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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/842674

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

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benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of
medicine

Local name

Alto, Bolivia

Hinojo

Arabic

Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua

Inuju

Balikesir, Turkey
Basque
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,
hullebe
Mieloi

Bosnia

Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı
Komoraˇc

Brazil

Endro, erva-doce, funcho

Catalan

Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia

Morac

Chinese

Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang

Czech

Fenykl

Dalmatia (southern Croatia),
Poland

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper
wloski

Danish

Almindelig fennikel, fennikel

Denmark

Almindelig

Dutch

Venkel

English

Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel

France

Fenouille

French

Fenouil
Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Germany
Guerrero, Mexico

Hinojo

Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Saunf
Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu
Saunf

Japanese

Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,
shouikya

Java, Indonesia

Adas

Jordan

Shomar

Kallawaya

Jinuchchu

Kannada

Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)
Italy

Korea

Sohoehyang

Laotian

Phaksi

Latin

Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador

Hinojo

Majorcan area

Fonoll

Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International

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Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
medicine
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap

Nepalese

Madesi sauf

North Iran

Badian

North Portugal

Funcho

Norway

Fenikkel

Norwegian

Fennikel

Pakistan

Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain

Hinojo

Persian

Razianeh

Polish

Fenkuł, koper włoski

Portuguese

Funcho

Rajasthan, India

Sanuf

Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa

Slovenian

Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia

Kamon

South Europe

Fennel

South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua

Spanish
Swedish

F¨ank˚al

Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Thai
Uttarakhand, India

59

Total

91

Local name
2011–13

30

25

2006–10

4

2001–05
0

31

33

27

50

100

150

Ethnobotany
Phytopharmacology

Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.

Badesoppu

growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

chlorogenic acid (2. pentadecanoic acid. and (f) population of F. linoleic acid.14 mg/100 g). arachidic acid. dates (25.86 mg/ 100 g).14. caffeic acid (2. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. bananas (3. caprylic acid. oleic acid.14-eicosadienoic acid. (b) stem.325%). tricosanoic acid.0 mg/100 g). On a weight basis.17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid.0 mg/100 g). and nutritional properties of fruit. These are caproic acid. prunes (18. eicosanoic acid. p-coumaric acid (4. The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. gallic acid (0. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat. About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3).40%).169%). On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22]. cis-11. (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas. undecanoic acid.0 mg/100 g). cis-11. The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. and strawberries (14. quercetin-7-o-glucoside . and lignoceric acid. ?-linolenic acid. stearic acid. The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. capric acid. fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7. colour. ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5.960%). while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution. The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet. myristoleic acid. Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts.873%). raisins (40. palmitic acid.223%). (c) leaves. heptadecanoic acid. Nevertheless.88 mg/100 g). Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste. myristic acid. Thus. orange (40. behenic acid. vulgare Mill. grapes (10. lauric acid.25 mg/100 g).01 mg/100 g). (e) fruits. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14]. energy.98%). while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. (d) inflorescences and flowers. chlorogenic acid (6.

vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. USA). the stem. Flowering stems. 51]. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. The characteristic anise odour of F. All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables. laxative. Unani. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32]. Na Zinc. for example. cancer).09 g 0. stewed with beans and chickpeas. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda.g. Italy. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. and USA [28. arthritis. ice-cream. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). ferulic acid (3.1 g 3.21 g 31 kcal 1. They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. leaves. coconut. and brightly colored. gastralgia. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids.g. meat and fish dishes. 48. in the Indian. as a typical. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener).203%). Iran. 37. In Portugal. insomnia. The preparation methods. colic in children. kidney ailments. namely. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48]. depending on the season. 50.53 g (3. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium. 9. and alcoholic beverages. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases. and apigenin (12. Spain. seeds. fruit. Siddha.2 g 7. seasonal fresh fruit. hesperidin (0. which is due to its essential oil. aperitif. Besides seasoning.63 g 0.555%).131%). Portugal. Ethiopia. abdominal pains. vulgare. Thus.219%). Serbia.58 mg 62. Shoots. From ancient times. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]. rosmarinic acid (14. Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4)..032 mg 0.73 g 0. cough/cold. fennel is used to preserve food. irritable colon. In many parts of India and Pakistan. Brazil.047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0. used to stuff fish for grilling.93 g 49 mg 0. Italy.BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA. cancer. India. coated in sugar. diarrhea. and placed in soups and bread bouillons. Mexico. sugar.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. aerial parts. The seeds can be savory.169 g 0.8 ?g 0.53 g 0. Ecuador. emmenagogue. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds. and fruit/seed of F. They are added raw to salads. depurative. K Sodium. tender leaves. vulgare. 47]. mouth ulcer.64 mg 0. Jordan.01 mg 0. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F.2 mg 12 mg 0. fruit. kidney ailments.558%) [23]. Ca Iron. In addition to its medicinal uses. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. leaves. uses.068 g 0. Pakistan.097%). F. fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions. cinnamic acid (0. leaf. antiemetic. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit. 34.45 g 0. flatulence. It is used to treat simple ailments (e. and India. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. 46] see Table 4). Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14]. total monounsaturated Fatty acids. Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. 33–44]. total saturated Fatty acids.998%). constipation. . dieresis. Mg Phosphorus. fever. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot.3 g 3.73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0. P Potassium. Turkey. stem. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45.095%). and application of F. seeds. liver pain. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. quercetin (17. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor.. anise seeds. and stomachache (Table 5). and sesame seeds. 29. gastritis.24 g 0. 1. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. cuts) to very complicated ailments (e. Fe Magnesium. vulgare is famous for its essential oil. leucorrhoea. Its stem.55 g 0. conjunctivitis. Spain. F. South Africa. 2.

69 ± 0.06 0.00 nd 0.37 23.19 ± 0.49 ± 0.68 22.00 1. namely. flowers.01 0. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.01 0.06 0.22 ± 0.19 ± 0.81 ± 0.78 ± 0.61 ± 0.62 85. phenolic components.0 1.68 ± 0.40 67.07 0.99 ± 0.07 1.52 38.13 1.49 ± 0.01 1.20 nd 1.31 ± 0.55 ± 0.25 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.94 ± 0.00 0.10 0.52 1.08 ± 0.33 39.00 0.25 ± 0.02 0.61 ± 0.46 ± 1.39 ± 0. vulgare.33 ± 0.53 ± 0.34 Inflorescences 71.04 ± 0.09 0.04 27.84 ± 0.01 0.02 1.02 0.82 ± 3.36 23. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].44 ± 0.00 0.06 1.99 ± 0.65 1.03 18.00 0.05 22.72 ± 0. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids.49 ± 0.62 ± 0.33 ± 0. appearing practically in any of its parts.12 0.52 ± 0.35 ± 0.33 ± 0.82 ± 0.77 ± 0. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).01 0.43 ± 0.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.84 ± 0. 3.36 ± 0.31 0.86 ± 1.03 0.35 ± 0. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.23 ± 10.08 4.22 ± 0.96 ± 0.04 25. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products.21 ± 0.21 ± 0. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6).00 0.28 ± 0. stem.28 ± 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.37 Stems 77.28 1.30 38.11 1.99 ± 0.96 ± 0.35 ± 0.68 1.00 19.02 0.71 ± 0.00 0. Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F. hydrocarbons.01 0.16 1.10 ± 0.12 ± 0.02 2.42 83.1. Volatile Compounds.41 ± 0.04 5.15 ± 0.41 ± 0.12 0.06 4.43 ± 0. and fruits [58.23 ± 0.94 ± 0.04 ± 0.08 ± 0. volatile components.02 4.04 43.03 0.06 4.37 ± 0.23 17.16 ± 0.61 ± 0.68 ± 0.62 ± 0. nd: not detected.72 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 4.02 0.78 ± 0.45 ± 0.59 ± 0.09 ± 0.00 0.00 12.31 ± 4.01 1.03 23.20 ± 0.25 5.10 36.03 0. Some of the phytoconstituents of F.03 ± 0.24 ± 0.95 ± 0.36 ± 0.25 ± 0.03 0.02 1.43 ± 0.90 ± 1.09 nd 0.05 ± 0.40 0.12 2.04 3.16 ± 0.48 ± 0.03 0. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49.00 1.01 0.04 1.00 0.07 0.66 ± 1.07 43.37 ± 2.00 1. The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.00 0.02 Shoots 73.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g).26 ± 0.51 ± 0. .49 ± 0.23 2.35 ± 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.31 ± 0.04 2. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4.04 1. 3.17 ± 0.11 0.43 ± 0.03 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.58 ± 0.75 ± 0.00 0.24 97.39 ± 0.13 56.14 ± 0.15 1.37 ± 0.53 ± 0. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.83 2.13 ± 0.02 0.02 0.04 ± 1.06 1.12 108.05 1.49 ± 0.19 17.91 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.76 ± 0. 50].61 ± 0.55 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0. and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).51 39.12 0.68 1.02 33.08 ± 0. roots.02 37.00 38.58 ± 0.15 ± 0.43 ± 0.68 36.04 0.91 ± 3.47 ± 0.12 ± 0.06 ± 0. and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.41 ± 0.07 0.37 ± 0. shoots.01 0.06 1.56 ± 0.14 ± 0.94 ± 0.17 ± 0.00 0.01 38.06 ± 0. The anise odor of F.29 ± 0. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.20 ± 0.89 ± 0.72 ± 0.06 ± 0.74 ± 0. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57].18 ± 0.02 ± 0.20 ± 0.04 21.88 ± 0. 59].08 ± 0.55 ± 0.78 ± 0. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent).00 20.01 3.55 1.03 1.06 ± 0.08 19.08 2.57 61.15 0.36 77.99 ± 0.38 ± 0.33 3.02 1.00 0.94 ± 0.04 0.29 23.89 ± 0.01 1.01 0.

oxygenated monoterpenes. premature. and seeds of F. finucchiello. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). Norway. used in omelettes. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel. and for aromatizing brandy. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72. Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia.3– 3. In addition.0%). and fully mature) of the fruit of F. erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho.0% of the total oil. biscuits.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature. and fenchone. 60 compounds representing 90. fenchone (8. figs preserves. Seeds used as spices. namely. flavour for cakes. and spices. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general.5%). and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur. They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. and Turkey. Italy 2 Campania. References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives. A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified.09–9. vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves. that is. fionho. exo-fenchyl acetate (0.9% [61]. and chestnuts. Italy 3 Spain Hinojo. vulgare was reported by Telci et al. Whole plant used in olives brines. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons. mature.7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. Austria. bread. and methylchavicol (5.0%). Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives. Moldova. and stems used in snacks. and fenchone. and chestnuts. namely. are used in salads or stewed. India Saunf 9 Liguria. fialho.6–75. neophytadiene (0–10. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F. and sweets. (E)-phytol (0. The chemical composition of the Algerian F. as preservative for dry figs. Flowering stems used in beverages. and steam distillation. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho. finochietto Finocchiella.4%). [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts. Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas.6%).1–98. funcho-doce. used in fish stuff. spirits. d-limonene (6. vulgare seed oil was different as compared with .1% [62].10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. and stems are fried with eggs. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats.1–6. stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas.1–2. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application. Fang et al.7%). soups. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0. They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity.(SD-) GC-MS methods. stems. accounting for 98. [56]. 3. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55]. and used in fish and bread bouillons. tender leaves.8%). The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59. number Region/Nation 1 Campania. Sr. and biscuits.1–3. In addition. estragole (0. tender leaves. Seeds are used as spices. that is. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel.1–21. soups. [14] Shoots. Zoubiri et al.6%). Overall. The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea.8%). and spices. salads. Shoots.5%).2%) followed by estragole (7. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS. stews. vulgare. 0. raw as a snack.8–90. [125] Tender leaves and stems. In 2007 Tognolini et al. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars.40–14. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. and sauces. flavour for cakes.

Italy [33] Rome. aqueous infusion. Sr. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. Pakistan Gujranwala. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. Italy Northern Badia. India [131] Alto. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. aqueous infusion. leaf. drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. decoction Leaf and seeds. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. Ecuador Miami. decoction Rome. Florida. Ecuador [128] Loja. and stem. infusion Seed. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. paste Locality References Basilicata. USA [128] Rome. Bolivia Gujranwala. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. decoction Rome. roots. infusion Leaves. Maharashtra. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves.8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. flower. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. Pakistan Pernambuco. Jordan. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. aqueous infusion. Manisa. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant. infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. Jordan. India [127] Loja. Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. decoction Rome.

leaf. and fresh leaves Seed. roots. powder for digestive ailments Seeds. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. inhaled into eyes Seeds. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. simple powder Seed. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. decoction Seed.BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. India [26] Basilicata. edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. decoction Seeds. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. South Africa Rome. and stem. and fresh leaves Leaf. roots. decoction Seeds. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome. India Andalusia. infusion. roots. Italy Balikesir. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. India [26] Rajasthan. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. decoction Seed. oral infusion Whole plant. 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. West. and leaves Balikesir. 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. decoction Uttarakhand. Sr. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] . an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. decoction Tender parts.

resp.2. the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23]. Phenolic Compounds.42%) with limonene (6. limonene-10-ol.24%). a phenylpropanoid. anti-inflammatory. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. isoquercitrin. Sr. 3. and inflammation. antihirsutism. and 1. antinociceptive. Also.1% and 1. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. Serbian [52]. 3. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables.4% and 1. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. vulgare [67]. vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2. 1. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives. antiallergic. vulgare. cancer. Jordan. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. North Bengal. whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. Flavonoids.9% and 6.3. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. the major compounds were identified as 1. quercetin. F. The phenolic compounds present in F. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid. and Chinese [53] fennels. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists.4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria. antimicrobial and antiviral. infusion Fresh fruit. vulgare.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? . infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. 4. fenchone (5. antimutagenic. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside. Italy Southern Punjab. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. representing 95. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. Quercetin-3O-galactoside.8% of the total amount. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. quercetin-3-rutinoside. namely. and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. estragole.2% resp. anticolitic. . A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F.8%. oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed. vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. quercetin3-arabinoside. Few extracts of F. quercetin. antipyretic. leaf. o-cymene.6%.18 mg/g.53%). flavonoid glycosides. resp.3 ± 0. rutin.5%. followed by estragole (10.45%).).). chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14. and flavonoid aglycones [67]. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. and others as minor components.) [70].3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders. Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. Further. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family. was found to be the main component.1% and 12. and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. Diao et al. Trans-Anethole (68. antispasmodic. antiaging.) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts. and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69]. sorbic acid. respectively. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation. vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases. kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3. 1. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F. vulgare [65]. and consumers due to their role in human health. 56].10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant. resp. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet. food scientists. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside.3-benzenediol. decoction Turkish [51. 1methoxycyclohexene. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Indian [54]. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66]. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one.8? -binaringenin. and stem-infusion.

1.BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued.8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) .

4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1.12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2. Oleic acid (37) .3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued.

R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . OH . R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH.3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. = R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued. = R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H . R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H.BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. R4 = caffeoyl 1. = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? . 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH.

The results from the disc diffusion method. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. Gulfraz et al. Staphylococcus aureus. and hexane extracts of seed of F. Pseudomonas fluorescens. Erwinia carotovora. 4]. indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. 14–24. chemomodulatory action. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). Micrococcus luteus. and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). Pseudomona aeruginosa. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. antimycobacterial. antithrombotic. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. 21–24. 20-21. 50. 22–24. Klebsiella pneumonia. [92]. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). diuretic. Bacillus pumilus. estrogenic properties. diethyl ether. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. cytotoxicity. vulgare and reported in the literature. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9). antistress.. 17–18. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts. hypolipidemic. Roby et al. gastrointestinal effect. Among different tested bacterial strains. chloroform. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. Salmonella typhimurium. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9). hypoglycemic. Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. 13. cardiovascular. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. essential oil of F. Duˇsko et al. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F. vulgare. 68. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. Bacillus subtilis. nootropic. and oculohypotensive activities [11. Salmonella typhi.14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. Pseudomonas syringae. and Candida albicans. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli. cytoprotection and antitumor. apoptotic. Shigella flexneri. Escherichia coli. fungal. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. Escherichia coli. anxiolytic. Klebsiella pneumonia. tumefaciens. Bacillus megaterium. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. memory-enhancing property.1. 14–18. and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. hepatoprotective. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. 71–90]. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. Methanol extract of flower of F. vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). respectively [3. and mycobacterial origin. the . expectorant. A brief review of the same is as follows. galactogenic. Pseudomonas putida. ethanol. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. 4. 11-12. 20. viral.

7-dimethyl-.67 mm zone of inhibition. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature. 3.1.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare.4a.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2. Pseudomona aeruginosa. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2.6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3. Candida albicans.5. namely. Escherichia coli. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F.3.1.20 73.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Klebsiella pneumonia.1]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73. and phytopathogenic .27 and 12.1.3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-2.8-dienol 1. number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.6-Dimethyl-2.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11.7-octriene 2.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F. respectively [7]. Foeniculum vulgare. Sr.6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1. Mentha spicata.0]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1.3.2.8.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus. Martins et al. Sr. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2.4.27 66.6-Octatriene.

vulgare stem. 1. and FW: fennel waste. The oils extracted from F. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite. bergapten. was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. characterized from F. psoralen. In an in vitro study. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. LF: leaf. Aspergillus niger. aqueous seed extract of F. Mucor rouxii.8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside.8-Cineole. from methylene . Interestingly. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F.4-Undecadienal. SDEO: seed essential oil. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid. Fusarium oxysporum. A coumarin derivative. undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. photoanethole ?-Myrcene. Essential oil of F. The MIC values of F.16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. and Aspergillus flavus [98]. scopoletin. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. linoleic acid. Aspergillus niger.3-benzenediol. and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. 3? . was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. FT: fruit. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. rosmarinic acid 3. dillapional. oleic acid. scopoletin. Essential oil of F. that is. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives. vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. molds. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. 2. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. ST: stem. respectively. imperatorin. Fusarium solani. namely. 250. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. SD: seed. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. griseofulvin [99]. and Rhizopus solani [96].

carbon tetrachloride induced namely. Invivo. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. that is. respectively. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo.4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50. Invivo. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). female rats endometrium. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo.4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo.1 to 0. male ICR mice.1% inhibition of Invitro. cervix. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). BALB/c mice. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%. doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL.5% and 99. Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct. alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT). 77. and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 . myometrium.

C-8166.6%. tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo.16.01. WICL.3%. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line. for J45 cell line. M.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. [84] 0. and 1. 21. J-45. 150. tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0. U-266B1. 18 BioMed Research International . methanol. 100. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo. hexane. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17.6%.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage. and 22. Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60.49. 0. 1301.3%. and 1. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo. 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL.

P. C.x.c.n.a.f. E. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E..p.c. B...s.l.. antifungal.a. methanol.s.f.and P.s... gentamicin.0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30. M.g.p. LF.c.a..s.a.. Enterococcus sp.. and M. S. B.s.a. C.. E. Ethanol. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B. antimycobacterial.m... streptomycin. K.t. and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone.a. 20.c.s.e. S.and Rh...c. number E.t.a. and S.o. S. Active strainsb S.. B.. 25. P..s..a... K.. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol. 1.. P.. and Salmonella sp. P..t...m.5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A.a. F. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc. E. P.. E. and C. E. FT FL. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr. BioMed Research International 19 . E.f. Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E..and A. and A.v.and C.6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial. A. P.. K.SD FT AP SD FL..a.n. M. S.. ofloxacin.s. S...t....a. C...a. sulbactam. F...c.r.c. P.and S.c....a. P..c.c.c.. and C. P.c. Acinetobacter sp..and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous.a. M.f.a.p. S...c.. NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol.p.a.s.a.. and R. B... E.. Essential oil Bacilli sp.c. E. E. Er. St... Sa.a. B. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0. LF.. B. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0. E.n..a..a.. P. A. Sa...t. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A. TW SD.a. B. P.p.25 to 2.a.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1. ST. S. B.t... and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare.

P.: Salmonella typhi.: Shigella sonnei. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin. M.c.r.c.c. B.and F.a.a.m.f. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S. B. E.a.n.r.p...: Proteus vulgaris... Sa.: Bacillus megaterium.a.f. RT: root.p.: Mycobacterium chelonae.and St. F.a.. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10. E.: Alternaria alternate. and Sh. M.?. C.: Staphylococcus coagulase.s.h. Er.a.p. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M. P. K.d.and A.c. P. S.c.a. E.: Rhizopus solani. Sa..t. S. M.: Shigella boydii. ethanol.and C. FL FT LF ST.s.r. E. E.e.e.: Streptococcus faecalis.c. LF: leaf. 12.5. S. M.: Sarcina lutea.. Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E.8 ?g/mL NM 7. K.: Pseudomonas fluorescens. and TW: twig..l.: Salmonella typhimurium.l. S.e. E.t. P. S.m.b.: Rhizoctonia solani.s.a. S. S.. R. C. and P..f. A.o.: Micrococcus luteus.f.: Enterococcus faecalis. B.n. B. Table 9: Continued.p..a.: Staphylococcus epidermidis..b.: Bacillus subtilis. S.: Streptococcus haemolyticus. tumefaciens. St. and B.: Aspergillus niger. FT: fruit. number a 20 BioMed Research International ...: Enterobacter aerogenes.: Candida tropicalis.: Mycobacterium smegmatis.. P..: Mucor rouxii.c.s.s. P. S.t. 15.f. S.t.: Shigella flexneri.f.: Shigella dysenteriae...a. ST: stem. B.c.a. S. S. E.: Candida albicans.g. Sa.a..a. S...a.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294.c.c. F. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S.c. A.and As.and P. Rh.: Mycobacterium xenopi..m.. A.l.f. S.s. B. Essential oil Methanol. E. E.. Active strains S. M.x.f.s.: Klebsiella pneumonia. C.: Pseudomonas syringae.: Bacillus pumilus.p.a.c.025 to 0..: Pseudomona aeruginosa. B.s.t.f.. S.a.t.a.d. C.. S. P. A.v. A. diethyl ether. S...and P.: Erwinia carotovora. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0. and hexane extract Crude.: Phytopathogenic molds.a. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned.: Alcaligenes faecalis. M. K. As.: Fusarium oxysporum. P. P.s. S.s..: Fusarium solani. P..: Escherichia coli. chloroform.. 50..: Pseudomonas glycinea.a. S.s... M.: Shigella shiga.: Staphylococcus aureus. S.a.t.t.h.: Bacillus cereus. SD: seed..a.. B.c. S.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv.c. C.c.c. 10..a. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E..p. a FT Part used 14 Sr. B. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part. and S.: Aspergillus flavus.m.5. amoxicillin.o. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses.SD LF.: Salmonella enteritidis.c. S. Sh.: Pseudomonas putida. ?. FL: flower.

Out of these. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F. alkaline phosphatase (ALP).4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema.6 and 0. carrageenan-induced paw edema. Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. Mentha spicata. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly. Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance. Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens.001). All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains. and whole board models.6. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9]. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder. flatulence. For acute inflammation. vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. rota rod. The key parameters. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. insomnia. conjunctivitis. Orhan et al. with results ranging between 1. dieresis. These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ranging between 0. The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. The level of serum transaminase. namely. and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0.BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F.001). The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). vulgare [79]. vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hepatoprotective Activity. Methanolic extract of F. 4. When anxiety becomes excessive. the samples tested were less effective against PI-3. Thus. 4.3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL). Naga Kishore et al. and 2. gastralgia. alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Oral administration of methanol extract of F.2 ?g/mL. vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). tuberculosis infection [63]. 1. twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. depurative. skin diseases.8 and 0. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. fever. antiemetic.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M. irritable colon. constipation. vulgare may lower the risk of M. The plant extract (50. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Thus. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature). Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL).4. Essential oil of F. vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze. the dietary intake of F. and so forth. [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F. Bhandarkar and Rege. 2. gastritis. aspartate aminotransferase (AST). 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. that is. vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79]. whose consumption is believed to enhance memory . and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. Mentha piperita. Ocimum minutiflorum. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1. open field test. These overall results seem to suggest that F. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern.025 ?g/mL. Ocimum vulgaris.3. mouth ulcer. Thus. arthritis. Bioactive metabolites of F. vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. However.(2. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents.2. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg). There are a number of plants. Antiallergic Activity.5. 4. Methanol extract of F. diarrhea.7. vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Memory-Enhancing Property. stomachache. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F. 4. The whole plant extract of F. 4. respiratory disorders. Oral administration of F. Anxiolytic Activity. vulgare [101]. tuberculosis species. 4. the extract of entire plant of F. Ozbek et al. undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). Antistress Activity.

This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. lignans. continued treatment with F. It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals. the extracts of F. Structural similarity of its main constituent.22 and intelligence. respectively [78]. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. 4. to reach the point of acquisition. F. vulgare fruit. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. prolactin. However. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. and 0% (placebo). 18. 4. Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa). Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105].9. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. chalcones. Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. vulgare has estrogen-like activity. There is some evidence in favor of use of F.10. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity. F. saponins. stilbenes. 2%. The whole plants extract (50. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F.11. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the . Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. Traditionally. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days. Antihirsutism Activity. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group). Expectorant Activity. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. isoflavonoids. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. Thus. Estrogenic Properties. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. promote menstruation. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. and essential oils [16]. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion. F. 4. Nootropic Activity. These were usually given to children as part of their food. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group. Thus. coumestans. including flavonoids.8. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. and increase libido. 150. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. which took 12 days for acquisition.8%. and increase libido [71]. respectively. and −0. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. On considering above aspect. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. Galactogenic Activity. However. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. Thus. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones. 4. This overall progress suggests that F. 4. mammary glands and oviducts. vulgare seeds [104]. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. such as dianethole and photoanethole.3%. F. while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days. On the other hand. In male rats. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. F. facilitate birth. While 10. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. anethole. was observed. 76]. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities.and time-dependent compared to control group. namely.12.

tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium. ethyl acetate. at the same time. The ethanolic extract of F. In vivo. F. The fruit extract showed.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma. free from cytotoxic effects. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75]. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F. Anethole and F. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. Diuretic Activity. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. respectively. The aqueous seed extract of F. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances. which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). Briefly. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. arachidonic acid. Anticolitic Activity. a highly significant diuretic effect. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). Caceres et al. both F. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F.03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. Thus.3%. while. 4. 4. namely. hexane. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. it is an agent that promotes diuresis. vulgare. methylene chloride. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. 4. In another part of the study. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice .49. and 1. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74]. reducing intestinal gas. On the other hand. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. 4.14. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system.16. Antimutagenic Effect. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony. vulgare.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles. and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. statistically. that is. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations. An aqueous extract of F. vulgare.15.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. 4.). This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106].13. vulgare. muscarinic. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68]. in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. Tognolini et al. Briefly. bacteria. Thus. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. and 22. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. ganglionic.The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73].16. the aqueous extract of F. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75]. Cardiovascular Activity. Oculohypotensive Activity. 4. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108]. however. It supports the safety of F. or serotonergic receptors. Antinociceptive Activity. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test. clot destabilizing effect. Essential oil of F.18. Antithrombotic Activity. resp. while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli.6%. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84]. The volatile oil of F. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. This extract exhibited 17.19. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. and so forth. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection.17.2% (w/v) concentrations. 0. The various extracts of aerial part of F. 4. Alone. A maximum mean difference of 31. 21. or combined with other plant medicinals. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities. and vasorelaxant action [55].

Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration. LDLcholesterol. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7. respectively. catalase. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. chromosomal aberrations. 61%. aqueous extract of F. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. Thus. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. The extract from F. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. 4. Further. that is. Chemomodulatory Action. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.24 induced by cyclophosphamide. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes. 4. F. The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F. and beta-carotene levels.26. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde.20.01) [108]. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. 4. Cytotoxicity. triglycerides. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice. F.22. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90]. micronucleus. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. that is. 0. Al-Harbi et al. retinol. Also. The aqueous extract of F. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%.018% micronucleus. studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. nitrate. 4. Antipyretic Activity. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet.24. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase.001) group of animal. and sperm abnormality assays. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82]. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. and 61%. In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability. micronuclei formation. Hypolipidemic Activity. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11]. Additionally. It was induced by S. reduced tumor weight. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. As an antipyretic agent. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species. Gastrointestinal Effect. This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice.C. The essential oil of F.21. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study. 23%. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. The aqueous extract of F. The study revealed that anethole increased survival time.23. respectively. ethanolic extract of F. respectively. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis.25. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0.12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110]. 4. 4. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice. Hypoglycemic Activity. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0. 4. cholesterol. respectively [88]. aqueous extract of F. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F. vulgare works in the . ascorbic acid. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. Additionally. while significantly increased nitrite. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers.

and Lasioderma serricorne. The antispasmodic activity of 2. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. Carum carvi. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities. respectively. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside. Carum carvi. Insecticidal Activities. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. and ML—1–42%. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86].05. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. respectively. Heracleum sibiricum. namely. fennel. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113]. EOL—48%.BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162. Callosobruchus chinensis. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. 4. 4. The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F.72 ± 2.31. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. namely. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells. respectively. the extracts of F. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia.60 ± 6. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity. anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. mosquitoes. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65]. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. Antioxidant Activities.29. Antiaging Effects. By using a filter . 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast.01—human acute T cell leukaemia. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. and nematicidal activity [115–119].97 ± 1. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. Bronchodilatory Effect. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. norepinephrine.5 ± 3. and dopamine. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%. that is.27. respectively [86]. repellent. 4.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59. The biologically active constituents. 4. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114].30. Rosmarinus officinalis. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal.1. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae. Archangelica officinalis. that is. including caffeoylquinic acid. Phenolic compounds of fennel.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode. 4. The base was insignificant. U-266B1—human myeloma.5 and 10.78 U/g Hb to 99. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector. Matricaria chamomilla. acaricidal. Thus. showed antioxidant activities [67].19 mg/dL to 81. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro. insect. rosmarinic acid. Also. Apoptotic Activity. vulgare. respectively. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111]. The ethanol extract from fruit F. Melissa officinalis. Mentha piperita. larvicidal.3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83].32. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%.97 mg/dL with ? < 0.28. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. 5. 4. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12]. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity. Antispasmodic Activity. Eryngium planum. 5. Foeniculum vulgare. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine. Pastinaca sativa. Moreover. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. J-45. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene.

105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. Terpineol and 1. vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. F. ataxia. bizarre reactions. tremors. flowers. Thus. nasal discharge. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. 5. respectively. in addition to body and vital organ weights. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application. In this investigation. vulgare could be considered as safe. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract.8-cineole content of F. Repellent Activity. with no reports of any serious side effects. F. Additionally. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects.5. Whereas.51 ppm. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. vulgare.5.4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N.26 paper diffusion test. were recorded. Oka et al. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito. vulgare. exophthalmos. 5. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. At this concentration. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115]. 1. and roots of F. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. all test compounds (0. no sign of toxicity was observed. pattern of respiration. Nematicidal Activity.6 and 2 h. and 3 g/kg body weight. Exceptionally. salivation.4. pupil size. respectively. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. locomotor activity. social interaction. After 2 days of treatment. haematological. estragole (0.5. In case of longer term toxicity.168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. By considering this aspect. convulsions. the F. In 3-liter pot experiments. (E)anethole (0. Sedaghat et al. 0. 6. namely.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. chinensis.10 and 44. Zoubiri et al. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F. defecation. Foeniculum vulgare. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. Larvicidal Activity.3. respectively [120]. serricorne [116]. only the 3 g/kg dose .021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. namely. the essential oil extracts from leaves. Thus. paralysis. Recently. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. Acaricidal Activity. tail posture. and piloerection. 5. respectively [119]. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121]. and L. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi. 1. and L. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. oryzae. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. suggests that F. aggressive behaviour. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. All external morphological. vulgare oil was the most effective against A. ethanolic extract of F. and spermatogenic changes. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S. Essential oils of Carum carvi. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. the plant extract in doses of 0. and estragol [118]. In a fumigation test. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments. chinensis. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone. vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations. In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0. The F. In experimentation. Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The methanolic extract of fruits of F. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. cyanosis. prostration. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. sensitivity to sound. Additionally. As naturally occurring insect-control agents. 5. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20. urination. Mentha rotundifolia.2. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO. Whereas after 1 day of treatment.2 mg/cm2 ). Thus. respectively. thymol. C. C. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. chinensis. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. oryzae.

Hence. and methanol extracts of F. hepatoprotective. phenolic compounds. as a laxative. methylene chloride. dieresis. apoptotic. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. barium. antihirsutism. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. antithrombotic. antinociceptive. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. niacin. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. 600. fever. aperitif. hypolipidemic. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. 7. This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare. diuretic. methylene chloride. and methanol extracts. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. and K. 6. namely.BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. antimicrobial and antiviral. antistress. flatulence. especially for abdominal pains. 11. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses. n-hexane. E. cancer. Otherwise. antimutagenic. 200. anticolitic. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions.5 g/kg concentration. The use of F. chemomodulatory action. constipation. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. vulgare upto 5. gastrointestinal effect. antispasmodic. LD50 being: 6. magnesium.75. copper. 1000. flavonoids. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. cadmium. diarrhea. In another experiment of acute toxicity. irritable colon. colic in children. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food.25% of the diet. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane. all other parameters were negative [108]. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. and zinc [124]. iron. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. antipyretic. hypoglycemic. phenylalanine. galactogenic. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. cobalt. ethyl acetate. New Delhi.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. 400. nootropic. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. 800. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests. antiallergic. insomnia. and stomachache. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds. isoleucine. cytotoxicity. and pyridoxine.0. Thus. anti-inflammatory. However. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . calcium. liver pain. different solvent extracts. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. memory-enhancing property. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. cardiovascular. such as antiaging. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. leucorrhoea. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. fatty acids. When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. antiemetic. mouth ulcer. thiamine. cytoprotection and antitumor. respectively [68]. ethyl acetate. anxiolytic. depurative. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. Thus. gastralgia. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. arthritis. riboflavin. nickel. essential amino acids like leucine. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. emmenagogue. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. The plant extract of F. strontium. and amino acids. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. gastritis. estrogenic properties. manganese. The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. However. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. Also. kidney ailments. conjunctivitis. expectorant. lead. chromium. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76].92.

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