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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/842674

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

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benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of
medicine

Local name

Alto, Bolivia

Hinojo

Arabic

Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua

Inuju

Balikesir, Turkey
Basque
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,
hullebe
Mieloi

Bosnia

Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı
Komoraˇc

Brazil

Endro, erva-doce, funcho

Catalan

Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia

Morac

Chinese

Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang

Czech

Fenykl

Dalmatia (southern Croatia),
Poland

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper
wloski

Danish

Almindelig fennikel, fennikel

Denmark

Almindelig

Dutch

Venkel

English

Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel

France

Fenouille

French

Fenouil
Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Germany
Guerrero, Mexico

Hinojo

Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Saunf
Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu
Saunf

Japanese

Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,
shouikya

Java, Indonesia

Adas

Jordan

Shomar

Kallawaya

Jinuchchu

Kannada

Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)
Italy

Korea

Sohoehyang

Laotian

Phaksi

Latin

Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador

Hinojo

Majorcan area

Fonoll

Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International

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Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
medicine
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap

Nepalese

Madesi sauf

North Iran

Badian

North Portugal

Funcho

Norway

Fenikkel

Norwegian

Fennikel

Pakistan

Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain

Hinojo

Persian

Razianeh

Polish

Fenkuł, koper włoski

Portuguese

Funcho

Rajasthan, India

Sanuf

Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa

Slovenian

Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia

Kamon

South Europe

Fennel

South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua

Spanish
Swedish

F¨ank˚al

Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Thai
Uttarakhand, India

59

Total

91

Local name
2011–13

30

25

2006–10

4

2001–05
0

31

33

27

50

100

150

Ethnobotany
Phytopharmacology

Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.

Badesoppu

growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

cis-11. gallic acid (0. prunes (18. quercetin-7-o-glucoside . grapes (10.873%). caprylic acid. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14]. energy.01 mg/100 g). The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. heptadecanoic acid. ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5. The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat.40%). The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. On a weight basis.14 mg/100 g). (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas. and lignoceric acid.960%). and strawberries (14.0 mg/100 g). ?-linolenic acid. and (f) population of F. palmitic acid.223%). cis-11. vulgare Mill. behenic acid. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts. myristic acid. eicosanoic acid. chlorogenic acid (2. and nutritional properties of fruit. On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22]. (b) stem. bananas (3. orange (40. myristoleic acid. arachidic acid. Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1.0 mg/100 g). while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. lauric acid. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. (e) fruits. (c) leaves. chlorogenic acid (6.86 mg/ 100 g). Nevertheless. The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet.325%). colour.169%).98%). fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7.17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid. linoleic acid.25 mg/100 g). undecanoic acid.0 mg/100 g). Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste. p-coumaric acid (4. oleic acid. stearic acid. while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves. tricosanoic acid.14-eicosadienoic acid.14. pentadecanoic acid. raisins (40.88 mg/100 g). capric acid. caffeic acid (2. These are caproic acid. dates (25. About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3). (d) inflorescences and flowers. Thus.

2 mg 12 mg 0. depurative.097%). vulgare is famous for its essential oil.53 g (3. cinnamic acid (0. ice-cream. aerial parts. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45. sugar. seasonal fresh fruit. insomnia. gastritis. Besides seasoning.21 g 31 kcal 1. Portugal. and placed in soups and bread bouillons. meat and fish dishes. 51]. leaves. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48]. tender leaves. as a typical.068 g 0. leucorrhoea. Jordan. Its stem. total monounsaturated Fatty acids. Spain. Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. irritable colon. USA). and sesame seeds. rosmarinic acid (14. leaf. coconut. In addition to its medicinal uses.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. It is used to treat simple ailments (e.2 g 7.219%). vulgare. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds. India. From ancient times. quercetin (17. Fe Magnesium. antiemetic. fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions.3 g 3.09 g 0.169 g 0. F. makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. 37. coated in sugar. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids. and brightly colored. 48. Italy. mouth ulcer. uses. stewed with beans and chickpeas. vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener). All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables.131%). The preparation methods. Siddha. 47]. Serbia. and apigenin (12.. Ethiopia. ferulic acid (3.1 g 3. arthritis. Unani. Mg Phosphorus. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]. P Potassium.555%).047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0.73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0. seeds. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit. 29. and India. . 46] see Table 4). cuts) to very complicated ailments (e. the stem. 2.55 g 0. Na Zinc. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. South Africa.998%). fruit. for example. Iran. Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. kidney ailments. used to stuff fish for grilling. and stomachache (Table 5).63 g 0. Flowering stems. stem. anise seeds. diarrhea. 9. total saturated Fatty acids.. 50. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32]. Ecuador. cancer.BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA. In many parts of India and Pakistan. In Portugal. Shoots. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot. Thus. kidney ailments. Turkey. Brazil. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4).203%). dieresis.24 g 0.g. abdominal pains. cancer).64 mg 0. and USA [28. The characteristic anise odour of F. which is due to its essential oil.58 mg 62.45 g 0. liver pain. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14]. gastralgia. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F.095%). conjunctivitis. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. F.93 g 49 mg 0. in the Indian. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. 1. Spain.g. colic in children. cough/cold. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. seeds. They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. Ca Iron. constipation. Mexico. and application of F. vulgare. laxative. K Sodium.032 mg 0. fennel is used to preserve food.53 g 0. Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid. Italy. namely. Pakistan. leaves. They are added raw to salads. aperitif. fever. depending on the season.558%) [23]. The seeds can be savory. 34.73 g 0.01 mg 0. hesperidin (0. emmenagogue. fruit. flatulence. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). and fruit/seed of F.8 ?g 0. 33–44]. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases. and alcoholic beverages.

03 0.31 ± 4.05 1.04 27.06 ± 0.45 ± 0. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.00 1.17 ± 0.13 56.04 1.15 ± 0.55 1.03 0.37 23.68 ± 0.75 ± 0.00 0.89 ± 0.04 ± 1.48 ± 0.04 ± 0. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.09 nd 0.78 ± 0.12 0.84 ± 0.09 0.01 1.00 0. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57].02 4.68 22.36 23.72 ± 0.84 ± 0.07 43.21 ± 0.16 ± 0.23 2.72 ± 0. Volatile Compounds.01 0.28 1.06 4.06 0.72 ± 0.40 67.20 nd 1.03 ± 0.02 0.52 ± 0.03 1.77 ± 0.28 ± 0.69 ± 0. vulgare.10 ± 0.06 4.15 ± 0.43 ± 0.58 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.14 ± 0.01 0.07 1.14 ± 0.00 0.03 0.58 ± 0.68 1.04 ± 0. 50].24 97.08 ± 0.15 0.02 Shoots 73. nd: not detected.24 ± 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0. Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F.71 ± 0.36 ± 0.02 1.20 ± 0.03 ± 0.33 39.01 1. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).34 Inflorescences 71.00 38.38 ± 0. and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.41 ± 0.12 108.22 ± 0.12 0.00 1.76 ± 0.35 ± 0.37 Stems 77.03 0.68 ± 0.19 ± 0.05 ± 0.00 0.00 0.83 2.01 0.78 ± 0.16 1.55 ± 0.04 2. namely.25 ± 0.00 20.1. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products.49 ± 0.00 12.62 85.61 ± 0.11 ± 0.06 1.04 0.25 ± 0.43 ± 0.62 ± 0.37 ± 2.08 2.03 0.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g).78 ± 0.35 ± 0.02 0.02 1.04 0.81 ± 0.09 ± 0.55 ± 0.16 ± 0.12 0.55 ± 0.17 ± 0.43 ± 0.53 ± 0.39 ± 0.00 0.06 ± 0.07 0.02 37.04 3.07 ± 0.96 ± 0.00 19.11 1.46 ± 1.94 ± 0.10 36. stem.12 ± 0.02 0.06 0.04 ± 0.61 ± 0.82 ± 3.52 38.04 43.68 36.37 ± 0.59 ± 0.96 ± 0.62 ± 0.02 2.25 ± 0.37 ± 0. The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.65 1.00 1.06 1.36 77.05 ± 0.07 0.04 25.02 33.08 ± 0. 3.02 ± 0.00 0. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].99 ± 0.49 ± 0.20 ± 0.12 2.20 ± 0. shoots.39 ± 0.61 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.99 ± 0.02 0.51 ± 0.00 0. and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).95 ± 0. volatile components.01 0.02 1.42 83.08 4.52 1.02 0.91 ± 0.08 19.99 ± 0.61 ± 0. .05 0.00 0.29 ± 0.99 ± 0.09 0. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.20 ± 0.47 ± 0.00 0.41 ± 0. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6).00 0.94 ± 0.06 ± 0.01 1.01 0.01 0.30 38.12 ± 0.37 ± 0.15 1.43 ± 0. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4.04 0.19 ± 0.94 ± 0.06 4. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49.23 17.29 23. and fruits [58.49 ± 0.23 ± 10.06 1.41 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.33 3.89 ± 0.08 ± 0.00 0.33 ± 0.35 ± 0.56 ± 0. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent).44 ± 0.05 22. Some of the phytoconstituents of F.88 ± 0.25 5.33 ± 0.13 1.03 23.57 61. hydrocarbons.04 5.74 ± 0.03 18.04 1. 59].22 ± 0.31 0.23 ± 0.90 ± 1.01 3.00 nd 0. The anise odor of F.28 ± 0.04 21.66 ± 1. 3.00 0. flowers.01 38.13 ± 0.91 ± 3.49 ± 0.68 1. phenolic components. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids.08 ± 0.19 17. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.94 ± 0.18 ± 0.11 0.0 1.07 0.40 0.01 0.82 ± 0.33 ± 0.00 0.35 ± 0.51 39.02 0. appearing practically in any of its parts.49 ± 0.86 ± 1.36 ± 0. roots.10 0.53 ± 0.26 ± 0.21 ± 0.06 ± 0.

and fully mature) of the fruit of F. finochietto Finocchiella. Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas. Italy 3 Spain Hinojo. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). fenchone (8. tender leaves. vulgare. (E)-phytol (0. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia.1–2. accounting for 98. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS.7%). and for aromatizing brandy. 0. India Saunf 9 Liguria. vulgare was reported by Telci et al. neophytadiene (0–10.4%).1–21. as preservative for dry figs.40–14. Austria. [125] Tender leaves and stems. and sauces. and stems used in snacks. and used in fish and bread bouillons. Moldova. Zoubiri et al. used in omelettes. In addition. [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts. fionho. are used in salads or stewed. and stems are fried with eggs.1–3. bread. that is. Seeds used as spices. Seeds are used as spices. soups. exo-fenchyl acetate (0. and fenchone. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application.5%). They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. raw as a snack. erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho. oxygenated monoterpenes. Norway. estragole (0. and spices. mature. Overall. The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea. figs preserves. stews. and spices. flavour for cakes.5%).8–90. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. tender leaves. Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. In addition.1–98.7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. and biscuits. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel.0%).6%).10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. biscuits. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons. Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives.6%).09–9. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55]. Whole plant used in olives brines. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72. They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity. stems. soups. used in fish stuff.2%) followed by estragole (7. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68. premature. The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59. spirits. References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives. and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho. Fang et al. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature. that is.0% of the total oil. and chestnuts. stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas. flavour for cakes. Flowering stems used in beverages. and seeds of F. and steam distillation.0%). and methylchavicol (5. namely. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats. Italy 2 Campania. vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel. and Turkey. 3.1% [62].8%).(SD-) GC-MS methods. namely. vulgare seed oil was different as compared with . A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified. salads. 60 compounds representing 90. millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature. The chemical composition of the Algerian F. [14] Shoots.1–6. and sweets. [56]. and chestnuts. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves.6–75. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general. fialho. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F. finucchiello.3– 3. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0.9% [61]. Sr. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep. In 2007 Tognolini et al. number Region/Nation 1 Campania.8%). and fenchone. d-limonene (6. funcho-doce. Shoots.

Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. roots. aqueous infusion. Pakistan Gujranwala. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja. Jordan. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. decoction Leaf and seeds. Sr. infusion Leaves. Florida. flower. USA [128] Rome. decoction Rome. Jordan. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. Manisa. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. Ecuador [128] Loja. leaf. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. decoction Rome. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. India [127] Loja. infusion Seed. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. paste Locality References Basilicata. infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant. India [131] Alto. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. and stem. aqueous infusion. Ecuador Miami. Italy [33] Rome. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. aqueous infusion. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. Bolivia Gujranwala. infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed.8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. Pakistan Pernambuco. Italy Northern Badia. decoction Rome. Maharashtra. drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem.

infusion. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] . edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. decoction Seeds. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. leaf. simple powder Seed. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. roots. roots. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. Italy Balikesir. 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. roots. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part.BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. Sr. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. India [26] Basilicata. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. India Andalusia. powder for digestive ailments Seeds. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. and stem. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. decoction Seeds. decoction Uttarakhand. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. decoction Seed. and leaves Balikesir. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. South Africa Rome. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. decoction Seed. decoction Tender parts. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. and fresh leaves Seed. India [26] Rajasthan. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero. inhaled into eyes Seeds. and fresh leaves Leaf. oral infusion Whole plant. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. West. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome.

and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69]. Indian [54]. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside. namely. Further. North Bengal. vulgare. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. 56]. and consumers due to their role in human health.8%. . respectively. vulgare [67]. Few extracts of F. infusion Fresh fruit. quercetin-3-rutinoside. which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2. food scientists.18 mg/g. Flavonoids. vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. rutin. Phenolic Compounds. The phenolic compounds present in F.45%).) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts. quercetin. quercetin. and stem-infusion.3. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. antispasmodic. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives. whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. 3. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3. a phenylpropanoid. Diao et al. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. antinociceptive. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation.10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued.2.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid.1% and 12.1% and 1. limonene-10-ol. and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F. and others as minor components. representing 95. flavonoid glycosides. and 1. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. antiallergic. and flavonoid aglycones [67].8? -binaringenin. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide.3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. antihirsutism. vulgare [65]. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant.53%). and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17. resp. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. F.8% of the total amount. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family. 1methoxycyclohexene. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. 4. A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F.3-benzenediol. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet.) [70]. vulgare. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Quercetin-3O-galactoside. fenchone (5. infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. followed by estragole (10. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside.4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. the major compounds were identified as 1. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists. o-cymene. antimicrobial and antiviral. Trans-Anethole (68. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. antimutagenic. anti-inflammatory. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables. kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. Also. anticolitic.24%). and inflammation. Italy Southern Punjab. sorbic acid. cancer. Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. leaf.9% and 6. Serbian [52].42%) with limonene (6. resp.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? . 3. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. quercetin3-arabinoside.5%.). antiaging. was found to be the main component.). oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed.4% and 1. the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23]. isoquercitrin. vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases. 1. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. estragole. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66].2% resp. decoction Turkish [51. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero. vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14.3 ± 0.6%. Jordan. antipyretic. 1. resp. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria. Sr. and Chinese [53] fennels.

BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued.8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) . 1.

12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2.3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued.4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1. Oleic acid (37) .

= R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1.3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H. R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH. 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH. R4 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. = R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H . OH . R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H.BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? . R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH.

Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. cytotoxicity. galactogenic. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9).1. vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. viral. and oculohypotensive activities [11. Pseudomonas putida. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. hypoglycemic. Pseudomonas syringae. ethanol. and mycobacterial origin. Klebsiella pneumonia. expectorant. Salmonella typhimurium. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. Salmonella typhi. anxiolytic. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). Klebsiella pneumonia. cytoprotection and antitumor. 71–90]. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. Methanol extract of flower of F. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. Bacillus subtilis. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. gastrointestinal effect. 14–24. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). 50. and hexane extracts of seed of F. estrogenic properties. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomona aeruginosa. cardiovascular. 21–24. 20.14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. respectively [3. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9). diethyl ether. Duˇsko et al. Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. chemomodulatory action. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. Micrococcus luteus. and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. nootropic. and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. Roby et al. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). antimycobacterial. Escherichia coli. chloroform. two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). Escherichia coli. [92]. 4. 4]. Among different tested bacterial strains. hypolipidemic. apoptotic. essential oil of F. An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F. antistress. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). vulgare and reported in the literature. and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. 11-12. Erwinia carotovora. antithrombotic. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. 13. Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. hepatoprotective. 68. Pseudomonas fluorescens. the . and Candida albicans. Shigella flexneri. Gulfraz et al. indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. The results from the disc diffusion method. 20-21. memory-enhancing property. 14–18. tumefaciens. A brief review of the same is as follows. fungal. 22–24. vulgare.. diuretic. Bacillus pumilus. 17–18. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Bacillus megaterium.

3.8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2. number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.7-octriene 2.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature.4.1. Foeniculum vulgare.20 73. and phytopathogenic . Klebsiella pneumonia. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2.6-Octatriene.0]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare.3. namely. Escherichia coli. Mentha spicata. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F.6-Dimethyl-2. Staphylococcus epidermidis.8.3.27 and 12.67 mm zone of inhibition.1.5. Pseudomona aeruginosa.8-dienol 1.1]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F.4a.2. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1. respectively [7].3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-2. Candida albicans.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1. Sr. Sr.6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde 1.1.7-dimethyl-.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2. Martins et al.27 66.6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3.

Mucor rouxii. FT: fruit. 1. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. namely. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol. from methylene . vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The MIC values of F. Fusarium solani. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. scopoletin. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. rosmarinic acid 3. that is. psoralen. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. and Rhizopus solani [96]. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. In an in vitro study.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. dillapional. A coumarin derivative. Fusarium oxysporum. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid. Essential oil of F.3-benzenediol. Aspergillus niger. SDEO: seed essential oil. The oils extracted from F.8-Cineole. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr. griseofulvin [99]. and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. scopoletin.16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. ST: stem. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. photoanethole ?-Myrcene.8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. vulgare stem. linoleic acid. characterized from F. Interestingly. molds. Aspergillus niger.4-Undecadienal. 2. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. LF: leaf. aqueous seed extract of F. Essential oil of F. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. respectively. was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. 250. and Aspergillus flavus [98]. and FW: fennel waste. SD: seed. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. 3? . was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. imperatorin. oleic acid. bergapten.

myometrium.1 to 0.4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo. carbon tetrachloride induced namely. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. female rats endometrium. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 . doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. Invivo. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid. male ICR mice. respectively. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%.1% inhibition of Invitro. not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50. Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct.4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). that is. and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0. Invivo. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo.5% and 99. alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT). 77. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). BALB/c mice. cervix.

150.16. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. 0. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo. tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo. WICL. for J45 cell line. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17. Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. hexane. U-266B1. 18 BioMed Research International . 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL. and 1.3%. J-45. and 1. 21. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1.6%. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0. methanol. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0.49.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo.01.3%.6%. tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo. C-8166. 100. and 22. [84] 0. M. 1301.

v.a. E. C.m..f.c. B. Sa.f. P. Ethanol. K..g. methanol.a.s. ofloxacin. B.. P.a... C.s. P. A..x. St.and C.6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial.f. Acinetobacter sp.s..t. LF. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0. TW SD.a.l.. FT FL. Er.a..s..c. antimycobacterial..a. P...a. Sa. and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare.r.n.a. B. and S.a.. P..and S.c. M.. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc.a.t. Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E. E. S. S. P.c...c.p. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr. sulbactam. and Salmonella sp.t..p. B..a..and P.c. P. C. S. Essential oil Bacilli sp....c.a.... P.e.. 20. B...0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30.. E.. E.a...c..p..a.c.... and C. K. E. F. B. NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol.a. E.a. M.a.a. streptomycin.. and R..s.s..and Rh. Enterococcus sp. S.. K.t.. number E.. antifungal.c. P. E..25 to 2... E. gentamicin...s.a.5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A. M.m.o.p. Active strainsb S. F. P.. LF..and A. E.p.SD FT AP SD FL.. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B.a.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1...c..c. S. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol.s.a. E.. B. and M.. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A.s.t. A. 1.c.c.n. and A.n. S. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E. 25. B..a. ST.. P. and C.. S.and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0. BioMed Research International 19 .t.f... and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone.

.and C.r. S. S. S. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E. and B.f.: Aspergillus flavus.c. B.SD LF. S. S.: Fusarium solani. E..a. and hexane extract Crude..m.: Rhizopus solani. As.f. S.c.: Mucor rouxii.r.c. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin.c.c. M.t. Sa.c. Sh.p. 12. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0..: Staphylococcus coagulase..h.: Bacillus pumilus.and P. ethanol.... S.g.and P.: Salmonella enteritidis. Essential oil Methanol. Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E.: Shigella shiga.a. Sa. RT: root.a. number a 20 BioMed Research International .h.t.p.: Rhizoctonia solani. ?. S. E. B.a.025 to 0.: Shigella flexneri.s.: Pseudomonas fluorescens.: Mycobacterium smegmatis. M. C. P.r.f..b. C.. M..c.a.: Salmonella typhi.: Shigella boydii.: Alcaligenes faecalis.f.a.: Fusarium oxysporum.a..a.c. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part. chloroform.m..: Bacillus subtilis.t.t.e.s. B.5. A..c.a.: Alternaria alternate.t. S.: Klebsiella pneumonia.p. 15.: Aspergillus niger. a FT Part used 14 Sr.. E. S.l. S.s.a.e.s. FT: fruit.: Shigella dysenteriae.a.. R.. ST: stem. S.c. P.s. LF: leaf.and St. S.s. Sa.f.. A.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv.c.p.c.a.o. C.s.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294.m. 50.l.. E..: Mycobacterium xenopi.n.a. P..c. C. B.s..a..: Pseudomonas glycinea. A.. diethyl ether.: Mycobacterium chelonae. B.5. K.f..f. Er. B.: Enterococcus faecalis.. S.: Enterobacter aerogenes. K.: Proteus vulgaris. E. K. S.: Pseudomonas syringae. F.c.f. Active strains S. P.b.a. S..l. A.. FL FT LF ST.t. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S. S.: Salmonella typhimurium. amoxicillin. 10. tumefaciens.: Candida albicans. P.a.a.: Candida tropicalis.s.: Bacillus cereus.: Escherichia coli. P. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10.8 ?g/mL NM 7.t. E.s.. P. M.x. E.: Pseudomonas putida.c.o.p.e.p. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M.and F.: Shigella sonnei. M. and TW: twig.a.a.: Erwinia carotovora.: Sarcina lutea. Rh. and S. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S. E.n. M. and P.d. FL: flower.. F. S. SD: seed.d. B. P..: Phytopathogenic molds. E.: Bacillus megaterium. P.and As.: Streptococcus haemolyticus. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses. Table 9: Continued.t.: Pseudomona aeruginosa. and Sh.a. S. S.. B. B.: Streptococcus faecalis..a. A.and A. C. S.a.m. P..f.v. S.: Staphylococcus epidermidis..c.. St. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned..c.: Micrococcus luteus.?. M..s..: Staphylococcus aureus.

and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0. aspartate aminotransferase (AST). [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). tuberculosis infection [63].4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. Antistress Activity. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). vulgare [101]. 4. the extract of entire plant of F. Essential oil of F. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. Bioactive metabolites of F. Anxiolytic Activity. These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The key parameters. There are a number of plants. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature). open field test. with results ranging between 1. Oral administration of methanol extract of F. gastralgia. Ocimum vulgaris.5. and so forth. rota rod. However.(2.8 and 0. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). arthritis. and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly. and whole board models. fever. vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST).2. vulgare [79]. Hepatoprotective Activity. 1. The plant extract (50. Mentha spicata. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F. vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9]. Thus. Antiallergic Activity.3. 4. depurative. When anxiety becomes excessive.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M. conjunctivitis.025 ?g/mL. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Naga Kishore et al. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. and 2. skin diseases. Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F. vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79]. vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze. Memory-Enhancing Property. diarrhea. For acute inflammation. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg).4.7. carrageenan-induced paw edema. respiratory disorders. mouth ulcer. 4. [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F. ranging between 0. vulgare may lower the risk of M. Oral administration of F. 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0. Methanolic extract of F. twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Thus. Bhandarkar and Rege. vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens. whose consumption is believed to enhance memory . 4. 2. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. Thus. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. antiemetic. dieresis. The whole plant extract of F. Ozbek et al.001). Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. 4. irritable colon. alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Ocimum minutiflorum. stomachache.3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL).6 and 0. tuberculosis species. flatulence. methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains. namely. Methanol extract of F. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1. The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. the samples tested were less effective against PI-3. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. 4. The level of serum transaminase. There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance. insomnia. vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. Orhan et al.2 ?g/mL. that is. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder.6. Mentha piperita. constipation. Out of these.001). Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). the dietary intake of F.BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals. gastritis. These overall results seem to suggest that F. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. and formaldehyde-induced arthritis.

11. 4. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F. including flavonoids. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. the extracts of F. In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. The whole plants extract (50. Traditionally. 18. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. coumestans. However. respectively. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. and 0% (placebo). was observed.22 and intelligence. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. prolactin. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity.3%. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. In male rats. Structural similarity of its main constituent. facilitate birth. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the . stilbenes. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. Thus. Thus. While 10. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa). Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105]. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50. F. Thus.10. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. 2%. while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days. and increase libido. 4. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. saponins. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days.8. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. respectively [78]. F. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. There is some evidence in favor of use of F. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. lignans. and essential oils [16]. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. anethole. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. namely. Expectorant Activity. and increase libido [71].5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. 150. mammary glands and oviducts. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. F. vulgare seeds [104].and time-dependent compared to control group. Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. chalcones. vulgare fruit. F. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance. On the other hand. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group). Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. F. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. 4. However. and −0. Nootropic Activity.8%. 76]. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone. Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. This overall progress suggests that F. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR. 4. Estrogenic Properties. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. continued treatment with F. Galactogenic Activity. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. On considering above aspect. Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones. total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. such as dianethole and photoanethole. promote menstruation. 4. which took 12 days for acquisition. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. vulgare has estrogen-like activity. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. to reach the point of acquisition.9. These were usually given to children as part of their food.12. isoflavonoids. Antihirsutism Activity. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion.

The fruit extract showed. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75]. muscarinic. resp.17. The ethanolic extract of F. The various extracts of aerial part of F. 4.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles.19. vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. and so forth. vulgare. or serotonergic receptors. On the other hand. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. however. A maximum mean difference of 31. or combined with other plant medicinals. vulgare. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). it is an agent that promotes diuresis. reducing intestinal gas. Oculohypotensive Activity. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test. 4. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. 4.14. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities.). it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli. and vasorelaxant action [55]. respectively.03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. arachidonic acid. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74]. tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium. both F. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. at the same time. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea. 4. Tognolini et al. Thus. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. Cardiovascular Activity. Diuretic Activity. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75]. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity.13. 4. It supports the safety of F. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. Antinociceptive Activity. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. ethyl acetate. 4.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma. that is. methylene chloride. statistically. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84]. The aqueous seed extract of F.16.3%. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68]. Essential oil of F. vulgare. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus. the aqueous extract of F. bacteria. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. hexane. Alone. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. Caceres et al. ganglionic. Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F. 4. a highly significant diuretic effect. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil.The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73]. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system.16.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31. Antimutagenic Effect. In another part of the study. namely. which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). vulgare. 21. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations. free from cytotoxic effects. Briefly. Thus.2% (w/v) concentrations. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice . in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. 0. An aqueous extract of F. The volatile oil of F. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. In vivo. This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106]. F.49. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. Briefly. while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg. Anethole and F. clot destabilizing effect. while. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony. and 22. Antithrombotic Activity. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108]. and 1. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F.6%. This extract exhibited 17. Anticolitic Activity.15. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain.18.

12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0. The study revealed that anethole increased survival time. Gastrointestinal Effect. ethanolic extract of F. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus. nitrate.25. 4. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11]. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. F. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. Hypoglycemic Activity. Al-Harbi et al. retinol. and 61%.01) [108]. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. It was induced by S. ascorbic acid. In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability.26. triglycerides. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study.24.23. Additionally. 4. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice. 4. that is. aqueous extract of F. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. reduced tumor weight. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. Additionally. micronucleus. This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. F.21. 4. respectively. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%. Antipyretic Activity. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase. Also. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels.22. Further. micronuclei formation. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82].20. 0. As an antipyretic agent. Chemomodulatory Action. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.001) group of animal. catalase. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90].018% micronucleus. cholesterol. respectively.C. The aqueous extract of F. and beta-carotene levels. and sperm abnormality assays. The essential oil of F. Cytotoxicity. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel. 23%. Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. vulgare works in the . The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F. respectively. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. that is. The aqueous extract of F. while significantly increased nitrite. studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. 4. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. 61%. Hypolipidemic Activity. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts. 4. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice. The extract from F. respectively [88]. LDLcholesterol. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. Thus. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. 4. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. aqueous extract of F. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. chromosomal aberrations. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110].24 induced by cyclophosphamide. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis.

J-45. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). that is. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit. the extracts of F. The ethanol extract from fruit F.30.97 mg/dL with ? < 0.28. insect. Eryngium planum.31. respectively. Heracleum sibiricum. 5. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%. respectively [86]. Melissa officinalis. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86]. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. 4. 4. mosquitoes. Antiaging Effects. showed antioxidant activities [67]. Foeniculum vulgare. larvicidal. Rosmarinus officinalis. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. 4. 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114]. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside. Carum carvi. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. respectively. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens.72 ± 2. 4. and dopamine. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. namely. essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal. By using a filter . Bronchodilatory Effect. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. U-266B1—human myeloma.78 U/g Hb to 99. Antispasmodic Activity. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65]. Insecticidal Activities. vulgare. EOL—48%. The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity.05. Thus. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12]. that is. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia. namely. Also. Matricaria chamomilla. Moreover. and nematicidal activity [115–119]. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL.1.60 ± 6.01—human acute T cell leukaemia. including caffeoylquinic acid. Antioxidant Activities. An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare.BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162. repellent. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine.32. The base was insignificant.19 mg/dL to 81.27. respectively.5 and 10. Carum carvi. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. Apoptotic Activity. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal.3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83].5 ± 3. Mentha piperita. Pastinaca sativa. anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. and Lasioderma serricorne. and ML—1–42%. 5. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. acaricidal. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113]. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111]. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. norepinephrine. The antispasmodic activity of 2. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. Phenolic compounds of fennel. The biologically active constituents. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. 4. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity. 4. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%. rosmarinic acid. respectively. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods.29. Callosobruchus chinensis.97 ± 1. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. fennel. Archangelica officinalis. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode.

vulgare oil was the most effective against A. F. paralysis. In experimentation.168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. no sign of toxicity was observed. At this concentration. Thus.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. oryzae. 0. Foeniculum vulgare. respectively. Larvicidal Activity. vulgare. social interaction. namely. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N. ethanolic extract of F. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. were recorded. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control.021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. Recently. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121]. All external morphological. In this investigation. and roots of F.26 paper diffusion test. After 2 days of treatment. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects. respectively. chinensis.10 and 44. pupil size. Exceptionally. As naturally occurring insect-control agents. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115]. Whereas. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F.2 mg/cm2 ). vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment. the essential oil extracts from leaves. C. Acaricidal Activity. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching.3. the plant extract in doses of 0. ataxia. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone.5. In a fumigation test. Zoubiri et al. By considering this aspect. bizarre reactions. serricorne [116]. Thus. with no reports of any serious side effects. pattern of respiration.4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. vulgare. thymol. haematological. 5. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. defecation. 5. 1. 1. chinensis. and 3 g/kg body weight. 5. Oka et al. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). oryzae.5. flowers. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. all test compounds (0. only the 3 g/kg dose . (E)anethole (0. 6. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments.105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. and L. in addition to body and vital organ weights. nasal discharge. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight. and spermatogenic changes. sensitivity to sound. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract. In case of longer term toxicity. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. Terpineol and 1. Whereas after 1 day of treatment.6 and 2 h. convulsions. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths. 5. Additionally. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20. Mentha rotundifolia. and estragol [118]. prostration. Additionally. cyanosis. Essential oils of Carum carvi. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi.5. tremors. vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations. respectively. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. chinensis. tail posture. the F. locomotor activity. These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. C. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO.4. vulgare could be considered as safe. Sedaghat et al. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. estragole (0. urination. namely. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S. Repellent Activity. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. F. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment. respectively [119]. (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. The F. Thus. suggests that F. Nematicidal Activity. The methanolic extract of fruits of F. In 3-liter pot experiments. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. exophthalmos.2. Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. salivation.51 ppm. respectively [120]. aggressive behaviour.8-cineole content of F. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. and piloerection. and L.

The plant extract of F. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. phenylalanine. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. antiallergic. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. namely. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. antistress. kidney ailments. antithrombotic. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. aperitif.0. isoleucine. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food. thiamine. Also. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. antinociceptive. colic in children. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. 600. n-hexane. and amino acids. respectively [68]. different solvent extracts. anxiolytic. hypolipidemic. 800. phenolic compounds. calcium. apoptotic. flatulence. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. New Delhi. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests.92. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. cytotoxicity. Hence. essential amino acids like leucine. copper. cardiovascular. flavonoids. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. ethyl acetate. all other parameters were negative [108]. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. gastritis. Thus. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. galactogenic. riboflavin. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. nickel. iron. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. Thus. In another experiment of acute toxicity. antimicrobial and antiviral. 6. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. The use of F. However. dieresis. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. emmenagogue. 400. and methanol extracts of F. liver pain. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. strontium. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. and methanol extracts. E. antiemetic. chemomodulatory action. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. hepatoprotective. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. diuretic. 200. 1000. ethyl acetate. magnesium. niacin. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. and zinc [124]. leucorrhoea. antihirsutism. especially for abdominal pains. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant. conjunctivitis.25% of the diet. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane. Otherwise. irritable colon. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . fatty acids. depurative. mouth ulcer. methylene chloride. lead.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. vulgare upto 5. When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. nootropic. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses. and K.BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds. cancer.5 g/kg concentration. cobalt. gastrointestinal effect. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. and stomachache. and pyridoxine. antipyretic. anti-inflammatory. manganese. 11. 7. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76]. barium. antimutagenic. diarrhea. memory-enhancing property. insomnia. cadmium. gastralgia. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel. anticolitic. constipation. such as antiaging. chromium. antispasmodic. methylene chloride. hypoglycemic. as a laxative. arthritis. LD50 being: 6. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. expectorant. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. However. estrogenic properties.75. The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. fever. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. cytoprotection and antitumor.

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