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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) is one of the two types of gas shielded arc welding

process as the other one is Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG). Also in dual-shield mode of Flux
Core Arc Welding (FCAW), an additional gas supply is provided along with self-shielding of
core flux, due to which FCAW is also listed in gas shielded arc processes. Working principle
of TIG welding is based on the production of arc using high melting and non-consumable
tungsten electrode that is why this process is referred to as (TAGS) tungsten arc gasshielded which is also known by other names; argon arc welding, tungsten inert gas and gas
tungsten arc welding. Gas Shielding is used to protect weld puddle from atmospheric
contamination. These gases are transparent so the weld puddle is made visible to a
welder. Some distinct features of TIG process are

In TIG no flux is used and there is no fear of corrosion due to flux entrapment.

No slagging that contributes to elimination of post weld cleaning.

Since there is no spark and fumes, and that is why sound weld with perfect definition
is obtained.

A non-consumable tungsten electrode is used to produce an arc of considerable high

temperature that assists to melt work metal. Air is driven out due to the envelope of inert gas
that prevents the weldment, tungsten electrode and heat affected zone from oxidation.
Contrary to MIG, tungsten electrode is not consumed rather it provides arc to melt the
additional filler metal. Likewiseoxyacetylene welding, filler metal is fed to the weld puddle.
Normally there are two modes in TIG; semi-automatic or automatic. In semiautomatic, operator has to configure current and gas flow settings and then manually deals
with the torch and filler road. However in automatic the operator sets the travel speed,
length of arc, gas flow rate, filler rod position and then observes the operation and controls
whereby it is needed.
In early times TIG was first introduced to weld magnesium to minimize rapid
corrosion problems. The technique was successfully applied to achieve best results with no
resulting corrosion. This process was introduced with distinct features as compared to other
arc processes. For shielding, gas flow rate can be controlled by flow rate and manifold.
During welding, gas flow not only shields the weld and filler metal but also protects the torch.

There is also a gas delay feature that permits gas to flow for preset time, after the welding
current has been shut off.
TIG is applied in both welding of ferrous and non-ferrous metals with wide range of
thickness not above 8mm. Both alternating (AC) and direct (DC) current supplies are used
with current of range 15 to 350 amps. With the use of small diameter electrodes and suitable
current range, the process is applied in both repair work and new manufacturing. Although it
is comparatively slower than other arc processes but it produce high quality welds with
perfect definition in aluminum, carbon steel and stainless steel family. DC source is used for
welding of stainless steel, carbon steel, nickel and copper alloys. On the other hand AC is
suitable for the welding of Aluminum and its alloys.