Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/842674

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

2
benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of
medicine

Local name

Alto, Bolivia

Hinojo

Arabic

Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua

Inuju

Balikesir, Turkey
Basque
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,
hullebe
Mieloi

Bosnia

Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı
Komoraˇc

Brazil

Endro, erva-doce, funcho

Catalan

Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia

Morac

Chinese

Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang

Czech

Fenykl

Dalmatia (southern Croatia),
Poland

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper
wloski

Danish

Almindelig fennikel, fennikel

Denmark

Almindelig

Dutch

Venkel

English

Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel

France

Fenouille

French

Fenouil
Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Germany
Guerrero, Mexico

Hinojo

Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Saunf
Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu
Saunf

Japanese

Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,
shouikya

Java, Indonesia

Adas

Jordan

Shomar

Kallawaya

Jinuchchu

Kannada

Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)
Italy

Korea

Sohoehyang

Laotian

Phaksi

Latin

Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador

Hinojo

Majorcan area

Fonoll

Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International

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Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
medicine
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap

Nepalese

Madesi sauf

North Iran

Badian

North Portugal

Funcho

Norway

Fenikkel

Norwegian

Fennikel

Pakistan

Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain

Hinojo

Persian

Razianeh

Polish

Fenkuł, koper włoski

Portuguese

Funcho

Rajasthan, India

Sanuf

Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa

Slovenian

Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia

Kamon

South Europe

Fennel

South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua

Spanish
Swedish

F¨ank˚al

Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Thai
Uttarakhand, India

59

Total

91

Local name
2011–13

30

25

2006–10

4

2001–05
0

31

33

27

50

100

150

Ethnobotany
Phytopharmacology

Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.

Badesoppu

growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

oleic acid.873%). cis-11. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts. grapes (10.0 mg/100 g). colour. and strawberries (14. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients.223%). stearic acid. undecanoic acid. prunes (18. linoleic acid. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14]. pentadecanoic acid. cis-11.40%). Thus. The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet.17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid. The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. p-coumaric acid (4. (b) stem. (e) fruits.0 mg/100 g). lauric acid. On a weight basis. ?-linolenic acid. bananas (3. (c) leaves. and (f) population of F. (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas. raisins (40. while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution. vulgare Mill. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves.88 mg/100 g). orange (40.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat. and nutritional properties of fruit. and lignoceric acid. myristic acid.14-eicosadienoic acid.86 mg/ 100 g).25 mg/100 g).01 mg/100 g). The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. behenic acid. The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. capric acid.325%). On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22].98%). These are caproic acid. chlorogenic acid (6. chlorogenic acid (2.14 mg/100 g). fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7. caffeic acid (2. while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. quercetin-7-o-glucoside . caprylic acid.169%).960%). Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1. About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3). heptadecanoic acid. Nevertheless. Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste. tricosanoic acid. eicosanoic acid. arachidic acid. palmitic acid. ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5. dates (25.0 mg/100 g).14. energy. myristoleic acid. (d) inflorescences and flowers. gallic acid (0.

Mg Phosphorus. 29.93 g 49 mg 0. Turkey. liver pain. 50. makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. South Africa. in the Indian. kidney ailments. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener). rosmarinic acid (14.53 g 0. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. used to stuff fish for grilling. namely. colic in children.2 mg 12 mg 0. ferulic acid (3. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45. diarrhea. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48]. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor. Italy. All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables. cinnamic acid (0. 34.01 mg 0.24 g 0.45 g 0. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). Ethiopia. hesperidin (0. for example. ice-cream. They are added raw to salads. 9. F. leucorrhoea. fever. seasonal fresh fruit. Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. antiemetic.. seeds.3 g 3. emmenagogue. Siddha. The seeds can be savory. and sesame seeds. and apigenin (12. fennel is used to preserve food.068 g 0. uses.8 ?g 0. which is due to its essential oil.169 g 0. Shoots. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases.09 g 0. In Portugal. . total saturated Fatty acids. cuts) to very complicated ailments (e.g. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. and fruit/seed of F. stem. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium.097%). laxative. vulgare. Brazil. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot. and USA [28. 46] see Table 4). Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. cough/cold.1 g 3.. aperitif. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. arthritis. conjunctivitis. 33–44]. as a typical. cancer. USA).73 g 0. 1. Besides seasoning. It is used to treat simple ailments (e. Na Zinc. insomnia.203%).558%) [23]. and alcoholic beverages. tender leaves. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]. Ca Iron.095%). leaves. constipation. Jordan. Flowering stems.53 g (3. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds. leaf.2 g 7.g. Spain. Pakistan.032 mg 0.219%).047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0. Ecuador. leaves. fruit. coated in sugar. depending on the season. Mexico. vulgare. Thus. The characteristic anise odour of F. irritable colon.131%). Unani. seeds. Serbia. and brightly colored. flatulence. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14]. aerial parts.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. gastralgia.998%).73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0. meat and fish dishes. Portugal. quercetin (17. The preparation methods.555%). They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. 48. F. vulgare is famous for its essential oil. gastritis. cancer). and placed in soups and bread bouillons. fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions. From ancient times. 47]. total monounsaturated Fatty acids. dieresis. India. and India. In many parts of India and Pakistan.BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA.58 mg 62. Iran. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32]. fruit. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. sugar. stewed with beans and chickpeas. Its stem. P Potassium. coconut.63 g 0. K Sodium.55 g 0. 37. vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. the stem. Fe Magnesium. Spain. and application of F. Italy. anise seeds. mouth ulcer. kidney ailments.64 mg 0. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids. and stomachache (Table 5). abdominal pains. In addition to its medicinal uses. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4). 51]. Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid.21 g 31 kcal 1. depurative. 2.

and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.90 ± 1.99 ± 0.31 0.04 ± 0.00 0. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).15 1. roots.09 ± 0.43 ± 0.09 0.19 ± 0. namely.36 23.07 0. stem.00 0.02 1.49 ± 0. vulgare. 3.31 ± 0.01 0.33 3.03 0.89 ± 0.06 ± 0.07 1.00 0.01 0.86 ± 1.02 0.02 0.03 0.31 ± 4. phenolic components.12 ± 0.68 36.03 0.16 ± 0.1.04 3.24 ± 0.00 0.52 1.04 5.20 ± 0. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent). Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F. appearing practically in any of its parts.07 0.04 25.89 ± 0.12 2.40 67.51 39.04 0.10 ± 0.06 4.15 ± 0.02 2.35 ± 0. The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.25 ± 0. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.18 ± 0.69 ± 0.13 1.20 nd 1.04 1.00 19.61 ± 0. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4.08 ± 0. flowers.36 ± 0.01 0.53 ± 0.29 23.34 Inflorescences 71.49 ± 0.28 1.04 27.04 43.36 ± 0.52 ± 0.16 1.55 1.02 4.04 2.01 1. 59].52 38.19 17.55 ± 0.04 ± 0.58 ± 0.36 77.49 ± 0.41 ± 0.00 0.06 0.03 0. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].01 0. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.33 39.49 ± 0.00 0.03 0. .00 0.06 4.00 0.96 ± 0.06 ± 0.43 ± 0. The anise odor of F.01 1.03 0.58 ± 0.00 20.55 ± 0.12 0.56 ± 0.04 ± 0.37 23.88 ± 0.00 1.46 ± 1.02 0.05 0.02 1.10 36.00 38.91 ± 3.08 ± 0.10 0.23 ± 10.12 ± 0.51 ± 0.00 0.35 ± 0. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49.76 ± 0.19 ± 0.57 61.05 ± 0.78 ± 0.28 ± 0.13 ± 0.02 0.01 3.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g).23 17.12 0.01 0.71 ± 0.04 ± 1.40 0. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.29 ± 0.33 ± 0.84 ± 0. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6). and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).68 ± 0. shoots.39 ± 0.06 4.41 ± 0.96 ± 0.15 ± 0.02 37.03 0. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products.48 ± 0.07 0.45 ± 0.94 ± 0.07 ± 0.03 18.91 ± 0.99 ± 0. nd: not detected.25 ± 0.06 0.00 0.82 ± 0.35 ± 0.78 ± 0.12 0.68 ± 0.61 ± 0.13 56.06 ± 0.21 ± 0.43 ± 0.09 nd 0.05 22.37 ± 0.22 ± 0.11 0.03 1.68 1.00 1.02 0.08 2.37 Stems 77.00 0.17 ± 0. Some of the phytoconstituents of F.41 ± 0.43 ± 0.49 ± 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.78 ± 0.03 ± 0.00 1.68 22.39 ± 0. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids.72 ± 0.23 ± 0.06 0. and fruits [58.01 38.75 ± 0.03 23.37 ± 2.61 ± 0.01 0.05 1.09 0.0 1.28 ± 0.99 ± 0.35 ± 0.03 ± 0.14 ± 0.44 ± 0.06 1.00 nd 0.81 ± 0.68 1.00 0.20 ± 0.04 21.15 0.82 ± 3.12 108.06 ± 0.59 ± 0.08 ± 0.33 ± 0.02 0. hydrocarbons.23 2.01 1.04 1. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57].95 ± 0.84 ± 0.42 83.08 ± 0.25 5.55 ± 0.62 ± 0.02 33.17 ± 0.00 12.38 ± 0.65 1.24 97.62 85.06 1.06 1.20 ± 0.02 0.99 ± 0.37 ± 0.66 ± 1.02 1.01 0.07 43.72 ± 0.83 2. Volatile Compounds.77 ± 0.20 ± 0.37 ± 0.11 ± 0. 50].14 ± 0.53 ± 0.30 38.16 ± 0.26 ± 0. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.94 ± 0.94 ± 0.05 ± 0.21 ± 0. 3.43 ± 0.72 ± 0.02 ± 0.61 ± 0.02 Shoots 73.31 ± 0.74 ± 0.08 4.25 ± 0. volatile components.04 0.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.00 0.47 ± 0.00 0.08 19.11 1.22 ± 0.33 ± 0.01 0.62 ± 0.94 ± 0.

They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep. 3. used in fish stuff. and used in fish and bread bouillons. raw as a snack.1% [62]. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars. and for aromatizing brandy. The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59.1–98. and fenchone. Seeds used as spices. and spices.0%). tender leaves.1–21. and methylchavicol (5. Moldova. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves. tender leaves.9% [61].8%). premature. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68.1–6. figs preserves. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the Algerian F. bread. (E)-phytol (0. Flowering stems used in beverages.4%).6–75.(SD-) GC-MS methods. Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas.0%). and spices.0% of the total oil. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel. soups. India Saunf 9 Liguria. In 2007 Tognolini et al. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application. 0. flavour for cakes. Fang et al. stems.6%). that is. funcho-doce. d-limonene (6. that is.2%) followed by estragole (7. stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas. vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea. and stems used in snacks.7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats.1–3. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho. and chestnuts. In addition.1–2. namely. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0. mature.10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur. Whole plant used in olives brines. and fully mature) of the fruit of F. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified. fionho. and Turkey. vulgare. and fenchone. and sweets. and stems are fried with eggs. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F. vulgare seed oil was different as compared with . Seeds are used as spices. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55]. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). Zoubiri et al. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS. spirits.6%). Sr. soups. and sauces. salads. [125] Tender leaves and stems.09–9. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72. biscuits. millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho. used in omelettes.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature. exo-fenchyl acetate (0. as preservative for dry figs. neophytadiene (0–10. finucchiello.5%). Italy 3 Spain Hinojo.3– 3. erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho. Shoots. In addition.40–14. and chestnuts. and biscuits. [14] Shoots. 60 compounds representing 90. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel. Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. Overall. number Region/Nation 1 Campania. Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. accounting for 98. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia. [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts.7%). Norway. estragole (0. namely.5%). finochietto Finocchiella. fialho. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature.8%). [56]. are used in salads or stewed. stews. Italy 2 Campania. They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity. and steam distillation. fenchone (8. Austria. vulgare was reported by Telci et al.8–90. oxygenated monoterpenes. and seeds of F. flavour for cakes. References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives.

Jordan. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed. Pakistan Pernambuco. India [131] Alto. decoction Rome. roots. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. Florida. leaf. Italy [33] Rome. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. infusion Seed. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. decoction Rome. flower. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. India [127] Loja. aqueous infusion. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. Maharashtra. Jordan. decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem. Ecuador [128] Loja. Ecuador Miami. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja.8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. aqueous infusion. decoction Leaf and seeds. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. Bolivia Gujranwala. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. Italy Northern Badia. infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. decoction Rome. and stem. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. Sr. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. aqueous infusion. infusion Leaves. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. USA [128] Rome. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. Manisa. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant. paste Locality References Basilicata. Pakistan Gujranwala.

decoction Seeds. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. Italy Balikesir. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. India [26] Rajasthan. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. India [26] Basilicata. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. leaf. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] .BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. decoction Seed. South Africa Rome. decoction Seed. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. oral infusion Whole plant. roots. and stem. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. West. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part. simple powder Seed. roots. inhaled into eyes Seeds. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. infusion. and fresh leaves Seed. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. Sr. 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. decoction Uttarakhand. India Andalusia. roots. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero. and fresh leaves Leaf. decoction Tender parts. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. decoction Seeds. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. and leaves Balikesir. edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. powder for digestive ailments Seeds.

Flavonoids. North Bengal. vulgare [67]. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. quercetin. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside. antiallergic. and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69].) [70].8% of the total amount.10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued. antinociceptive. sorbic acid. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. was found to be the main component. Also.3 ± 0. infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. 4. oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed. chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14. Italy Southern Punjab. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. representing 95. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero. antipyretic. and flavonoid aglycones [67].3. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. antimicrobial and antiviral. flavonoid glycosides. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. 1. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria. Serbian [52]. Few extracts of F. 3. 1methoxycyclohexene. a phenylpropanoid. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. infusion Fresh fruit.4% and 1. Further.) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family.2% resp.8%. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables. anti-inflammatory. and Chinese [53] fennels. antimutagenic. and inflammation. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66]. F. and 1. the major compounds were identified as 1. vulgare.3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. vulgare. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. and stem-infusion.8? -binaringenin.1% and 1. antihirsutism. 56]. limonene-10-ol. antiaging. Jordan.5%. Phenolic Compounds. resp. Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives.1% and 12. vulgare [65].4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid.42%) with limonene (6. 1. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside. anticolitic. o-cymene. Quercetin-3O-galactoside. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant. and others as minor components. isoquercitrin. Indian [54]. vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. . 3. whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. Diao et al.). fenchone (5.9% and 6. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. Sr. rutin. followed by estragole (10. quercetin. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F. quercetin3-arabinoside.53%). food scientists. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23].). leaf. resp. and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases.45%). which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. quercetin-3-rutinoside. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts. respectively. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. The phenolic compounds present in F.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? .18 mg/g. namely.24%). kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. estragole. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17.6%.2. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists. decoction Turkish [51. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid.3-benzenediol. antispasmodic. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2. Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. and consumers due to their role in human health. cancer. resp. Trans-Anethole (68. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3.

1.BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued.8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) .

12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued. Oleic acid (37) .3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1.

R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . = R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1. = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? .BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. OH . = R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH.3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H. R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H . R4 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH.

apoptotic. hypoglycemic. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). diethyl ether. hepatoprotective. cytotoxicity. Bacillus subtilis. nootropic. and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas syringae. Bacillus pumilus. chloroform. anxiolytic. Salmonella typhi. vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). galactogenic. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis.14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. cytoprotection and antitumor. the . estrogenic properties. Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. viral.1. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. 20. gastrointestinal effect. vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. 17–18. 20-21. hypolipidemic. Klebsiella pneumonia. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. Roby et al. fungal. The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. 71–90]. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). 21–24. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. 50. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. 68. 22–24. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. 14–24. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. Duˇsko et al. vulgare. Bacillus megaterium. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. 14–18. ethanol. and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. antimycobacterial. memory-enhancing property. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). antithrombotic. respectively [3. Pseudomonas putida. and Candida albicans. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). Among different tested bacterial strains. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli. chemomodulatory action. Pseudomonas fluorescens. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. cardiovascular. essential oil of F. and hexane extracts of seed of F. Escherichia coli. [92]. 4. An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F. diuretic. vulgare and reported in the literature. tumefaciens. Methanol extract of flower of F. Gulfraz et al. and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. Erwinia carotovora. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts.. The results from the disc diffusion method. Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9). 13. Shigella flexneri. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. Pseudomona aeruginosa. A brief review of the same is as follows. and oculohypotensive activities [11. Micrococcus luteus. 4]. Klebsiella pneumonia. expectorant. 11-12. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. and mycobacterial origin. Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. antistress. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9).

Klebsiella pneumonia. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Pseudomona aeruginosa. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3.4a. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.20 73.3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-2. Mentha spicata. Sr.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2.8-dienol 1.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1. and phytopathogenic . number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.7-octriene 2.1.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde 1.2. 3. namely.27 66.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare.6-Octatriene.4. Escherichia coli.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1.0]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2. Candida albicans.1]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2.67 mm zone of inhibition.8.5. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature. respectively [7].6-Dimethyl-2. Foeniculum vulgare. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F.1.3.3.1.7-dimethyl-.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F. Sr.27 and 12.8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2. Martins et al. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11.6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.

quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Essential oil of F. imperatorin. SD: seed. namely. was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. that is. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. 2. scopoletin. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. and Rhizopus solani [96]. FT: fruit.4-Undecadienal.8-Cineole. and FW: fennel waste. psoralen. Essential oil of F. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. vulgare stem. SDEO: seed essential oil. Interestingly. rosmarinic acid 3. LF: leaf. photoanethole ?-Myrcene. griseofulvin [99]. ST: stem. scopoletin. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. and Aspergillus flavus [98]. Aspergillus niger. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. oleic acid. and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid.8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. aqueous seed extract of F. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. In an in vitro study. 250. The MIC values of F.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. molds. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent. bergapten. characterized from F. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. dillapional. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite. A coumarin derivative. undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. linoleic acid. Fusarium solani. 1. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Mucor rouxii. respectively. 3? . from methylene .3-benzenediol. Fusarium oxysporum. Aspergillus niger. The oils extracted from F. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol.16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr.

Invivo. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo. BALB/c mice.1% inhibition of Invitro.4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid. female rats endometrium. alkaline phosphatase (ALP).4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. respectively. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 . cervix.5% and 99.1 to 0. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. myometrium. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system. carbon tetrachloride induced namely. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo. Invivo. 77. Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct. that is. alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT). and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. male ICR mice.

1301.3%. M. and 1. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1. for J45 cell line. 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo. 100. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75. 21.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway. [84] 0.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo. hexane. tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo. and 22. U-266B1.01. 0.16.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo. J-45. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line.6%.3%. C-8166. methanol. 18 BioMed Research International . WICL. and 1. 150. Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60.6%. tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M.49.

a. LF.t.and A.t. E. E. P. B... NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol. Sa. S.s. B.t. S.a.. B. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc.s. E.c. B..a.g.p...a..a.c.a.and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous.a.f.c. B. gentamicin. A. M... Ethanol.. E..f.o. F. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0. K.a.s. and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone.. C.. 20.. Essential oil Bacilli sp.and C.a. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol. 1. Active strainsb S. and R. P.n..s.p. B.c. S..s.p... P. ST.. St..l... E. antimycobacterial... S... Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E.t. P.. E.a.a....c.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1.. P. Acinetobacter sp. E.c.a. and C.. 25.p. number E.s. and C.and S. LF. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0.m.p.. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A.. P.and Rh. P. FT FL. K.a. C. Sa..c.. A. Er...c.. streptomycin. C. methanol...v.e..a.... and Salmonella sp. P. B. M.....a..c. antifungal....m.a. and M.c.r.25 to 2.c.5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A..6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial. sulbactam..c. and S.s.a. Enterococcus sp. P.a. F.. E.n. M. P. E. E.s. P.a.x.a. TW SD. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr.. K..c. and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare.t. B. S.c.0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30.t.s. BioMed Research International 19 . S.a.n..a. S. ofloxacin.. and A.and P.. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E.. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B..f.SD FT AP SD FL.f.

. M.. and hexane extract Crude.c. amoxicillin. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10.?. S. diethyl ether.. and S.a.f.s. E.t.. K. E. As. E. S. FL: flower.c.v. RT: root..f.o.: Pseudomonas glycinea. S.: Staphylococcus coagulase. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E. Er. FL FT LF ST. chloroform.: Shigella flexneri. F.: Proteus vulgaris.: Shigella boydii..a.s. E.: Fusarium oxysporum.e..c.: Candida tropicalis.c..a. S..: Enterobacter aerogenes. E. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S. E.a.m.m.l..a.r.f.: Shigella sonnei.: Rhizopus solani.s. E.s.: Mycobacterium smegmatis. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0.t.a.and C.a. S.5. A. A.a.s.r.c.a.p. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned.: Sarcina lutea.a. tumefaciens.m. P. St.: Salmonella typhimurium. FT: fruit. P.f. C. F.and P. 15. B. number a 20 BioMed Research International .: Erwinia carotovora.: Candida albicans.f.t. a FT Part used 14 Sr.c.p.f..: Pseudomonas syringae.: Bacillus megaterium.: Bacillus subtilis.: Pseudomona aeruginosa. A. Sa.s. Essential oil Methanol.: Fusarium solani...c.: Mycobacterium xenopi.r. M... P. P.c. SD: seed.: Mycobacterium chelonae. Table 9: Continued.t.a.and As. E.t.h. S.n. S.: Pseudomonas fluorescens. A... S.c. B. S. R. ?.: Streptococcus haemolyticus. K.l.: Salmonella typhi. S.s. C.o.p. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S.a.. M...: Phytopathogenic molds. P.. P.b. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M.: Escherichia coli.a. P. C. C...n. S.f. B.. B. Active strains S.: Streptococcus faecalis. Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E.: Rhizoctonia solani.x.: Staphylococcus epidermidis.. Sa. S. E.. B.8 ?g/mL NM 7.: Alcaligenes faecalis....d.and St.l.and P..a. ethanol. S. S.e.p.s.a. M. S.s.t. C.: Staphylococcus aureus. P.and F.c. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses.: Bacillus pumilus.c. LF: leaf.a.c. M.s.s.5. and TW: twig. 12.a. A..: Mucor rouxii.c.. P.: Shigella shiga.. Rh.p.c.d. and P. and B.: Aspergillus flavus.g. S.a. B..t. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part.and A. S.: Enterococcus faecalis. K. 50.f. Sa. 10..: Klebsiella pneumonia.. and Sh.b.c. S.a.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv..m..f. S.a.: Shigella dysenteriae. P.e.h.c.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294.: Aspergillus niger.c.025 to 0.: Bacillus cereus. B. M. S.a. B.SD LF..: Pseudomonas putida. ST: stem.a. Sh. S.: Alternaria alternate. S.p. B.: Salmonella enteritidis.t.: Micrococcus luteus. M. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin.

alanine aminotransferase (ALT). vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Out of these. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema. and so forth. The whole plant extract of F. twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Ozbek et al. the extract of entire plant of F. 4. mouth ulcer. 1. arthritis.001).6 and 0. vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). irritable colon. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents. Thus. fever. However. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. Oral administration of methanol extract of F.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). gastritis. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern. 4. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. 4. Naga Kishore et al. vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. stomachache. with results ranging between 1. Methanolic extract of F. tuberculosis infection [63]. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). Bioactive metabolites of F. These overall results seem to suggest that F. vulgare may lower the risk of M. 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0. antiemetic. There are a number of plants. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. Oral administration of F.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). Bhandarkar and Rege. The key parameters. For acute inflammation.4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. constipation. and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F. diarrhea. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. 4. carrageenan-induced paw edema. The level of serum transaminase. Essential oil of F. These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Antistress Activity. and 2. namely. [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F.5. The plant extract (50. There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). tuberculosis species. Orhan et al.6. Memory-Enhancing Property. vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79]. Antiallergic Activity. respiratory disorders. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals. Ocimum minutiflorum. vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze. vulgare [79]. Hepatoprotective Activity. the samples tested were less effective against PI-3.025 ?g/mL. ranging between 0. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature). vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. flatulence.3. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. 4. and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly. and whole board models. 4. Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. open field test. Methanol extract of F. vulgare [101]. Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9]. 2. Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms.2. vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F.BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F. and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0. gastralgia. rota rod. [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F.4. Ocimum vulgaris. When anxiety becomes excessive. skin diseases. Mentha spicata.8 and 0. Thus. vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. insomnia.2 ?g/mL. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1. Thus. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder.(2. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. the dietary intake of F. Anxiolytic Activity.001). The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. depurative. Mentha piperita. dieresis.3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL). All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). that is. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg). whose consumption is believed to enhance memory .7. conjunctivitis.

It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. and −0. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. chalcones. This overall progress suggests that F.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. prolactin.and time-dependent compared to control group. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa). It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. promote menstruation. vulgare has estrogen-like activity. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. These were usually given to children as part of their food. 150. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance. respectively [78]. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. the extracts of F.3%. On the other hand. 4. and 0% (placebo). In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. The whole plants extract (50. and increase libido [71]. Nootropic Activity. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F. F. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group. namely. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. isoflavonoids. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. However. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. On considering above aspect.8.10. Estrogenic Properties. Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105]. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. In male rats. 4. Antihirsutism Activity. such as dianethole and photoanethole. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. 4. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. Thus. respectively. which took 12 days for acquisition. 4. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice.8%. Galactogenic Activity. Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. and essential oils [16]. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone. vulgare seeds [104]. Traditionally. While 10. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. F. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. stilbenes. vulgare fruit. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group).12. coumestans. Thus. including flavonoids. Expectorant Activity. F. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. There is some evidence in favor of use of F. continued treatment with F. while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens. mammary glands and oviducts. facilitate birth. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. F. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50. Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. and increase libido. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. 4. Structural similarity of its main constituent. to reach the point of acquisition. 76]. 2%. Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days. was observed.22 and intelligence. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. Thus. anethole. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity. F. lignans. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals.9. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. 18. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. However. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. saponins. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the .11. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR.

resp. A maximum mean difference of 31. Tognolini et al. Briefly. The fruit extract showed. ethyl acetate. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. F. Alone. respectively. Antinociceptive Activity. vulgare. On the other hand. vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. Briefly. Antithrombotic Activity.17. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. Diuretic Activity. Anethole and F. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75]. 4. Antimutagenic Effect. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74]. 4. however. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. a highly significant diuretic effect. the aqueous extract of F.15.6%. vulgare. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. 4. hexane. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. The ethanolic extract of F.49. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. An aqueous extract of F. The aqueous seed extract of F. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84].3%. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea. 4. Thus. Thus. reducing intestinal gas. arachidonic acid. ganglionic. 0. that is. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil. Anticolitic Activity. It supports the safety of F. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice . Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances.19. and so forth. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108].13. The various extracts of aerial part of F.16. Oculohypotensive Activity. In vivo. in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities.03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus. This extract exhibited 17.14. and vasorelaxant action [55].16. The volatile oil of F. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity. and 22. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. 4. and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106]. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F. and 1. namely. which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). 21. Essential oil of F. 4. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. it is an agent that promotes diuresis. In another part of the study. Cardiovascular Activity. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. free from cytotoxic effects. muscarinic. Caceres et al. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony.).18. clot destabilizing effect. statistically. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. both F. while. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. 4. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations. or serotonergic receptors. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. bacteria. vulgare. vulgare. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. at the same time.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma.The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73].2% (w/v) concentrations. or combined with other plant medicinals. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68]. methylene chloride. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75].

61%. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110]. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7. Further. respectively. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. ethanolic extract of F. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes. F. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. vulgare works in the .C.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts. Additionally. aqueous extract of F. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species.01) [108]. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. micronucleus. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Gastrointestinal Effect. Chemomodulatory Action. The extract from F. that is. respectively [88]. Additionally. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. F. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice. Thus. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. It was induced by S. 0. while significantly increased nitrite.001) group of animal. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. 4. As an antipyretic agent. Al-Harbi et al. Antipyretic Activity. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. 4. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. catalase. and 61%. The essential oil of F. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel. Also. that is. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels. cholesterol. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus. and sperm abnormality assays.018% micronucleus.12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene.21. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability. and beta-carotene levels. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice.24. Cytotoxicity. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. respectively.22. reduced tumor weight. chromosomal aberrations. Hypolipidemic Activity. Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study. Hypoglycemic Activity. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0. LDLcholesterol. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. 4. ascorbic acid. 4. 4. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82]. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F.26. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice.25. retinol.20. The aqueous extract of F. triglycerides. The aqueous extract of F. 23%. aqueous extract of F. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet.23. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. micronuclei formation. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde. 4. 4. The study revealed that anethole increased survival time. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11]. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. respectively. nitrate. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90]. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis. The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F.24 induced by cyclophosphamide.

acaricidal. Antiaging Effects. 4.3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83].05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12]. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. namely. vulgare. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. Antioxidant Activities. The base was insignificant. Archangelica officinalis. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity. EOL—48%. respectively. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells. respectively. Pastinaca sativa. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F.5 ± 3. Mentha piperita. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. Also. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities.60 ± 6. Apoptotic Activity. and Lasioderma serricorne. U-266B1—human myeloma. Melissa officinalis.30. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia. mosquitoes. 4. 5. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode. The biologically active constituents.19 mg/dL to 81. Foeniculum vulgare. J-45. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. 4.1. Heracleum sibiricum. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%.5 and 10. anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. and dopamine. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. showed antioxidant activities [67].27. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. norepinephrine. 5. 4.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. rosmarinic acid. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111]. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114]. Thus. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%. Moreover. 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast. essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal.28. 4.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. including caffeoylquinic acid. The ethanol extract from fruit F. respectively [86]. larvicidal. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity. Matricaria chamomilla. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. insect.29. respectively. namely. Callosobruchus chinensis. and nematicidal activity [115–119].97 mg/dL with ? < 0. Phenolic compounds of fennel.72 ± 2. Carum carvi. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65]. respectively. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. the extracts of F. that is.32. fennel. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae. and ML—1–42%.01—human acute T cell leukaemia. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F. Antispasmodic Activity. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine. 4. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113].97 ± 1. that is. Insecticidal Activities. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86]. Eryngium planum. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. Rosmarinus officinalis. Carum carvi. Bronchodilatory Effect. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector. By using a filter .BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole.78 U/g Hb to 99.05. The antispasmodic activity of 2. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside.31. repellent. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia.

vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract.10 and 44. ataxia. All external morphological. bizarre reactions. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. 1. nasal discharge. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. chinensis. chinensis. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F. tremors. the essential oil extracts from leaves.51 ppm. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. respectively. (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. defecation. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. namely.6 and 2 h.3. estragole (0. Nematicidal Activity. Foeniculum vulgare. cyanosis. exophthalmos. Oka et al. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. oryzae. C. vulgare could be considered as safe. By considering this aspect. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. no sign of toxicity was observed. with no reports of any serious side effects. the plant extract in doses of 0. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments. locomotor activity. Zoubiri et al. tail posture. and L. paralysis.26 paper diffusion test. only the 3 g/kg dose . In 3-liter pot experiments. Additionally.5. In a fumigation test. sensitivity to sound.5. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito. and piloerection. respectively. After 2 days of treatment. Thus. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N. prostration. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. chinensis. Acaricidal Activity. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115]. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. Additionally. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121]. Exceptionally. urination. and spermatogenic changes. in addition to body and vital organ weights. and 3 g/kg body weight. Thus. In case of longer term toxicity. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects. vulgare. respectively [119]. Larvicidal Activity.021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. were recorded. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Repellent Activity. C.2. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20. F. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight. haematological. Mentha rotundifolia. serricorne [116]. 5. and L. Sedaghat et al.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. salivation. suggests that F. As naturally occurring insect-control agents. all test compounds (0. Recently. Thus. F. respectively. vulgare. namely. 5. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. thymol. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. In experimentation. The F. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths.5. 5. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S. vulgare oil was the most effective against A. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment. the F. In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0.168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. (E)anethole (0. oryzae. ethanolic extract of F. respectively [120]. 1. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). convulsions. and roots of F. Whereas.2 mg/cm2 ).4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. Essential oils of Carum carvi. vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. Terpineol and 1. 0.105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. In this investigation.4. 5. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. social interaction. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. flowers. 6. and estragol [118]. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application.8-cineole content of F. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. aggressive behaviour. pattern of respiration. The methanolic extract of fruits of F. pupil size. Whereas after 1 day of treatment. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. At this concentration. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment.

BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. cytotoxicity.75. antimutagenic. isoleucine. kidney ailments. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. Also. The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. arthritis. antinociceptive. estrogenic properties. as a laxative. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. Thus.92. and zinc [124]. anxiolytic. and K. The plant extract of F. 11. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. phenylalanine. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food.25% of the diet. methylene chloride. antimicrobial and antiviral. memory-enhancing property. Thus. vulgare upto 5. thiamine. anti-inflammatory. However. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. and methanol extracts of F. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. fever. antispasmodic. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models. dieresis. mouth ulcer. cancer. flavonoids. leucorrhoea. aperitif. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions. antiallergic. especially for abdominal pains. diuretic. phenolic compounds. copper. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. The use of F. iron. constipation. insomnia. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. However. 600. nootropic. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant. all other parameters were negative [108]. apoptotic. E. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests. expectorant. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. cadmium. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. Hence. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. manganese. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. irritable colon. 1000. magnesium. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. essential amino acids like leucine. In another experiment of acute toxicity. 6. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. diarrhea. liver pain. methylene chloride. n-hexane. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76]. antiemetic. conjunctivitis. LD50 being: 6. flatulence. gastritis. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane. 800. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel. riboflavin. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. and pyridoxine. lead. antithrombotic. strontium. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. hepatoprotective. and methanol extracts. 400. This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare.5 g/kg concentration. namely. Otherwise. chemomodulatory action. anticolitic. gastrointestinal effect. and amino acids. fatty acids. gastralgia. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. cobalt. antistress. ethyl acetate. cardiovascular. niacin. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. nickel. respectively [68]. emmenagogue. antipyretic. calcium. When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. barium. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. galactogenic. depurative. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . 7. New Delhi.0. hypoglycemic. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. different solvent extracts. and stomachache. antihirsutism. chromium. 200. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. cytoprotection and antitumor. hypolipidemic. ethyl acetate. such as antiaging. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds. colic in children.

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