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EXPANSION OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION

THE ZHOU DYNASTY (1050-456 BC)


In 11th century BC, a frontier state called Zhou rose against and defeated the Shang
dynasty. The Zhou dynasty is divided into two periods:

Western Zhou (1050-770 BC)


Eastern Zhou (771-456 BC)

Western Zhou (1050-770 BC)


The capital is near to Luoyang
Stable and peaceful life
The Zhou leaders partitioned their kingdom into smaller feudal state
The states, numbering 100,000 were put under a feudal lord
The early Zhou rulers did not attempt to exercise control over the entire region
they conquered.
They secured their position by selecting loyal supporters and relatives to rule
over walled towns and the surrounding territories.
Those who were loyal to the Zhou were rewarded with additional lands while
those who disobey were either sentenced to death or sent to exile.
Feudal lords are given the freedom and authority to administer the people living
in territory because of their obedience to the Zhou lord.

Eastern Zhou (711-455 BC)


The capital was moved further east to Lu.
Real power lay with the larger state, although the Zhou kings continued as
nominal overlords, partly because they were recognized as custodians of the
mandate of heaven, but also because no single feudal state was strong enough
to dominate the others.
The latest Zhou
The latest Zhou was a turbulent period. After more than 500 years, the era of what
was once a great empire ended. Four major forces threatened to replace the Zhous; the
Wu Chu, Yueh and Chin. The efficient Chins warriors led by Lu Puwei eventually
defeated the Zhous. In 256 BC, the Zhou dynasty met its demise

The Zhou dynasty made important contributions to Chinas history. It was able to
develop the economy by expanding trade and commerce. It was able to put in place a
system of written communication based on the calligraphy. Due to the superiority of this
system, it only underwent minor modification through time. At present, the Chinese
government aims to further simplify the countrys system of writing.
The teachings of Confucius and Lao Tzu may be considered the most important
contribution of the Zhou era. These philosophies were the foundation of Chinese
society, and molded the peoples consciousness for a long time.

Confucianism
Confucianism, a major system of thought in China, developed from the teachings of
Confucius and his disciples. It was concerned with the principles of good condu ct,
practical wisdom, and proper social relationships.
Confucianism has influenced the Chinese attitude towards life, set the patterns of living
and standards of social value, and provided the background for Chinese political
theories and institutions. It has spread from china to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and has
aroused interest among western scholars.
Confucianism is a teaching that incorporates many elements of philosophy, religion and
social custom. According to Confucius, there are five levels of interaction that bring unity
and harmony in society. These are the interactions between father and son; husband
and wife; older sibling and younger siblings, friends; and between leader and follower.

Taoism
Taoism is a Chinese philosophical and religious system. Which dates from about the 4th
century BC. Among native Chinese schools of thought, the influence of Taoism has
been second only to Confucianism.
Taoism also made its mark in Chinese arts and literature. The Chinese style of leaving
parts of a paper banks manifests the Taoist belief in the hsu. Like the wind. The hsu is
invisible to the eye, but very important in a persons life.