunity to explore, reproduce, extend, and create patterns

appropriate to their level of understanding. Examples of patterns young

students should describe, reproduce, extend, and create include:

Rhythmic/Sound patterns

e.g., clap, snap, clap, snap, clap, snap,

Action pattern

e.g., sit, sit, stand, sit, sit, stand, sit, sit, stand,

Color patterns

e.g. red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow,

Shape patterns

e.g., circle, square, triangle, circle, square, triangle,

Patterns of attributes

e.g., using buttons: four holes, two holes, four holes, two holes,

Patterns of size

e.g., long, long, short, short, long, long, short, short, long,

Number patterns

76

e.g., 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3,

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

In circle time or when lining up, begin a repeating pattern using the

children (e.g., sit, stand, sit, stand, , boy, boy, girl, girl, boy, boy,

girl, girl , etc). Ask students to describe and extend the pattern.

Have students take turns creating and extending other repeating

patterns.

(1PR1.1, 1.4, 1.5)

Ask students to repeat a rhythmic pattern presented to them (e.g.,

clap, clap, stamp, clap, clap, stamp, clap, clap, stamp . . .). (1PR1.1)

Launch

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 9

Lesson 1: Recognize and Copy

a Pattern

1PR1

TG pp. 10 - 13

Audio CD 1:

Selections 1, 2, 3 & 4

ask them to create a patterned border around the edge of a picture

frame, place mat, or a piece of paper. Have them describe their

patterns to the class.

(1PR1.4)

Have students brainstorm events that occur during each school day

(e.g., I eat breakfast. I go to school. I go home from school. I eat

supper.) Ask students to illustrate each of the events in the order

they occur.

(1PR1.7)

Use connecting cubes to create a color pattern with one element

missing (e.g., red, yellow, green, red, yellow, green, red yellow, green,

red, ___, green). Ask :

Are there colors missing?

What color is missing from the pattern? How do you know?

Repeat using other patterns. Objects, such as attribute blocks, with

more than one visible attribute may be used.

(1PR1.3)

Have students look at a repeating visual pattern, or listen to a

repeating sound pattern, that contains an error or omission. Ask

students to correct the error or omission and explain how they know.

(1PR1.3, 1.3)

77

PATTERNING

Outcomes

1PR1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

pattern containing two to four

elements in its core.

it helps them interpret the patterns they experience visually and solidify

their understanding of the concept. It also allows other students to learn

from each other.

The core of a repeating pattern is the shortest string of elements that

repeats. For example, the color pattern, red, yellow, green, red, yellow,

green, , has a core of three different elements that repeat over and

over. The pattern, red, red, yellow, yellow, red, red, yellow, yellow, is

also a four element pattern even though the elements are repeated. It is

important to repeat the core of the pattern at least three times before

expecting students to describe, reproduce, or extend a pattern.

a given repeating pattern using

manipulatives, diagrams, sounds

and actions.

the core three times (e.g., red, red, blue, red, red, blue, red, red, blue,...).

As students become more efficient reproducing and extending patterns,

repeat the core three times and begin the fourth repetition (e.g., red,

red, blue, red, red, blue, red, red, blue, red, ). Observe whether the

student is able to continue the pattern from the last element given or

repeats the entire core.

day language, a repeating pattern

in the environment, e.g., in the

classroom, outdoors.

many areas of their daily life (e.g., clothing, signs, food packages, etc).

Ask students to look for and describe patterns in the classroom and/or

outdoors.

e.g., days of the week, birthdays,

seasons.

Students should recognize that there are many patterns that occur in

cycles such as the seasons, the days of the week, the months of the year,

and some daily routines. The exploration of repeating events can be

experienced during morning calendar routines ongoing throughout the

school year.

errors in a given repeating

pattern.

elements in which there are errors or missing elements. Ask students to

identify the errors or omissions in the repeating patterns.

the missing element(s) in a given

repeating pattern.

78

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Patterning Ourselves Choose one student to go to the far side of

the room. Instruct the student to turn away from the group and

cover his/her ears. Have the remainder of the group form a circle

or a line. Begin a people pattern by directing the students to do a

particular action. Point to each student in order, as you say:

hands up, hands up, hands down, hands down, hands up,

hands up, hands down, hands down . . .

After the core has been repeated three times make an error in the

pattern (e.g., hands up, hands up, hands up, hands down). Ask the

students to return to the group and identify the error in the pattern

and explain how they know. Repeat this task leaving a gap in the

pattern and asking the student to identify the missing element and

explaining how they know.

(1PR1.2, 1.3)

Lesson 1 (Continued):

Recognize and Copy a Pattern

1PR1

TG pp. 10 - 13

Unit Centres:

TG p. 7

Paper Plate Garden

Presentation

Say, I made a pattern with red and green cubes and then it fell

apart. This is whats left (show a piece of a pattern). Ask students to

use cubes to show what the pattern might have looked like. Working

with a partner, have students create possible patterns which may

contain a different number of elements in its core. Ask students to

present their patterns to the class.

(1PR 1.1, 1.4, 1.5)

Take students on a walk around the inside and outside of the school

looking for patterns. Students can draw a pattern they found and

describe the pattern to a classmate.

(1PR1.6)

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Provide students with a pattern of linking cubes (e.g., red, green,

green, red, green, green, red, green, green). This task involves

describing a three element pattern using objects with one attribute

(color). Ask students to describe the pattern, using color words. This

task can be repeated with patterns with two to four elements in its

core.

(1PR 1.1)

Display a collection of objects from the environment, some with

visible patterns and some without. Discuss each object by naming it

and observing its features. Ask:

Did anyone see an object with a pattern? How do you know?

Did anyone see an object that did not have a pattern? How do

you know?

(1PR1.6)

79

PATTERNING

Outcomes

1PR1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

a given repeating pattern using

manipulatives, diagrams, sounds

and actions.

repeating pattern, using a variety

of manipulatives, diagrams,

sounds and actions.

soon as they have an understanding of what patterns are. By changing

the number of elements presented in teacher-directed lessons and

independent activities, students working at all levels can be supported

and challenged.

A Patterning Learning Center will give children opportunities to

make patterns on an informal and independent basis. The choice of

manipulatives can affect the difficulty of the task. Connecting cubes and

color tiles are the easiest manipulatives from which children can make

patterns, as they have only one visible attribute.

Problem Solving

80

in structures and buildings, and the classroom. Mathematics is full of

patterns. Students can look for patterns to help them solve problems.

PATTERNING

General Outcome: Use Patterns to Describe the World and to Solve Problems

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

create and describe a repeating pattern. Ask another student to

extend the pattern that has been created.

(1PR1.4, 1.5)

Pattern

1PR1

TG pp. 14 - 17

pattern on the overhead projector. Ask the students to reproduce and

extend the pattern on their desks.

(1PR1.5)

Unit Centres:

repeating pattern. Ask students to extend the pattern to determine

the color of the 11th cube.

(1PR1.5)

Patterns must have three repeats. Have them find (E.g., red, blue,

red, blue) and extend the pattern. What colour comes next? This can

be modified to include more complex patterns to meet the students

instructional needs.

(KPR1.5)

TG p. 7

Pattern Cards

TG pp. 18 - 19

81

PATTERNING

Outcomes

1PR2 Translate repeating

patterns from one representation

to another.

[C, CN, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

repeating pattern, using another

mode; e.g., actions to sound,

colour to shape, ABC ABC to

moose, puffin, bear, moose puffin

bear.

repeating pattern, using a letter

code; e.g., ABC ABC,

They need to see that patterns constructed with different materials are

the same pattern. Translating two or more alike patterns (e.g., snap, clap,

snap, clap, snap, clap and red, green, red, green red, green ) to a

common format (e.g., ABABAB) helps children see beyond the materials

making up the pattern. Using some form of symbolism (in this case

the letter code, ABABAB) to represent the structure of a pattern is the

beginning of algebraic reasoning.

When given a repeating pattern, students should represent that pattern

using another form of pattern described in PR1.1 (i.e. rhythmic/sound

patterns, action patterns, color patterns, shape patterns, patterns of

attributes, patterns of size, and number patterns). For example, if

students are given the repeating rhythmic pattern - clap, clap, snap,

clap, clap, snap . . . they may represent the pattern in other forms such

as a color pattern (e.g., red, red, yellow, red, red, yellow ) or a shape

pattern (e.g., square, square, triangle, square, square, triangle).

Repeating patterns are sometimes described using a letter code.

Labeling patterns with ABC helps students name and compare patterns.

Use interlocking cubes to represent a two-element repeating pattern.

(e.g., red, yellow, red, yellow, red, yellow). With the students, describe

the pattern using a letter code (e.g., ABABAB). Repeat using two

different colors of interlocking cubes. Draw students attention to the

fact that although different colors have been used, the letter code has not

changed. Extend these activities to include repeating patterns with a core

of three and four different elements.

Students should be provided with many experiences describing repeating

patterns using letters. It is important to use many forms of patterns

containing two to four elements such as AB, AAB, ABB, ABC, AABB,

and other combinations, so students realize they do not always have to

make the same pattern. E.g.,

82

PATTERNING

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

During Circle Time, spread out the connecting cubes on the floor so

that all students have access to them. Begin by acting out a rhythmic

pattern and have students join in (e.g., clap, slap, slap, clap, slap,

slap, clap, slap, slap). Once they are able to copy the pattern,

stop the actions and ask the students to use the connecting cubes to

represent the same pattern.

(1PR2.1)

outlines. For example:

R

G

Y

R

G

Y

R

G

Y

Unit Centres

reproduce and extend the pattern shown. Ask another student to

represent the same pattern using different manipulatives. (1PR2.1)

1PR1, 1PR2

TG: pp. 14 - 17

TG: p. 7

Treasure Boxes

Stamp It

patterns. Students then label the patterns using a letter code.

(1PR2.1, 2.2)

Sing the song Old MacDonald had a Farm. Have the students

make sound patterns (e.g., woof-woof-oink-woof-woof oink).

Record these patterns on a chart. Ask students to translate the

pattern into a colour pattern using interlocking cubes. Ask, What

colour cube would you like for the dog sound? How many cubes

will we need each time we come to that sound? Choose one student

to translate the pattern using a letter code (e.g., AABAAB). Have

students look at their own patterns and see if there is another pattern

on the chart similar to theirs. Students may sort the patterns based

on their letter codes.

(1PR2.1, 2.2)

Begin a rhythmic pattern (e.g., clap, snap, clap, snap, clap, snap, ).

Ask the students to extend the pattern and label it, while performing

the actions, using a letter code. Repeat using other modes of

patterns.

(1PR2.2)

83

with other outcomes, it is ongoing throughout the year.

Unit Overview

Focus and Context

a strong sense of numbers to 20. As they develop number sense,

students simultaneously build their understanding of the operations

for addition and subtraction. This occurs naturally as students count

and compare numbers in everyday situations. The focus of this unit

is to provide meaningful learning so students will be able to see the

connection between the process of addition and subtraction and the

world they live in. They will have opportunities to act out problems

and use a variety of mainipulatives to develop an understanding of these

processes of addition and subtraction. Both mathematical language

and every day language should by used when presenting problems to

students. As they think about number problems involving addition

and subtraction, young students devise personal strategies to compute.

Through discussion and explanation, students will refine their

strategies for addition and subtraction and deepen their understanding

of number operations. It is with this understanding that students

are then introduced to the symbols used to represent the processes.

Symbolic tasks should not be presented in isolation, nor should they

be emphasized until after the addition and subtraction processes have

been modeled using real life problem solving. Students must be given

sufficient time and opportunity to internalize the concepts. The equal

sign will be introduced using a balance scale and the symbol must be

thought of as a relationship, not an operation. In this unit, students

will work with numbers to 12, laying the foundation for future work in

the unit Addition and Subtraction to 20.

Math Connects

and not in isolated parts. Students need experiences where they see

how number and computation can be used on a daily basis in different

forms. This can be done through cross-curricular activities, as a part

of a morning routine or through informal lessons. Doing this, will

provide students with different opportunities throughout the entire

year to develop this essential understanding; it gives everyone a chance

to learn. It is essential to give students meaningful contexts to learn,

showing them real life situations where computational skills are needed

to solve a problem.

Process Standards

Key

86

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

Communication

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

Curriculum

Outcomes

STRAND

OUTCOME

PROCESS

STANDARDS

counting by:

indicating that the last number said

identifies how many

Number

using parts or equal groups to count

sets.

Number

concretely, pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

Number

one more, two more, one less and two less

than a given number.

addition of numbers with answers to 20

and their corresponding subtraction facts,

concretely, pictorially and symbolically, by:

Number

language to describe additive and

subtractive actions from their personal

experience

creating and solving problems in

context that involve addition and

subtraction

V]

using a variety of concrete and visual

representations, and recording the process

symbolically.

1N10 Describe and use mental mathematics

strategies (memorization not intended), such

as:

counting on and counting back

Number

making 10

using doubles

R, V]

to determine the basic addition facts to 18

and related subtraction facts.

Patterns and

Relations

(Variables and

Equations)

symbol (0 to 20)

87

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Demonstrate an

understanding of counting by:

beginning Addition and Subtraction to 12.

number said identifies

how many

showing that any set has

only one count

using the counting-on

strategy

using parts or equal groups

to count sets

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

1N4 Represent and describe

numbers to 20, concretely,

pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

88

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Math Makes Sense 1

Launch

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15

Consider reviewing Representing

Numbers to 20 (Lesson 6) TG pp.

36-39

Lesson 1: Different Combinations

of a Number

1N3, 1N4

TG pp. 16 - 20

Unit Centres: Shake the Counters

TG p. 13

Audio CD 2:

Selection 6

89

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Demonstrate an

understanding of addition of

numbers with answers to 20 and

their corresponding subtraction

facts, concretely, pictorially and

symbolically, by:

using familiar and

mathematical language

to describe additive and

subtractive actions from

their personal experience

creating and solving

problems in context that

involve addition and

subtraction

modeling addition and

subtraction, using a

variety of concrete and

visual representations,

and recording the process

symbolically.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

addition cannot be rushed. It is desirable to explore adding situations in

meaningful contexts. Experiences should be provided in which students

use a variety of concrete materials to model addition situations prior to

recording the process symbolically.

Students require experience interpreting how addition situations are

portrayed in print. Include examples of:

Active situations which involve the physical joining of sets.

E.g., I had 4 pencils and my teacher gave me 3 more. How many do I

have now?

Static situations involve the implied joining of sets that are not

physically joined to form a whole.

E.g., There are 4 cars parked on one side of the road and 3 cars parked

on the other side of the road. Altogether, how many cars are parked on

the road?

Achievement Indicators:

presented orally or through shared

reading.

1N9.3 Represent the numbers

and actions presented in a

given story problem by using

manipulatives, and record them

using sketches and/or number

sentences.

90

amount, a change amount (the part being added or joined), and the

resulting amount (the amount after the action is over). This generates

3 types of joining problems where either the result, change or initial is

unknown. It is important to give equal opportunities for students to

explore all three types of joining problems.

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Present addition stories. Have students act out the story, represent

concretely, pictorially and/or symbolically. The following examples

may be used:

1N9, PR4

Joining Problems

TG pp. 21 - 25

placed 3 more pencils on the table. How many pencils are on the

table altogether?

Audio CD 2:

Stephen placed some pencils on the table. There are 7 pencils

altogether. How many pencils did Stephen place on the table?

Selections 8 & 9

Stephen placed 3 more. There are 7 pencils altogether. How many

pencils did Sarah place on the table?

(1N9.1, 9.2, 9.3)

91

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

actions presented in a given story

problem by using manipulatives,

and record them using sketches

and/or number sentences.

N9.4 Create a story problem for

addition that connects to personal

experience, and simulate the

action with counters.

N9.6 Create a word problem for

a given addition or subtraction

number sentence.

Students need experiences where they model number stories. They can

take a number sentence (3 + 7) and be asked to develop the script

and then act out the story. At this time students are not required to use

words to record the story.

By applying their own experiences to the numbers they will create

many different scripts. Students tend to create word problems where

the result or the difference is unknown. Encourage the creation of join

and separate problems with the result, change or initial unknown,

and compare problems with the difference, larger or smaller number

unknown.

Students need many opportunities to make connections between

personal experiences and the symbols they represent. When recording

addition number sentences, the use of both horizontal and vertical

representations should be encouraged to familiarize students with

both methods. Models should continue to be used as long as students

find them helpful. When students are ready to use addition symbols,

they can be introduced in the context of solving story problems.

When students become comfortable recording addition sentences, it

is important that they make connections between the equations and

the stories they represent. At this stage, students not only model and

symbolize word problems but should have practice providing a number

story when a model and/or the equations are provided.

When explaining the symbols for addition, it is important that the

addition sign be referred to as and rather than plus. The equality

sign should be referred to as equals or is the same as. Students need

to realize that the equal sign represents a balance between both sides of

the equation.

92

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Have students create their own story problems for addition and

demonstrate the additive action with counters. Incorporate the use of

manipulatives, such as dominoes and dice, to generate numbers for

story problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5)

Stories

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 21 - 25

sandwich bag. Provide students with number cards for numerals 2

to 12, 12 beans (or another manipulative) and blank pieces of paper.

Student chooses a number card and places that number of beans into

the bag and then seals the bag. The student moves the beans to either

side of the line to create a number combination, and records that

number sentence on the paper. The student continues to manipulate

the beans until he/she generates as many number sentences as they

can.

(1N9.3)

Provide story boards for students to use with manipulatives to create,

model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by

drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper

can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a

beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be

created using the same story boards. Students should share their story

problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence

for each of their problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7)

Have students use the overhead, whiteboard, felt board, counters,

etc., to create story problems for a variety of addition and subtraction

number sentences.

(1N9.6)

Double Dice - Students roll two dice and create a word problem to

match the two numbers shown. They can develop a subtraction or

addition problem. (Dominoes can be used instead of dice.) (1N9.6)

93

Outcomes

PR4 Record equalities, using the

equal symbol (0 to 20)

[C, CN, PS, V]

Achievement Indicators:

using manipulatives or pictures.

see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells

us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.

Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they

know about the relationship. Using the words is the same as for the

equal sign will help them further understand this relation.

Provide students with task cards showing given equalities using the equal

sign. Examples of task cards at various levels of complexity include:

8=8

or concrete equality in symbolic

form.

5+3=8

5+3=6+2

Students should use a variety of manipulatives to represent the equality

by making sets to show each side of the equal symbol. For example:

5+3=8

5+3=6+2

represent the equalities using pictures.

94

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

on each side. The snap cubes may be of two colors to represent parts

of a number on the either side of the balance.

Stories

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 21 - 25

(1PR4.2)

Students should represent the following equations using two colors

of snap cubes:

8=8

8=5+3

5+3=8

5+3=2+6

(1PR4.2)

Show the students two number trains: one train with 6 red and 1

green and the other with 4 red and 3 green.

Students should represent the trains in symbolic form: e.g.,

6 + 1

4 + 3

6 + 1

4 + 3

(1PR4.2)

95

Outcomes

1PR4 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

representations of the same

quantity (0 to 20) as equalities

building a strong foundation for working with larger numbers. Begin

working with number combinations to 6. Do not move on to numbers

from 7 to 10 until children have a strong understanding of numbers to

6.

When a child can confidently break up a number to 10 and put the

parts together again, then they will be able to work with larger numbers.

Memorizing basic math facts is very different from internalizing number

combinations.

equalities where the given sum or

difference is on either the left or

right side of the equal symbol (=).

three stages. In the first stage, the teacher models the recording of the

number combinations where the sum is on either the left or right side

of the equal sign. In the second stage, the students record the number

combinations by copying what the teacher has written. In the final

stage, students record the number combinations independently.

Students should read number sentences from left to right and from right

to left.

96

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

number (e.g., 6) of cubes of one color. On the signal, break it

children will break their train into two parts and hold one part in

each hand behind their back. Students may choose not to break

their train apart and keep the train in one hand to represent the

combination using 0.

Stories

Going around the circle, each student takes a turn showing first what

is in one hand and then what is in the other. The other students say

the number combination shown. (e.g., 4 and 2, 5 and 1 ) When

everyone has had a turn, repeat the activity several times modeling

the recording of the equation.

(1PR4.4)

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 21 - 25

Unit Centres:

TG p. 13

Addition Stories

Provide students with snap cubes and number-train outlines for

a specified number. Students snap together as many different

combinations of cubes of two colors for the specified number. They

record their work by coloring the individual outlines cut from the

sheet to match the number- trains they have created. The outlines

are stapled together as a book and students write an equation for

each combination.

(1PR4.4)

train could be 3 red cubes and 4 blue cubes.

Ask students to represent the number train using numbers. Their

answers may look like this:

4 + 3 = 7 or 7 = 4 + 3

Ensure that students learn to read number sentences from left to

right and right to left.

(1PR4.3)

97

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N10 Describe and use

mental mathematics strategies

(memorization not intended),

such as:

counting on and counting

back

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

When students thinking has developed to the point where they are

counting on from the large number, strategy learning should begin.

Students should be encouraged to use the relationships between facts to

learn new facts, rather than counting to compute sums or differences.

For example, if students want to add 4 + 3 and know that 3 + 3 = 6,

they might think that 4 + 3 is one more than 3 + 3, so it must be 7.

addition facts to 18 and related

subtraction facts.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

personal strategy for determining

a given sum.

with prior knowledge. These relationships will lead to the development

of patterns that students will be able to access to recall number facts.

If we focus on over-practicing or rote practicing without ensuring

that students understand the process, they often forget or incorrectly

remember computational methods. It is not intended that students

recall the basic facts but become familiar with the strategies to mentally

determine sums and differences. Students need many rich experiences

to explore strategies concretely and pictorially as this will lead to an

understanding that all of the facts are conceptually related. As students

develop and share strategies for addition and subtraction, they become

more comfortable with numbers, develop flexibility when thinking

about numbers, and become more fluent in computing.

When engaging in mental math activities students should be given

opportunities to:

Develop their own strategies for determining a given sum or

difference

Invent strategies for solving problems that include making doubles,

making 10, using compensation (using addition to solve subtraction

problems) and using known facts.

Employ as many representations as possible for determining sums

and differences, including physically acting out.

98

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Provide students with addition sentences and ask them to explain the

strategy they used to find the given sum.

begins counting at one

counts on from the larger or smaller number

can communicate the strategy used

can solve any of the problems without needing to figure them out

(e.g., using doubles, one more, sum to 5)

(1N10.1, 10.2)

is confident in their answer

1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 26 - 29

Attention needs to be given to all the

strategies.

Performance

Simon Says Play the game Simon Says, giving directions that

involve using strategies to solve a mathematical equation. Examples

include: Simon says:

o

Students solve the additive action mentally, explain the strategy they

(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

used, and complete the action.

Give students a bag with 8 counters and have them remove some

of the counters. Ask: How many are still in the bag? How do you

know? Repeat using other numbers.

(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

Think About It! Provide students with a number of scenarios in

which they visualize the action that is taking place and mentally solve

each problem.

If I put 5 counters in the bag and then added 3 more, how

many counters would be in the bag? How do you know?

(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

99

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N10 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

1N10.1 Continued

relationships. For example, all the sums for 4 can be found by taking a

known fact (e.g., 4 + 0 = 4) and reducing one number while the other is

increased (e.g., 3 + 1 = 4). Notice that all of these are along a diagonal of

the table.

Solving problems mentally provides opportunities for students to focus

on the relationships between numbers and operations.

Some students will be able to respond instantly when an addition or

subtraction fact is presented. Others will need an extra few seconds in

order to use a strategy to find the answer. Eventually, it is helpful to

the student to have instant recall, but it is not essential that all facts be

recalled in Grade 1.

By using facts frequently in games and problems, most students will

commit them to memory.

Problem Solving

Guess and Check

The student makes a guess and checks to see if they are correct. If it

does not work they revise their initial guess based on what was tried and

learned. This continues until the correct answer is found. Students do

not like to be wrong, therefore it is important to be cognizant of your

language and not refer to a guess as incorrect or correct. It is important

that they learn to be risk takers and learn from the initial guess.

Place 14 snap cubes of the same color in a paper bag. Reach in and

remove 5 cubes. Ask students: If I had 14 cubes in the bag and I took out

5, how many are left in the bag? Students guess 6. On a chart or white

board write 5 + 6 = 11. That is a great guess but was there more or less

than 11 in the bag? Lets try again. Students guess 9. Write 5 + 9 = 14.

That is the number we were looking for. So there are 9 cubes still in the

bag. Count the remaining cubes in the bag to confirm the guess.

100

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

20. Call out addition and subtraction facts where students use their

mental strategies to solve. E.g.

Doubles to Add

3 and 3

10 and 5 more

15

1N9, 1N10

12

18

TG pp. 26 - 29

10

Students cover the sum with a counter. The first player to cover all of

the numbers on their card is the winner.

(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

Pose a task such as the following to the class: If you did not know

the answer to 9 + 6, what are some really good strategies you can use

to get the answer? Encourage students to come up with more than

one strategy to solve the equation. Students discuss their ideas with a

partner and then present their ideas to the class.

(1N10.1, 10.3)

Pick up Stacks - Show the student five stacks of snap cubes of

different colour and amounts.

The Student may pick up more than one stack at a time to represent

the number. Ask the student to explain the strategy they used.

An an extension of this activity, you could ask the student to make

another combination of the same number using the remaining stacks

or the original configuration of stacks.

(1N10.1)

TG pp. 30 - 31

101

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Demonstrate an

understanding of addition of

numbers with answers to 20 and

their corresponding subtraction

facts, concretely, pictorially and

symbolically, by:

using familiar and

mathematical language

to describe additive and

subtractive actions from

their personal experience

creating and solving

problems in context that

involve addition and

subtraction

modeling addition and

subtraction, using a

variety of concrete and

visual representations,

and recording the process

symbolically.

cannot be rushed. Students should be provided ample opportunity

to use concrete materials to model subtraction prior to recording it

symbolically.

Students require experience interpreting how subtraction situations are

portrayed in print. Include examples of:

Active situations which involve the physical separating of sets.

I had 8 pencils. I gave 4 of them to my friend. How many do I have left?

Static situations involve the implied separating of sets that are not

physically joined to form a whole.

There are 7 red and green cars parked on the road. Four of them are

red. How many cars are green? (In this situation, the group or the whole

remains the same, nothing is added or taken away, we are looking to

find the 2 parts that make up the whole)

Achievement Indicators:

presented orally or through shared

reading.

N9.3 Represent the numbers and

actions presented in a given story

problem by using manipulatives,

and record them using sketches

and/or number sentences.

102

initial, change, and result amounts. In separate problems, the initial

amount is the largest amount. Addition and subtraction cannot be

simply defined as put together and take away. Students need

opportunities to be exposed to all structures of problems: result

unknown, change unknown, and initial unknown.

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Present subtraction stories for each structure. Have students act out

the problem and represent the problem concretely, pictorially and/or

symbolically.

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 32 - 36

Separate Problems

Result Unknown Five children are sitting on the story mat.

Two children left the circle to go back to their seats. How many

children stayed on the mat?

Change Unknown Five children are sitting on the story mat.

Some of the children left the circle to go back to their seats. There

are three children left sitting on the mat. How many children went

back to their seats?

Initial Unknown - Some children are sitting on the story mat.

Two children left the circle to go back to their seats and there are 3

children left sitting on the mat. How many children were on the mat

in the beginning?

Compare Problems

Difference Unknown - Mark has 12 stickers. Julia has 8

stickers. How many more stickers does Mark have than Julia?

Comparing Quantity Unknown - Mark has 4 more stickers

than Julia. Mark has 12 stickers. How many stickers does Julia have?

Referent Quantity Unknown - Mark has 4 more stickers than

Julia. Julia has 8 stickers. How many stickers does Mark have?

(1N9.1, 9.2, 9.3)

103

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

for subtraction that connects to

personal experience, and simulate

the action with counters.

1N9.6 Create a word problem for

a given addition or subtraction

number sentence.

interpretations to a situation. For example: There are 9 children. Three

are boys. How many are girls? Some students see this as an addition.

(Three and how many more make 9?). Others see it as a subtraction.

(There are 9 in all. Remove the 3 boys. How many girls would be

left?) Some students might think of a subtraction sentence (9 - 3 = 6),

whereas others might think of an addition sentence (6 + 3 = 9). Students

should be aware that every time they encounter either an addition or a

subtraction situation, the other operation is implicit.

While addition always relates to the combining of things, subtraction

is much more complex and is not simply the opposite of addition. In

its simplest form subtraction is the taking away or separating of objects.

In its more complex forms, subtraction is what allows us to compare

two quantities or to find a missing addend. It is important that students

realize the connections between subtraction as taking away, subtraction

as comparing, and subtraction as missing addend.

104

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Have students create their own story problems for subtraction and

demonstrate the subtractive action with counters. Incorporate the use

of manipulatives, such as dominoes and dice, to generate numbers

for story problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5)

Lesson 5 (Continued):

Subtraction Stories

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 32 - 36

model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by

drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper

can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a

beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be

created using the same story boards. Students should share their story

problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence

for each of their problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7, 1PR4.1, 4.2)

Have students use the overhead, whiteboard, felt board, counters,

etc., to create word problems for a variety of subtraction number

sentences.

(1N9.6)

105

Outcomes

1PR4 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

equality using manipulatives or

pictures.

1PR4.2 Represent a given

pictorial or concrete equality in

symbolic form.

1PR4.3 Provide examples of

equalities where the given sum or

difference is on either the left or

right side of the equal symbol (=).

106

horizontal and vertical representations should be encouraged to

familiarize students with both methods. Models should continue to be

used as long as students find them helpful. When students are ready

to use subtraction symbols, they can be introduced in the context of

solving story problems. When students become comfortable recording

subtraction sentences, it is important that they make connections

between the equations and the stories they represent. At this stage,

students not only model and symbolize word problems but should have

practice providing a number story when a model and/or the equations

are provided.

When explaining the symbols for subtraction it is important that the

minus sign be referred to as minus or subtract rather than take

away. Students need to realize that the equal sign represents a balance

between both sides of the equation.

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

train could be 3 red cubes and 4 blue cubes.

Lesson 5 (Continued):

Subtraction Stories

Ask students to show this using numbers. Their answers may look

like this:

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 32 - 36

7 - 4 = 3 or 3 = 7 - 4

Ensure that students learn to read number sentences from left to

right.

(1PR4.2, 4.3)

Unit Centres:

TG p. 13

Make a Number Fact

107

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N10 Describe and use

mental mathematics strategies

(memorization not intended),

such as:

counting on and counting

back

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

to determine the basic

addition facts to 18 and related

subtraction facts.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

personal strategy for determining

a given sum.

algorithms. They need to become flexible in working with numbers

and operations. Before memorizing facts, students must have many

opportunities to use concrete materials and mental math strategies to see

number relations.

When engaging in mental math activities students should be given

opportunities to:

Develop their own strategies for determining a given sum or

difference

Invent strategies for solving problems that include making doubles,

making 10, using compensation (using addition to solve subtraction

problems) and using known facts.

Employ as many representations as possible for determining sums

and differences, including physically acting out.

Addition Strategy

Counting on

This strategy is used for adding one or two

to a given number.

7 + 2 = __ think 7... 8, 9

When presented with a more difficult

equation, 8 + 4, think 8 + 2 is 10 and 2

more is 12

Add two of the same number together 5 +

5 = 10

Making ten

Using doubles

1N10.2 Use and describe a

personal strategy for determining

a given difference.

1N10.3 Refine personal strategies

to increase their efficiency.

Subtraction Strategy

Counting On

Counting Back

Doubles

Using Addition to

Subtract

108

Start with the number you are subtracting

and count on to the other number: 11 - 8

think

8... 9, 10, 11 the answer would be

3 because we counted 3 numbers

Start with the minuend (larger number) and

count back: 8 - 2 think 8... 7, 6 the answer

is 6

We have 12 - 6 think 6 + 6

We see 7 - 5, we think of the related addition

fact 5 + 2 = 7 so 7 - 5 = 2

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

the strategy they used to find the given difference.

Subtraction

1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 37 - 40

count back from the larger number

can communicate the strategy used

can solve any of the problems without needing to figure them out

(e.g., differences less than five, one-less)

is confident in their answer

(1N10.1, 10.2)

Think About It! Provide children with a number of scenarios in

which they visualize the action that is taking place and mentally solve

each problem.

If I have 12 counters in a bag and I remove 4. How many counters

remain in the bag?

1N8, 1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 41 - 45

Performance

Cover Up Prepare a variety of 3 X 3 cards with the numbers 0

to 20. Call out subtraction facts where students use their mental

strategies to solve. E.g.

6

9

15

10 take away 4

2 less than 9

12

18

10

all of the numbers on their card is the winner. Have students use

concrete materials to verufy their answer.

(1N10.1, 10.2, 10.3)

Pose a task such as the following to the class: If you did not know

the answer to 6 + 6, what are some really good strategies you can use

to get the answer? Encourage students to come up with more than

one strategy to solve the equation. Students discuss their ideas with a

partner and then present their ideas to the class.

(1N10.1, 10.3)

109

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

a given story problem represents

additive or subtractive action.

1N9.3 Represent the numbers

and actions presented in a

given story problem by using

manipulatives, and record them

using sketches and/or number

sentences.

1N9.7 Represent a given story

problem pictorially or symbolically

to show the additive or subtractive

action, and solve the problem

110

story and not just listen for key words. Therefore, present a variety of

addition and subtraction problems, alternating mathematical terms and

everyday language. The use of everyday language helps children make

connections between the real work and the mathematical concepts they

are learning. For example:

Mathematical Language: Mary stacked 13 books on the table. She

added 4 more books to the stack. How many books are in the stack

altogether?

Everyday Language: Mary stacked 13 books on the table. She piled 4

more books to the stack. How many books are in the stack now?

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

make math meaningful. Give students the opportunity to use pencil

and paper and/or manipulatives to solve everyday problems.

Separating Stories

Jimmy have left?

Students will represent and solve the problem pictorially and

symbolically.

(1N9.2, 9.3, 9.7)

1N3, 1N9

TG pp. 46 - 50

Audio CD 2:

Selection 17

Unit Centres:

TG p. 13

Toy Store

111

Measurement

as with other outcomes, it is ongoing throughout the

year.

MEASUREMENT

Unit Overview

114

attribute. In Kindergarten, children used direct comparison to compare

two objects based on a single attribute of length, mass and capacity. In

Grade One, students will compare two or more objects using a single

attribute and will expand their experiences to include area. Students

will also make statements of comparison in communicating their

understanding of measurement.

Math Connects

branches of mathematics, as well as many other disciplines and every

day activities. Early measurement experiences enable students to make

connections to their own experiences and their environment by using

concrete materials to solve real world problems. Measurement can be

easily integrated into other subject areas in the grade one curriculum,

such as social studies, science, language arts and health.

MEASUREMENT

Process Standards

Key

Curriculum

Outcomes

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

PROCESS

STANDARDS

1SS1 Demonstrate an

understanding of

measurement as a process

of comparing by:

Shape and Space

(Measurement)

identifying attributes

that can be compared

ordering objects

making statements of

comparison

Patterns and

Relations

(Variables and

Equations)

filling, covering or

matching.

1PR3 Describe equality as a

balance and inequality as

an imbalance, concretely

and pictorially (0 to 20).

[C, CN, R, V]

115

MEASUREMENT

Outcomes

1SS1 Demonstrate an

understanding of measurement as

a process of comparing by:

identifying attributes that

can be compared

ordering objects

making statements of

comparison

filling, covering or

matching.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Through measurement activities students should realize that the

same object can have many measurable attributes. Students should

use terminology involving measurement including, longest, shortest,

heaviest, lightest, most, least, etc. It is important that students explore

measurement in context throughout each day using direct comparison.

This involves students lining up items side by side to compare. In the

development of measurement skills, students must engage in a wide

variety of activities that promote measurement experiences. Students

must have first hand practices to gain true understanding of this skill.

Measuring activities will enable students to better incorporate both

computational skills and make the connection between basic geometric

concepts and number concepts.

Achievement Indicators:

attributes, such as length, height,

mass, capacity and area that

could be used to compare two

given objects.

Using two objects of different lengths, ask students how they would

compare the objects. Working with a variety of objects will allow many

opportunities for students to compare lengths.

objects, and identify the attributes

used to compare.

Provide two books and ask students to compare the books by length.

Students should recognize that length tells about the extent of an object

along one dimension. When describing measurement in one dimension

we use the term length, or linear measure. This includes measurements

of height, width, length, depth, and distance. Direct measurement

consists of comparing lengths by lining up items side by side beginning

at a common base. Students should understand why a common starting

point is important. Although length is usually the first attribute students

learn to measure, it is not immediately understood by young children.

two or more objects is longest or

shortest by matching, and explain

the reasoning.

The students should recognize that there are certain size objects that are

best suited for measuring certain things. For example, it would not be

efficient to use a penny to measure the length of a classroom.

1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by

length, height, mass, capacity or

area, and explain their ordering.

116

to tallest. Include situations in which students are dealing with an

extraneous variable, such as objects which are not straight and objects

which are also wide or thick.

MEASUREMENT

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Ask students to make two snakes using plasticine. Ask: Which snake

is longest? How do you know?

(1SS1.4)

Launch

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 11

Performance

1SS1

TG pp. 12 - 15

Provide students with two objects such as an eraser and a book. Ask:

Can you tell which of these two objects is longer?

(1SS1.1)

Have students work with a partner to trace and cut out their shoe

print. Ask students to compare their shoe prints using lengths.

Repeat this activity using other objects to compare.

(1SS1.3)

Unit Centre:

TG p. 9

Comparing Lengths

Have students prepare a set of ribbons for first, second, and third

places in a race, so that the first place runner gets the longer ribbon

and the third place runner gets the shortest ribbon.

(1SS1.2)

Provide students with hands-on activities to order length and height.

Explain their reasoning. The following tasks may be used:

Length Provide students with trains of various lengths made from

interlocking cubes. Have students order the trains from shortest to

longest.

Height - Ask five or more children to line-up at the front of the

room. Have them order themselves from tallest to shortest or shortest

to tallest. Repeat this activity using different children.

(1SS1.2)

1SS1

TG pp. 16 - 19

Unit Centre:

TG p. 9

Ordering Lengths

117

MEASUREMENT

Outcomes

Problem Solving

Use an Object

Model. Students use simple objects such as string, paper clips, snap

cubes or any non-standard measuring tool to solve the problem.

1SS1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

attributes, such as length, height,

mass, capacity and area that

could be used to compare two

given objects.

1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by

length, height, mass, capacity or

area, and explain their ordering.

objects, and identify the attributes

used to compare.

1SS1.7 Determine which of two

or more objects has the greatest

or least area by covering, and

explain the reasoning.

118

Students should recognize that area tells about the amount of space

taken up by an object. You may wish to use tangrams, pentominoes or

pattern blocks to cover the area of given objects.

Students should order objects that cover the least amount of space to the

most amount of space.

by an object. For example, one book might take up more of the desk

than another. Direct measurement involves placing one surface on top

of another similar object to see which sticks out. While developing

measurement skills for area, students should use terms such as greatest/

most area and least/smallest area.

MEASUREMENT

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

their forearms from the wrist to the elbow. Give students paper

clips or string to measure the length of their forearms and compare

the object(s) used to see who has the longest arm and who has the

shortest arm.

TG pp. 20 - 21

their reasoning.

Area - Provide students with three books. Ask students to order the

books from the greatest area to the least area or vice versa. Repeat

using different objects. (Objects that are used should be similar in

shape).

(1SS1.2)

Give students a trapezoid, or other shape. Ask them to draw another

shape with a larger area. As them to explain their thinking. (1SS1.7)

Lesson 4: Comparing by

Covering

1SS1

TG pp. 22 - 23

Unit Centre:

TG p. 9

Provide students with a set of tangrams and ask them to compare the

areas of the triangles in the set. Ask students to order the triangles

from the greatest area to the least area.

(1SS1.3)

Provide students with two objects. Ask: Can you tell which of these

two objects takes up the most space?

(1SS1.3, 1.2)

Blocks

Audio CD 2:

Selection 18

Have students work in pairs to trace and cut out their shoe print.

Using colored tiles the students will cover their shoe print and count

the number of tiles used in order to compare the area of both prints.

(1SS1.1, 1.3)

Provide each student with two equal amounts of plasticine. Students

will roll one piece the hotdog way (long and skinny) and the other

piece the hamburger way (short and fat). Cover each piece with

counters to determine which piece holds the most.

(1SS1.3, 1.7)

119

MEASUREMENT

Outcomes

1SS1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

attributes, such as length, height,

mass, capacity and area that

could be used to compare two

given objects.

Using two objects of different sizes, ask student how they could

compare the objects. For example, two glasses could be compared by

height as well as capacity. Working with a variety of objects will allow

many opportunities for students to make comparisons relating to

measurement, using many attributes.

length, height, mass, capacity or

area, and explain their ordering.

Students should order objects from those that hold least to those that

hold most. Include containers that have the same height but different

capacities.

objects, and identify the attributes

used to compare.

1SS1.6 Determine which of two

or more objects holds the most or

least by filling, and explain the

reasoning.

120

will hold. They should investigate strategies to directly compare the

capacities of two or more containers.

Direct measurement involves filling one container and then pouring the

contents into another to find out which holds more. While developing

measurement skills for capacity, students should use terms such as holds

more, holds less, holds the same, full and empty.

MEASUREMENT

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Can you tell which of these two objects holds more? (Students

should recognize that capacity is an attribute that can not be used to

measure these objects). Repeat the activity with other sets containing

two objects.

(1SS1.3)

1SS1

TG pp. 24 - 27

Unit Centre:

TG p. 9

Using rice or macaroni, ask students to order the containers from

holds more to holds less. Repeat using different containers.

(1SS1.2)

Provide students with rice/macaroni and two containers of different

sizes, such as a coffee mug and a drinking glass. Ask: Which

container holds more rice? How do you know? Repeat using

different containers and materials with which to measure. (1SS1.6)

121

MEASUREMENT

Outcomes

1SS1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

attributes, such as length, height,

mass, capacity and area that

could be used to compare two

given objects.

object. It is important to work with a variety of different objects to

compare and explore mass.

length, height, mass, capacity or

area, and explain their ordering.

objects, and identify the attributes

used to compare.

have experiences with objects that are smaller but have a greater mass.

two or more objects is heaviest

or lightest by comparing, and

explain the reasoning.

Direct measurement involves placing two objects on a balance

simultaneously and comparing the mass of one with that of the other.

The most conceptual way for children to compare the mass of objects

is to hold the objects in their hands and compare. Have the students

collect items from around the classroom to compare masses. Students

take turns predicting and then lifting an item in each hand to feel

which is heavier and which is lighter. More than one student should

do the same comparison. Observe if there is agreement. Students may

then use a pan balance to confirm their predictions. While developing

measurement skills for mass, students should use terms such as heavier

and lighter.

122

MEASUREMENT

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Provide students with two objects such as an eraser and a book. Ask:

(1SS1.1)

1SS1, 1PR3

TG pp. 28 - 31

measure, ask children to order the objects from heaviest to lightest or

lightest to heaviest. Repeat using different objects. (The number of

objects used may vary depending on the students understanding of

mass).

(1SS1.2)

Provide students with two objects, such as two pieces of fruit, and a

two-pan balance. Ask: Which piece of fruit is the heaviest? How do

you know? Repeat using other objects.

(1SS1.5)

Optional

Audio CD 3:

Ask students to make two balls out of play dough, predict which

ball is the heaviest by placing one in each hand, and confirm their

predictions using a pan balance.

(1SS1.5)

Selections 1 & 2

or a small ball bearing.

(1SS1.3, 1.5)

Show the students three balls of similar size but different mass.

Ask them to predict which ball has the greatest mass. Verify the

predictions using a pan balance.

(1SS1.2, 1.5)

123

Numbers to 100

outcomes, number sense is ongoing throughout the

year

NUMBERS TO 100

Unit Overview

126

Earlier work in Grade One explored the number concepts for numbers

to 20. Students will build new understanding of the numbers to 100

on the foundation of their prior knowledge of numbers to 20. They will

learn and practice approaches for counting, estimating and grouping

objects into sets for numbers to 100. It is important that students

experience activities using a variety of manipulatives, such as ten frames,

number lines, and snap cubes. This unit is an introduction to numbers

to 100, which will be further explored and developed in Grade Two.

Math Connects

own real life experiences and use numbers as benchmarks and referents.

Making connections is the heart of doing mathematics. With larger

numbers, students will make connections to their prior knowledge and

experiences working with smaller numbers. They will make connections

with other mathematical concepts and procedures. As well, students will

make connections with their daily life experiences and see connections

with mathematics across the curriculum. As students make these

connections, they will build a deeper, richer understanding of number

concepts.

NUMBERS TO 100

Process Standards

Key

Curriculum

Outcomes

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

PROCESS

STANDARDS

sequence 0 to 100 by:

1s forward between

any two given

numbers

Number

1s backward from 20

to 0

2s forward from 0

to 20

Number

from 0 to 100

N3 Demonstrate an

understanding of

counting by:

indicating that the

last number said

identifies how

many

has only one count

using the countingon strategy

using parts or equal

groups to count sets

127

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N1. Say the number sequence 0

to 100 by:

1s forward between any

two given numbers

1s backward from 20 to 0

2s forward from 0 to 20

5s and 10s forward from 0

to 100.

[C, CN, ME, V]

Achievement Indicators:

number sequence between two

given numbers (0 - 100).

previous unit. At this time, many of the same outcomes are addressed

but now we will be extending the numbers to 100.

number sequence between two

given numbers (20 - 0).

N3 Demonstrate an

understanding of counting by:

indicating that the last

number said identifies how

many

showing that any set has only

one count

using the counting-on strategy

using parts or equal groups to

count sets

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

Achievement Indicator:

in a given counting sequence.

128

meaningfully, make errors in counting sequences for children to identify

and correct. Students will gain increased confidence in their counting

abilities as many opportunities are provided for meaningful counting.

NUMBERS TO 100

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Provide each student with a number card from 0-20. Have students

line up in order. Have students count the number sequence (lowest

to highest or highest to lowest). This activity can be modified

counting forward with larger numbers.

(1N1.1, 1.2)

Launch

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15

Lesson 1: Counting to 50

counted, count the set making an error in the counting sequence.

Have students identify and correct the error.

(N3.2)

1N1

TG pp. 16 - 17

Audio CD 3:

Selection 3

1N1, 1N3, 1N6

TG pp. 18 - 21

129

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N3 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting

on.

objects in a given set (up to 100).

1N1 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

starting at 0.

strategy. With frequent opportunities to count collections, students will

be able to count larger quantities more efficiently using groups of 2, 5,

or 10. Provide students with a collection of objects such as counters,

snap cubes, or pennies. Have them count the objects by 2s, using their

fingers to touch and move the objects as they count (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8). To

count by 5s and 10s, have students sort the collection into groups of 5

or 10, and then count the collection by touching the groups (e.g., 5, 10,

15, 20 or 10, 20, 30, 40). For collections that cannot be sorted evenly

into groups of 5 or 10, students should be able to sort the items into

groups of 2, 5, or 10 and then count on to find the total. For example,

if provided with a set of 34 counters, students should make three groups

of 10 and one group of 4, and count, 10, 20, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34.

At this time students record numerals to 50. Later in this unit, they will

be given opportunities to record numerals to 100. Numeral symbols

have meaning for students only when they are introduced as labels

for quantities. Students learn to write numbers as they gain a deeper

understanding of number. Opportunities should begin at first by

focusing on counting and recording numbers to 10. As students acquire

a deeper understanding of number, students should count and record

numbers up to 100.

Provide counting opportunities for various number sequences including:

multiples of 2, beginning at zero (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8,... 20)

multiples of 5, beginning at zero (e.g. 5, 10, 15 50)

starting at 0.

130

opportunities to skip count to 100 will be provided.

NUMBERS TO 100

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Provide students with a bag of counters. Tell them they must find

out how many there are in total without counting by ones. Have

students illustrate or demonstrate to the class how they counted and

decide which way of counting was the most efficient.

Sets to 50

Provide students with a hundred chart. Ask them to colour the

numbers they land on when they count by 5 and 10. (A number

strip from 0 to 20 can be used when counting by 2s). (1N1.6)

TG: pp. 18 - 21

Unit Centres:

TG p. 13

Picture Perfect

students drop the coins into a transparent piggy bank or container as

they count. For example, when counting by 2s, students can count

on every second penny dropped into the bank. Using a transparent

bank provides a visual and auditory means for students as they

count.

(1N1.5, 1.6)

Have students count the number of eyes at their table by 2s and the

number of fingers by 5s and the number of toes by 10s. (1N1.5, 1.6)

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Ask students how many ways they can count to 20 and record their

findings.

Ask: If you count by 2s, starting at zero, will you say the number 7?

Why or why not?

(1N1.5, 1.6)

1N1

Many counting activities can be extended to meet this indicator by

having children record their answers.

(1N3.7)

TG pp. 22 - 25

Audio CD 3:

Selections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10

131

NUMBERS TO 100

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N1 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

omissions in a given number

sequence and explain.

missing or one number that does not belong. Have students listen for,

identify, and/or record the missing or incorrect number and explain

their answer.

1N3 Continued

Achievement Indicator:

groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting

on.

Problem Solving

Draw a Picture

132

strategy. With frequent opportunities to count collections, students

will be able to count larger quantities more efficiently using groups

of 2, 5, or 10. Provide students with a collection of objects such as

counters, snap cubes, or pennies. Have them count the objects by 2s,

using their fingers to touch and move the objects as they count (e.g.,

2, 4, 6, 8). To count by 5s and 10s, have students sort the collection

into groups of 5 or 10, and then count the collection by touching

the groups (e.g., 5, 10, 15, 20 or 10, 20, 30, 40). For collections that

cannot be sorted evenly into groups of 5 or 10, students should be able

to sort the items into groups of 2, 5, or 10 and then count on to find

the total. For example, if provided with a set of 34 counters, students

should make three groups of 10 and one group of 4, and count, 10,

20, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34.

and Check and Use an Object and have had many opportunities

throughout the previous units to practice these strategies. In addition to

these strategies consider having students draw a picture of the problem

before attempting to solve it. This can be beneficial to visual learners.

Although students may think that drawing a picture to solve a problem

is easy, the thought that goes into creating the picture is important to

the success of the investigation and is helpful in presenting the solution.

Students draw a representation of the problem.

NUMBERS TO 100

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

with a missing number. Exchange sequence with another pair and

identify the missing number.

(1N1.8)

Find My Mistake - Say any number sequence (0-100) incorrectly.

Have the students identify the error, correct it, and explain their

answer.

(1N1.8)

Grab a Handful - Provide students with a variety of objects in paper

bags (e.g., link-its, beans, macaroni, counters). Students grab a

handful of objects from one bag and sort into groups of 2, 5 or 10.

Have students record how many groups of 2 / 5 / 10. How many are

left over and how many in all.

1N1

TG: pp. 26 - 27

Unit Centres:

100 Chart Puzzle

TG p. 13

Lesson 5: Grouping Sets

1N3

TG: pp. 28 - 31

Unit Centres:

Number Mix-Up

TG p. 13

Lesson 6: Groups of 10

1N3

TG: pp. 32 - 35

Audio CD 1:

Selection 17

(1N3.6)

Unit Centres:

Roll it and Build it

TG p. 13

There are 5 dogs in my neighbours back garden. When I look

over the fence how many dog legs do I see? Discuss how many

legs are on one dog and draw the five dogs. Count the number of

legs.

TG pp. 36 - 37

133

In this unit students will further develop their personal strategies for

addition and subtraction to 20. Continue practice throughout the

remainder of the year.

Unit Overview

136

to develop personal strategies for solving addition and subtraction

problems to 12. In this unit, students will use their previous experiences

to refine their strategies, as well as develop new strategies for adding

and subtracting numbers to 20. The emphasis will continue to be a

problem solving approach using manipulatives, such as number lines,

ten frames and snap cubes. Students will be engaged in activities to

develop the relationship between addition and subtraction. As they

develop the understanding that addition and subtraction have an

inverse relationship, they will become more flexible in using strategies

to solve problems.

Math Connects

curriculum as it is a primary goal of all mathematical activities. It is not

a distinct topic but a process that should permeate the entire program

and provide the context in which concepts and skills can be learned.

(Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics,

NCTM, p.23). Students learn to add and subtract in order to solve

problems that make sense to them. As well, they must be able to

interpret the problem to know what the problem is asking. They must

have the skills and understanding of number to solve the problem.

Students should be encouraged to discuss their representations and

strategies used to solve problems to help deepen their understanding of

number and operations.

Process Standards

Key

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

STRAND

OUTCOME

PROCESS

STANDARDS

addition of numbers with answers to 20

and their corresponding subtraction facts,

concretely, pictorially and symbolically,

by:

Curriculum

Outcomes

Number

language to describe additive and

subtractive actions from their personal

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

experience

creating and solving problems in

context that involve addition and

subtraction

modelling addition and subtraction,

using a variety of concrete and visual

representations, and recording the

process symbolically.

1N10 Describe and use mental

mathematics strategies (memorization not

intended), such as:

counting on and counting back

Number

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

Patterns and

Relations

(Variables and

Equations)

18 and related subtraction facts.

1PR4 Record equalities, using the equal

symbol (0 to 20)

137

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N10 Describe and use

mental mathematics strategies

(memorization not intended),

such as:

counting on and counting

back

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

to determine the basic

addition facts to 18 and related

subtraction facts.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

Students will have worked with addition and subtraction to 12. They

will build on their prior knowledge and strategies to work with numerals

to 20. Students need to be proficient when working with numbers to

10 before we can expect them to see relationships with larger numbers.

When they begin working with numbers to 20 many students will

solve problems by counting. The focus in this unit is to see that the

relationships between numbers and the strategies they develop when

working with smaller numbers can be applied when working with larger

numbers. New strategies will be introduced to help students build their

repertoire of strategies for mathematical computations.

Make Ten - Give students flash cards with the addition facts where at

least one addend is 8 or 9. Students choose a card and build on the 8 or

9 to think 10 and so many more.

E.g.,

Make the 8 a ten so you have 10 and 3 more is 13.

Achievement Indicators:

personal strategy for determining

a given sum.

1N10.2 Use and describe a

personal strategy for determining

a given difference.

138

opportunities for solving problems in different ways. This will help

them recognize the value of various strategies for themselves and use the

strategies that are most meaningful to them. Students may not use all

strategies and only employ a strategy once it makes sense to them.

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Double your Die - Using a 4 to 9 number cube (or spinner), students

roll the die and double the number shown on the die. Students

record the number sentence and solve.

(1N10.1)

Double your Die plus one / less one - This is an extension of Double

your Die for students who are ready. Students roll and think double

plus one. They record the resulting equation and solve the problem.

As an extension, students can also do Double less One.

Subtraction Facts to 18

(1N10.1, 10.2)

Launch

Teacher Guide (TG) p. 15

1N10

TG pp. 16 - 17

Student-Teacher Dialogue

Provide students with addition and subtraction sentences and ask

them to explain the strategy they used to find the given sum or

difference. Observe whether students:

solve problems involving numbers to 10 in a different way than

numbers to 20

can explain the strategy used

is confident in their answer

(1N10.1, 10.2)

139

Outcomes

1PR4 Record equalities, using the

equal symbol (0 to 20)

Students will have worked with recording equalities using the equal

symbol for numbers up to 12.

Using the words the same as for the equal sign will help them to

further understand this relation.

Achievement Indicators:

equality, using manipulatives or

pictures.

1PR4.2 Represent a given

pictorial or concrete equality in

symbolic form.

see that the equal sign represents a relation, not an operation. It tells

us that the quantity on the left is the same as the quantity on the right.

Students should see the symbol as a way of communicating what they

know about the relationship. Using the words the same as for the

equal sign will help them further understand this relation.

representations of the same

quantity (0 to 20) as equalities

140

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

number (e.g., 17) of links of one color. On the signal, break it

students will break their chain into two parts. Record it as an

equality. Repeat until students discover as many representations for

the same number (17) as they can find.

(1PR4.1, 4.2, 4.4)

Lesson 2: Addition to 20

1N9, 1N10, 1PR4

TG pp. 18 - 19

What is in the bag? Using a balance scale and counters students work

in pairs. Partner one puts 15 counters on one side of the scale. And

on the other side, a brown paper bag with 9 counters inside. Partner

two must add counters to the side of the scale holding the bag (not

in the bag) until both sides are balanced. Partner two then figures out

how many counters were in the bag and explains their strategy. Both

partners record the equality. Partners then switch roles and record a

different equality for the same number (15).

(1PR4.4)

Unit Centres:

Same Number, Different Ways

TG p. 13

Unit Centres:

Domino-me!

TG p. 13

Lesson 3: Subtraction to 20

1N9, 1N10, 1PR4

TG pp. 20 - 23

Audio CD 3:

Selection 13 & 14

141

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N10 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

to increase their efficiency.

subtraction sentences and problems. At this point, students may be

already starting to refine their strategies. As students begin to take more

risks with different strategies, encourage them to compare their known

strategies with the new ones, asking which they think is better and why.

A discussion about using strategies that help students find the sums and

differences quickly may be needed. Provide plenty of opportunities for

students to share their thinking and their strategies with their classmates.

Once students have a good understanding of what a strategy is and

how to use it, the strategies listed in this outcome can be addressed

individually. They can be combined to expand students existing

repertoire of strategies. This will increase their efficiency with number

computation. It is important to remember that students computation

abilities will vary according to the strategies work best for them.

subtraction fact for a given

addition fact.

1N10.5 Write the related

addition fact for a given

subtraction fact.

also be viewed as a subtraction problem and vice versa. Fact families

demonstrate that four number sentences, two addition sentences

and two subtraction sentences, are all related to the same situation or

problem.

Put 18 two sided counters in a cup. Spill them on the table. Separate the

red and yellow counters. Write a given subtraction sentence: 18 - 6 = 12.

Ask students to join the groups together and write the related addition

sentence.

Create two link it chains, one with 14 red links and one with 6 blue

links. Have students join the two together and give them the addition

sentence: 14 + 6 = 20.

Ask students to separate the two colors and write the related subtraction

sentence.

142

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

know the answer to 8 + 7, what are some really good ways to find the

answer? Tell me how you found the answer.

and Subtraction

1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 24 - 27

(1N10.3)

Audio CD 2:

Selections 6, 7, 15 & 16

Audio CD 3:

Selections 6, 7, 8, 9, 13 & 14

Performance

Ask students to write a related addition/subtraction fact for the

following facts:

Subtraction Facts

12 + 6 = 18

1N10

14 + 3 = 17

TG pp. 28 - 30

16 - 9 = 7

12 8 = 4

(1N10.4, 10.5)

subtraction, ask students to record the related addition/subtraction

fact for each problem they create.

(1N10.4, 10.5)

Unit Centres:

Connect It!

TG p. 13

Whats Hiding? - Working in pairs, students use a two part mat (or

part-part-whole mat), counters and number cards 8 to 20. Students

choose a number card and count out that many counters. Partner

one covers their eyes while partner two splits the counters into two

parts, placing them on the two part mat. Partner two covers one side

of the mat with a piece of paper. Partner one then has to find the

hidden number and record it as either an addition or subtraction

sentence depending on the strategy they used.

(1N10.4, 10.5)

143

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Demonstrate an

understanding of addition of

numbers with answers to 20 and

their corresponding subtraction

facts, concretely, pictorially and

symbolically, by:

using familiar and

mathematical language

to describe additive and

subtractive actions from

their personal experience

creating and solving

problems in context that

involve addition and

subtraction

modeling addition and

subtraction, using a

variety of concrete and

visual representations,

and recording the process

symbolically.

students need to be able to explain how they got their answers. By

observing students at work we can assess their understanding of how

they solve addition and subtraction problems.

Addition and subtraction problems can be categorized based on the

kinds of relationships they represent. It is important that all of the

following categories of problems be presented and that these are derived

from students experiences.

These categories include

Join Problems: result unknown, change unknown, initial

unknown

Separate Problems: result unknown, change unknown, initial

unknown

Compare Problems: difference unknown, larger unknown, smaller

unknown

(Van de Walle and Lovin, 2006, pp. 67-69)

Achievement Indicators:

addition that connects to personal

experience, and simulate the

action with counters.

1N9.5 Create a story problem

for subtraction that connects to

personal experience, and simulate

the action with counters.

1N9.7 Represent a given story

problem pictorially or symbolically

to show the additive or subtractive

action, and solve the problem

144

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Have students create their own story problems for addition and

subtraction and demonstrate the additive or subtractive action with

counters. Incorporate the use of manipulatives, such as dominoes

and dice, to generate numbers for story problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5)

Provide story boards for students to use with manipulatives to create,

model, and solve story problems. Story boards can be created by

drawing a simple scene, such as a fence, an ocean, or a tree, on a halfsheet of 8 X 11 paper. As well, a piece of black construction paper

can be used to represent outer space or night time, sandpaper for a

beach, and blue paper for the sky. Many different problems can be

created using the same story boards. Students should share their story

problems with others and record the corresponding number sentence

for each of their problems.

(1N9.4, 9.5, 9.7)

Lesson 6: Creating and Solving

Story Problems

1N9, 1PR4

TG pp. 31 - 32

Joining Problems

Result Unknown - There are 7 children in line at the water

fountain. 6 more join the line. How many students are in the line

now?

Change Unknown - There are 7 children lined up at the water

fountain. More children join the line. There are now 13 children

in the line. How many children joined the line?

Initial Unknown - There are some children lined up at the water

fountain. 6 children join the line. There are now 13 children in

the line. How many children were there first?

Separate Problems

Result Unknown - There are 14 candles on Julies birthday cake.

Chris blows 5 of the candles out. How many candles are still

burning?

Change Unknown - There are 14 candles on Julies birthday cake.

Chris blows some of the candles out. There are 8 candles still

burning. How many candles did Chris blow out?

Initial Unknown - There are candles on Julies birthday cake.

Chris blows 5 of the candles out. Now there are 8 candles still

burning. How many candles were first burning on the cake?

Compare Problems

Difference Unknown - Bob has 18 stickers. Julie has 9 stickers.

How many more stickers does Bob have?

Larger Unknown - Bob has 8 more stickers than Julie. Julie has 9

stickers. How many stickers does Bob have?

Smaller Unknown - Julie has 10 fewer stickers than Bob. Bob has

15 stickers. How many stickers does Julie have?

(1N9.7)

145

Strand: Number

Outcomes

1N9 Continued

Achievement Indicators:

a given addition or subtraction

number sentence.

three categories of problems:

Join Problems

Separate Problems

Compare Problems

It is important that they observe problems being created so they can

model the language and the process. Word problems created by students

are more meaningful to them ad reflect their experiences and interests.

Problem Solving

Choose a Strategy

Act it Out

Make a Model

Find a Pattern

Draw a Picture

Guess and Check

Use an Object

Review these strategies and help them determine the best strategy for

them to use to solve the given problem.

Present the problem:

Bobby and Luke own 18 toy cars. When they were cleaning up their

room they could only find 9. How many cars are missing?

Students can choose to Act it Out, Make a Model, Draw a Picture,

Guess and Check, or Use and Object. The strategy they choose may

be determined by their style of learning or their developmental phase.

Encourage them to use the strategy that they are most confident using.

146

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Have students create their own story problems for addition and

subtraction and demonstrate the additive or subtractive action with

counters. Incorporate the use of manipulatives, such as dominoes

and dice, to generate numbers for story problems.

(1N9.6)

Solving Story Problems

1N9, 1N10

TG pp. 33 - 36

Unit Centres: Word Problems

TG p. 13

Students draw a card and then must develop two different stories for

the same sentence. Students can be asked to act out their story.

(1N9.6)

TG pp. 37 - 38

TG pp. 41 - 45

Use as time permits.

147

Geometry

Although geometry concepts have been explored, this is the first explicit focus.

GEOMETRY

Unit Overview

150

describing, constructing and representing 2-D shapes and 3-D objects.

In Kindergarten, students sorted, built and described 3-D objects. In

Grade One, students will continue working with 3-D objects and will

be formally introduced to 2-D shapes. The focus is on sorting and

comparing 2-D shapes and 3-D objects using one attribute, rather than

on naming the shapes and objects.

Math Connects

world and therefore, requires a focus throughout the Math curriculum.

It also complements and supports the study of other aspects of

mathematics such as number and measurement. Geometry offers

powerful tools for representing and solving problems in all areas of

mathematics.

GEOMETRY

Process Standards

Key

Curriculum

Outcomes

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

STRAND

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

OUTCOME

Space and Shape

and 2-D shapes, using

(3D Objects and

one attribute, and

2D Shapes)

explain the sorting rule.

Shape and Space 1SS3 Replicate

(3D Objects and composite 2-D shapes

2D Shapes)

and 3-D objects.

1SS4 Compare 2Space and Shape

D shapes to parts of

(3D Objects and

3-D objects in the

2D Shapes)

environment.

PROCESS

STANDARDS

[C, CN, R, V]

[CN, PS, V]

[C, CN, V]

151

GEOMETRY

Outcomes

1SS2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D

shapes, using one attribute, and

explain the sorting rule.

[C, CN, R, V]

essential as we strive to describe, analyze, and understanding the world

we live in. Activities selected in geometry should provide students with

the opportunity to explore. They need to see and feel, to build and take

apart, to sort and identify their rule(s), and to share their observations

with their classmates. It is through such activities that students will

become familiar with the names of 2-D shapes and 3-D objects and

begin to recognize their attributes. It is very important to encourage

students to use accurate language when describing shapes. As pattern

blocks are regularly used for geometric inquiry, it would seem reasonable

that students become familiar with the terms that describe them which

include circle. triangle, square and rectangle. Students should be

comfortable using such terms as cylinder, sphere, cone, and cube, and

may extend their exploration to rectangular prisms and square pyramids.

Achievement Indicators:

objects or 2-D shapes, using a

given sorting rule.

the number of edges

the number of vertices

the number of faces

Will it roll? Stack? Slide?

With this knowledge, the students should sort a set of objects or shapes

using a given sorting rule.

objects using a single attribute,

determined by the student, and

explain the sorting rule.

Before expecting students to generate their own sorting rule(s), it is important to guide explorations about sets of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes

by asking questions such as:

How are these objects alike?

How are these objects different?

How many faces/vertices/edges does this object have?

What would happen if I tried to stack this object on top of another

object just like it?

Can you find another example of this type of geometric solid/shape

in our classroom?

When objects have been explored, ask: How can we sort these objects?

It is important to allow students to use their own ideas and

understanding of 3-D objects to generate their own sorting rules.

152

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and

Analyze the Relationships Among Them

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Seat the students in a circle and distribute familiar 3-D objects such

as a water bottle, soup can, small box, tennis ball, etc. Using two

hula hoops, placed side by side, ask students to sort their objects

based on a given rule. Students take turns placing their 3-D object

in the hula hoop that matches its sorting rule. Possible sorting rules

include:

Launch

Roll or does not roll?

Slide or does not slide?

Edges or no edges?

Square faces or no square faces?

Lesson 1: Sorting 3-D Objects

1SS2

TG pp. 14 - 15

(1SS2.1)

a single attribute. Have the students explain their sorting rule to the

class.

(1SS2.2)

153

GEOMETRY

Outcomes

1SS3. Replicate composite 2-D

shapes and 3-D objects.

[CN, PS, V]

Experimentation, including free play, with 2-D shapes and 3-D objects

provide students with opportunities to explore the attributes of shapes,

and how they can be put together and taken apart to make other shapes.

Pattern blocks, attribute blocks, and tangram pieces are useful tools with

which students can explore these relationships.

Achievement Indicators:

set to reproduce a composite 3-D

object.

It is through such replication that students become familiar with the

attributes of 3-D objects.

3-D objects used to produce a

composite 3-D object, and verify

by deconstructing the composite

object.

predict and select which shapes are necessary to produce a composite

shape/object. To verify their predictions and selections they will then

deconstruct the original shape/object and compare the two sets.

154

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and

Analyze the Relationships Among Them

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Set up a barrier for pairs of students. One student will use geometric

solids to create a composite 3-D object. When completed, remove

the barrier, and the partner replicates the object.

(1SS3.2, 3.4)

Objects

1SS3

TG pp. 16 - 19

object, such as a tower, and ask students to predict and select which

solids they need to replicate the object. Students build the object

using the solids they selected. They may then decompose the given

object to verify their predictions.

(1SS3.2, 3.4)

Unit Centres:

Build This!

TG p. 11

155

GEOMETRY

Outcomes

1SS2. Sort 3-D objects and 2-D

shapes, using one attribute, and

explain the sorting rule.

[C, CN, R, V]

Achievement Indicators:

objects or 2-D shapes, using a

given sorting rule.

the number of sides (edges)

the number of corners (vertices)

With this knowledge, the students should sort a set of objects or shapes

using a given sorting rule.

shapes using a single attribute,

determined by the student, and

explain the sorting rule.

Before expecting students to generate their own sorting rule(s), it is important to guide explorations about sets 2-D shapes by asking questions

such as:

How are these objects alike?

How are these objects different?

How many sides and corners does this object have?

Can you find another example of this shape in our classroom?

When objects have been explored, ask: How can we sort these objects?

It is important to allow students to use their own ideas and understanding of 2-D shapes to generate their own sorting rules.

between two pre-sorted sets of

familiar 3-D objects or 2-D

shapes, and explain a possible

sorting rule used to sort them.

Problem Solving

Choose a Strategy to solve the

problem

rule for two pre-sorted sets of familiar 2-D shapes. During circle time

or whole group activities, sort 2-D shapes while students observe. Have

them predict where each object would be placed, explaining the possible

sorting rules used.

Act it Out

Make a Model

Find a Pattern

Draw a Picture

Guess and Check

Use an Object

Review these strategies and help them to determine the best strategy for

them to use to solve the given problem.

156

GEOMETRY

General Outcome: Describe the Characteristics of 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes and

Analyze the Relationships Among Them

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

Seat the students in a circle and distribute familiar 2-D shapes. Using

two hula hoops, placed side by side, ask students to sort their objects

based on a given rule. Students take turns placing their 2-D shape

in the hula hoop that matches its sorting rule. Possible sorting rules

include:

number of sides

number of corners

curved lines / straight lines

colour

size

1SS2

TG pp. 20 - 23

Unit Centres: Sort and Match

TG p. 11

(1SS2.1)

a single attribute. Have the students explain their sorting rule to the

class.

(1SS2.3)

in resource. You may wish to add

tasks from other resources.

Provide sets of shapes that have been pre-sorted into two groups. Ask

students to determine the sorting rule and explain how they know.

(1SS2.4)

Give students a target shape and have them find others in the

environment that is alike in some way. Discuss strategies that could

be used to help solve this problem.

TG pp. 24 - 25

157

GEOMETRY

Outcomes

1SS3. Replicate composite 2-D

shapes and 3-D objects.

[CN, PS, V]

Achievement Indicators:

set to reproduce a composite 2-D

shape.

2-D shapes used to produce a

composite 2-D shape, and verify

by deconstructing the composite

shape.

to parts of 3-D objects in the

environment.

[C, CN, V]

(cylinder, cone, cube, sphere) in

the environment that have parts

similar to a 2-D shape (circle,

triangle, square, rectangle).

It is through such replication that students become familiar with the

attributes of various 2-D shapes as well as 3-D objects.

predict and select which shapes are necessary to produce a composite

shape. To verify their predictions and selections they will then

deconstruct the original shape and compare the two sets.

environment. These real-world associations are most important in the

development of geometric concepts. Students should become familiar

with the 2-D shapes that are the faces of 3-D objects. They should learn

to describe 3-D objects in relation to the shape of its faces.

Prior to identifying 3-D objects in the environment, students

need many opportunities to explore the properties of 3-D objects.

Explorations may include tracing the faces of the solids, or pressing the

faces in plasticine to identify the 2-D shapes.

Take students for a Shape Hunt around the school or the playground

looking for 2-D shapes in 3-D objects. For example, the door to the

classroom has a rectangular shape, the trash can has a circular face, etc.

Some students may need to move or touch the objects to determine the

2-D shapes. As students become more familiar with finding 2-D shapes

in 3-D objects, they may use magazines, flyers, or catalogues to identify

3-D objects that have parts similar to a 2-D shape.

158

GEOMETRY

Analyze the Relationships Among Them

Suggested Assessment Strategies

Resources/Notes

Performance

outline) and ask them to predict and select the tangram pieces

required to replicate the shape. Students may then replicate the shape

to verify their predictions. Pattern blocks may also be used for this

activity.

(1SS3.3)

Shapes

Use pattern blocks to make an animal such as a pet cat. Show this

design to the students and ask them to use the set of pattern blocks

provided to replicate the design.

(1SS3.1)

1SS3

TG pp. 26 - 30

Unit Centres: Shape Patterns and

Pictures

TG p. 11

Provide students with a set of paper 2-D shapes and have them

circulate in the classroom or another environment, finding parts

of 3-D objects. Students may record their findings in their Math

journal. E.g.,

(1SS4.1)

Objects and 2-D Shapes

1SS4

Before going to lunch, ask students to open their lunch boxes to find

2-D shapes in 3-D objects. For example, a sandwich container has a

square face, a yogurt container has a circular face, and a juice box has

a rectangular face. Ask students to choose one object and name the

2-D shape(s).

(1SS4.1)

TG pp. 31 - 34

Unit Centres: Sand Prints

TG p. 11

159

Appendix A

Outcomes by Strand

(with page references)

161

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

Strand: Number

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1s forward between any two given numbers

1s backward between any two given

numbers

1s backward from 20 to 0

2s forward from 0 to 20

5s and 10s forward from 0 to 100.

[C, CN, ME, V]

numbers (0 to 100).

1N1.2 Recite backward by 1s the number sequence between two given

numbers (20 to 0).

1N1.3 Record a given numeral (0 to 100) symbolically when it is presented

orally.

1N1.4 Read a given numeral (0 to 100) when it is presented symbolically.

1N1.5 Skip count by 2s to 20, starting at 0.

1N1.6 Skip count by 5s to 100, starting at 0.

1N1.7 Skip count forward by 10s to 100, starting at 0.

1N1.8 Identify and correct errors/omissions in a given number sequence and

explain.

familiar arrangements of 1 to 10 objects, dots or

pictures.

[C, CN, ME, V]

pictures and identify the number represented without counting.

1N2.2 Identify the number represented by a given arrangement of dots on a

ten frame and describe the numbers relationship to 5 and/or 10.

p. 46

counting by:

indicating that the last number said

identifies how many

showing that any set has only one

count

using the counting-on strategy

using parts or equal groups to count

sets.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

1N3.1 Answer the question, How many are in the set?, using the last

number counted in a given set.

1N3.2 Identify and correct counting errors in a given counting sequence.

1N3.3 Show that the count of the number of objects in a given set does not

change regardless of the order in which the objects are counted.

1N3.4 Count the number of objects in a given set, rearrange the objects,

predict the new count and recount to verify the prediction.

1N3.5 Determine the total number of objects in a given set, starting from a

known quantity and counting on.

1N3.6 Count quantity, using groups of 2, 5 or 10 and counting on.

1N3.7 Record the number of objects in a given set (up to 100).

1N4 Represent and describe numbers to 20, 1N4.1 Represent a given number up to 20, using a variety of manipulatives,

including ten frames and base ten materials.

concretely, pictorially and symbolically.

[C, CN, V]

pp. 38, 40, 52, 58

162

1N4.3 Partition any given quantity up to 20 into 2 parts, and identify the

number of objects in each part.

1N4.4 Model a given number, using two different objects; e.g., 10 desks

represents the same number as 10 pencils.

1N4.5 Place given numerals on a number line with benchmarks 0, 5, 10 and

20.

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

to 20 elements to solve problems, using:

referents (known quantities)

one-to-one correspondence

to solve problems.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

p. 64

1N5.2 Build a set that has more elements than, fewer elements than or as

many elements as a given set.

1N5.3 Compare two given sets, using one-to-one correspondence, and

describe them, using comparative words such as more, fewer or as

many.

1N5.4 Solve a given story problem (pictures and words) that involves the

comparison of two quantities.

referents.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

p. 62

1N7

1N8 Identify the number, up to 20, that is

one more, two more, one less and two less

than a given number.

[C, CN, ME, R, V]

quantity).

1N6.2 Select an estimate for a given quantity from at least two possible

options, and explain the choice.

pp.44, 60

1N9 Demonstrate an understanding of

addition of numbers with answers to 20

and their corresponding subtraction facts,

concretely, pictorially and symbolically, by:

using familiar and mathematical

language to describe additive and

subtractive actions from their personal

experience

creating and solving problems in

context that involve addition and

subtraction

modelling addition and subtraction,

using a variety of concrete and visual

representations, and recording the

process symbolically.

No Outcome

1N8.1 Name the number that is one more, two more, one less or two less

than a given number, up to 20.

1N8.2 Represent a number on a ten frame that is one more, two more, one

less or two less than a given number.

1N9.1 Act out a given problem presented orally or through shared reading.

1N9.2 Indicate if the scenario in a given story problem represents additive or

subtractive action.

1N9.3 Represent the numbers and actions presented in a given story problem

by using manipulatives, and record them using sketches and/or

number sentences.

1N9.4 Create a story problem for addition that connects to personal

experience, and simulate the action with counters.

1N9.5 Create a story problem for subtraction that connects to personal

experience, and simulate the action with counters.

1N9.6 Create a word problem for a given addition or subtraction number

sentence.

1N9.7 Represent a given story problem pictorially or symbolically to show

the additive or subtractive action, and solve the problem.

pp. 90, 102, 110, 144

grade 1 mathematics curriculum guide - interim

163

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

Strand: Number (Continued)

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1N10 Describe and use mental mathematics (It is not intended that students recall the basic facts but become familiar

with strategies to mentally determine sums and differences.)

strategies (memorization not intended),

1N10.1 Use and describe a personal strategy for determining a given sum.

such as:

counting on and counting back

making 10

using doubles

using addition to subtract

difference.

1N10.3 Refine personal strategies to increase their efficiency.

1N10.4 Write the related subtraction fact for a given addition fact.

1N10.5 Write the related addition fact for a given subtraction fact.

and related subtraction facts.

[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

pp. 98, 108, 138, 142

164

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

Strand: Patterns and Relations (Patterns)

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

solve problems.

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

1PR1 Demonstrate an understanding of

in its core.

repeating patterns (two to four elements) by:

describing

reproducing

extending

creating

patterns using manipulatives, diagrams,

sounds and actions.

[C, PS, R, V]

p. 76

1PR2 Translate repeating patterns from one

representation to another.

[C, CN, R, V]

p. 82

1PR1.3 Identify and describe the missing element(s) in a given repeating

pattern.

1PR1.4 Create and describe a repeating pattern, using a variety of

manipulatives, diagrams, sounds and actions.

1PR1.5 Reproduce and extend a given repeating pattern using

manipulatives, diagrams, sounds and actions.

1PR1.6 Describe, using every day language, a repeating pattern in the

environment, e.g., in the classroom, outdoors.

1PR1.7 Identify repeating events; e.g., days of the week, birthdays, seasons.

1PR2.1 Represent a given repeating pattern, using another mode; e.g.,

actions to sound, colour to shape, ABC ABC to moose puffin bear

moose puffin bear.

1PR2.2 Describe a given repeating pattern, using a letter code; e.g., ABC

ABC,

165

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

(Variables and Equations)

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

Ways.

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

inequality as an imbalance, concretely and

pictorially (0 to 20).

1PR3.1 Construct two equal sets, using the same objects (same shape and

mass), and demonstrate their equality of number, using a balance

scale.

1PR3.2 Construct two unequal sets, using the same objects (same shape and

mass), and demonstrate their inequality of number, using a balance

scale.

1PR3.3 Determine if two given concrete sets are equal or unequal, and

explain the process used.

[C, CN, R, V]

p. 68

symbol (0 to 20)

[C, CN, PS, V]

pp. 70, 94, 106, 140

166

1PR4.2 Represent a given pictorial or concrete equality in symbolic form.

1PR4.3 Provide examples of equalities where the given sum or difference is

on either the left or right side of the equal symbol (=).

1PR4.4 Record different representations of the same quantity (0 to 20) as

equalities.

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

(Measurement)

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

solve problems.

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

measurement as a process of comparing by:

and area, that could be used to compare two given objects.

1SS1.2 Order a set of objects by length, height, mass, capacity or area, and

explain their ordering.

1SS1.3 Compare two given objects, and identify the attributes used to

compare.

1SS1.4 Determine which of two or more objects is longest or shortest by

matching, and explain the reasoning.

1SS1.5 Determine which of two or more objects is heaviest or lightest by

comparing, and explain the reasoning.

1SS1.6 Determine which of two or more objects holds the most or least by

filling, and explain the reasoning.

SS1.7 Determine which of two or more objects has the greatest or least area

by covering, and explain the reasoning.

compared

ordering objects

making statements of comparison

filling, covering or matching.

[C, CN, PS, R, V]

pp. 116, 120

167

appendix a

[C]

[CN]

[ME]

[PS] Problem Solving

Connections

[R] Reasoning

Mental Mathematics [T] Technology

and Estimation

[V] Visualization

(Measurement)

Specific Outcomes

It is expected that students will:

problems.

Achievement Indicators

The following set of indicators help determine whether students

have met the corresponding specific outcome.

using one attribute, and explain the sorting

rule.

1SS2.1 Sort a set of familiar 3-D objects or 2-D shapes, using a given sorting

rule.

1SS2.2 Sort a set of familiar 3-D objects using a single attribute, determined

by the student, and explain the sorting rule.

1SS2.3 Sort a set of 2-D shapes using a single attribute, determined by the

student, and explain the sorting rule.

1SS2.4 Determine the difference between two pre-sorted sets of familiar 3-D

objects or 2-D shapes, and explain a possible sorting rule used to sort

them.

[C, CN, R, V]

pp. 152, 156

3-D objects.

[CN, PS, V]

pp. 154, 158

1SS4 Compare 2-D shapes to parts of 3-D

objects in the environment.

[C, CN, V]

1SS3.1 Select 2-D shapes from a set to reproduce a composite 2-D shape.

1SS3.2 Select 3-D objects from a set to reproduce a composite 3-D object.

1SS3.3 Predict and select the 2-D shapes used to produce a composite 2-D

shape, and verify by deconstructing the composite shape.

1SS3.4 Predict and select the 3-D objects used to produce a composite 3-D

object, and verify by deconstructing the composite object.

SS4.1 Identify 3-D objects (cylinder, cone, cube, sphere) in the environment

that have parts similar to a 2-D shape (circle, triangle, square,

rectangle).

p. 158

168

Appendix B

References

169

appendix b

REFERENCES

Alberta Education. LearnAlberta.ca: Planning Guides K, 1, 4, and 7, 2005-2008.

American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS-Benchmarks]. Benchmark for Science Literacy.

New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Banks, J.A. and C.A.M. Banks. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,

1993.

Black, Paul and Dylan Wiliam. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment.

Phi Delta Kappan, 20, October 1998, pp.139-148.

British Columbia. Ministry of Education. The Primary Program: A Framework for Teaching, 2000.

Burns, M. (2000). About teaching mathematics: A K-8 resource. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications

Caine, Renate Numella and Geoffrey Caine. Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. Menlo

Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1991.

Computation, Calculators, and Common Sense. May 2005, NCTM.

Davies, Anne. Making Classroom Assessment Work. British Columbia: Classroom Connections International, Inc., 2000.

Hope, Jack A. et.al. Mental Math in the Primary Grades (p. v). Dale Seymour Publications, 1988.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten

through Grade 8: A Quest for Coherence. Reston, VA: NCTM, 2006.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Principals and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA:

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in

Secondary Classrooms. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Publishing, 2006.

Proulx, Jerome. Making the Transition to Algebraic Thinking: Taking Students Arithmetic Modes of Reasoning into Account. Selta-K44, 1(2006)

Richardson, K.. Developing number concepts addition and subtraction book 2. Pearson Education, Inc.

1999

Richardson, K. Counting comparing and pattern. Pearson Education, Inc. 1999

Rubenstein, Rheta N. Mental Mathematics beyond the Middle School: Why? What? How? September 2001,

Vol. 94, Issue 6, p. 442.

Shaw, J.M. and Cliatt, M.F.P. (1989). Developing Measurement Sense. In P.R. Trafton (Ed.), New Di-

170

appendix b

rections for Elementary School Mathematics (pp. 149155). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics.

Small, M. (2008). Making math meaningful to canadian students, K-8. Toronto, Ontario: Nelson Education

Ltd.

Steen, L.A. (ed.). On the Shoulders of Giants New Approaches to Numeracy. Washington, DC: National

Research Council, 1990.

Stenmark, Jean Kerr and William S. Bush, Editor. Mathematics Assessment: A Practical Handbook for

Grades 3-5. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., 2001.

Van de Walle, John A. and Louann H. Lovin. Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics, Grades K-3. Boston:

Pearson Education, Inc. 2006.

Van de Walle, John A. and Louann H. Lovin. Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics, Grades 3-5. Boston:

Pearson Education, Inc. 2006.

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171

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