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# Computer exercises of the course Boundary Layers in Fluids

## Exercise 1: Schematic boundary layer

Consider the following simple model of a viscous flow past a flat plate with an indentation in
the interval 0 x 1. The flow field is divided into an inviscid region and a viscous region, in
strong interaction with eachother.
In the inviscid domain it is assumed that the flow is a potential flow that can be calculated
with thin-airfoil theory. The flow consists of a component stemming from the flow past the clean
plate, combined with a correction to account for boundary-layer effects. For the streamwise
velocity this implies
Z
1 1 d /d
d,
(1)
ue (x) = ue0 (x) +
0 x
in which ue0 is the undisturbed inviscid flow. The latter is assumed to be given by (see Figure
1 in which we chose ampl = 0.2):
ue0 (x) = 1 ampl exp[30(x 0.5)2 ].

(2)

Note that we could work backward to obtain the shape of the dent, but that is not of interest here.
The boundary layer is modelled with an algebraic relation between the streamwise velocity
ue and the displacement thickness . This relation reads
ue (x) = a + b + c/ .

(3)

## The coefficients a, b and c are given by

a = 0.04Re1/2 , b = 0.55 and c = 0.6Re1/2 .
Figure 2 shows the boundary-layer model (3).
In x = 0 we chose ue (0) = ue0 (0), and (0) according to (33). At the outflow boundary at
x = 1 we apply the boundary condition d /dx = 0.
The system of equations (1) and (3) describes the complete flow. It is asked to solve this
system for several values of Re and ampl, and for three interaction methods: direct, semi-inverse
and (quasi-)simultaneous.
The Hilbert integral is discretised with nx grid points along the interval [0, 1] (to start with,
take nx = 20). The discretisation occurs as in 7.3 of the lecture notes. You do not have to
carry out this discretisation yourself; it is given in the files.
A FORTRAN program (interakt.f) is provided, consisting of a main routine and a subroutine for calculating the coefficients of the discrete Hilbert integral. The subroutines for the
three iteration methods have to be written yourself.
Cases to be calculated
1. Check the program with ampl = 0. What should be the answer?
2. Continue with ampl = 0.1 and choose Re = 105 and 107 . Determine the solution with
the direct method, the semi-inverse method and the simultaneous method. Try to find a
pattern in the value of the relaxation factor required for the direct method and the semiinverse method (if desired, choose other values for Re). Does this fit with the theory?
1

3. Next, take ampl = 0.2 and choose Re = 104 and 105 . Try again to determine the solution
with each of the three interaction methods. Observe that the direct method wont converge.
Explain this from Figures 1 and 2. Further note the difference in convergence rate between
the semi-inverse method and the simultaneous method. Increase the Reynolds number
Re, and try to estimate the largest value for which the semi-inverse and the simultaneous
method can be made convergent. Compare your findings with the theory given in 7.4.
Especially, try to figure out why there is an upper limit for the Reynolds number.
4. Finally, nx can be increased to find out how much this influences the maximum obtainable
value for Re (e.g. take nx = 50).
Figuur 1

Figuur 2

2.2
2
1.8
Ue

Ue0

0.95

0.9

1.6
1.4
1.2

0.85

1
0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

4
6
delta*sqrt(Re)

10

## Remarks for Exercise 1:

1. Files required: interakt.f, interakt.gnu
2. Compilation of program: gfortran -O interakt.f
3. Run program: ./a.out
4. After filling in the parameters, the results show on the screen as a table. The results also
can be presented as plots (the data are written to the file interakt.dat). These plots can
gnuplot interakt.gnu
This shows the first plot of the velocity distribution. The second plot, showing the displacement thickness, follows after <Enter>.

## Exercise 2: Realistic boundary layer

The program practur.f calculates a realistic boundary layer based on an integral method.
It is modelled by the Von Karman equation, plus some closure relations. Both laminar and
turbulent flow can be simulated.
For laminar flow (model=1) two relations are required to express H and cf as a function of
:
due
;
H = 2.5541 e/6 with = Re ( )2
dx
2Hf2
cf =
with f2 =
Re ue

## 0.3149 e2.5541H 0.08,

H 7,
(0.3149 e2.55417.0 0.08) 7.0/H, H > 7.

## These relations are based on solutions of the Falkner-Skan equation.

For turbulent flow (model=2 or 3) use is made of Heads entrainment method
1 d
ue dx

ue H1
H

= 0.0306(H1 3.0)0.6169 ;

## a relation between H and H1 (as used at NLR)

8

IF (H.LE.2.732) THEN
H1=(0.5*H +1.0)*H/(H-1.0)
ELSE
ht=0.5*(H-2.732)+2.732
IF (ht.LE.4.0) THEN
H1=(0.5*ht+1.0)*ht/(ht-1.0)
ELSE
H1=1.75 + 5.52273*ht/(ht+5.818181)
ENDIF
ENDIF

H_1

7
6
5
4
3

10

and a relation for the shear stress in two variants: the Ludwig-Tillman relation (with always
positive shear stress) (model=2)
3

10

x 10

## or a relation from NLR (which allows negative

shear stress) (model=3)

ReTheta = 1000.0
NLR

++ LudwigTillman

cf

c f0

0.01013
0.00075,
log Re 1.02

## h0r = 1.0 6.55 cf0 /2,

cf

= c f0

0.9
0.5 .
H h0r 0.4


10

As geometry the well-known dent is used, now over the interval 1 x 4. The outer flow
E is described by the Hilbert integral (1).
The program offers the possibity to apply the simultaneous, quasi-simultaneous and semiinverse method, respectively. The simultaneous method is obtained by choosing I = E in

equation (7.6) from the lecture notes. In the quasi-simultaneous method, the interaction law
consists only of the diagonal of the discrete Hilbert integral:
I

4
.
h i

The input file is practur.in and offers the following input variables:
the Reynolds number;
the model (1=laminar; 2 and 3 = turbulent);
the number of grid points in x-direction (60 is a suitable value);
the depth of the indentation (< 0 is dent, > 0 is hump);
the interaction method (0 = semi-inverse; 1 = quasi-simultaneous; 2 = simultaneous);
the relaxation factor for semi-inverse;
the maximum number of iterations (50 suffices for (quasi-)simultaneous, semi-inverse requires much more iterations).
The program is complete and can be compiled immediately: gfortran practur.f. Results
are written to the file practur.res, and can be visualised through gnuplot practur.gnu.
Investigate first the (quasi-)simultaneous interaction methods:
- Start laminar (model=1) with a dent with depth -0.03 and a Reynolds number of 106 .
Keep the depth fixed and increase the Reynolds number up to 5 106 . To get higher in Re
one requires good initial guesses.
- Proceed with turbulent flow at Re = 5106 . Compare the turbulent result with the laminar
result. What is the big difference? Increase the depth even further up to -1.0. Hereafter
it becomes more difficult to increase the depth of the dent. Does the choice of the shear
stress relation (i.e. model=2 or 3) make much difference for ue , , or H?
Finaly, investigate the semi-inverse method. Try to compute one or more of the above flow
cases. Observe that it is difficult to find suitable relaxation factors, and that good initial guesses
are essential (starting from a lower Re can be helpful).
Required files:

practur.{com,f,gnu,in}