Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/842674

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

2
benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of
medicine

Local name

Alto, Bolivia

Hinojo

Arabic

Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua

Inuju

Balikesir, Turkey
Basque
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,
hullebe
Mieloi

Bosnia

Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı
Komoraˇc

Brazil

Endro, erva-doce, funcho

Catalan

Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia

Morac

Chinese

Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang

Czech

Fenykl

Dalmatia (southern Croatia),
Poland

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper
wloski

Danish

Almindelig fennikel, fennikel

Denmark

Almindelig

Dutch

Venkel

English

Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel

France

Fenouille

French

Fenouil
Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Germany
Guerrero, Mexico

Hinojo

Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Saunf
Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu
Saunf

Japanese

Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,
shouikya

Java, Indonesia

Adas

Jordan

Shomar

Kallawaya

Jinuchchu

Kannada

Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)
Italy

Korea

Sohoehyang

Laotian

Phaksi

Latin

Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador

Hinojo

Majorcan area

Fonoll

Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International

3

Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
medicine
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap

Nepalese

Madesi sauf

North Iran

Badian

North Portugal

Funcho

Norway

Fenikkel

Norwegian

Fennikel

Pakistan

Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain

Hinojo

Persian

Razianeh

Polish

Fenkuł, koper włoski

Portuguese

Funcho

Rajasthan, India

Sanuf

Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa

Slovenian

Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia

Kamon

South Europe

Fennel

South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua

Spanish
Swedish

F¨ank˚al

Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Thai
Uttarakhand, India

59

Total

91

Local name
2011–13

30

25

2006–10

4

2001–05
0

31

33

27

50

100

150

Ethnobotany
Phytopharmacology

Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.

Badesoppu

growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22]. cis-11. pentadecanoic acid. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts. The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. quercetin-7-o-glucoside .86 mg/ 100 g).17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid. lauric acid. chlorogenic acid (6. colour. ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5. and strawberries (14. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves. myristoleic acid. (c) leaves.169%). grapes (10. The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids.14 mg/100 g).0 mg/100 g). vulgare Mill. capric acid. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14]. oleic acid.223%). tricosanoic acid. dates (25. ?-linolenic acid. palmitic acid.40%). while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution. caprylic acid. (d) inflorescences and flowers. prunes (18.88 mg/100 g).325%). The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet.14-eicosadienoic acid. About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3). caffeic acid (2. (b) stem. myristic acid. cis-11.960%). Nevertheless. raisins (40.0 mg/100 g). heptadecanoic acid. The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. orange (40. gallic acid (0. (e) fruits. Thus. stearic acid.01 mg/100 g). and lignoceric acid. eicosanoic acid. fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7. energy. bananas (3. linoleic acid. These are caproic acid. behenic acid. Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1. undecanoic acid.25 mg/100 g).98%). while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste. arachidic acid.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat. chlorogenic acid (2.14.873%). and (f) population of F. On a weight basis. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients.0 mg/100 g). (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas. and nutritional properties of fruit. p-coumaric acid (4.

arthritis. vulgare. 34. sugar. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener). 9. Iran. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]. cinnamic acid (0. Ca Iron. gastritis. emmenagogue. F. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium. 2. fennel is used to preserve food. the stem. and placed in soups and bread bouillons. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. Mexico.219%). and brightly colored. Fe Magnesium. 46] see Table 4). Flowering stems. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. Pakistan.. and alcoholic beverages.93 g 49 mg 0. seeds. namely. leucorrhoea. 33–44]. depending on the season.09 g 0.555%). fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases. vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. Turkey. rosmarinic acid (14. insomnia. 51]. colic in children.63 g 0.032 mg 0. ice-cream. In Portugal. quercetin (17.g. for example.097%). vulgare is famous for its essential oil. laxative. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot. total monounsaturated Fatty acids. P Potassium.203%). and fruit/seed of F. Portugal. Italy. anise seeds. leaf. vulgare. depurative. The preparation methods. as a typical. cough/cold. diarrhea. cancer). They are added raw to salads. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45. stem. Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. abdominal pains. seasonal fresh fruit. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda. India. kidney ailments. makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. Besides seasoning.64 mg 0. constipation. Na Zinc. Jordan. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32]. coated in sugar.55 g 0. Italy.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4). leaves. Shoots. 37.21 g 31 kcal 1.998%). and application of F. Serbia. F.. gastralgia. and sesame seeds. in the Indian. In many parts of India and Pakistan. K Sodium. From ancient times. Its stem.558%) [23]. which is due to its essential oil. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. fever. irritable colon. The characteristic anise odour of F.53 g (3.169 g 0. ferulic acid (3. They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. leaves. uses.2 mg 12 mg 0.73 g 0. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F. coconut.58 mg 62.24 g 0.095%).01 mg 0. and USA [28. 47].g.2 g 7. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor. used to stuff fish for grilling.047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0. Thus.73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0.BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA.53 g 0. All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48]. flatulence. stewed with beans and chickpeas. Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. seeds. Mg Phosphorus. Spain. 29. conjunctivitis. Ecuador. Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid. Ethiopia. tender leaves. and India. 1. . cuts) to very complicated ailments (e. 50. It is used to treat simple ailments (e. meat and fish dishes. aperitif. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14]. and apigenin (12. aerial parts. total saturated Fatty acids. fruit. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). Spain. In addition to its medicinal uses. hesperidin (0. Siddha. Brazil. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds.131%). mouth ulcer.8 ?g 0. South Africa. Unani. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. antiemetic. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit.1 g 3. dieresis. 48. cancer.068 g 0. kidney ailments. liver pain. The seeds can be savory.45 g 0. fruit.3 g 3. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. and stomachache (Table 5). USA).

00 1.02 0.04 2.37 ± 0.14 ± 0.40 0.62 85.55 ± 0.77 ± 0.01 1.36 ± 0.00 0.39 ± 0.16 ± 0. appearing practically in any of its parts.07 1.15 0.37 ± 2. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6).33 39.04 ± 1.01 0.02 4.00 0.68 ± 0.16 ± 0.30 38. 3.11 ± 0.03 ± 0.01 0.03 0.25 ± 0.23 17.20 ± 0.00 0.99 ± 0.20 ± 0.03 18.02 33.69 ± 0.09 ± 0.08 ± 0. volatile components.36 ± 0.68 1.41 ± 0.57 61.95 ± 0.07 43.43 ± 0.07 ± 0.06 ± 0.04 ± 0.44 ± 0.94 ± 0.12 0.68 22.99 ± 0.47 ± 0.61 ± 0.72 ± 0.37 23.00 0.38 ± 0.00 0. 50].21 ± 0.01 0.04 3.12 ± 0.13 ± 0.00 0.49 ± 0.35 ± 0.22 ± 0.08 4.01 1.37 Stems 77.25 ± 0.43 ± 0.43 ± 0.68 1.31 ± 0.99 ± 0.06 0.66 ± 1.06 4. namely.08 ± 0.17 ± 0.36 77.10 0.09 0.21 ± 0.01 0.43 ± 0.78 ± 0. stem.05 ± 0.06 4.12 0.25 ± 0.01 0.82 ± 3.51 ± 0.10 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 0.08 ± 0.89 ± 0.03 0.91 ± 0.06 4.28 ± 0.08 ± 0.02 Shoots 73.01 38.03 23.15 1.96 ± 0.78 ± 0.00 0.90 ± 1.08 19.06 1.08 2.03 ± 0.31 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.00 0.43 ± 0.04 43.53 ± 0.02 1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.56 ± 0. flowers.04 1.19 ± 0.02 1.86 ± 1.06 0.04 1.04 ± 0.00 12.03 0. The anise odor of F.02 0.01 0.94 ± 0.31 0.04 25.49 ± 0.94 ± 0.81 ± 0. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.04 0.12 2.23 2. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.01 0. and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).58 ± 0.0 1.00 1.00 0.61 ± 0.99 ± 0. .06 1.84 ± 0.58 ± 0.35 ± 0. Volatile Compounds.88 ± 0.00 0.33 3.00 1.13 56.03 0.05 0.33 ± 0.02 1.00 0.01 0.41 ± 0.05 1.71 ± 0.52 ± 0.06 ± 0.55 ± 0.00 19. Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F.78 ± 0.12 0.29 23.45 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 1.68 ± 0.41 ± 0.04 27.61 ± 0.46 ± 1.01 3.23 ± 0.48 ± 0. vulgare.65 1.40 67.62 ± 0.04 0.02 37.24 97.83 2. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4.68 36.52 38.06 ± 0.13 1. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57].55 ± 0.00 20.02 0.04 0.16 1. nd: not detected.20 ± 0.02 ± 0.35 ± 0.18 ± 0.39 ± 0.91 ± 3.37 ± 0. hydrocarbons.84 ± 0. 3.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.00 0. Some of the phytoconstituents of F.02 0.62 ± 0.72 ± 0. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent).04 21.74 ± 0.36 23.20 nd 1.59 ± 0.75 ± 0.26 ± 0. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).35 ± 0.10 36.03 0. shoots.33 ± 0.07 0.37 ± 0.01 1.31 ± 4.49 ± 0. phenolic components.19 17.03 1.02 0.09 nd 0.14 ± 0. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids. roots. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products.00 38.52 1.94 ± 0.09 0.22 ± 0.29 ± 0.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g).11 0.49 ± 0.25 5.04 0.34 Inflorescences 71.1.07 0.04 5.42 83. and fruits [58.07 0.89 ± 0.24 ± 0.49 ± 0.12 ± 0. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].15 ± 0.61 ± 0.06 ± 0. and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.02 2.02 0.76 ± 0.05 22. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49.53 ± 0. 59].12 108. The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.51 39.00 nd 0.72 ± 0.00 0. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.55 1.23 ± 10.19 ± 0.03 0.28 ± 0.06 1.11 1.17 ± 0.00 0.96 ± 0.03 0.20 ± 0.01 0.82 ± 0.15 ± 0.

as preservative for dry figs. and fully mature) of the fruit of F. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature. and stems are fried with eggs. fenchone (8. stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas. vulgare was reported by Telci et al.5%). and spices. Sr. salads. Whole plant used in olives brines. and stems used in snacks.5%). vulgare. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS. and for aromatizing brandy. fionho. number Region/Nation 1 Campania.40–14. erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho. namely. and spices. In addition. In addition. figs preserves. (E)-phytol (0.09–9. and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur.6%). vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. and sauces. and biscuits. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel. stems. used in fish stuff. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves. The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea. raw as a snack.2%) followed by estragole (7. and chestnuts. India Saunf 9 Liguria. that is. and Turkey. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons. Italy 3 Spain Hinojo. flavour for cakes.1–21. and sweets.8%). [125] Tender leaves and stems. are used in salads or stewed. Shoots.0% of the total oil. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application. accounting for 98. and fenchone.9% [61]. and methylchavicol (5. flavour for cakes. References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives.1% [62]. The chemical composition of the Algerian F.1–2. that is. mature. vulgare seed oil was different as compared with . estragole (0.(SD-) GC-MS methods. finochietto Finocchiella. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature. In 2007 Tognolini et al. Overall. premature. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55].0%). and chestnuts. tender leaves. and steam distillation. Zoubiri et al. exo-fenchyl acetate (0.10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. 0.6%). and used in fish and bread bouillons. A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified. Moldova. They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity. Flowering stems used in beverages. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. Fang et al. spirits. The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59. and seeds of F. soups. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68. namely. finucchiello.1–6. Seeds used as spices.0%). Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts. funcho-doce. biscuits. used in omelettes. Seeds are used as spices. d-limonene (6. 3. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia. Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives. Italy 2 Campania. neophytadiene (0–10. [56]. tender leaves.3– 3. 60 compounds representing 90. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel. bread. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general.7%). millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho.8%). Norway.4%).7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. soups. Austria. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas. stews.1–3. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats.8–90.6–75. [14] Shoots. oxygenated monoterpenes. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep. They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). fialho. and fenchone. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72.1–98.

drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. decoction Rome. aqueous infusion. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. Bolivia Gujranwala. infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed.8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. flower. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves. infusion Seed. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. decoction Leaf and seeds. Italy Northern Badia. India [131] Alto. Florida. aqueous infusion. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. Jordan. Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. Ecuador Miami. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. Maharashtra. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. Pakistan Gujranwala. paste Locality References Basilicata. infusion Leaves. USA [128] Rome. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Pernambuco. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. leaf. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . Sr. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja. decoction Rome. aqueous infusion. decoction Rome. Ecuador [128] Loja. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. India [127] Loja. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. Manisa. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. and stem. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem. decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. Jordan. Italy [33] Rome. roots. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant.

Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero. Sr. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. decoction Seed. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. India [26] Rajasthan. powder for digestive ailments Seeds. and stem. West. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. roots. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. decoction Seed. decoction Seeds. decoction Uttarakhand. India Andalusia. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. leaf. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. and fresh leaves Leaf. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] . oral infusion Whole plant. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part. infusion. decoction Seeds. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. Italy Balikesir. 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. India [26] Basilicata. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome.BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. inhaled into eyes Seeds. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. South Africa Rome. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. roots. and fresh leaves Seed. 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. roots. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. decoction Tender parts. and leaves Balikesir. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. simple powder Seed.

the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23]. chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14. quercetin. vulgare. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide. antipyretic. Serbian [52].3-benzenediol. namely. vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases. and inflammation. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables. and others as minor components.3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. antinociceptive. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. flavonoid glycosides. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid.9% and 6. fenchone (5. isoquercitrin. the major compounds were identified as 1. resp. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. Few extracts of F. followed by estragole (10. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F. anti-inflammatory. Quercetin-3O-galactoside. Phenolic Compounds. 1. antihirsutism. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists. oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed. quercetin-3-rutinoside. was found to be the main component.). and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. Also. . estragole. Indian [54]. 3.) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside. anticolitic.8? -binaringenin. 1.8% of the total amount. Jordan. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. 4.45%).3 ± 0. and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69]. kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. and flavonoid aglycones [67]. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. Flavonoids.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? .6%. antispasmodic. resp. vulgare [65]. 3.2% resp. cancer. vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid.8%. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66]. 1methoxycyclohexene. food scientists.3. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F.4% and 1.). leaf. Trans-Anethole (68. North Bengal. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria.1% and 1. antimicrobial and antiviral.) [70]. infusion Fresh fruit. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero. respectively. o-cymene. and stem-infusion. quercetin3-arabinoside.2.18 mg/g. and Chinese [53] fennels. quercetin. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet. The phenolic compounds present in F. limonene-10-ol. Italy Southern Punjab. and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17. decoction Turkish [51. antiaging.4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts.24%).10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2.1% and 12.42%) with limonene (6. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant. and 1. which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. representing 95. 56]. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family. a phenylpropanoid. antimutagenic. Sr. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders. Diao et al. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. Further. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. antiallergic. sorbic acid. vulgare. Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. resp. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation. and consumers due to their role in human health. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside.53%). Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives. vulgare [67]. F.5%. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3. rutin.

8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) . 1.BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued.

Oleic acid (37) .4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued.12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2.4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1.3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.

R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH. R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H. = R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H . R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH. OH .3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. R4 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. = R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H.BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? .

Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. diethyl ether. Pseudomonas syringae. 4. Staphylococcus aureus. 14–18. 4]. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. Micrococcus luteus. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. apoptotic. hypolipidemic. The results from the disc diffusion method. 14–24. indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. galactogenic. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). estrogenic properties. expectorant. Bacillus subtilis. antistress. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. Gulfraz et al. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. and Candida albicans. [92]. essential oil of F. and hexane extracts of seed of F. Klebsiella pneumonia. two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). diuretic. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. A brief review of the same is as follows. and mycobacterial origin.. Erwinia carotovora. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. cytotoxicity. and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). Escherichia coli. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). Pseudomonas fluorescens. antithrombotic. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9). and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. chemomodulatory action. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. hypoglycemic. the .14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. 20. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. 71–90]. Salmonella typhi.1. Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. Among different tested bacterial strains. and oculohypotensive activities [11. 13. nootropic. vulgare and reported in the literature. Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. gastrointestinal effect. respectively [3. vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Salmonella typhimurium. antimycobacterial. and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. 11-12. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). 21–24. Duˇsko et al. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. chloroform. anxiolytic. Escherichia coli. Bacillus megaterium. Klebsiella pneumonia. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9). 22–24. hepatoprotective. vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). Bacillus pumilus. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. memory-enhancing property. Shigella flexneri. cytoprotection and antitumor. fungal. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts. vulgare. Pseudomonas putida. Pseudomona aeruginosa. An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F. and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. Roby et al. Methanol extract of flower of F. viral. 20-21. cardiovascular. ethanol. 17–18. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli. 50. 68. tumefaciens.

3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-2.6-Dimethyl-2.27 and 12.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1.1.1.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.6-Octatriene. Candida albicans. Sr. Klebsiella pneumonia.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde 1. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F.2. Sr. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature.6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1.1. Staphylococcus epidermidis.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2.67 mm zone of inhibition.4.3.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare. 3. Martins et al. and phytopathogenic .8. namely.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1.27 66.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2.5. Mentha spicata.3. Escherichia coli. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.1]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73.7-octriene 2. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11.20 73. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus. respectively [7].8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued.6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3. Pseudomona aeruginosa. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F. Foeniculum vulgare. number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.7-dimethyl-.4a.0]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1.8-dienol 1.

undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives. psoralen. 3? . and Rhizopus solani [96]. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. 250.3-benzenediol. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. and Aspergillus flavus [98].16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. griseofulvin [99].4-Undecadienal. Interestingly. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. respectively. A coumarin derivative. vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. ST: stem. imperatorin. scopoletin. vulgare stem. In an in vitro study. 2. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite.8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. rosmarinic acid 3. was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. Aspergillus niger. scopoletin.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. The oils extracted from F. LF: leaf. Essential oil of F.8-Cineole. dillapional. namely. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. photoanethole ?-Myrcene. oleic acid. SDEO: seed essential oil. 1. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. Essential oil of F. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol. and FW: fennel waste. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. molds. aqueous seed extract of F. linoleic acid. bergapten. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F. Mucor rouxii. SD: seed. characterized from F. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. The MIC values of F. from methylene . and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. that is. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. Fusarium solani. Aspergillus niger. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. FT: fruit. Fusarium oxysporum. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. quercetin-3-O-galactoside.

4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo.1 to 0.5% and 99. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. female rats endometrium.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%. Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct. myometrium. Invivo. cervix. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo. that is. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Invivo. doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL.1% inhibition of Invitro. BALB/c mice. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. carbon tetrachloride induced namely. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0.4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT). male ICR mice. and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). 77. respectively. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50. not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 .

tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1.16. U-266B1. and 22. [84] 0. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17. and 1.49. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0. hexane.3%.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. 1301. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0. for J45 cell line.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo. J-45. C-8166. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75.01. 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo.3%. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage. 18 BioMed Research International . WICL. 0. M. 150.6%.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo.6%. 100. tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M. and 1. Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. 21. methanol. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway.

a.r.p. 20.s. E.p..0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30.s..t..a. P. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A.t.s.t. antimycobacterial. P. LF. Ethanol. A.p.m.. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc.and P..c.. NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol. B.a. E.c..a.c.and S..a.. E. gentamicin.and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous. ST.g.a. Enterococcus sp. Sa. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0. and M. BioMed Research International 19 .a.c.. and A.s. 25.... E.... B..n.and A. LF.. C.. P.. K.. P.c. M.n. P.25 to 2. Essential oil Bacilli sp. S.. TW SD. S. S.. P.. E. and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone. M.. P.a.f.... F.... and C. E. P.s. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E.t... B... Acinetobacter sp.s.v.. and S.s..a.SD FT AP SD FL.p. M.f..a. Sa. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol. streptomycin...n. S.l.. K. C... S..t.. E.c.o.... S.a.a. Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E.a..c.and C. St.t. C.. 1.a.s. number E.. and R.6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial..x. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0.c.a. ofloxacin.p. P..c. P. E.. K.f.c. S. E.c. P.. B.a. B. B. Active strainsb S.a.a.m.s. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B.a.a. and Salmonella sp.c..5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A. FT FL.e. sulbactam..and Rh. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr..a. methanol... E. and C. A. Er.f.c... B..a. and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare. F.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1.c. B. antifungal.

: Fusarium solani.s.h. M. ?. St. Er. P.t. S. RT: root.: Proteus vulgaris. E.. C. Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E. B.: Mycobacterium xenopi.: Bacillus cereus.: Enterobacter aerogenes. A.f. B. S.: Alternaria alternate.c.r. K..8 ?g/mL NM 7. M. S.: Mycobacterium chelonae.s.: Shigella sonnei.v..c.a. P.a.: Pseudomonas putida.c. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S.e. B.s.n.p. ethanol. P. A. 50. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part.a. Sh. number a 20 BioMed Research International .c.a.: Pseudomona aeruginosa. B.c. B. ST: stem.c. M. 15.a. P. M. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv.s...: Micrococcus luteus. S... and S..SD LF..a. M. S.: Enterococcus faecalis.and C. E. E.c.and As. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10.a.t.: Sarcina lutea. Sa. S.: Erwinia carotovora.s. S.m..o.and P. E.f. C.a..x. S. Sa.l. and TW: twig..o.t..s.c.: Aspergillus niger. S.. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E. C..b..a. M.5.a. A.: Mycobacterium smegmatis. Active strains S.r. a FT Part used 14 Sr. P.p. tumefaciens. S... P.: Candida albicans. Table 9: Continued.c.f.t.5. Essential oil Methanol.b.. P.c.a.: Shigella boydii.: Escherichia coli.: Shigella dysenteriae.p. K.. 10.c. 12....a. As. P.: Salmonella enteritidis.f..: Shigella shiga. P.c. LF: leaf.l.. FL: flower.t.n.g. E. M.a. S.f.t. P.f.m. S.: Staphylococcus epidermidis.m..a.e. F.a.a.: Streptococcus faecalis.p.m.: Phytopathogenic molds.. and B. S.: Streptococcus haemolyticus. chloroform. C..s.: Salmonella typhimurium.l.t. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0. S. B. B. S.: Candida tropicalis.a.: Pseudomonas syringae.p..: Rhizoctonia solani. B. S. S.c.f. F.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294.f. and P. FL FT LF ST.: Shigella flexneri.. B.: Staphylococcus aureus..c..a.?. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M. S. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S.s.: Aspergillus flavus. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses.and F.: Pseudomonas glycinea.: Pseudomonas fluorescens.: Bacillus megaterium. amoxicillin.: Rhizopus solani. and hexane extract Crude..d.s. and Sh.d.: Staphylococcus coagulase.r.. S..: Mucor rouxii.a.c. S. A.025 to 0.a.: Bacillus subtilis.h. S..s. R. E.p. FT: fruit..: Bacillus pumilus.c. SD: seed.t.and P.and St..f.s.: Salmonella typhi.a.and A. S.c. C. Rh.. Sa.: Fusarium oxysporum. E. diethyl ether.e. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned. E.: Klebsiella pneumonia. E. A. K.: Alcaligenes faecalis.a.

vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F. vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains. Antiallergic Activity. Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. rota rod. 4. Ozbek et al.2 ?g/mL. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly. For acute inflammation. methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. vulgare [79]. skin diseases. vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. Memory-Enhancing Property. conjunctivitis. Methanolic extract of F. 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0.BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F. flatulence.3. The plant extract (50. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9].3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL). vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). 4. vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze.2. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). whose consumption is believed to enhance memory . These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. ranging between 0. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. Bioactive metabolites of F. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL).4.5.6. mouth ulcer. carrageenan-induced paw edema.001). the extract of entire plant of F.7. Antistress Activity. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1.6 and 0. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. Bhandarkar and Rege. undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). dieresis. 4. Mentha piperita. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals. These overall results seem to suggest that F. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg). namely. There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance. There are a number of plants. twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F. Ocimum minutiflorum. open field test. and 2. the dietary intake of F. and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. The key parameters.001). gastralgia. vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79]. Thus. gastritis. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F. 4. The level of serum transaminase. Out of these. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. and whole board models.(2. alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Methanol extract of F. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. tuberculosis infection [63]. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Anxiolytic Activity. Thus. the samples tested were less effective against PI-3. 4. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). vulgare [101]. diarrhea. tuberculosis species. 2. Thus. with results ranging between 1. When anxiety becomes excessive. 1. Orhan et al. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern. stomachache. Oral administration of methanol extract of F. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema. Essential oil of F. that is. depurative. and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0.8 and 0. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature). vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). constipation. arthritis. Hepatoprotective Activity. vulgare may lower the risk of M.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M. Ocimum vulgaris. aspartate aminotransferase (AST). vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. respiratory disorders.025 ?g/mL. However. insomnia. The whole plant extract of F. fever.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). and so forth. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder. Mentha spicata. Naga Kishore et al. 4. [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F. Oral administration of F. irritable colon. antiemetic.

Estrogenic Properties. facilitate birth. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. On the other hand. 4. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group). such as dianethole and photoanethole.11. saponins. total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. mammary glands and oviducts. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. However. 4. F. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. lignans. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. vulgare seeds [104]. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the . 2%. Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. F.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105]. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. This overall progress suggests that F. respectively [78].22 and intelligence.9. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens. coumestans. and increase libido. and −0. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. stilbenes. promote menstruation. On considering above aspect. While 10. Galactogenic Activity. Thus. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. The whole plants extract (50.8%. which took 12 days for acquisition. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. In male rats. Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. F.3%. F. 4. 150. Traditionally. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group. Expectorant Activity. These were usually given to children as part of their food. and increase libido [71]. This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. vulgare fruit. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50.and time-dependent compared to control group. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. the extracts of F. 76]. prolactin. was observed.8. Thus. Structural similarity of its main constituent. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. and 0% (placebo). Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days. simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa). Thus. Nootropic Activity.10. F. respectively. 4. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. namely. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days. isoflavonoids. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones.12. vulgare has estrogen-like activity. 18. 4. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. Antihirsutism Activity. and essential oils [16]. In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. There is some evidence in favor of use of F. anethole. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance. chalcones. continued treatment with F. However. including flavonoids. to reach the point of acquisition.

A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. Anethole and F. vulgare. The aqueous seed extract of F. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). Antimutagenic Effect. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F.The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73]. muscarinic. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F. while. while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. vulgare. Diuretic Activity.6%. which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). both F. at the same time. vulgare. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. 4. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31.19.16. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. and vasorelaxant action [55]. 0. 4. respectively. or combined with other plant medicinals. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75]. Antinociceptive Activity. the aqueous extract of F.). vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain. a highly significant diuretic effect. Thus. that is. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74]. vulgare. 4. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea.15. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. This extract exhibited 17. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. The volatile oil of F. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68]. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities. A maximum mean difference of 31. hexane. 4. Briefly. tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. The various extracts of aerial part of F. 4. it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli. Antithrombotic Activity.13. and 22. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil. Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108]. Alone. Anticolitic Activity. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. and 1. reducing intestinal gas. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. 4. In another part of the study. Cardiovascular Activity. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system.18. in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. The ethanolic extract of F. Tognolini et al.16. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice . ethyl acetate. namely. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. however. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. On the other hand. and so forth. clot destabilizing effect. 21. Thus. it is an agent that promotes diuresis. It supports the safety of F. This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106]. In vivo. Oculohypotensive Activity.17. statistically. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. Essential oil of F. The fruit extract showed. 4. bacteria.49.3%. and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. free from cytotoxic effects. or serotonergic receptors. Caceres et al.2% (w/v) concentrations. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75]. arachidonic acid. resp. methylene chloride. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. F.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity. ganglionic. Briefly.03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84].14. An aqueous extract of F.

This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. The aqueous extract of F. LDLcholesterol. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration. Additionally. reduced tumor weight. 23%.001) group of animal. Chemomodulatory Action. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL.018% micronucleus. Further. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. F. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice.20. Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. respectively.22.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. Antipyretic Activity. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110]. micronucleus. Cytotoxicity. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90]. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. 4. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%. The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. ascorbic acid. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels. 4. aqueous extract of F. ethanolic extract of F. 0. The aqueous extract of F. 4. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel. and sperm abnormality assays. The extract from F.24. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F.C. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde. triglycerides. respectively [88]. 61%. while significantly increased nitrite. Al-Harbi et al. vulgare works in the . In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability. micronuclei formation. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0. 4. As an antipyretic agent. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study.25.26. The study revealed that anethole increased survival time. catalase. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. It was induced by S.12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage.01) [108]. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. and beta-carotene levels. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7. 4. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82].21. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. The essential oil of F. that is. Also. F. Thus. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. and 61%. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase. studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. cholesterol. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts. Hypolipidemic Activity. aqueous extract of F. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. Gastrointestinal Effect. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11]. nitrate. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species. 4. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. Hypoglycemic Activity. respectively. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. 4.24 induced by cyclophosphamide.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis. chromosomal aberrations. Additionally. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes.23. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. retinol. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. respectively. that is.

19 mg/dL to 81.1. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia. The base was insignificant. Thus. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114]. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal. 4.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity. respectively [86]. U-266B1—human myeloma. the extracts of F. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae. 4. respectively. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86]. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F.31. 5. that is. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. Antiaging Effects. 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare.28. Antioxidant Activities. Eryngium planum. repellent.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. respectively.5 and 10. and Lasioderma serricorne. Carum carvi.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59.78 U/g Hb to 99. Antispasmodic Activity. namely. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia. and dopamine. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F. anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. and nematicidal activity [115–119]. respectively. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells.01—human acute T cell leukaemia. Carum carvi. rosmarinic acid. Insecticidal Activities. Apoptotic Activity. 4. Matricaria chamomilla.05. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole. The biologically active constituents. Archangelica officinalis. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. 4. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens. 4. essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111]. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. vulgare.5 ± 3.32. Rosmarinus officinalis. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12]. Bronchodilatory Effect. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. 5. and ML—1–42%. larvicidal.30. Phenolic compounds of fennel. norepinephrine. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%. By using a filter .3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83]. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65].97 ± 1. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector. namely. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. respectively.27. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. Moreover. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro. Pastinaca sativa. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. The antispasmodic activity of 2. showed antioxidant activities [67]. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia. Callosobruchus chinensis. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. insect. Melissa officinalis.97 mg/dL with ? < 0. including caffeoylquinic acid.29. Foeniculum vulgare. acaricidal. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113]. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode. Heracleum sibiricum. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%. The ethanol extract from fruit F. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. 4.72 ± 2. that is.60 ± 6. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Mentha piperita.BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162. fennel. Also. EOL—48%. mosquitoes. J-45.

1. In case of longer term toxicity. F. namely. with no reports of any serious side effects. Repellent Activity. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight. tail posture. vulgare. no sign of toxicity was observed. suggests that F.8-cineole content of F. 6. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito.51 ppm. and 3 g/kg body weight. paralysis. After 2 days of treatment. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi. sensitivity to sound. chinensis. In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0. 5. nasal discharge. vulgare. 0. aggressive behaviour. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N.5. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F.5. estragole (0. namely. exophthalmos. cyanosis. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects. the plant extract in doses of 0. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid.6 and 2 h. pattern of respiration. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths. C.105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. 1. the essential oil extracts from leaves. flowers. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. respectively [119]. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. In this investigation. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S.4. In a fumigation test. and L. were recorded. and roots of F. The methanolic extract of fruits of F.2 mg/cm2 ). (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. Larvicidal Activity. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115]. respectively [120]. salivation. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121]. Zoubiri et al. vulgare oil was the most effective against A. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. ethanolic extract of F. F. prostration. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20.26 paper diffusion test.3. social interaction. the F. Additionally.10 and 44. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. in addition to body and vital organ weights. Essential oils of Carum carvi. chinensis.021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. Terpineol and 1. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone. respectively. Whereas after 1 day of treatment. In 3-liter pot experiments. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). pupil size. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment.5. convulsions. Whereas. By considering this aspect. Foeniculum vulgare. At this concentration. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. Sedaghat et al. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments. ataxia.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Thus. oryzae. Mentha rotundifolia. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. and estragol [118].2. Additionally. 5. locomotor activity. and spermatogenic changes. Acaricidal Activity. Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. oryzae. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application. Recently. respectively. As naturally occurring insect-control agents. 5. vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. respectively. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. In experimentation.4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. thymol. Nematicidal Activity. The F. all test compounds (0. C. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. bizarre reactions. Exceptionally. urination. and L. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO. Oka et al. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. tremors. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. defecation. (E)anethole (0. and piloerection. Thus. vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations.168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. 5. only the 3 g/kg dose . vulgare could be considered as safe. haematological. serricorne [116]. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. All external morphological. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. Thus. chinensis.

When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. phenolic compounds. niacin.BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. apoptotic.25% of the diet. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. Also. flatulence. E. anticolitic. colic in children. manganese. methylene chloride. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. Thus. antinociceptive. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. estrogenic properties. dieresis. 6. diuretic. antithrombotic.0. 7. 400. antistress. arthritis. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. such as antiaging. New Delhi. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. aperitif. memory-enhancing property. magnesium. ethyl acetate. insomnia. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds. iron. In another experiment of acute toxicity. mouth ulcer. LD50 being: 6. However. antiallergic. kidney ailments. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. antimutagenic. fever. calcium. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. However.92. chemomodulatory action. gastritis. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. liver pain. and stomachache. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare. gastrointestinal effect. leucorrhoea. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions. ethyl acetate. and methanol extracts. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. antipyretic. constipation. The use of F. respectively [68]. irritable colon. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. and amino acids. conjunctivitis. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. Thus. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. nootropic. cadmium. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. n-hexane. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. all other parameters were negative [108]. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity. The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. riboflavin. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests. different solvent extracts. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. flavonoids. expectorant. 11. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. hepatoprotective. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . isoleucine. essential amino acids like leucine. hypoglycemic. antihirsutism. nickel. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models. and zinc [124]. phenylalanine. depurative. namely. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76]. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. cobalt. antiemetic. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane.75. anxiolytic. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. antispasmodic. vulgare upto 5. 200. 800. hypolipidemic. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. and methanol extracts of F. anti-inflammatory. Otherwise. barium. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. antimicrobial and antiviral. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. cancer. 600. copper. emmenagogue. methylene chloride. especially for abdominal pains. diarrhea. and K. lead. cardiovascular. The plant extract of F. chromium. fatty acids. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. as a laxative. and pyridoxine. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. gastralgia. galactogenic. 1000. cytoprotection and antitumor.5 g/kg concentration. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. cytotoxicity. strontium. thiamine. Hence. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant.

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