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Mortality in Young Chicks

Diseases (8)
Agent

Omphalitis
E. coli (predispose when
umbilicus does not heal due to
wetness)

Yolk Sac Infection


E. coli, Strep., Staphy.,
Clostridium welchii

Aspergillosis in chicks
Aspergillus fumigatus
Brooder pneumonia,

Avian Encephalomyelitis
Picornavirus

Transmission
&
Description

Pre-requisite: high level of


contamination or large
amount of yolk (lipid in
water emulsion, stabilised
by lecithin)
Bad hatchery hygiene gross contamination of eggs

In feed/litter
Inhalation of spores,
Penetration to egg shell (dirty egg)
In hatchery - embryonic mortality &
reduced hatchibility

In embryo - die after 5d


In chicks - high mortality
first 5d
Mortality 5-10% to 50%
Depression
Diarrhoea
Pasty vent

Acute in chicks
Embryonic mortality and reduced
hatchibility
Dyspnoea
Gasping death usually no rales
Death in 24-48 h (10-15%)
Sporadic in adults gasping,
diarrhoea
Metastasis to brain ataxia,
incoordiation, paralysis, pushing
over backwards.
Rarely infection of conjuctival sac
ocular discharge
In chicks yellow/grey caseous
nodules in lung, air sacs, trachea
(hyphae seen under microscope)
In adults nodule/plaque mycelial
growth fuzzy green in lungs
Brain yellow/grey metastasis foci
Conjunctival sacs cheesy exudate

Chicks

High mortality

Depression

Progressive ataxia,
incoordination, loss of
balance, paralysis

Fine tremor (head/neck)


Adults

Transient fall in egg


production

Hyphae seen in 10-20% KOH - fresh


nodules stained with Lactophenol
Blue
Culture in Sabourauds dextrose agar
to identify the species
Only for expensive birds nystatin
& amphotericin-B

Histopath?
Serology: IPS, AGPT, IFT

Cant treat

Good hygiene

Clinical
signs

Hatchery problem
Hatched under low
humidity

Contamination of eggshells
b4 entering hatchery &
dissemination by
ventilation fans in hatchery

Chick-to-chick is low
Onset: 2-3d after hatching

Low mortality

Redden umbilicus (open &


infected umbilical area)

Imperfect healing necrotic

Abdomen feels soft,


mushy, flabby & enlarged

Weak, huddled

May have watery diarrhoea

Post Mortem

Enlarged yolk
Yolk is discoloured,
granular, purulent, caseous,
watery

Diagnosis

Treatment

Control

Remark

C/s, & lesions


Bacteriological
examination of yolk-sac
contents

Tetracycline (variable
response)
Furosol
Cull
Fumigate equipment in
hatchery with 3x strength
of formaldehyde
Fumigate incubating eggs
with 2x strength
formaldehyde

Fatty Liver Kidney Syndrome


Metabolic disorder
Biotin deficiency + other dietary factors +
stress
Low protein , fat

Vertical
Direct contact

Lethargy
Signs of paralysis
Lies on sterna, lies on side
Neck extended in severe cases
Head bent backwards
Die within few hours
Mortality <5 - 30%

Pale & enlarged liver & kidney


Pink adipose tissue, accumulate &
surrounds liver, heart, kidney
Heart is pale and flabby

Gross & histo lesions of liver and


kidney

Vaccination in breeder 1016w (passive immunity to


chicks)

Add biotin
Increase fat, protein in feeds

Epidemic Tremor in chicks

Ddx: Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic


Syndrome (in adults, inactive, kept for
long time e.g. breeders, due to sudden
movement & fighting causing
haemorrhages)

Mortality in Young Chicks


Diseases (8)
Agent
Transmission
&
Description

Clinical
signs

Post Mortem

Diagnosis

Pullorum
Salmonella pullorum

For chicks - through eggs &


other chicks (droppings)

Contaminated equipment

For older birds - cannibalism,


eating eggs
Onset: depends on mode of
transmission (early (2d) if through
eggs) (1w if through other chicks)

Chicks huddles & chilled

Whitish diarrhoea, pasty vent

Reduced appetite

Ruffled feathers

Rapid high mortality in young


chicks

Few changes only (highly


mucus contents of the intestine
& unabsorbed yolk
In adults

Atrophy of ovary (if localised


in ovary)

Greyish nodules in heart &


gallbladder (resembles lesions
of Aspergillosis)

I&I, culture (media?) from


ovary, testicles, heart, liver,
spleen

Detection of Ab - agglutination

Treatment

Control

Furazolidone (bactericidal) in
feed or sulfonamides in
drinking water
Identify carrier (2 serology
tests no less than 6m apart to
confirm the status, if reactors
are found, retest at 21d,
continue testing until no
reactors are found in 2
consecutive tests)
Pelleted feed (heat treated)
may reduce Salmonella
(>82.20C)

Remark
Commercial Chicken Production Manual Chapter 37

Visceral Gout

Newcastle Disease