Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of

Local name

Alto, Bolivia



Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua


Balikesir, Turkey
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,


Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı


Endro, erva-doce, funcho


Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia



Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang



Dalmatia (southern Croatia),

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper


Almindelig fennikel, fennikel






Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel




Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Guerrero, Mexico


Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu


Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,

Java, Indonesia







Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)






Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador


Majorcan area


Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International


Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap


Madesi sauf

North Iran


North Portugal







Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain





Fenkuł, koper włoski



Rajasthan, India


Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa


Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia


South Europe


South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua



Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Uttarakhand, India




Local name













Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.


growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

bananas (3. caffeic acid (2. (c) leaves. These are caproic acid. chlorogenic acid (2. ?-linolenic acid. while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. and nutritional properties of fruit. fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7. The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. p-coumaric acid (4. behenic acid.14 mg/100 g).14-eicosadienoic acid. tricosanoic acid. stearic acid. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts. lauric acid. and (f) population of F. quercetin-7-o-glucoside .325%). gallic acid (0.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat. vulgare Mill. The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet. colour. About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3). and lignoceric acid. eicosanoic acid. oleic acid.169%).98%).0 mg/100 g).873%). energy.25 mg/100 g). On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22]. (b) stem.88 mg/100 g). arachidic acid. prunes (18.40%). (e) fruits. cis-11. caprylic acid. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves. capric acid. while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution. cis-11. ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5. grapes (10. pentadecanoic acid. Nevertheless.960%). On a weight basis.14. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1. The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. heptadecanoic acid. myristoleic acid. (d) inflorescences and flowers. Thus.86 mg/ 100 g). The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. linoleic acid.223%). and strawberries (14. chlorogenic acid (6.01 mg/100 g). palmitic acid.17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid. dates (25. undecanoic acid. raisins (40. (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas.0 mg/100 g). Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste. orange (40. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14].0 mg/100 g). myristic acid.

and brightly colored. Mg Phosphorus. insomnia. leaves. rosmarinic acid (14.93 g 49 mg 0. All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables.21 g 31 kcal 1. quercetin (17.3 g 3.63 g 0. Flowering stems. From ancient times. and application of F. fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions. leucorrhoea.BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). vulgare. flatulence. namely. Unani. aerial parts. fever. mouth ulcer. and sesame seeds. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant.203%). 1. depending on the season. Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. P Potassium. vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. They are added raw to salads.219%). total monounsaturated Fatty acids.169 g 0. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45. uses. in the Indian. arthritis. Ecuador. Turkey.. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot.097%). emmenagogue. stewed with beans and chickpeas. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds.095%). used to stuff fish for grilling.555%). Spain. irritable colon.2 g 7. 50. 2. coconut. kidney ailments. aperitif.g. and apigenin (12. colic in children. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener). liver pain. South Africa. and India. abdominal pains. Ethiopia. 46] see Table 4). In Portugal. total saturated Fatty acids. leaf. Ca Iron.1 g 3. diarrhea. seeds. seasonal fresh fruit. F.131%). sugar. 29. gastritis. K Sodium. antiemetic. seeds. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda. Thus. conjunctivitis.g.24 g 0. the stem.998%). as a typical. ice-cream. USA).53 g (3.55 g 0. 33–44]. Fe Magnesium.09 g 0. cancer). Jordan. Serbia. 48. cinnamic acid (0. 51]. ferulic acid (3. vulgare. and stomachache (Table 5). Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid. F.558%) [23]. depurative. . kidney ailments. vulgare is famous for its essential oil. 9.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. and fruit/seed of F. Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit. 34. fennel is used to preserve food. for example. and USA [28. Na Zinc. and alcoholic beverages. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]..8 ?g 0.032 mg 0. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4). 47]. coated in sugar. In addition to its medicinal uses.047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases. The seeds can be savory. Brazil. and placed in soups and bread bouillons. Its stem.53 g 0. dieresis. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F. stem.73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0.73 g 0. constipation. laxative.068 g 0. fruit. 37. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32]. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor. Shoots. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids.2 mg 12 mg 0. hesperidin (0. Siddha. cuts) to very complicated ailments (e. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14]. The preparation methods. Pakistan. Italy. gastralgia. Italy. It is used to treat simple ailments (e. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. The characteristic anise odour of F.01 mg 0. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48]. fruit. anise seeds. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. India. makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. leaves. In many parts of India and Pakistan. cancer. cough/cold. Spain. which is due to its essential oil.58 mg 62. Portugal.64 mg 0. Mexico. They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. tender leaves. meat and fish dishes. Besides seasoning. Iran.45 g 0.

46 ± 1.35 ± 0.00 20.04 1.08 ± 0.55 ± 0.43 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.23 17.00 0.06 0.00 0.61 ± 0.00 0.75 ± 0.06 ± 0.51 ± 0.89 ± 0.0 1.02 0.04 ± 0.19 ± 0.06 1.43 ± 0.31 ± 0.25 5.49 ± 0.89 ± 0.35 ± 0.12 ± 0.95 ± 0.01 1.45 ± 0.23 2.07 1.99 ± 0.28 ± 0.94 ± 0.49 ± 0.08 ± 0. . nd: not detected.62 ± 0.96 ± 0.06 4.37 ± 0.03 1. volatile components.76 ± 0.00 19.00 0.08 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.03 0.00 0. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids.20 ± 0.10 36.56 ± 0.21 ± 0.61 ± 0.22 ± 0.01 0.41 ± 0.05 ± 0.15 0.00 0. The anise odor of F.31 0.02 0.12 0.00 0.23 ± 10.94 ± 0.66 ± 1.00 38. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].58 ± 0.06 1.09 0. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products.26 ± 0.00 1.68 1. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent).25 ± 0.01 0. hydrocarbons. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).39 ± 0.88 ± 0.00 0.61 ± 0.01 38.91 ± 0.29 ± 0.62 85.03 ± 0.28 1.13 ± 0.09 nd 0.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.10 0. phenolic components.02 1.48 ± 0.15 1.00 12.07 0.99 ± 0.36 ± 0.78 ± 0.78 ± 0.06 0.08 2. and fruits [58.17 ± 0.04 ± 1. The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.02 0.04 0.58 ± 0.03 0.08 19.91 ± 3.99 ± 0.39 ± 0.52 1.94 ± 0.04 ± 0. 59].02 ± 0.55 ± 0.33 39. Some of the phytoconstituents of F.03 0.13 1.20 ± 0.44 ± 0.90 ± 1.04 1.40 0.00 nd 0.02 Shoots 73. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49. 50]. vulgare.08 ± 0.08 4.19 ± 0.02 2.30 38.02 37.12 108.83 2. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.16 1.68 ± 0.12 0. namely.35 ± 0.00 0.02 0.37 ± 0.07 ± 0.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g).81 ± 0.14 ± 0.04 0. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.1. appearing practically in any of its parts. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4.37 Stems 77.00 1. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6).53 ± 0.68 22.31 ± 4.82 ± 3.18 ± 0.74 ± 0.25 ± 0.61 ± 0.37 23.04 ± 0.00 0.33 ± 0.03 0.05 ± 0.19 17.52 ± 0.05 0.86 ± 1.11 0.36 ± 0.12 0.51 39.04 3.15 ± 0.35 ± 0.00 0.84 ± 0.01 0.12 2. flowers.28 ± 0.29 23. roots.03 0.68 1.01 0.16 ± 0.06 ± 0.14 ± 0.59 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.65 1. and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.15 ± 0.36 77.33 ± 0.01 1.41 ± 0.84 ± 0.04 21.00 0.17 ± 0.71 ± 0.72 ± 0.13 56.06 1.55 ± 0.72 ± 0.01 0.01 1.05 1.04 25.02 1.02 1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.96 ± 0.68 ± 0.04 2.01 0.02 0.72 ± 0.02 4.42 83.53 ± 0.34 Inflorescences 71.06 ± 0.68 36.04 0.10 ± 0. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.03 23.06 0.20 ± 0.94 ± 0.03 ± 0.03 18.04 43.04 0.77 ± 0.11 1.07 43.33 3.11 ± 0.43 ± 0. Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F.47 ± 0.78 ± 0.52 38.24 97.55 1.05 22.33 ± 0.62 ± 0.22 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.12 ± 0.01 3.40 67.00 0.06 4.25 ± 0.06 4.69 ± 0.04 27.36 23. Volatile Compounds.00 1.41 ± 0. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57]. stem.57 61.49 ± 0. 3.01 0.37 ± 2.04 5.07 0. and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).20 ± 0.16 ± 0. 3.03 0.03 0.02 33.99 ± 0.49 ± 0.31 ± 0.43 ± 0.37 ± 0.20 nd 1.49 ± 0.06 ± 0. shoots.23 ± 0.09 0.00 0.43 ± 0.

References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives.4%). stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas.0%). vulgare seed oil was different as compared with . and biscuits. mature. and spices.09–9. The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55]. In addition. funcho-doce. as preservative for dry figs. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F.6%). Moldova. [56]. bread. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. and fenchone. soups. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho.2%) followed by estragole (7. and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur. India Saunf 9 Liguria. They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. fenchone (8. Fang et al. figs preserves.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature. tender leaves. Whole plant used in olives brines. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). 60 compounds representing 90. and spices. that is. [125] Tender leaves and stems.6–75.1–21.1–6. Flowering stems used in beverages. accounting for 98. d-limonene (6. and methylchavicol (5.(SD-) GC-MS methods.8%). Seeds used as spices. (E)-phytol (0. Seeds are used as spices. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. estragole (0. vulgare. Austria. vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. flavour for cakes. oxygenated monoterpenes. fialho. Norway. Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars. stews. Italy 2 Campania. and stems used in snacks. used in fish stuff. neophytadiene (0–10. Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives.1–2. and Turkey. fionho. The chemical composition of the Algerian F.1% [62]. stems. millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho. and seeds of F. biscuits. number Region/Nation 1 Campania. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68. salads. Shoots. Italy 3 Spain Hinojo.8–90.10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. 0.7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified. Zoubiri et al. The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea. and for aromatizing brandy. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application.9% [61]. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72. Overall. finucchiello. premature.5%). raw as a snack. In addition. and stems are fried with eggs.40–14. and steam distillation. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats. and chestnuts. In 2007 Tognolini et al. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature. and fully mature) of the fruit of F. tender leaves. and used in fish and bread bouillons. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves. flavour for cakes. and chestnuts. finochietto Finocchiella. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel. exo-fenchyl acetate (0. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel. Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas. soups. namely. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0.0%). [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia.1–3. vulgare was reported by Telci et al. Sr. and fenchone. namely.6%). 3. spirits.0% of the total oil.5%). erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho. that is. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep.7%).3– 3. used in omelettes. are used in salads or stewed. and sauces. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS. and sweets. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons.8%). [14] Shoots.1–98.

Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . paste Locality References Basilicata. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. India [131] Alto. USA [128] Rome. aqueous infusion. flower. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. Italy [33] Rome. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. Pakistan Pernambuco.8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. Italy Northern Badia. decoction Rome. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. Ecuador Miami. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. Manisa. decoction Leaf and seeds. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves. and stem. decoction Rome. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. aqueous infusion. aqueous infusion. Sr. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. India [127] Loja. Pakistan Gujranwala. Jordan. leaf. infusion Leaves. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. Jordan. Maharashtra. infusion Seed. decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. Ecuador [128] Loja. Florida. Bolivia Gujranwala. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. decoction Rome. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. roots.

100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. South Africa Rome. 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. powder for digestive ailments Seeds. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. and fresh leaves Seed. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. roots. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. decoction Seeds. and stem. decoction Tender parts. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. and fresh leaves Leaf. inhaled into eyes Seeds. edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] . simple powder Seed. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part. oral infusion Whole plant. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. India [26] Basilicata. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. Italy Balikesir. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. roots. roots. decoction Seeds. leaf. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome. India Andalusia. India [26] Rajasthan. decoction Seed. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. West. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. infusion. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. decoction Seed. Sr.BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. decoction Uttarakhand. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. and leaves Balikesir.

vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. Also. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables.8%.2. Further. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. food scientists. kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family. vulgare [65].5%. antimutagenic. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists. Italy Southern Punjab. and Chinese [53] fennels. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid. antiallergic. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. Serbian [52]. 56]. resp. 1.).42%) with limonene (6. antihirsutism.) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? . the major compounds were identified as 1.10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. 1methoxycyclohexene. 3. Indian [54]. flavonoid glycosides. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F. and others as minor components. antispasmodic.2% resp.3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. Phenolic Compounds.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F. anti-inflammatory.3. vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts. 1. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2. followed by estragole (10. 4. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders. antimicrobial and antiviral. quercetin-3-rutinoside. antiaging.1% and 1. representing 95.4% and 1. The phenolic compounds present in F. decoction Turkish [51. leaf. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. isoquercitrin. Jordan.) [70]. quercetin. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria.8? -binaringenin. Diao et al. Quercetin-3O-galactoside. 3.3-benzenediol. anticolitic. respectively. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside. fenchone (5.1% and 12. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside.3 ± 0. quercetin3-arabinoside.18 mg/g. vulgare. Sr. o-cymene. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside. and 1. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69]. resp. cancer.53%). a phenylpropanoid.9% and 6. Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives. and inflammation. chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14. quercetin. antipyretic. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one.45%). whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3.8% of the total amount. sorbic acid. infusion Fresh fruit. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet. North Bengal. resp.24%). number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant. antinociceptive. rutin. and consumers due to their role in human health. Flavonoids. vulgare. Trans-Anethole (68.). vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases. limonene-10-ol. . was found to be the main component. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. and flavonoid aglycones [67]. and stem-infusion. the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23]. Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. F. oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed. namely. vulgare [67]. and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide.4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66].6%. estragole. Few extracts of F.

BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued. 1.8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) .

3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued. Oleic acid (37) .12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2.

= R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1. 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H.BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H. R4 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH.3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. = R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H . OH . = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? . R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH.

cytotoxicity. 50. diethyl ether. and oculohypotensive activities [11. diuretic. two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). 4. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. and Candida albicans. viral. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. Bacillus subtilis. and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. Pseudomona aeruginosa. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. Klebsiella pneumonia. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). the . expectorant. apoptotic. Klebsiella pneumonia. Bacillus megaterium. Staphylococcus aureus. and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). essential oil of F. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. 68. Erwinia carotovora. 13. antimycobacterial. tumefaciens. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. 71–90]. galactogenic. hypoglycemic.1. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas putida.14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. Duˇsko et al. An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F.. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9). and hexane extracts of seed of F. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. 21–24. fungal. vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). Bacillus pumilus. A brief review of the same is as follows. Salmonella typhimurium. 4]. vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Roby et al. Escherichia coli. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). 14–24. 22–24. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. Escherichia coli. 14–18. Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. antithrombotic. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. Gulfraz et al. anxiolytic. Salmonella typhi. hepatoprotective. and mycobacterial origin. [92]. antistress. hypolipidemic. gastrointestinal effect. Among different tested bacterial strains. Pseudomonas fluorescens. estrogenic properties. Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9). 11-12. Pseudomonas syringae. 20-21. and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. Methanol extract of flower of F. Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. vulgare and reported in the literature. 20. memory-enhancing property. nootropic. cardiovascular. The results from the disc diffusion method. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. 17–18. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. ethanol. chloroform. vulgare. Micrococcus luteus. chemomodulatory action. respectively [3. cytoprotection and antitumor.

6-Octatriene.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde 1.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1.8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2.8-dienol 1. Martins et al. Sr. and phytopathogenic . Candida albicans. namely.67 mm zone of inhibition. 3.20 73.1. Foeniculum vulgare.27 66. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3. Mentha spicata.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2. Escherichia coli.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare. Sr. Klebsiella pneumonia.1]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73. Staphylococcus epidermidis. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F.4.3.3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued.1.2.8. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F.7-dimethyl-.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.3. number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.4a.7-octriene 2.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.27 and 12. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature.6-Dimethyl-2. Pseudomona aeruginosa.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11. respectively [7].6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1.

that is. from methylene . undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. 250. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. Aspergillus niger. 1. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite. The oils extracted from F. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. and Rhizopus solani [96]. The MIC values of F. characterized from F. 2. respectively. psoralen. photoanethole ?-Myrcene. Fusarium solani. and FW: fennel waste. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F. In an in vitro study. 3? . scopoletin. oleic acid.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. LF: leaf. SD: seed. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. aqueous seed extract of F. was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. rosmarinic acid 3. Fusarium oxysporum. Aspergillus niger. dillapional.3-benzenediol. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. SDEO: seed essential oil. linoleic acid.8-Cineole. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. Mucor rouxii. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. A coumarin derivative. Essential oil of F. FT: fruit. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. Interestingly. and Aspergillus flavus [98].8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. ST: stem.4-Undecadienal. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. imperatorin. vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. molds. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent. scopoletin. was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr. Essential oil of F. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives.16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. griseofulvin [99]. namely. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. bergapten. vulgare stem.

4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. Invivo. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample. male ICR mice. BALB/c mice. cervix. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT). and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. that is. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0.4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo. Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct. myometrium. Invivo. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50.5% and 99. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 .1 to 0. female rats endometrium. 77. carbon tetrachloride induced namely. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%.1% inhibition of Invitro. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid. respectively.

Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60. and 1.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo. 100. for J45 cell line. 150. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1. tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued. C-8166. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo. [84] 0.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo. and 22. and 1.3%. M. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line. U-266B1. 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75.01.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. J-45.16. 1301. methanol. hexane. 18 BioMed Research International . tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M.49. WICL. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0.6%. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0.6%. 0. 21. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage.3%.

.. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0.s. Ethanol... P.and A. S.c.a..s. M. S. S. St.c.c. TW SD.. B.c. P.25 to 2. and S.a.. Essential oil Bacilli sp.a.and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous.t. Active strainsb S.0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30. number E..f.. B..5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A. E.. and C.t. S. C. B..a. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr.c.a.. P.o. A.c.a.. K.. B. P. Acinetobacter sp. P..s. and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare.t. E.. LF. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol. B..a. E..5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1.g.. E. and M..a.a. E. antifungal.. BioMed Research International 19 ..and C. and R....r..a. M. B..and S. A.. C.a.m.c. Er. methanol..a. Enterococcus sp. B..c.. and Salmonella sp.p.s...c.... E.p.a.t.6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial. P. P. Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E. S.a. F..v. P.a.c. Sa. ST.c.c.n. P.SD FT AP SD FL.a...and P. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E. E. Sa. K.s.. ofloxacin.. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A. F.a. C.. 1.s.. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B.c. M..f..p..c.l. B. 20. S.a. E.a. LF. sulbactam. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0. antimycobacterial...n.a..s. E. FT FL. and A. NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol... E.f..e.a. P. S.m.f..n..s.t. and C.. P. and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone. K.p.t. 25..p....a.x.. streptomycin.and Rh. gentamicin.s. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc...

v.t. ?. P.h.: Bacillus subtilis. tumefaciens.a.: Alcaligenes faecalis. B. B..: Rhizopus solani.. chloroform.t.025 to 0. and hexane extract Crude. S.: Sarcina lutea.t.. and P.n.: Pseudomonas glycinea.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294.: Micrococcus luteus.p.s.: Mycobacterium smegmatis. S.: Aspergillus niger.and As.f.g.p. M.c.. A. As.: Phytopathogenic molds. S. P.s. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned. S. Sa. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10. E. E.5.m.: Klebsiella pneumonia. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S. E..c..: Proteus vulgaris.f. SD: seed.: Shigella shiga.8 ?g/mL NM 7.s.: Shigella flexneri. FL FT LF ST. P...: Salmonella typhimurium.a. M.: Escherichia coli...c. B. S.e.r. R. number a 20 BioMed Research International . S.c. S. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S.h.. S. Active strains S.n.l.m.a.f.a.: Pseudomonas putida.e. C. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin. E.5.c. B.c. E.a. Sh. M.. S. C. M..: Bacillus pumilus.: Enterococcus faecalis.a. F. 10.: Shigella dysenteriae. Rh. S.a.c... Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E.c.and P.s.a.a. P. S. RT: root. C..d..: Mycobacterium xenopi.m.a.c. and Sh.: Pseudomonas fluorescens.x.s.f.: Salmonella typhi. LF: leaf. 50. P.p. K. and S.f.: Fusarium oxysporum.t.c.a. S.t.c. M.: Streptococcus faecalis. S.s. P..s. B. St.: Staphylococcus aureus. FT: fruit.. S.: Enterobacter aerogenes.c. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses. Essential oil Methanol. E. S.: Candida albicans.f. F.and A..: Mycobacterium chelonae.: Bacillus cereus.f. 12. FL: flower..: Fusarium solani. S. S.. A..and F.: Streptococcus haemolyticus.s. Er.c.e.: Aspergillus flavus. ethanol. E.s. A.. E. P.: Staphylococcus epidermidis. B.p. B.a.o.l.: Erwinia carotovora.: Staphylococcus coagulase.d.s.. K... E.a.r.o. 15. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0.: Shigella boydii.p. M.?. S. C..: Pseudomona aeruginosa. and B.and P.a.: Rhizoctonia solani.: Bacillus megaterium.and C.: Salmonella enteritidis.t.a. P.t..a.c.a. Table 9: Continued.a. C. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part. a FT Part used 14 Sr.: Pseudomonas syringae.a.. P.b.t. P.: Shigella sonnei.f.. B.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv.. K. S.s.SD LF.. ST: stem.c.a. Sa.c. amoxicillin. A. M.. B.m.c. S.a.p.and St.. S..b.l.: Candida tropicalis. A.: Alternaria alternate. and TW: twig. Sa.: Mucor rouxii..r..a.. S. diethyl ether. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M.f.

Naga Kishore et al. methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. tuberculosis species. the extract of entire plant of F. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. antiemetic. However. Ozbek et al. depurative. 1. Antistress Activity. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F. [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F.025 ?g/mL. vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). The key parameters. Ocimum vulgaris. Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. Oral administration of methanol extract of F. 4. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. Ocimum minutiflorum. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. with results ranging between 1. vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST).8 and 0.001). irritable colon. fever. constipation. open field test. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9]. The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F. Bhandarkar and Rege. When anxiety becomes excessive. and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. aspartate aminotransferase (AST). vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. that is. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1. Anxiolytic Activity. undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). the dietary intake of F. and so forth. dieresis.6. vulgare may lower the risk of M. The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. Bioactive metabolites of F. 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0. The level of serum transaminase. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. Memory-Enhancing Property. Thus. Mentha piperita. flatulence. These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Essential oil of F.4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg). vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents. ranging between 0. 4. mouth ulcer. arthritis. 4. 4. The plant extract (50. Orhan et al. These overall results seem to suggest that F. carrageenan-induced paw edema.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M.2. vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79].2 ?g/mL. For acute inflammation. vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze. conjunctivitis. There are a number of plants. and whole board models.5. Mentha spicata. Methanol extract of F. Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature).4. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Out of these. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema. the samples tested were less effective against PI-3. and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0. respiratory disorders. Antiallergic Activity. Oral administration of F. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay.6 and 0. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). whose consumption is believed to enhance memory . vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals. rota rod. Hepatoprotective Activity. Thus. vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). 4.3. and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly. namely.7. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder. All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains.001). There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance. alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens.(2. vulgare [79]. Methanolic extract of F.3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL). Thus. gastritis. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern. skin diseases. gastralgia. stomachache. and 2. 4. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. vulgare [101]. insomnia. tuberculosis infection [63]. 2. The whole plant extract of F.BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). diarrhea.

anethole. 4. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. isoflavonoids. This overall progress suggests that F. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion. Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105]. These were usually given to children as part of their food. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. Galactogenic Activity. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance. the extracts of F. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity. continued treatment with F. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. prolactin.12. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. facilitate birth. mammary glands and oviducts. F. and −0. Antihirsutism Activity. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. coumestans. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50. respectively. namely. including flavonoids. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR. Traditionally. vulgare seeds [104]. and increase libido [71]. In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. and 0% (placebo). simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa). while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days.8%. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. F.3%. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group.and time-dependent compared to control group.10. respectively [78]. 18. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group). total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. F. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. such as dianethole and photoanethole. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. was observed. chalcones. 76]. It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. 2%. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. However.9. F. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals. 4. F. While 10. vulgare has estrogen-like activity. Thus. On the other hand. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the . Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. Thus. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. Thus. lignans. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. Nootropic Activity. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism.8. This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. 4. Structural similarity of its main constituent. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. vulgare fruit. to reach the point of acquisition. stilbenes. and increase libido. 4. Estrogenic Properties. In male rats. Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. Expectorant Activity. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. which took 12 days for acquisition. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. On considering above aspect. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. promote menstruation. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. The whole plants extract (50. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. However. saponins. and essential oils [16]. 4. There is some evidence in favor of use of F. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. 150. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days.11.22 and intelligence.

resp. A maximum mean difference of 31. F.The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73].2% (w/v) concentrations. arachidonic acid. The ethanolic extract of F. it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli. vulgare. Briefly. The aqueous seed extract of F. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test. namely.14. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. Cardiovascular Activity. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma. in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. Diuretic Activity. vulgare. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. 4. Alone. This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106]. while. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75]. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity.13. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities. Briefly. it is an agent that promotes diuresis. 4. ethyl acetate. Anethole and F. however. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. 4. which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). ganglionic. methylene chloride.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31. Anticolitic Activity. and 22. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. respectively.17. and 1. and so forth.03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. reducing intestinal gas. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. In vivo. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75].6%. clot destabilizing effect. The various extracts of aerial part of F. statistically. Antithrombotic Activity. while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg. bacteria. 21. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74].49.3%. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice . both F. Oculohypotensive Activity. tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium. at the same time. muscarinic. An aqueous extract of F. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. This extract exhibited 17. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84]. vulgare. hexane.16. 4. vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. Antinociceptive Activity. and vasorelaxant action [55]. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. Antimutagenic Effect. vulgare. 4. Tognolini et al. The volatile oil of F. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations.). The fruit extract showed. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus.15. Thus. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. the aqueous extract of F. It supports the safety of F. Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances.18.19. 4. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. or combined with other plant medicinals. a highly significant diuretic effect. 4. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108]. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Essential oil of F. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain. Thus.16. or serotonergic receptors. that is. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony. On the other hand. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. Caceres et al. 0. In another part of the study. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. free from cytotoxic effects. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68].

studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. ascorbic acid. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts. Additionally. Cytotoxicity. 61%. vulgare works in the .26. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90]. that is. LDLcholesterol. 4. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase. This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. 4. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. F. aqueous extract of F. Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. 4. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0.21. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study. The essential oil of F. Additionally. ethanolic extract of F. The aqueous extract of F.001) group of animal. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. triglycerides.25. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. nitrate. Further. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82]. retinol. micronuclei formation. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. cholesterol. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde. The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. reduced tumor weight.018% micronucleus.24 induced by cyclophosphamide. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. The study revealed that anethole increased survival time. respectively. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. Al-Harbi et al.12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Gastrointestinal Effect. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. 4. chromosomal aberrations. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. and 61%. 4.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis. respectively. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Also. F. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. 0. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration. Hypoglycemic Activity. In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability. that is.20. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. 4. aqueous extract of F. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. respectively. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus. and beta-carotene levels. micronucleus. and sperm abnormality assays.01) [108]. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7. It was induced by S. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice.22.C. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. Antipyretic Activity. 4. catalase. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11].23. As an antipyretic agent. 23%. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice. The aqueous extract of F. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. The extract from F. Hypolipidemic Activity. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110]. Chemomodulatory Action. respectively [88].24. Thus. while significantly increased nitrite.

acaricidal. 4.97 mg/dL with ? < 0. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. Heracleum sibiricum. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86]. 4. larvicidal. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Antioxidant Activities. Matricaria chamomilla. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae. and dopamine. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113]. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. Pastinaca sativa. insect. Also.19 mg/dL to 81. The antispasmodic activity of 2. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro. The biologically active constituents. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111].30. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. Callosobruchus chinensis.97 ± 1. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%.05. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine. Antiaging Effects. Rosmarinus officinalis. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. namely. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector. Eryngium planum.29. 5. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig.60 ± 6. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. 4.72 ± 2. The ethanol extract from fruit F. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%. Thus. Archangelica officinalis.01—human acute T cell leukaemia. Foeniculum vulgare. An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities. U-266B1—human myeloma.27. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. 4. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal. respectively.BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162.78 U/g Hb to 99.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. EOL—48%.3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83]. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114]. showed antioxidant activities [67]. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL.1. the extracts of F. and ML—1–42%. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia. Mentha piperita. and nematicidal activity [115–119]. anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F. that is. respectively. that is. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. The base was insignificant. respectively [86]. repellent. Antispasmodic Activity. vulgare. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F. essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal. respectively. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode.28. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. Carum carvi. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. By using a filter . Moreover. Insecticidal Activities.5 and 10.31. Carum carvi. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity. Apoptotic Activity. The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. 5. fennel. J-45. Bronchodilatory Effect. Melissa officinalis. mosquitoes. and Lasioderma serricorne. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. norepinephrine. rosmarinic acid.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. respectively. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit. namely. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia. 4. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. including caffeoylquinic acid. 4.5 ± 3.32. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12]. Phenolic compounds of fennel. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65].

respectively. These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. respectively. Zoubiri et al. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. In this investigation. suggests that F. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121]. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. aggressive behaviour. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. serricorne [116]. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. In experimentation. pupil size. Sedaghat et al. C. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. oryzae.2. chinensis. the essential oil extracts from leaves. flowers. thymol. (E)anethole (0. Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.26 paper diffusion test. vulgare could be considered as safe. Whereas after 1 day of treatment. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. ataxia. Nematicidal Activity. respectively [119]. convulsions. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. As naturally occurring insect-control agents. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. The F. 5. social interaction. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight. ethanolic extract of F.168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. At this concentration. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. and 3 g/kg body weight. with no reports of any serious side effects. no sign of toxicity was observed. locomotor activity. respectively [120]. tremors. Thus. estragole (0. chinensis. 6. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone. haematological. vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. In a fumigation test. the plant extract in doses of 0. defecation. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths.51 ppm. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment.10 and 44. All external morphological. Essential oils of Carum carvi. salivation. only the 3 g/kg dose . In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0. Larvicidal Activity. namely. F. were recorded. prostration. By considering this aspect. vulgare oil was the most effective against A. and L. and roots of F. 5. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract. oryzae. Whereas. Acaricidal Activity. Foeniculum vulgare. After 2 days of treatment.5. paralysis. respectively. 5. pattern of respiration. C.4. nasal discharge. vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations. chinensis.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments.4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. Mentha rotundifolia. bizarre reactions. Repellent Activity. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application. 5. Terpineol and 1. vulgare. all test compounds (0. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito. the F. In 3-liter pot experiments. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. urination. tail posture. vulgare.2 mg/cm2 ). and piloerection. and estragol [118]. The methanolic extract of fruits of F.105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. 1. and L.3. sensitivity to sound. namely. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115].6 and 2 h. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. Oka et al. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects.8-cineole content of F.021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. exophthalmos. and spermatogenic changes. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment. Additionally. 0. In case of longer term toxicity. Thus. F. Recently. Thus. in addition to body and vital organ weights.5. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO. cyanosis. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi. Exceptionally. 1. Additionally.5.

The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. vulgare upto 5. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. arthritis. methylene chloride. Also. and zinc [124]. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. aperitif.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. anti-inflammatory. mouth ulcer. anticolitic. such as antiaging. flatulence. In another experiment of acute toxicity.5 g/kg concentration. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. However. antistress. kidney ailments. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models. antinociceptive. hepatoprotective. as a laxative. n-hexane. antipyretic. gastrointestinal effect. fever. antimicrobial and antiviral. estrogenic properties. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76]. liver pain. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. New Delhi. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. and methanol extracts. cardiovascular. thiamine. strontium. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. ethyl acetate. 1000. cytoprotection and antitumor. However. lead. essential amino acids like leucine. hypolipidemic. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. LD50 being: 6. namely. and amino acids. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests. antimutagenic. riboflavin. isoleucine. nickel. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food. antihirsutism. fatty acids. The use of F. flavonoids. ethyl acetate. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. diarrhea. diuretic. 7. chromium. When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. E. This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare. depurative. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. antispasmodic. magnesium. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane. nootropic. especially for abdominal pains. all other parameters were negative [108]. Hence. memory-enhancing property. Thus. 200. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. cadmium.75. hypoglycemic. cancer. antithrombotic. and pyridoxine. 11. and methanol extracts of F. barium. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. The plant extract of F. gastralgia. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. 6. chemomodulatory action. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity. and K. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. phenylalanine. calcium. copper. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . emmenagogue. iron. expectorant. methylene chloride. antiallergic. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. niacin. 600. 800.BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. apoptotic. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. cytotoxicity. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. manganese. irritable colon. constipation. 400. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. antiemetic. cobalt. Thus. Otherwise. anxiolytic. conjunctivitis. gastritis. insomnia. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds.25% of the diet. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions.0. respectively [68]. leucorrhoea. dieresis.92. colic in children. different solvent extracts. phenolic compounds. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. and stomachache. galactogenic.

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