Hindawi Publishing Corporation

BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 842674, 32 pages

Review Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany,
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application,
and Toxicology
Shamkant B. Badgujar, Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar
Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, ICMR, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 012, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Shamkant B. Badgujar; sham83badgujar@gmail.com
Received 11 February 2014; Revised 26 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014
Academic Editor: Ronald E. Baynes
Copyright © 2014 Shamkant B. Badgujar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related
to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating
mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence
for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional
uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used
for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such
as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in
several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional
medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future
clinical uses.

1. Introduction
Foeniculum vulgare is the oldest valid name within the genus
Foeniculum for the plant designated by Karsten as Foeniculum
Foeniculutn. However, according to the international rules
of nomenclature, the binomial name Foeniculum vulgare was
not validly published by Hill in his reference [1] for the reason
that he did not consistently adopt the binomial system of
nomenclature. In accordance with the international rules as
adopted at Cambridge, the name Foeniculum vulgare must
be accredited to Philip Miller, who first validly published
it in the eighth edition of his “Gardeners Dictionary” in
1768. From then on, the name of this plant is written as
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a medicinal plant belonging
to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, known and used by
humans since antiquity, due to its flavor. It was cultivated in

almost every country [2]. It is universally known as Fennel
and is known by more than 100 names (Table 1). It is a
traditional and popular herb with a long history of use as
a medicine. A series of studies showed that F. vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious disorders of bacterial,
fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin [3–7]. It
has antioxidant, antitumor, chemopreventive, cytoprotective,
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and oestrogenic activities
[8–12]. Some of the publications stated that F. vulgare has
a special kind of memory-enhancing effect and can reduce
stress [13]. Animal experiments and limited clinical trials
suggest that chronic use of F. vulgare is not harmful. Fennel
maybe consumed daily, in the raw form as salads and snacks,
stewed, boiled, grilled, or baked in several dishes and even
used in the preparation of herbal teas or spirits. A diet
with desired quantity of fennel could bring potential health

benefits due to its valuable nutritional composition with
respect to presence of essential fatty acids [14]. In recent years,
increased interests in improvement of agricultural yield of
fennel due to its medicinal properties and essential oil content
has encouraged cultivation of the plant on large scale.
Research on F. vulgare with current technology has been
conducted all over the world. All the available literature on
F. vulgare was compiled from electronic databases such as
Academic Journals (including high impact, nonimpact, and
nonindexed journals), Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, Scopus
link, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library
search. A review of the literature from 2001 to 2005 shows
only 20% reports published on F. vulgare which increased
to about 38% from 2006 to 2010. Briefly, in these 10 years
a total of 89 claims appeared in the literature on various
aspects of F. vulgare. It is important to note that about
39% of reports (61 articles) were collected from recent three
years, that is, 2011 to 2013 (Figure 1). Some of the earlier
published reviews of this plant included medicinal properties
and phytochemistry [15–20], but few of them appear in all
these reviews. However, there is a need for an inclusive
review that bridges the gaps between traditional uses of
fennel and its in vitro studies. The present review attempts
to collate the available information on the botany, nationwise common vernacular names, cultivation (propagation),
nutritive value, and traditional/contemporary as well as allied
applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of
F. vulgare. We hope that this review may provide scientific
basis that explains the ethnophytopharmacological role of
F. vulgare in order to facilitate and guide future research.
In particular, we aimed to answer the following questions.
(1) What information is available on the traditional uses,
botany, phytochemistry, and toxicity of F. vulgare? (2) What
pharmacological studies were performed on this plant and
how do they validate its traditional uses? (3) What is the
future for F. vulgare?
1.1. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Plantae, division: Tracheophyta,
subdivision: Spermatophytina, class: Magnoliopsida, order:
Apiales, family: Apiaceae, genus: Foeniculum, species: vulgare,
and botanical name: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1.2. Botanical Description. Fennel is an ancient seasonal herb.
The fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean
region and through naturalization and cultivation it grows
wild throughout the Northern, Eastern, and Western hemispheres, specifically in Asia, North America, and Europe.
It is cultivated in fields and also grows wild. The herb was
well-known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and
Chinese. The Romans grew it for its aromatic seeds and
the edible fleshy shoots are still a very common vegetable
in southern Italy [21]. Emperor Charlemagne was known
to have encouraged its cultivation in Central Europe. It is
an indispensable ingredient in modern French and Italian
cooking. All parts of the plant are aromatic and can be used
in many ways.
F. vulgare is an upright, branching perennial herb
(Figure 2(a)) with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage

BioMed Research International
Table 1: Vernacular names of Foeniculum vulgare.
Region/language/system of

Local name

Alto, Bolivia



Bisbas, razianaj

Aymara, Kechua


Balikesir, Turkey
Bengali (Indian language)

Arapsaci, rezene, malatura,


Mauri, p¯anmour¯ı


Endro, erva-doce, funcho


Fenoll, fonoll

Central Serbia



Hui xiang, xiao hui xiang



Dalmatia (southern Croatia),

Komoraˇc, koromaˇc, kumuraˇc,
moraˇc, moroˇc, moraˇca, Koper


Almindelig fennikel, fennikel






Bitter fennel, common fennel,
sweet fennel, wild fennel




Fenchel, fenchle, bitterfenchel,
wilder fenchel, dunkler fenchel,

Guerrero, Mexico


Gujarati (Indian language)

Hariyal, variyali

Haryana, India

Jammu and Kashmir, India

Badi, badishep, bari saunf, badi
saunf, saunp, saunf, sonp, sont
Finucchio, finucchiello,
finochietto, finocchiella,
fen`ucciu, fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu


Fenneru, uikyou, uikyou,

Java, Indonesia







Badi sopu, badisepu, sabbasige,
dodda sopu, dodda jirige

Hindi (Indian language)






Foeniculum, maratrum

Loja, Ecuador


Majorcan area


Middle Navarra

Hinojo, cenojo

BioMed Research International


Table 1: Continued.
Region/language/system of
Marathi (Indian language)

Badishep, bad.¯ı´sep, shoap


Madesi sauf

North Iran


North Portugal







Sonef, saunf

Peninsula, Spain





Fenkuł, koper włoski



Rajasthan, India


Sanskrit (Indian language)

Madhurika, shatapushpa


Sladki komarˇcek

Somali Region, Ethiopia


South Europe


South Africa

Vinkel, fennel
Hinojo, hinojo amargo, fenoll,
fiollo, millua



Tamil (Indian language)

Perun siragum, shombu, sohikire

Telugu (Indian language)

Peddajilakurra, sopu
Phak chi, phak chi duen ha, phak
chi lom, thian klaep, yira

Uttarakhand, India




Local name













Figure 1: Research papers in different aspects especially traditional
or ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacological,
and various biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare. (Papers
were collected via electronic databases such as Academic Journals,
Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct.)

They are greenish-yellow, the colour of hay, from which the
term fennel is derived. Wild fruits are short, dark coloured
and blunt at their ends, and have a less agreeable flavour
and odour than those of sweet fennel. Seeds ripen from
September to October. This plant can reproduce from crown
or root fragments but freely reproduces from seed.


growing upto 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall. This plant looks similar to
dill. It is typically grown in vegetable and herb gardens
(Figure 2(f)) for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, both of
which are commonly harvested for use in cooking. It is erect
and cylindrical, bright green, and smooth as to seem polished,
with multiple branched leaves (Figure 2(c)) cut into the finest
of segments. The leaves grow upto 40 cm long; they are finely
dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike),
about 0.5 mm wide. The bright golden flowers, produced
in large, flat terminal umbels, with thirteen to twenty rays,
bloom in July and August (Figure 2(d)).
Foliage. Stem striate, leaves 3-4 pinnate, segments filiform,
upto 1.6 in. (4 cm) long; leaf bases sheathing. It has a green,
sleek, and slippery stem with upright stiff branches and much
divided leaves in linear segments (Figure 2(b)). Rays are 5–
30 numbers with 0.39–2.4 inches (1–6 cm) long. Flowers
are small, yellow, and found in large flat-topped umbels
(Figure 2(d)). Fruits are oblong to ovoid with 0.12–0.2 inches
(3–5 mm) long and 1.5–2.0 mm broad (Figure 2(e)). The
stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated
and have strong ribs. The most esteemed fennel seeds vary
from three to five lines in length and are elliptical, slightly
curved, and somewhat obtuse at the ends (Figure 3(a)).

1.3. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fennel.
Foeniculum vulgare is widely grown for its edible fruit or
seeds. These are sweet and dry; a fully ripe specimen is
an exquisite fruit. The fruit is often dried for later use and
this dried fruit called fennel is a major item of commerce.
Table 2 lists the nutrient composition of fennel (USDA data).
Fennels are one of the highest plant sources of potassium,
sodium, phosphorus, and calcium. According to USDA data
for the Mission variety, fennels are richest in dietary fiber
and vitamins, relative to human needs. They have smaller
amounts of many other nutrients.
Table 3 summarizes the chemical composition and
the nutritional value [14] of different parts of fennel,
namely, shoots, leaves, stems, and inflorescence. Leaves
and stems show the highest moisture content (76.36 and
77.46 g/100 g, resp.), while inflorescence exhibits the lowest
content (71.31 g/100 g). Carbohydrates are the most abundant
macronutrients in all the parts and range from 18.44 to
22.82 g/100 g. Proteins, reducing sugars, and fats are the
less abundant macronutrients; proteins varied between
1.08 g/100 g in stems and 1.37 g/100 g in inflorescences. The
inflorescences and stems revealed the highest fat content
(1.28 g/100 g) and reducing sugar content (1.49 g/100 g),
respectively, amongst all the parts of fennel. On the basis
of the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that a fresh
portion of 100 g of these parts yields, on average, 94 Kcal of

325%). ferulic acid-7-o-glucoside (5. prunes (18. chlorogenic acid (6. dates (25. oleic acid.14-eicosadienoic acid. capric acid. heptadecanoic acid.0 mg/100 g).01 mg/100 g).86 mg/ 100 g). energy.88 mg/100 g). orange (40. grapes (10. while the lowest concentration was found in inflorescences. Barros and his coworker conclude polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to be the main group of fatty acids present in all the fennel parts. raisins (40. undecanoic acid.98%). arachidic acid. and (f) population of F. tricosanoic acid.960%). The highest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in leaves contributed to its lowest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids. myristoleic acid. pentadecanoic acid. linoleic acid. eicosanoic acid.40%). p-coumaric acid (4. lauric acid. (e) fruits. palmitic acid. and strawberries (14. behenic acid.0 mg/100 g). caffeic acid (2. (b) stem. while leaves and stems gave the lowest energy contribution.4 BioMed Research International (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (f) Figure 2: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (a) in its natural habitat. stearic acid. and nutritional properties of fruit. and lignoceric acid.0 mg/100 g). chlorogenic acid (2. cis-11. caprylic acid. These are caproic acid.14. On a weight basis. (d) inflorescences and flowers.14 mg/100 g). Nevertheless. The ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids has an important role in the human diet. unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) range from 66% to 80% and predominate over saturated fatty acids [14]. colour. Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste.873%). The highest values were obtained for inflorescences. quercetin-7-o-glucoside . myristic acid. cis-11. bananas (3. ?-linolenic acid. Amongst the phenolics analyzed in the fruit of this plant are neochlorogenic acid (1. (c) leaves. Fennels have smaller amounts of many other nutrients. gallic acid (0. vulgare Mill. fennels contain more calcium (49 mg/ 100 g) as compared with apples (7.17-eicosatrienoic acid + heneicosanoic acid.25 mg/100 g). About twenty-one fatty acids were identified and quantified from the above mentioned parts of fennel (Table 3). On the other hand Vardavas and his coworker reported monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as the main group of fatty acids in fennel [22]. The highest concentration of n-3 fatty acids was found in fennel leaves. (a) (b) Figure 3: Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas.169%). Thus. The lowest levels of n-3 fatty acids found in inflorescences contributed to its highest ratio of ?6 to ?3 fatty acids.223%).

Na Zinc. In Portugal. and stomachache (Table 5). They are sweet in flavor and highly aromatic due to the presence of sugar and the addition of various essential oils. leaf. Shoots.73 g 0. South Africa. All these parts are also commonly used as vegetables. quercetin (17. Ca Iron.3 g 3.55 g 0. 1.93 g 49 mg 0. Ethiopia. and sesame seeds. 51]. cancer). coconut. seeds. Zn Vitamins Vitamin C Thiamin B-1 Riboflavin B-2 Niacin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Lipids Fatty acids.2 mg 12 mg 0. kidney ailments. leaves. gastritis. . makes it an excellent flavoring agent in baked goods. Table 5 lists the ethnomedicinal uses of F. Fe Magnesium.. liver pain. Brazil. vulgare are well documented in the common ethnobotanical literature [24–32].. cancer. The seeds can be savory. vulgare. and whole plant itself are medicinally used in different forms in the treatment of a variety of diseased conditions. hesperidin (0. stewed with beans and chickpeas. Spain. and Iranian traditional systems of alternative and balancing medicine [20]. irritable colon. vulgare for 43 different types of ailments in Bolivia. ferulic acid (3.21 g 31 kcal 1. insomnia. tender leaves.1 g 3.53 g 0. constipation. conjunctivitis. fruit. The preparation methods.998%). 34.203%). fever.097%). Turkey.558%) [23].63 g 0. and alcoholic beverages. and placed in soups and bread bouillons. 46] see Table 4). laxative. Herbal teas prepared with fresh tender or dried flowering stems are consumed chilled or hot. total monounsaturated Fatty acids. 37. and honey macerating in brandy produce a highly valorized spirit. cinnamic acid (0. namely. vulgare. In many parts of India and Pakistan. Besides seasoning. meat and fish dishes. Unani. total polyunsaturated Essential amino acids Leucine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophane Nonessential amino acid Glycine Proline Quantity (Per 100 g) 90. diarrhea.09 g 0. P Potassium. seeds. 33–44]. 29. uses. The natural light green dye obtained from leaves is used in cosmetics. aperitif. arthritis. stem. are extensively used as galactagogues not only for increasing the quantity and quality of milk but also for improving the milk flow of breastfeeding mothers [32. Yellow and brown color dyes are obtained by combining the flowers and leaves of fennel [49]. and fruit/seed of F.068 g 0. kidney ailments. It also has a wide range of veterinary uses ([45. cough/cold. sugar. Italy. 48. Portugal. It is used to treat simple ailments (e. Fennel is used in various traditional systems of medicine like in the Ayurveda. coated in sugar. Spain. emmenagogue. From ancient times. and whole plant are used as a vegetable [3. Siddha. depurative. leucorrhoea. It can be made of various seeds and nuts but often found with fennel seeds. depending on the season. Jordan. dieresis.58 mg 62.01 mg 0. and application of F. Traditional and Contemporary Uses Foeniculum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. flatulence.219%). 47]. gastralgia. in the Indian. 2. Serbia. for example.g. abdominal pains. fennels are an important constituent of the regional diet of Europe and other regions. Different varieties of fennel parts are widely used in many of the cooking dishes all over world (Table 4). ice-cream. Its stem. K Sodium.73 mg 17 mg 50 mg 414 mg 52 mg 0. used to stuff fish for grilling. and India.2 g 7. for coloring of textiles/wooden materials and as food colorant. F. India. antiemetic. Mg Phosphorus. and apigenin (12. roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas (Mouth freshener).095%).169 g 0. Italy. The culinary uses of fennel are so diverse/widespread that it has been exported from country to country for centuries [14].g.64 mg 0. as a typical. F.24 g 0. They are added raw to salads.8 ?g 0. Mexico. rosmarinic acid (14. which is due to its essential oil. Ecuador. and USA [28. cuts) to very complicated ailments (e.032 mg 0. anise seeds. vulgare is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of a number of diseases. total saturated Fatty acids. Composition Proximates Moisture Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Total dietary fiber Sugars Minerals Calcium. and brightly colored. fruit. leaves.131%). aerial parts.047 mg 27 ?g 48 ?g 0. Pakistan. Thus. Iran. mouth ulcer. Sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in mukhwas (Mouth freshener) (Figure 3(b)). 9. 50.53 g (3. Mukhwas is a colorful aftermeal mouth freshener or digestive aid. and stems are chewed and sucked due to their exquisite aniseed flavor. seasonal fresh fruit.555%).45 g 0. fennel is used to preserve food. In addition to its medicinal uses.5 dicaffeoylquinic acid (4. USA). colic in children. fennel seeds have been used as an ingredient for removing any foul smell of the mouth [48].BioMed Research International 5 Table 2: Nutrients found in dried fennel (USDA. Flowering stems. the stem. vulgare is famous for its essential oil. The characteristic anise odour of F.

61 ± 0.68 ± 0.82 ± 0.03 0.43 ± 0.36 23.91 ± 0.04 ± 0.00 12.55 ± 0.22 ± 0.01 1.39 ± 0.28 ± 0.65 1.16 1. phenolic components.07 0.17 ± 0.37 Stems 77. Some of the phytoconstituents of F. The essential oil of fennel has been reported to contain more than 87 volatile compounds [51–57].06 ± 0.07 0.20 ± 0.15 1.00 0.14 ± 0.03 1. Composition a Moisture Asha Fata Proteina Carbohydratesa Fructosea Glucosea Sucrosea Reducing sugarsa ?3 fatty acidb ?6 fatty acidb ?6/?3 C6:0b C8:0b C10:0b C11:0b C12:0b C14:0b C14:1b C15:0b C16:0b C17:0b C18:0b C18:1n9cb C18:2n6cb C18:3n3b C20:0b C20:1cb C20:2cb C20:3n3 + C21:0b C22:0b C23:0b C24:0b Total SFAb Total MUFAb Total PUFAb Energyc Contents Leaves 76.03 0.25 5.06 0.61 ± 0.25 ± 0.37 ± 0.48 ± 0.06 1.20 ± 0.36 77.81 ± 0.11 ± 0.01 0.68 22.26 ± 0. vulgare were find application as coloring and antiaging agents [49.02 0.1. Volatile Compounds.10 ± 0.07 1.00 0.62 ± 0.00 1.01 0.20 nd 1. Table 6 summarizes the volatile compounds present in the essential oil of F.19 ± 0.49 ± 0.62 ± 0.02 4.33 ± 0.52 38.00 38.13 1.08 4.09 nd 0.03 23.51 ± 0.0 1.00 20.82 ± 3.06 1.99 ± 0.02 0.68 1. hydrocarbons.00 0.33 3.72 ± 0. namely.28 ± 0.09 0.02 1.12 108.24 97.62 85.11 1. roots.05 1.31 ± 4.83 2.10 0.30 38.03 ± 0. and few other classes of secondary metabolites from its different parts (Figure 4).04 0.37 ± 0.38 ± 0.01 3.22 ± 0.00 0.02 33.29 ± 0.01 0.88 ± 0.59 ± 0.61 ± 0.00 0.08 2.53 ± 0.86 ± 1.07 43. appearing practically in any of its parts.58 ± 0.00 0. vulgare seed essential oil have been illustrated in Figure 4. 50].33 ± 0.06 0.04 0.20 ± 0.03 0.00 19.49 ± 0.72 ± 0.02 1.55 1.07 ± 0.12 0.01 1.04 43.41 ± 0.29 23.12 ± 0.47 ± 0.08 ± 0.05 ± 0.01 0. vulgare is due to its essential oil content.01 0.13 56.15 ± 0.04 2. volatile components.25 ± 0.96 ± 0.04 1.99 ± 0.25 ± 0.84 ± 0.78 ± 0.21 ± 0.01 0.06 4.36 ± 0.03 0. b ?3 and ?6 and fatty acid content (percent).14 ± 0.09 ± 0.01 38.68 ± 0.43 ± 0.24 ± 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.16 ± 0. and fruits [58.41 ± 0.39 ± 0.04 ± 1.08 19.04 ± 0. nd: not detected. and c energetic value (Kcal/100 g) of the different parts of fennel.68 36.28 1.40 67.78 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 10.08 ± 0.00 0.02 0.43 ± 0. 3.49 ± 0. vulgare.06 4.99 ± 0.07 0.56 ± 0.90 ± 1.35 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.6 BioMed Research International Table 3: Nutrient content of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare.16 ± 0.02 2.12 ± 0.02 Shoots 73.35 ± 0.15 ± 0.74 ± 0.31 0.23 17.77 ± 0.04 21. The molecular structures of major volatile components of F.00 0.04 5.40 0.19 ± 0.35 ± 0.02 0.12 0.04 ± 0.69 ± 0.57 61.04 0.84 ± 0.37 ± 2.02 37.89 ± 0.71 ± 0.43 ± 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.04 25.01 0.00 0.09 0.43 ± 0.35 ± 0.00 nd 0. 3.02 1.53 ± 0.06 4.06 1.18 ± 0.01 0.06 0.89 ± 0. Mostly these phytochemicals are found in essential oil (Table 6). The accumulation of these volatile compounds inside the plant is variable.37 23.36 ± 0.52 ± 0.08 ± 0. shoots.33 39. It makes an excellent flavoring agent in various types of food and food related products. 59].06 ± 0.34 Inflorescences 71. flowers.76 ± 0.31 ± 0.44 ± 0.52 1.00 1. ? = 3 experiments in each group [14].17 ± 0.12 0.31 ± 0.55 ± 0.03 18. .02 0.49 ± 0.94 ± 0.23 2.00 0.04 1.00 0.04 3.23 ± 0.61 ± 0.37 ± 0.51 39.55 ± 0.44 a Nutrients composition (g/100 g). The anise odor of F.21 ± 0.72 ± 0.13 ± 0.10 36.19 17.49 ± 0. They also have noteworthy biological and pharmacological activities (Table 7).05 ± 0.06 ± 0.42 83.46 ± 1.66 ± 1. Phytochemistry Phytochemical research carried out on Foeniculum vulgare has led to the isolation of fatty acids.94 ± 0.99 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.68 1.78 ± 0.12 2.95 ± 0.03 0.94 ± 0.45 ± 0.01 1.08 ± 0.94 ± 0.96 ± 0.06 ± 0.75 ± 0.58 ± 0.91 ± 3.04 27.05 0. stem.33 ± 0.41 ± 0.20 ± 0. Values are expressed as mean ± SD.00 1.05 22.15 0.03 0.

finochietto Finocchiella. flavour for cakes. vulgare seed oil was different as compared with . exo-fenchyl acetate (0. India Saunf 9 Liguria. [126] [14] [14] [46] [45] and phenylpropanoids with respect to various maturity stages (immature.10%) whereas only 19 compounds were detected from hydrodistilled oil of fennel [52]. [125] Tender leaves and stems. Seeds used as spices. and spices. References Stem is used as an aromatizer for pickled olives. funcho-doce. (E)-phytol (0. d-limonene (6. namely. that is. and sauces.BioMed Research International 7 Table 4: Uses of Foeniculum vulgare as a food ingredient as reported in the literature.9% [61]. stewed with different kinds of beans and chickpeas. GC/MS study revealed a total of 18 compounds present in it with anethole being the most abundant [55]. They identified a total of 37 volatile compounds from pentane extracts of above mentioned parts of fennel by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. investigated the chemical composition of essential oil of fennel. a total of 28 compounds were identified with major compounds being trans-anethole (68.8%). and sweets. In addition. Aerial part or seeds used for seasoning olives.1–3.1–98. fen`ucciu 7 Alentejo and Algarve (South Portuguese) Funcho.3– 3. The principal compound in the essential oil was trans-anethole (72. The chemical composition of the Algerian F. Aerial parts of plant mixed with shoots of Clematis and Rubus used as food integrator for sheep. that is. [14] Shoots. figs preserves. [57] summarized the comparative profile of volatile compounds found in different varieties of fennel from different countries such as Estonia. and seeds of F. Sr.0%).(SD-) GC-MS methods.6%). The fruits with other ingredients are given to the animal if it stops taking food during diarrhea.5%).2%) followed by estragole (7. Italy 2 Campania.1% [62]. Fenoll 4 Spain Fiallo. estragole (0. soups.0% of the total oil. [126] Seeds used as flavour for cakes and pastries and for cooking chestnuts. and for aromatizing brandy. Seeds are used as spices. and stems are fried with eggs. Fang et al.6–75.40–14. tender leaves. and steam distillation. biscuits. millau 5 Tr´as-os-Montes (Northeast Portuguese) Fialho. Italy Fenuc´ettu-sarv`egu Part used and edible application. The major constituent of the essential oils is trans-anethole (59. In addition. and spices. 60 compounds representing 90. and fenchone. and fenchone. soups. 0. Guill´en and Manzanos [60] investigated the yield and composition of the volatile components found in the pentane extracts of leaves. Italy 3 Spain Hinojo.1–21. Tender leafy stems are used in grilled fish and fish dishes in general. and methylchavicol (5. Norway. solid phase microextraction(SPME-) GC-MS. oxygenated monoterpenes. mature. and Turkey. accounting for 98.7%). Flowering stems used in beverages. fionho. Austria. bread. Zoubiri et al. spirits. [125] Seed is employed in preparation of salted meats. 3. erva-doce Local name Finucchio. Shoots. A total of 28 components of the essential oil were identified. [56]. number Region/Nation 1 Campania. raw as a snack. and used in fish and bread bouillons. tender leaves. funcho-amargo 8 Jammu and Kashmir. A comparative profile of occurrence of monoterpene hydrocarbons. stews.4%). Stems used as brochettes and herbal teas. the fennel essential oils also contains minor amounts of various constituents as limonene (0. premature. are used in salads or stewed.5%). namely. vulgare with the help of three advanced techniques. used in omelettes. and fully mature) of the fruit of F. and stems used in snacks. Overall. headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS). They concluded that the content of essential oil decreases with increasing maturity.0%). salads. fenchone (8.1–2. and biscuits.09–9. and chestnuts.7% of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS in the two cultivars of fennel. flavour for cakes.8%).6%). and chestnuts. Moldova. vulgare. [53] characterizes 76 volatile components in the essential oil of F. finucchiello. Whole plant used in olives brines. as preservative for dry figs. vulgare was reported by Telci et al. stems. erva-doce 6 Arr´abida and Ac¸or (Center Portuguese) Funcho. neophytadiene (0–10. used in fish stuff. fialho. Aurelio and Sparta cocultivars. In 2007 Tognolini et al. and for preparing herbal tea or liqueur.8–90.1–6. In the supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 ) seed extracts of fennel.

8 BioMed Research International Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare. decoction Rome. paste Locality References Basilicata. Jordan. Pakistan Pernambuco. infusion and edible 26 Liver pain Seed 27 Mosquitocidal Root boiled and drunk as tea 28 Arthritis Leaf. infusion and edible 19 Diarrhoea 20 Kidney ailments Seeds. Spain [40] North Iran [24] Northern Portugal [28] Bhandara. Italy [129] Middle Navarra Northeastern Majorcan area [130] north-eastern Majorcan area [47] Iberian Peninsula. used as a mouth wash for gum disorder 4 Insomnia 5 Constipation Infusion of tea leaf Seeds. [133] 22 Irritable colon Leaf and seeds. decoction Rome. infusion and edible 25 Laxative Seed. decoction with a little honey 14 Hair grow Seed oil 15 Antiemetic Fruit. Ecuador [128] Loja. Italy [32] Central Serbia [35] Brazil [31] South Europe Jammu and Kashmir. India [127] Loja. Florida. infusion Leaves. Italy [33] Rome. infusion Seed. flower. Jordan. Sr. Ecuador [128] [36] Loja. simple powder 16 Antihypertensive and Anticholesterolemic Leaf directly chewed 17 Depurative Leaf and stem. USA [128] Rome. infusion 23 Gastralgia Leaf. aqueous infusion. Ecuador Miami. decoction Rome. leaf. infusion Brazil Northern Badia. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] [39] [132] [132] [133] [41] . India [131] Alto. drink 8 Gastritis Leaf. decoction 10 Abdominal pains Each plant part. aqueous infusion. Pakistan [34] [47] [132] 21 Colic in children Leaf and fruit. and fresh leaves Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Aerial part. drink 7 Conjunctivitis Leaf and flower. Northeast Brazil Somali Region. and stem. chewed and stuck on ulcer 2 Aperitif 3 Gum disorder Tender parts-raw or boiled Fruit and seed. Manisa. decoction Leaf and seeds. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 1 Mouth ulcer Tender leaves. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk South Africa [37] 29 Fever Leaf. decoction Seeds mixed with sugar 6 Cancer Leaf and flower. aqueous infusion. roots. Maharashtra. Pakistan Gujranwala. Italy 12 Refreshing Roots/whole plant. Ethiopia [29] 24 Purgative Seed. Bolivia Gujranwala. Italy [30] 13 Swollen stomach Leaves. comestible 18 Hypnotic Seed. Turkey [30] [30] [42] [39] [43] 11 Cold Fruits and floral tops. decoction southern Spain Gujranwala. drink 9 Diuresis Root and seed. Italy Northern Badia.

India [26] Rajasthan. Spain [138] [29] Aerial parts. decoction Seed. and stem. Italy Western cape of South Africa South-Europe Northern Portugal. and fresh leaves Leaf. Italy north-eastern Majorcan area Alto. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 30 Fat deduction 31 Leucorrhoea 32 Problem of repeated abortions Green fruit is chewed to reduce fat A mixture of its 100 g seed powder. inhaled into eyes Seeds. simple powder Seed 37 Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue) Leaf. and leaves Balikesir. decoction Seed. and fresh leaves Seed. raw or boiled 35 Diuretic Whole plant Seeds. decoction Tender parts. Turkey Western cape of South Africa Middle. raw or boiled 34 Carminative Whole plant Seeds. leaf. as condiment or chewed Gingival wound 39 Eye blurry and itching Cough South Africa [37] Rajasthan. Mexico Southern Spain Western cape of South Africa [44] [29] Fruit. decoction Seeds. infusion. West. Southern Spain [33] [134] Rome. and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morning Mixture of its 50 g seed powder. oral infusion Whole plant. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Fruits. Bolivia Aerial part-infusion 38 Locality Whole plant. raw with carrot 36 Emmenagogue Fruit. edible Leaves and/or fruits 40 References South Africa Rome. powder for digestive ailments Seeds. roots. infusion and edible Leaves and/or fruits Tender parts. decoction Uttarakhand. Italy Balikesir. an infusion made from the leaves is drunk Aerial part. 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum. decoction Seeds. decoction (drink one tea cup after food) 33 Digestive system Whole plant Fruit. decoction Whole plant [47] [132] [27] [135] . 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans. India [26] Basilicata. roots. and South Bosnia South Europe Northern Portugal. India Andalusia. roots. simple powder Seed.BioMed Research International 9 Table 5: Continued. 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum. South Africa Rome. India [135] [136] [127] [28] [29] [135] [127] [24] [27] [32] [135] [127] [28] [37] [32] [47] [137] [37] [32] [34] Fruit-paste Whole plant. and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Fruits. Turkey Northern Portugal Gujranwala. Sr. Italy North-eastern Majorcan area Haryana. Italy Western cape of South Africa South Europe North Iran South Africa [32] Rome. Pakistan South Africa [134] [28] Guerrero.

1. and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract. 4. oral infusion Fruit Seed decoction is used against stomach ache Seed. Also. limonene-10-ol.5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid [65]. o-cymene. Pharmacological Activities Foeniculum vulgare is officially noted in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as an important part of polyherbal formulations in the treatment of different diseases and disorders.10 BioMed Research International Table 5: Continued.) [70]. Mexico Middle Navarra Liguria. kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside.18 mg/g. Sr. and Chinese [53] fennels. food scientists. anti-inflammatory. It has been reported that the presence of flavonol glycosides in fennel species is related to its morphological heterogeneity and variation. and quercetin and apigenin as the major flavonoids (17. and stem-infusion. infusion Fresh fruit. The methanolic extract of fennel seeds contains rosmarinic acid.2% resp. 1. fenchone (5. the most prevalent are quercetin-3-glucuronide. Total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts is about 12. Few extracts of F. 56]. decoction Turkish [51. resp.).). vulgare has been reported to contain phenolic acids like 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. whereas quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. North Bengal. antihirsutism. cancer.8? -binaringenin.2. Flavonoids. vulgare and isolated compounds have been evaluated for several activities. kaempferol-3-glucuronide and kaempferol-3arabinoside. and flavonoid aglycones [67].24%). antipyretic.3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid. Fennel has been reported to contain hydroxyl cinnamic acid derivatives. 1methoxycyclohexene. quercetin. 2-hydroxy-3methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. The flavonoids like isorhamnetin 3-O-?-rhamnoside. representing 95.) were less as compared to cultivated fennel (3.4-dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside and 3? . Many of them have antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective properties. quercetin. was found to be the main component. namely. Aqueous Locality References Guerrero.42%) with limonene (6.8% of the total amount.3 ± 0. the major compounds were identified as 1. F. Diao et al.8%.1% and 12. antiaging. edible 42 Stress removal Apical shoots is used as sedative for children Leaf and fruit. Italy Southern Punjab.53%). antimicrobial and antiviral. leaf. There has been a growing interest in phenolic components of fruits and vegetables. flavonoid glycosides. sorbic acid. antiallergic. vulgare are considered to be associated with the prevention of diseases possibly induced by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases.45%).4% and 1. and isorhamnetin glucoside [66]. Quercetin-3O-galactoside. resp. resp. anticolitic. India [133] [25] [39] [38] extract of fennel fruits are rich in phenolic compounds. quercetin3-arabinoside. the total phenolic compounds in fennel methanol extract were higher than the flavonoid compounds [23]. and consumers due to their role in human health. rutin. and isoquercitrin were reported to have the immunomodulatory activities [69]. which may promote human health or lower the risk of disease. antinociceptive. Flavonoids are generally considered as an important category of antioxidants in the human diet.4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. and kaempferol were also isolated from the ethyl acetate extract.5%. Italy North Iran [44] [130] [45] [24] Liguria. number Ailment/use Part/preparation used 41 Stomachache Whole plant. isoquercitrin. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The phenolic compounds present in F. The hexane extracts of fennel were analyzed by GCMS and 78 compounds were identified from these extracts. antimutagenic. Flavonoids like eriodictyol-7-rutinoside. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside.3.1% and 1. .3-benzenediol.9% and 6. and kaempferol3-O-glucoside have also been reported to occur in the aqueous extract of F. and 1. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of wild fennel (2. vulgare. 3. Further. and inflammation. 3. quercetin-3-rutinoside. a phenylpropanoid. Trans-Anethole (68. Serbian [52]. Two compounds A and B were isolated and characterized for the first time from the wild fennel and identified as 3. These flavonoids exhibit remarkable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity [68]. vulgare [67]. vulgare [65]. Amongst the flavonoids present in F. Jordan. and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one [63]. These phenolic compounds have received tremendous attention among nutritionists.6%. Flavonoids are abundant in the plants of Apiaceae family. 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid. A number of biological-pharmacological studies have been undertaken to evaluate the indigenous uses of F. respectively. and others as minor components. Phenolic Compounds. chlorogenic acids as major phenolic compounds (14. followed by estragole (10. Pakistan [45] Brazil Northern Badia. vulgare. Indian [54]. [64] identify a total of 28 components by GC and GC/MS from fennel oil. estragole. infusion 43 Flatulence Leaf and seeds. and rosmarinic acid have been isolated from F. antispasmodic.

8-Cineole (13) Dianethole (19) . 1.BioMed Research International 11 OCH3 H3 CO O OH O O O Scopoletin (1) O O O Bergapten (2) O Psoralen (3) O O O O O para-Anisaldehyde (5) Fenchone (4) (z)-9-Octadecenoic (6) CHO O O O O OCH3 O OCH3 O O OCH3 O Dillapional (7) OCH3 Imperatorin (8) Dillapiol (9) CH 3 O O CH 3 HO CH 3 Limonene (10) Terpineol (11) OCH3 Fenchone (12) O O Beta-myrcene (14) O H O O O H para-Anisaldehyde (16) 5-Methoxypsoralen (15) O O Photoanethole (17) H3 CO trans-Anethole (18) O (a) Figure 4: Continued.

Oleic acid (37) .12 BioMed Research International OH (E)-Phytol (20) CH3 O Phenylpropanoid (21) CH3 O H3 C CH3 2.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (34) OH OH OH COOH O Rosmarinic acid (35) HO HO O OH O OH HO O Isoquercetin (36) OH O HO O OH OH CH3 (b) Figure 4: Continued.3-Benzenediol (26) O CH3 O Anethole (28) O Methylchavicol (27) H3 C CH2 OH Estragole (31) 1-Methoxycyclohexene (30) O O Linoleic acid (29) O H3 C H3 C OH HO Sorbic acid (32) O OH O O HO 3-Methyl-2cyclopenten-1-one (33) O HO OH OH HO OH 3.4-Undecadienal (22) o-Cymene (23) H3 C OH H CH3 OH 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl2-cyclopenten-1-one (24) H Neophytadiene (25) O CH3 CH3 OH 1.

3-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (41) R3 = R4 = H. R1 = glucose-rhamnose Undecanal (54) O OH O OH HO O O R = OH R=H CH3 H O H3 C COOH O Quercetin-3-glucuronide (52) Kaempferol-3-glucuronide (53) O H3 C OH O H H O CH3 HO H OH H O H3 C Exo-fenchyl acetate (55) O HO Dillapional (56) O cis-Miyabenol C (57) (c) Figure 4: Continued.4-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (42) R2 = R4 = H . R1 = arabinose Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (48) R = OH. R3 = caffeoyl 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (40) R1 = R2 = R3 = H. 8? -Binaringenin (44) R OH R OH HO O HO OH HO O O O OH OR1 OH Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (45) R = OH. R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (47) R = OH. R2 = caffeoyl 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (39) R1 = R2 = R4 = H. = R1 = R2 = caffeoyl 1. R1 = glucose Kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (50) R = H. = R1 = R3 = caffeoyl 1.BioMed Research International 13 O HO HO O OH OR1 1 2 6 3 HO OH 5 R4 O OH O OR3 Caffeoyl O OR2 4 OH HO Quinic acid 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (38) R1 = R3 = R4 = H. OH . R1 = glucose-rhamnose Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (49) R = H. R4 = caffeoyl 1. = R1 = R4 = caffeoyl O OH 3? . R1 = glucose Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (46) R = OH. R1 = arabinose Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (51) R = H.5-O-Di-caffeoylquinic acid (43) R2 = R3 = H .

A brief review of the same is as follows. and antiviral potential (summarized in the Table 9). Among different tested bacterial strains. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. 50. Bacillus pumilus. viral. followed by measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Pseudomonas fluorescens. Escherichia coli. diuretic. and methanol extract of leaves and flowers of F. Gulfraz et al. Methanol extract of flower of F. chemomodulatory action. Bacillus megaterium.. [91] investigated the antibacterial effect of the aqueous extract of 12 medicinal plants of Apiaceae family including F. Salmonella typhimurium. 4. cardiovascular. ethanol. galactogenic. essential oil of F. expectorant. and one species of mold (Aspergillus flavus). diethyl ether. anxiolytic. hypoglycemic. indicated that Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested. The methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other extracts. antimycobacterial. The diameters of growth inhibition zone ranged from 14 to 31 mm (including the diameter of the disc 6 mm) with the highest inhibition zone values observed against Bacillus megaterium (31 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (29 mm). 22–24. gastrointestinal effect. 17–18. and oculohypotensive activities [11. Klebsiella pneumonia. [92] investigated the antibacterial effect of the essential oil as well as ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of F. Micrococcus luteus. Shigella flexneri. The results from the disc diffusion method. estrogenic properties. According to the results reported by Gulfraz et al. An aqueous extract of seed sample inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. respectively [3. fungal. two species of Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). Pseudomona aeruginosa. and Pseudomonas glycinea (Table 9). Least activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli. vulage had significant antimicrobial activities against some of microorganisms as compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts. whereas crude and chloroform extracts failed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Table 9). Duˇsko et al. Pseudomonas syringae. Escherichia coli. chloroform. vulgare along with Raphanus sativus and Brassica nigrum against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. 4]. vulgare. and mycobacterial origin. one species of yeast (Candida albicans). An aqueous extract of the aerial part of F. tumefaciens. with the smallest inhibition zones and the highest MIC value [23]. Erwinia carotovora. nootropic. Pseudomonas putida. hepatoprotective. Klebsiella pneumonia. vulgare against two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). hypolipidemic. antithrombotic. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an ethnic remedy for the cure of numerous infectious disorders of bacterial. 11-12. memory-enhancing property. vulgare against Bacillus cereus. apoptotic. Several studies have been carried out in the past validating its antimicrobial. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory. vulgare and reported in the literature. cytotoxicity. 13. Bacillus subtilis. 21–24. vulgare inhibited the growth of Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. 20. antistress. Roby et al. 14–24. the . Salmonella typhi. cytoprotection and antitumor. and Bacillus cereus with 13– 22. Staphylococcus aureus. and hexane extracts of seed of F. showing the largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. and 24– 26 mm zone of inhibition. 14–18. Shrivastava and Bhargava [93] investigated the antibacterial effect of the crude. [23] investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol. 68. and Candida albicans. 20-21.1. [92]. 71–90].14 BioMed Research International H3 C OH O OH HO OH OH HO HO O O O CH3 OH HO O H2 C O O CH3 O O OH OH OH O O HO OH OH O OH CH3 Eriodictyol-7-rutinoside (58) Limonene-10-ol (59) Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (60) (d) Figure 4: Chemical structures of various phytoconstituents isolated from Foeniculum vulgare. Table 8 summarizes the pharmacological studies undertaken on F. vulgare showed significant activity against Escherichia coli.

27 66. number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Compounds ?-Thujene 1.4. Klebsiella pneumonia.8-dienol 1.20 73. Escherichia coli. namely. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Martins et al. and phytopathogenic .67 mm zone of inhibition.8. Sr.4a. Several studies indicating the antifungal effect of F.3. respectively [7].6-octatriene Fenchone 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene cis-Limonene oxide trans-Limonene oxide 6-Methylene-bicyclo[3. (E)-3-carene 2-Heptene 3-Methyl-butanal ?-Pinene Camphene Hexanal ?-Pinene ?-Phellandrene ?-Phellanrrene ?-Myrcene 4-Carene 2-Heptanohe Limonene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3.1.7-dimethyl-.6-Dimethyl-2.6-Octatriene. 3.8-Cineol ?-Ocimene Linalool Germacrene D Anisketone Apiol ?-Hexadecanoic acid Cubebene Benzene-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-?-cymene 1.27 and 12. Sr. number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Compounds Tetradecyl-oxirane Estragole Trans-?-2.3-Cyclohexen-1-methanol Epi-bicyclosesquiphellardrene cis-?-Menth-2. Candida albicans. and Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus. vulgare inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus with 11.6-Hexanediol 2-Methoxycyclohexanone ?-Elemenone Mephenesin 4? -Methoxy-acetophenone 2-Methyl-3-methylethyl-butanoic acid Folic acid 1-(Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 1-Methyl-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene 4-Fluorohistamine 1.1.2-Dimethoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene (E)-2-Hydroxy-4-cyano-stilbene 1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone methanolic fruit extract of F. Pseudomona aeruginosa. [94] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of three essential oils of Portuguese plants.8-Menthadien 4-Methyl-1-(methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one Phenylmethyl-formic ester 2.BioMed Research International Table 6: Volatile compounds present in essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare.0]hexane Sabinene hydrate Fenchyl acetate Camphor Benzaldehyde]hept-3-en-2-ol trans-Anethole 73.8a-Hexadehyde-naphthalene 4-Methyl-bicyclo[3. Mentha spicata.0]hex-2-ene Eucalyptol ?-Pinene ?-Terpinene 7-Dimethyl-1.7-octriene 2. Foeniculum vulgare.8-menthadien-1-ol ?-Terpinol cis-p-2.4-Dimethyl-benzenamine 3-Carene Cathine 2-Heptanol 2-Propyn-1-ol 2.3-Butanediol Dicyclopropyl carbinol Fenchol 1-Octanol 5-Methyl-2-heptanol 15 Table 6: Continued. vulgare along with antibacterial effect are also reported in the literature.71 Allantoic acid 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol Mannoheptulose 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol 1-Undecanol Benzothiazole E-Pinane 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol 2-Methyl-bezenemethanol 4-Methoxy-benzaldehyde 1.4-Dimethoxy-benzene 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene 1.3.2.

respectively. vulgare showed strongest antifungal activity as compared to reference fungicidal agent.3-benzenediol. SDEO: seed essential oil. namely. Essential oil of F. Dichloromethane extracts and essential oils from F. psoralen. kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The characterization of seven different types of oxygenated monoterpenes. from methylene . Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum.8? -binaringenin [71] [9] [67] [70] 6 Antioxidant FT cis-Miyabenol C [139] 7 Anticancer SDEO [110] 8 Antibacterial ST 9 Antimycobacterial ST. griseofulvin [99]. LF: leaf. In an in vitro study. ST: stem. undecanal (z)-9-Octadecanoic acid. molds. Limonene Reference SDEO trans-Anethole [55] SD 5-Methoxypsoralen [83] FW AP 3-Caffeoylquinic acid. It could be a potential candidate for a new antifungal agent for candidiasis and other fungal diseases [97]. that is. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. vulgare showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. and Rhizopus solani [96].16 BioMed Research International Table 7: Biological activities of some phytoconstituents reported in different parts of Foeniculum vulgare. vulgare showed significant antifungal activity against the food spoilage fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and may have important applications as food additives. and Aspergillus flavus [98]. photoanethole ?-Myrcene. Aspergillus niger. aqueous and alcoholic seed extracts of F. The MIC values of F. kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. LF 10 Repellent FT Anethole Dillapiol. linoleic acid. aqueous seed extract of F. The oils extracted from F. A phenylpropanoid derivative called dillapional. Biological activities Part useda 1 Oestrogenic SDEO 2 Hepatoprotective SDEO 3 Antithrombotic Human liver cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitory Sr. vulgare exhibit varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata. vulgare exhibited inhibitory effect against Alternaria alternata. and 125 against Bacillus subtilis. FT: fruit. scopoletin.4-Undecadienal. vulgare showed appreciable antifungal activity against strains of pathogenic fungi. 2. A coumarin derivative. fenchone 11 Acaricidal SDEO 12 Insecticidal SDEO a para-Anisaldehyde 1. bergapten. Aspergillus niger. 3? . 1. characterized from F. and Rhizoctonia solani [95]. vulgare essential oil were 250 ?g/mL for Fusarium oxysporum and 750 ?g/mL for Aspergillus niger [94]. scopoletin. imperatorin. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Mucor rouxii. was found to be an antimicrobial constituent with MIC values of 125. SD: seed. Interestingly. was also isolated as a marginally antimicrobial agent [100]. terpineol [100] [63] [117] [118] [120] AP: aerial part. Essential oil of F. vulgare stem. rosmarinic acid 3. number 4 5 Antiradical scavenging Phytochemicals Dianethole. oleic acid. Fusarium solani.4-Dihydroxyphenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-Dglucopyranoside. Fusarium oxysporum. dillapional. All of the above mentioned studies were carried out on the crude extracts and it is difficult to pinpoint the active antimicrobial metabolite.8-Cineole. 250. and FW: fennel waste.

Weight of mammary glands increases also increases the weight of oviduct. Invivo. alanine aminotransferase Sprague-Dawley rats (ALT).1 to 0.200 mg/kg: oral administration Creams containing 1%. Tested living system/organ/cell/type of study Table 8: Details of pharmacological/biological activities reported from Foeniculum vulgare. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). female rats endometrium. Invivo.4 mL/kg Concentration/dosages Dosage form/type of extract Activity Plant part used Results Invivo.4 mL injection Not stated 30 mg/kg 0. pentobarbital-anaesthetised arterial blood pressure. without Sprague-Dawley rats affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate Significant inhibition of the stress Invivo. 2% of fennel extract and placebo 200 ?g/mL 25 to 200 ?g/mL 100 ?g of ethanol and water extract Methanolic Extract Essential oil Essential oil Fennel extract Methanolic extract Methanolic extract Ethanol and water extract Acetone extract Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts Fruit Seed Seed Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Seed Leaf Fruit Antiinflammatory Hepatoprotective Hypoglycaemic Antihirsutism Cytoprotective Antitumor Antioxidant Oestrogenic Vascular effects Antistress 50. 100 and 200 mg/kg 0. and Sprague-Dawley rats Inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions Decreases the level of serum enzymes. myometrium.1% inhibition of Invitro. respectively. aspartate aminotransferase liver injury model in male (AST). carbon tetrachloride induced namely. scopolamine-induced amnesic induced biochemical changes in rats vanillyl mandelic acid and ascorbic acid. cervix. and vagina Significant dose-related reduction in Invivo. [13] [75] [8] [10] [11] [11] [78] [12] [9] [79] References BioMed Research International 17 .5% and 99. 77. male ICR mice. not stated peroxidation in linoleic acid system. BALB/c mice. that is. streptozotocin induced diabetic the activity of serum glutathione rats peroxidase and also improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas Cream containing 2% fennel is better 45 female patients aged 16–53 years than the cream containing 1% fennel with mild to moderate forms of and these two were more potent than idiopathic hirsutism placebo Provides more cytoprotection for normal human lymphocytes as Normal human blood lymphocyte compared with standard sample. doxorubicin 70% methanolic extract shows good B16F10 melanoma cell line antitumour activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. and bilirubin Ingestion of essential oil to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia and Invivo.

tuberculosis H37Rv (27294) sensitive strain of M.6%. hexane. MDA-MB231 and MCF7 Hexane extract is active against pan Invitro. C-8166. for J45 cell line.16. and 200 mg/kg Concentration/dosages Tested living system/organ/cell/type of Results References study The significant reduction is achieved in Invivo. 4% of viable cells and [86] EOL. and aqueous extracts Test diet of fennel Fruit Memory-enhancing Root (ground part) Aqueous extracts Plant part used Activity Dosage form/type of extract 100 to 200 ?g/mL 700 ?g/mL 75.01. Highest mortality in Trypan blue test HL-60. ethanol induced gastric lesions significantly reduced ethanol induced [81] in Sprague-Dawley rats gastric damage. 21. WICL. and 22. tuberculosis [141] H37RV Table 8: Continued. [84] 0. Swiss albino mice [140] and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma Formulation showed significant effects Male volunteers with mean age of 48 on skin moisture and transepidermal [50] years water loss Nine human cell lines: ML-1. 100% of mortality Pretreatment with extracts Invivo.2% (w/v) 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel 50. 100.2% (w/v) concentrations of extract Significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity Invivo.49.03% reduction of intraocular pressure Invivo. 0. 1301.3%. 300 mg/kg 100 to 300 ?g/mL Formulation containing 4% extract 100 mg/kg 0. 18 BioMed Research International . M. and 1.Aqueous extract Methanolic extract Fennel extract Ethanol extract Aqueous extract Seed Seed Seed Seed Fruit Aerial parts Chemopreventive Oculohypotensive Anticarcinogenic Antiaging Apoptotic Antimycobacterial Cytotoxic Antiulcerogenic Aerial parts Dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract Chloroform. DMBA-induced skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and B(a)P-induced forestomach [85] tumor multiplicity as compared to the papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice control group of animal It exhibits 17.3%. 150. scopolamine-induced amnesic amnesia in extract-treated groups as [13] rats compared with the control group of animals Significant reduction in the skin and In-vivo. U-266B1. and H-9—human T cell for C8166 cell line. Murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and Cytotoxic activity may act via on the human breast cancer cells [82] inhibition of the NFkB pathway. rabbits (IOP) in normotensive rabbits at 0. and 1. J-45. methanol.6%.

t.c. B.a. K.. number E. and C.a.. and R.and Rh. and netilmicin Amoxycillin and flumequine Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method NS Fleroxacin NS Amoxicillin and cefazolin Chloramphenicol.and P.. antimycobacterial.p. C...c.a.. Sa.5 × 108 CFU/mL) Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar diffusion method Reference standard Method A. A.. St.c.a.. 20... and M. A. B.. S.c.s. TW SD.. Filter paper disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method E.p.o.. S. E.l. and C. methanol. ethanol and ethyl-acetate extracts Essential oil Essential oil Type of extract 0.r.a.s..a.5 Mac Farland’s Standard (1.a.c. Essential oil Cylinder-plate diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Agar well and disc diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion technique E. and A. E.s.. K.s. P. FT FL.. and antiviral studies carried out on Foeniculum vulgare. LF.. and Salmonella sp..n.f.c. Active strainsb S.t.0% [147] [4] [113] 10 ?L/disk NM [3] [92] [96] [146] [145] [95] [144] [91] [143] [142] Reference NM 30 mg/mL 300 ?g/disc NM 30.a. and tetracycline Agar dilution method B....s. E.f. and aqueous extracts Essential oil Essential oil and ethanolic and methanolic extracts Aqueous/organic extracts Essential oil Essential oil Agar diffusion method A. 25.p.. P.f. E. P.n..s. P.. C.a. S.c.a.. antifungal.t. and S.x.. P..a.s.and A. E.c.. K.. P. sulbactam. B.s.a. E. RT SD FT SD SD SD SD 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Part useda 1 Sr. Enterococcus sp.. M.c..e...c... Sa. gentamicin.a. ofloxacin. S. M. 1..... P. BioMed Research International 19 .a.a. and ampicillin Ampicillin and miconazole nitrate Cefoperazone.. F.6 mg/mL 10 ?L/disk Effective concentration Table 9: Antibacterial. S. E. LF.and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species Aqueous.c.t. 15 and 10 ?L per well 10 and 40 ppm 15 ?L/disk 15 mg per disc.p. P.and C.a. B.p... Acinetobacter sp.f. B.. E.s..... B.t. Er.. C. Essential oil Essential oil Filter paper disc diffusion method Rifampicin 0. B.25 to 2.. P.. Essential oil Bacilli sp. S.a. ST.a.v. Ethanol. B..a..c.. P..a. E...c.. S.m.SD FT AP SD FL..g. M.a.. F.. P.n..and S..c. E. streptomycin.t.m.a. NS Streptomycin Chloramphenicol..

s. S.. and hexane extract Crude. S.c..s.: Enterobacter aerogenes.v. S. RT: root.: Klebsiella pneumonia.h. E. S.: Rhizopus solani.c.c.: Mycobacterium smegmatis.and As.a. E. P. P. NS: no reference standard employed and NM: not mentioned. C.t..: Phytopathogenic molds.t.and A. P.: Fusarium solani. 12. E.a.: Alcaligenes faecalis.t.: Bacillus megaterium.: Pseudomonas glycinea. S.e. and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method S.p. B. Er.c. Essential oil Methanol.c.and C.a. M. 15..a. Sa.s. C.: Bacillus subtilis.s.: Pseudomona aeruginosa.a.a. E.c.a. P. A.c.a.: Bacillus cereus..t.p. P. S. Hexane extract NS Chloramphenicol and ampicillin Amoxicillin Imipenem NS Gentamicin.c. diethyl ether. and B. P. M.n.: Proteus vulgaris.025 to 0.t.. S.c.a. Rh.d. B.: Staphylococcus epidermidis.c. 10. LF: leaf.: Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. S. E. S.. M.b. amoxicillin. S.: Enterococcus faecalis..: Salmonella typhi.: Staphylococcus coagulase. P. S. E. S.f.: Salmonella enteritidis. F.SD LF.o..d. S.b. St. LF SD SD SD FT SD SD 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fluconazole and nystatin Filter paper disc diffusion method Agar well and filter paper disc diffusion method S.5. E.: Rhizoctonia solani. HSV-1: herpes simplex virus 1 as a representative of DNA viruses and PI-3: parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3) as representative of RNA viruses. FT: fruit..c.: Erwinia carotovora.p.a. Table 9: Continued.. A. A. C..: Mycobacterium xenopi.and P.f.a.s.f. B. B..a. ethanol.m.p.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294. C. F. S. FL: flower. and S.o. ST: stem..a.s. and Sh.: Staphylococcus aureus. Sh. S..?. Sa.t.: Sarcina lutea. S..m. A..: Shigella shiga.t..c.t.: Aspergillus niger..m.s. M.: Escherichia coli.c. SD: seed.g.a.c. C. 20 ?g/disk NM Effective concentration b AP: aerial part.. M..a.: Mycobacterium chelonae. FL FT LF ST.a.. K.f.f. As.. S. Active strains S. HSV-1 and PI-3 NS NS Reference standard Filter paper disc diffusion technique Method Disc paper and broth microdilution methods E. 50.: Salmonella typhimurium. M..: Candida albicans.p. B.: Pseudomonas fluorescens.r..a.: Candida tropicalis.x. B.. Sa.: Streptococcus faecalis. M. number a 20 BioMed Research International . R. and P. S.s.. S.f.s..: Alternaria alternate.c.. tumefaciens. S.: Shigella sonnei.: Fusarium oxysporum..a. B.m.r.l.c. 100 ?L/mL NM NM 25 ?L/well and 15 ?L/disc [98] [7] [152] [151] [149] 50 ?L/well 1 ?g/mL [63] [94] [5] [93] [23] [148] Reference 200 ?g/mL 5 ?L/disk 0. K.: Shigella flexneri.f. S. chloroform. B. S. ?. B. a FT Part used 14 Sr.l. E. and TW: twig. P.e.: Shigella boydii..c.a.8 ?g/mL NM 7.l. K.. E.: Pseudomonas putida....: Micrococcus luteus.. A. P.5. Essential oil Acyclovir Using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines NS Filter paper disc diffusion method E. P.s.n.and St.a..: Streptococcus haemolyticus.: Bacillus pumilus.and F..s..: Aspergillus flavus.and P. Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Essential oil Methanolic extract Aqueous and alcoholic extracts Agar well diffusion method Agar diffusion method Streptomycin 96-well sterile microtiter plate assay Agar well diffusion method Filter paper disc diffusion method M.r.h.f.f.: Shigella dysenteriae.a.p.: Pseudomonas syringae.: Mucor rouxii. and methanol extract Essential oils Type of extract b [150] 10.e.a.

vulgare with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). The whole plant extract of F.6. For acute inflammation.3. vulgare fruit showed significant inhibitory effect on DNFB. Memory-Enhancing Property. and whole board models. and ascorbic acid excretion levels (? < 0.5. When anxiety becomes excessive. tuberculosis infection [63]. alanine aminotransferase (ALT). skin diseases. urinary levels of vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid in rats were used to evaluate antistress activity. Methanolic extract of F. gastritis. constipation.4undecadienal (MIC 25–50 ?g/mL). Bioactive metabolites of F. 4. depurative. There are a number of plants.4. 4. in test animals when compared to the normal basal levels in control group of animals.4-Undecadienal was the most active compound against multidrug resistant M. aspartate aminotransferase (AST).2. The plant extract (50. vulgare fruit with the help of elevated plus maze. 2. These overall results seem to suggest that F. Mentha spicata. Orhan et al. Essential oil of F. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and the RNA virus parainfluenza type-3 (PI-3). Ozbek et al. respiratory disorders. oleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). antiemetic. it may be considered as an anxiety disorder. Only the essential oils of Anethum graveolens. diarrhea. with results ranging between 1. The assessment of the level of AST and 21 ALT provides a good and simple tool to measure the antiinflammatory activity of the target compounds [102]. Thus. and so forth. the dietary intake of F. 4. vulgare may lower the risk of M. vulgare [101]. Thus. suggest that the constituents (d-limonene and ?-myrcene) of essential oil may have played a key role in the protection of liver from CCl4 toxicity [9].7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity. tuberculosis species. and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly increases in the presence of methanolic extract of F.025 ?g/mL. However. The key parameters. that is. 1. Most of the oils and compounds displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1. and formaldehyde-induced arthritis. Anxiolytic Activity. suggested that the crude extract containing monoterpenes could be a new medicinal resource for antibacterial agents. A total of 78 compounds were identified from the active antimycobacterial fraction of F. Methanol extract of F. vulgare on inflammation induced by formaldehyde as compared to control group. conjunctivitis. arthritis.3-benzenediol (MIC 100– 200 ?g/mL). and Satureja cuneifolia inhibited this virus significantly.2 ?g/mL. Foeniculum vulgare (fully mature). All these literature findings validated the traditional uses of Foeniculum vulgare in infectious disorders like abdominal pains. fever. 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant improvement in urinary levels of VMA (? < 0. open field test. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract was evaluated by using three screening protocols. namely. 4. stomachache. vulgare seeds revealed a potent hepatoprotective effect against acute hepatotoxicity produced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Mentha piperita. Oral administration of methanol extract of F. dieresis. fennel extract may possess anxiolytic activity supporting its traditional claim about anxiolytic activity reported in 19th edition of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Sathodkar. and 2. The level of serum transaminase. ranging between 0. gastralgia. vulgare may be a potential source for new antimicrobial agents. arachidonic acid-induced ear edema.6 and 0. methanol extract (200 mg/kg) exhibits significant inhibition of paw edema (69%) induced by carrageenan injection as compared to the control group of animals. vulgare also inhibits ear-edema (70%) induced by arachidonic acid in mice. Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and concern. carrageenan-induced paw edema. 4. Naga Kishore et al. Ocimum vulgaris. Ocimum minutiflorum. [5] studied the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F. Out of these. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 ?g/mL). the samples tested were less effective against PI-3. the extract of entire plant of F. Bhandarkar and Rege. The inhibitory effect on immunologically induced swelling suggests the possible immunosuppressive properties of F. rota rod.001). These are widely used for testing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Oral administration of F. vulgare [79].BioMed Research International chloride crude extract of F. Thus.(2. Drug and food of natural origin play a significant role in public healthcare systems and are being investigated as remedies for a number of stress-related disorders [103]. flatulence. alkaline phosphatase (ALP). vulgare FME may act on both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways [79]. There is always a need for new antimicrobial agents due to rapid development of resistance.4dinitrofluorobenzene-) induced delayed type hypersensitivity after oral administration of 200 mg/kg once a day for 7 days. twenty compounds were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay.8 and 0. Hepatoprotective Activity. undecanal (MIC 50–200 ?g/mL). mouth ulcer. The 100 to 200 mg dose of extract per kg of body weight of animal revealed significant activity when compared to reference anxiolytic drug called diazepam (1 mg/kg). Anxiolytic fennel is a drug used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Antiallergic Activity.001). insomnia. and bilirubin as compared to the control group. Antistress Activity. vulgare essential oil decreases the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). 4. vulgare acts as an antistress agent [13]. whose consumption is believed to enhance memory . [89] investigated the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of F. vulgare fruit to rat and mice exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases. vulgare exhibited notable antistress effect against stress induced by forceful swimming of test animals. irritable colon.

vulgare has estrogen-like activity. The mean values of hair diameter reduction were 7. 4. Total concentration of nucleic acids and protein as well as the organ weights increased in both the tissues. and 0% (placebo). Recovery from scopolamineinduced amnesia in the extract-treated groups took 3–5 days when compared to normal (control) group which took over 6 days. vulgare fruit. lignans. due to the oral administration of acetone extract (50. Animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract took ten days. anethole. Methanol extract of the whole plant of F. stilbenes. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. vulgare seed against idiopathic hirsutism by preparing cream containing 1 and 2% of fennel extract. The CAR of rats administered with the extract increased gradually to 95% over 7 to 12 days.and time-dependent compared to control group. vulgare for the treatment of cognitive disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. vulgare seeds stimulate the ciliary motility of the respiratory apparatus and enhance the . F. 76]. On the other hand. Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. These were usually given to children as part of their food.10. and essential oils [16]. to dopamine seems to be responsible for galactogenic activity. This overall progress suggests that F. Amnesia was greater in the control group than in extract-treated groups. simultaneous decrease in the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions (except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa).9. and increase libido [71]. promote menstruation.12. The whole plants extract (50. vulgare belongs to galactagogue substance. Expectorant Activity. Estrogenic Properties. such as dianethole and photoanethole. saponins. Since the discovery of the estrus inducing effects of some plant products in 1926. and increase libido. chalcones. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. The acquisition (time to achieve 95% CAR) for rats administered with the extract was dose. and 250 ?g/100 g body wt) of F. 100 and 200 mg/kg) of F. This extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. considerable effort has been devoted towards the characterization of phytoestrogens.3%. vulgaris an ayurvedic rasayana (mixture) possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. Antihirsutism Activity. Thus. F. 2%. while groups treated with 100 and 50 mg/kg doses of the extract required eleven and twelve days. On considering above aspect. vulgare seeds [104]. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. including flavonoids. vulgare may be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent [80]. Javidnia and his research team evaluated the antihirsutism activity of ethanolic extract of F. vulgare produced better retention and recovery in a dose-dependent manner than the vehicle-treated animals.22 and intelligence. F. promote menstruation and alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric. 150. vulgare have strong estrogenic activity [76]. Anol also gave positive results in the Jadassohn nipple test. mammary glands and oviducts. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% fennel is better than the cream containing 1% fennel and these two were more potent than placebo (control BioMed Research International group). There is some evidence in favor of use of F. Galactogenic Activity. Structural similarity of its main constituent.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%. However. respectively.8%. 4. to reach the point of acquisition. Thus. namely. Fennel oil was reported to exhibit estrogenic activity. isoflavonoids. coumestans. facilitate birth. which took 12 days for acquisition. thereby inhibiting the antisecretory action of dopamine on prolactin [71]. 4. respectively [78]. the extracts of F. Nootropic Activity. In male rats. rather than anol or anethole itself [20. further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents responsible for galactogenic activity are polymers of anethole. Administration of fennel oil (25 and 50 ?g/mL final concentration in the organ bath) failed to exhibit any remarkable effect in uterine contraction. The antidepressant activity of fennel has been well documented in ethnomedicine. due to the oral administration of acetone extract of F. 18. vulgare exhibited memory-enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats. Administration of scopolamine produced amnesia as seen from reduction in the observed CAR. F. vulgare extract possesses memory-enhancing property [13]. Traditionally. 20 and 40 ?g/ml concentration of fennel oil revealed significant inhibitory effect against prostaglandin E2. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities.8. a test which involves the measurement of changes induced in the nipples of guinea pigs subjected to the cutaneous application of sex hormones.11. 4. Thus. prolactin. Fennel oil significantly reduces the frequency of uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin E2. F. total concentration of protein was found to be significantly decreased in testes and in vasa deferentia whereas increased in seminal vesicles and in prostate gland. It was reported that anol (demethylated anethole) causes growth of the lobule-alveolar system in the mammary glands of immature female rabbits and induces menstruation in mice and other experimental animals. Foeniculum vulgare has been used as an estrogenic agent. However. While 10. was observed. continued treatment with F. and −0. The percent avoidance was always higher in the extract-treated groups as compared to control group. This experiment was evaluated by conditioned avoidance response (CAR) technique. Anethole might influence milk secretion by competing with dopamine at the appropriate receptor sites. In female rats oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle [8]. It has been reputed to increase milk secretion. Dopamine acts to inhibit the secretion of the milk-producing hormone. Foeniculum vulgare has been used for millennia to increase milk secretion [105]. 4.

statistically. Anticolitic Activity. The diuresis was not associated with changes in sodium and/or potassium excretion [108]. both F. n-hexane extract (700 mg/kg) and methylene chloride extract (500 mg/kg) exhibited similar antinociceptive activities. resp. Caceres et al. The hypotensive effect of the boiling water extract appeared not to be mediated via adrenergic. Cardiovascular Activity. methylene chloride. vulgare revealed noteworthy protective effects against genotoxicity in mice . which was reported in the United State of America (Table 5). and 22. In vivo. 4. which was found to be as good as that of reference standard antiglaucoma drugs called timolol [84].The addition of fennel to preparations containing anthraquinonic components reduces the occurrence of abdominal pain often associated with this type of laxative [73].19. vulgare fruit revealed excellent diuretic activity and proves the earlier folk claim of F. ganglionic. and other corpuscles extraneous to the respiratory tracts [74]. clot destabilizing effect. reducing intestinal gas. [55] provided evidence of potent inhibitory activity of essential oil of F. An intravenous administration of the lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves produced a significant dose-related reduction in arterial blood pressure. This extract exhibited 17. and 1. Oculohypotensive Activity. On the other hand the nonboiled aqueous extract showed very little hypotensive activity. vulgare. Antinociceptive means any substance that inhibits nociception which is a physiological process underlying the sensation of pain. vulgare leaves possesses potential cardiovascular action. vulgare induced diuresis (500 mg/kg dose) was comparable to that of reference diuretic agent urea (960 mg/kg dose) in mice with a urine output that was almost double that of the control group. vulgare did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated for 30 min upto 300 ?g/mL in platelet viability test. vulgare demonstrated significant oculohypotensive activity using water loading and steroid induced glaucoma model. without affecting the heart rate or respiratory rate. 4. an action that could facilitate the expectoration of mucus. it is an agent that promotes diuresis.BioMed Research International external transport of extraneous corpuscles. it reduces the sensitivity to painful stimuli. Briefly. however. On the other hand. a highly significant diuretic effect. displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations. The various extracts of aerial part of F. at the same time. In another part of the study.29% was observed in steroid induced model of glaucoma. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. namely. The ethanolic extract of F. Thus. thus 23 suggesting that it worked mainly as a diuretic and natriuretic with little effect on arterial vascular tone [77]. 4. Tognolini et al. the authors showed that Foeniculum vulgare had little effect on the noradrenalin contractile responses of aortic rings. free from cytotoxic effects.16. The aqueous seed extract of F. histamine antagonists inhibited the hypotensive effect in a dose-related manner [75].3%. Diuretic Activity. or serotonergic receptors. This effect was investigated using pentobarbital-anaesthetised male albino Sprague-Dawley rats [75]. Diuretics work by promoting the expulsion of urine (measured as the urine volume [UV] excreted) and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body and this helps reduce the volume of blood circulating through the cardiovascular system. vulgare. Antithrombotic Activity. This concentration was largely compatible with those adopted in the functional in vitro tests. vulgare. 0. vulgare stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea. F.15. Foeniculum vulgare is indicated in the treatment of spastic gastrointestinal disturbances.16. Alone. vulgare revealed oculohypotensive activity.2% (w/v) concentrations. This action suggests a use for fennel in treating bronchial and bronchopulmonary afflictions and in particularly polluted environments [106]. 4. bacteria. or combined with other plant medicinals. Antinociceptive Activity. in dyspepsias with the sensation of heaviness in the stomach. Thus. Anethole and F. being less than peripheral antinociceptive reference drug (acetyl salicylic acid) [68].03% reduction of intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits at 0. and collagen in guinea pig plasma. in some forms of chronic colitis (which resist other treatments). A maximum mean difference of 31. The essential oil and anethole (a constituent of oil) of F. tested in vitro in rat aorta with or without endothelium. hexane. It supports the safety of F. and methanolic extract showed remarkable antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing in mice [68]. [107] performed a study in conscious animals and administered a powdered extract of the whole plant (F. Similar findings were reported by Yoshioka and Tamada [109] for aggregation of rabbit platelets by an aromatic factor of fennel oil. vulgare. The fruit extract showed. 4. An aqueous extract of F. arachidonic acid. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagenepinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection. the aqueous extract of F. and so forth.17. vulgare exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. Antimutagenic Effect. Briefly.49. ethyl acetate.18. essential oil and its main component anethole of F. muscarinic. in dyspepsias from gastrointestinal atony. Essential oil of F. The volatile oil of F. vulgare showed a safe antithrombotic activity in guinea pig plasma that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity. vulgare against platelet aggregation induced by ADP. 4.13. vulgare) which had no effect on UV or UNa. 4. that is. 21.6%.14.). while the activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract was at dose level 800 mg/kg.20% was observed between vehicles treated and extracts treated eyes in water loading experimental animal model while a maximum mean intraocular pressure lowering of 31. Essential oil of fennel regulates the motility of smooth muscles of the intestine. and vasorelaxant action [55]. while. respectively.

that is.22. Lymphocyte culture treated with 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed very less percentage of micronucleus. aqueous extract of F. Chemomodulatory Action. and reduced the volume and body weight of the Ehrlich ascites tumour-bearing mice. 4. triglycerides. and apolipoprotein-B decreased by 40%. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were assessed by using mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration.001) group of animal. administration of 2 mL/100 g of a 20% aqueous suspension of brewer’s yeast. 4.24. vulgare revealed notable hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic activity against Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in mice. on L929sA and MCF7 cells. retinol. 4. Anethole is the principal active component of fennel seeds which has exhibited anticancer activity. It was induced by S. The results suggest that the Foeniculum vulgare could be considered as a natural resource of antitumor agents as well as cytoprotective to normal cells [11].018% micronucleus. and glutathione activities and inhibited increased malondialdehyde content in the liver. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of fennel against carcinogenesis. and beta-carotene levels. vulgare inhibits the oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide [90]. respectively. that is. The dichloromethane and methanol (1 : 1) extract of aerial part of F. LDLcholesterol. and sperm abnormality assays. Aqueous extract causes significant reduction of plasma lipid levels. It was found that pretreatment with aqueous extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. Cytotoxicity. withheld from the first cell viability screening on NF?B activation. at the periinitiational level in Swiss albino mice. cholesterol. The extracts of the plants under investigation were tested for their potential antitumor (cytotoxic) effect on the murine fibrosarcoma L929sA cells and on the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB231 and MCF7.25.C. 61%. Thus. Additionally.(DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis and benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P-] induced forestomach papillomagenesis. and 61%. ascorbic acid. Berrington and Lall investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of acetone extracts of F. Fennel seeds exhibit a significant reduction in the skin and the fore-stomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. and increase in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 by 85% and 58%. Essential oil (30 mg/kg body weight) of F. It also produced a significant cytotoxic effect in the Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in the paw. F. Gastrointestinal Effect. vulgare significantly reduced the whole blood malondialdehyde levels. vulgare exhibits potential hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity against streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of fennel.24 induced by cyclophosphamide. The extract from F. 4.21. catalase.26. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes was observed with all the doses of test diet under study. This is the first report showing chemopreventive potential of seeds of fennel against carcinogenesis [85]. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. On the other hand 70% methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare has potent antitumor activity at the concentration of 200 ?g/mL. They further investigated the effect of nine promising plant extracts. In vitro cytoprotection activity of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare was evaluated against normal human blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line by Trypan blue exclusion assay for cell viability. vulgare extract showed antipyretic activity against hyperpyrexia in mice. vulgare revealed immunomodulatory NF?B activities [82]. This effect of aqueous extract was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (? < 0. The essential oil of F. aqueous extract of F. Kaileh and his coworker investigated the cytotoxic effect of organic extracts of 24 selected Palestinian medicinal plant species. 4. vulgare fruit showed a moderate antipyretic activity that was statistically significant after 30 and 90 min (? < 0. vulgare and other eight medicinal plants against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line [87]. Antipyretic Activity. chromosomal aberrations.12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. respectively. Cytoprotection and Antitumor Activity. respectively [88]. ethanolic extract of F. 4. Al-Harbi et al.20. vulgare fruit had clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in rats [81]. respectively. 4. vulgare showed remarkable antiulcerogenic effect against ethanolinduced gastric lesions in rats. vulgare works in the . The study revealed that anethole increased survival time. reduced tumor weight. The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare seeds was examined against 7. 23%.01) [108]. The aqueous extract of F. Hypoglycemic Activity. Oral administration of essential oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases. Also. micronucleus. The aqueous extract of F. while significantly increased nitrite. F. vulgare presented an IC (50) value at 24 h of 700 ± 28 and 500 ± 17 ?g/mL. Further. studied the antitumor activity of anethole against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in a tumor model in Swiss albino mice. reduced the levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde. nitrate. The nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB or NF?B regulates the expression of various genes. biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by cyclophosphamide and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of cyclophosphamide induced superoxide dismutase. Additionally.23. As an antipyretic agent. Hypolipidemic Activity.006% as compared to standard drug doxorubicin which showed 0. micronuclei formation. and BioMed Research International increased glutathione concentrations [110]. 0.

27. These activities play a key role in the management of nematode. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry [12].01—human acute T cell leukaemia. A brief review on the different type of ecofriendly environmental activities as reported on this plant is summarized below. 4. vulgare. 1301— human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast.1. However the cells of other lines showed the highest viability: HL60—60%.32. respectively. eriodictyol7-orutinoside. Naturally occurring antioxidants can be used to protect human beings from oxidative stress damage [112]. 5. C8166 cell line and J-45 cell line showed the highest level of the apoptotic cells detected by Annexin V method—100% and 93%. showed antioxidant activities [67]. and some harmful larvae of malaria producing vector. respectively. which inhibits the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions in vitro. namely. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential antiaging effects [50]. and nematicidal activity [115–119]. vulgare and isolated biologically active compounds have been evaluated for their insecticidal.28. phenylpropenes (E)anethole and estragole. The normal cell line H9 and WICL showed 35% and 25% of viable cells. The apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae family. acaricidal.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare along with other Germanic medicinal plants. 25 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL. Thirteen compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fennel have been found to possess human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity. The ethanol extract from fruit F. and dopamine. Fennel was known as excellent source of natural antioxidants and contributed to the daily antioxidant diet [113]. while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. Insecticidal Activities. vulgare such as bronchodilatory effect [71]. mosquitoes. Moreover.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from 59.97 ± 1. EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia. insect. High percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in H9 and WICL— 76% and 93%. larvicidal.72 ± 2. Mentha piperita. This formulation shows notable antiaging effect with supporting experimental data related to skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The base was insignificant. Among these compounds 5methoxypsoralen (5-MoP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.BioMed Research International 25 correction of hyperglycemia from 162.30. Antispasmodic Activity. Ethanol extract and essential oil from F. Carum carvi. WICL—human Caucasian normal B cell. Callosobruchus chinensis. the extracts of F. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitory Activity. The fruit derived phytoconstituents of F.5 ± 3. J-45. An alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare possesses antispasmodic activity.3 ?m and with a mixed type of inhibition [83]. Carum carvi. 5. Eryngium planum. that is. respectively. Antiaging Effects. Rosmarinus officinalis. and Citrus aurantium were tested employing the guinea pig ileum and using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens. 4.05. 4. HL60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia. essential oil of fennel improves the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas as compared with the control group of animal. vulgare showed the highest mortality in Trypan blue test for J45 cell line—4% of viable cells and for C8166 cell line—100% of mortality. The antispasmodic activity of 2. not only exhibited pharmacological activities but also revealed a few environmental activities. This activity was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. repellent. 4. EOL—48%.97 mg/dL with ? < 0. The biologically active constituents. Ethanol and water extracts of fennel showed less antioxidant activity compared with essential oil [114]. Antioxidant Activities.19 mg/dL to 81. respectively. inhibited oxytocin and prostaglandin [72]. Bronchodilatory Effect. Melissa officinalis.29. and kaempferol-3O-glucoside.38 U/g Hb with ? < 0. rosmarinic acid. Also. Phenolic compounds of fennel. Heracleum sibiricum. Apoptotic Activity. and the aerial parts of the Italian fennel populations showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity [65]. Thus. quercetin-3-O-galactoside. By using a filter . anethole bears a striking resemblance to the catecholamines epinephrine. However the cells of two lines HL60 and EOL-1 showed the lower levels of apoptotic cells—52% and 60%. Pastinaca sativa. namely. Foeniculum vulgare. and Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia. The volatile oil showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butyrated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone were characterized from Foeniculum fruit.31. that is. respectively [86]. 4. and ML—1–42%. This can prove its effect as antidiabetic in folk Medicine. C-8166—human T cell leukaemia.5 and 10. fennel. 4. and H-9—human T cell were investigated with the help of Trypan blue assay and Annexin V fluos assay [86]. Rasul and his coworker developed a base and formulation containing 4% concentrated seed extract of F. The potassium channel opening effect of fennel may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains [111]. Environmental Application Foeniculum vulgare. This structural similarity appears to be responsible for the various sympathomimetic activities of F. Matricaria chamomilla. U-266B1—human myeloma. and Lasioderma serricorne.60 ± 6. vulgare exhibited bronchodilatory activity on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. including caffeoylquinic acid. norepinephrine. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a free radical scavenging activity with higher content phenolic and flavonoid than medicinal and edible fennel. vulgare exhibited prominent insecticidal activities against Sitophilus oryzae.78 U/g Hb to 99. An essential oil which is obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare. Archangelica officinalis.

105 mg cm−2 ) gave 100% mortality of L. Foeniculum vulgare. Acaricidal Activity. respectively [119]. In 3-liter pot experiments.6 and 2 h.4. only the 3 g/kg dose . namely. 5. indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. the plant extract in doses of 0. As naturally occurring insect-control agents.8-cineole content of F. In a skin test with female mosquitoes (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9octadecenoic acid (0. serricorne whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 day after treatment was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 20. C. and spermatogenic changes. vulgare exhibit noticeable larvicidal activity against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus. Essential oils of Carum carvi.5. In most toxicity experiments carried out on F. At this concentration. 1. P-anisaldehyde was the most toxic compound against D. pattern of respiration. estragole (0. vulgare are the most effective phytoconstituent against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1. investigated the in vitro nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1000 ?L/liter. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of F. tail posture. convulsions. The extract caused no significant chronic mortality as compared to controls during this investigation. In case of longer term toxicity. social interaction. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid are potential mosquito repellent agents or lead compounds [117]. paralysis. Sedaghat et al. By considering this aspect. whereas DEET provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at (0. All external morphological.5. haematological. Nematicidal Activity. Thus. Whereas after 1 day of treatment. vulgare. In a fumigation test. aggressive behaviour.N-diethylm-toluamide (DEET) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. In experimentation. Shah and his coworker concluded that fennel extract is safe based on both acute and/or long term toxicity studies [121].2 mg/cm2 ). respectively. suggests that F. Shah and his coworker in 1991 investigated the detailed toxicity account of ethanolic extract of fennel fruit in experimental mice with respect to acute and 90 days longer term toxicity [121]. (E)anethole (0.3. Terpineol and 1. in addition to body and vital organ weights. the F.26 paper diffusion test. 5. Larvicidal Activity. (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde are major constituents of fruit oil of F. Thus. vulgare. and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. and piloerection. exophthalmos. flowers. and L.10 and 44. vulgare was spectroscopically characterized for the presence of biologically active constituents called (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. oryzae. and estragol [118].168 mg cm−2 ) caused 91% mortality to S. and L. prostration.021 mg cm−2 concentration) revealed potent insecticidal activity against C. in another part of toxicity they studied the effect of fennel extract on mice with 90 days long term treatment. Oka et al. Additionally. namely. all test compounds (0. The extracts did not show spermatotoxic effects. Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. In this investigation. the essential oil extracts from leaves. These doses do not show any type of toxicity against several parameters tested. 6. Repellent Activity. farinae and is much more effective compared with benzyl benzoate. most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. urination. 5. and 3 g/kg body weight. Mentha rotundifolia. Thus. F. tremors. chinensis. chinensis. oryzae within 1 day after treatment whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 day after treatment. [119] investigated the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against malaria vector called Anopheles stephensi. F. were recorded. vulgare exhibited no signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed upto the dose level 3 g/kg body weight.2. respectively.51 ppm. respectively. serricorne in closed cups than in open ones. chinensis.4 mg/cm2 ) exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment. The methanolic extract of fruits of F. thymol. and 3 g/kg (orally) did not cause any deaths. pupil size. Additionally. oryzae. vulgare could be considered as safe. vulgare oil was the most effective against A. Shah and his coworker observed the general symptoms of toxicity and mortality for only 24 h in acute toxicity. Zoubiri et al. [57] reported BioMed Research International the larvicidal activity of essential oil of fennel seed against Culex pipiens mosquito. Exceptionally. The repellent activity of these constituents was tested against hungry Aedes aegypti females with the help of skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial repellent agent called N. with no reports of any serious side effects. vulgare can serve as a natural larvicidal agent. the compounds were much more effective against adults of S. serricorne [116]. sensitivity to sound. 5. salivation. C. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae by standard method of WHO. vulgare (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was given in drinking water of animals (30 male and 30 female mice). Fennel oil shows significant acaricidal activity against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. bizarre reactions.5. nasal discharge. defecation. respectively [120]. ataxia. locomotor activity. 1. After 2 days of treatment. Toxicity The long history of ethnomedicinal application. cyanosis. Recently. Whereas. no sign of toxicity was observed. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides [115]. ethanolic extract of F. nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg. The F. vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S. The treated male mice gained significant weight during chronic treatment while a loss or no significant change in weight was noticed in the female mice treated with the same extract. vulgare was assessed in 35 mice by using three concentrations. and roots of F. 0.

600. 400. When anethole was fed to rats daily for one year as 0. flatulence. ethyl acetate. gastralgia. Also. vulgare extract did not show any mortality or toxicity demonstrating the safety profile of the plant extract [89]. fatty acids. riboflavin. n-hexane. insomnia. antihirsutism. depurative. antimutagenic.3 mg/mL of culture medium [123]. and zinc [124]. The acute oral LD50 of essential oil in rats is 1326 mg/kg [76]. cytoprotection and antitumor. liver pain. the vast traditional use and proven pharmacological activities of fennel indicate that an immense scope still exists for its chemical exploration. Repeated doses of one-third the LD50 of anethole (695 mg/kg) given to rat caused mild liver lesions. Even the mice receiving highest dose of F. ethyl acetate. the outcome of such chemical studies may further expand its existing therapeutic potential. diuretic. and methanol extracts. E. vulgare was administered orally at a dose of 100. galactogenic. antistress. flavonoids. phenylalanine. vulgare accounts for its safety at the recommended therapeutic doses.0. gastritis. hepatoprotective. In another experiment of acute toxicity. antiemetic. The plant extract of F. and 15 g/kg for n-hexane. it is incumbent on researchers to fill the huge gap of insufficient knowledge and create awareness among pharmacologists as well as investigators towards providing better medicinal value derived from this plant. The acute oral 50% LD50 for anethole in rats was found to be 2090 mg/kg. The overall toxicity studies carried out on F. antipyretic. Among several classes of chemical constituents identified in fennel. cobalt. copper. respectively [68]. no hepatic damage was seen [122]. It would therefore appear that in normal therapeutic dosages anethole would have minimal hepatotoxicity. volatile components of fennel essential oil and phenolic compounds are assumed to be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the majority of its pharmacological effects. cytotoxicity. kidney ailments. estrogenic properties. leucorrhoea. calcium. The use of F. nootropic. LD50 being: 6. methylene chloride. and methanol extracts of F. and tryptophane may contribute to the myriad health beneficial effects at least in part. diarrhea. but there was no evidence of teratogenicity upto concentration of 9. 6. irritable colon. as a laxative. and amino acids. and pyridoxine. and stomachache. 800. and K. there is a need for chemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive compounds. antimicrobial and antiviral. chromium. Most of the pharmacological studies were conducted using uncharacterized crude extracts of fennel. strontium.BioMed Research International showed signs of reduced locomotor activity and piloerection. water soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid. chemomodulatory action. niacin. gastrointestinal effect. different solvent extracts. Conflict of Interests The authors confirm that this paper’s content has no conflict of interests. vulgare essential oil as a remedy for control of primary dysmenorrhea increases concern about its potential teratogenicity due to its estrogen like activity. especially for abdominal pains. all other parameters were negative [108]. colic in children. manganese. barium. essential amino acids like leucine. Fennel also contains mineral and trace elements like aluminum. New Delhi. cancer. methylene chloride. and oculohypotensive activity 27 supporting its traditional use. 1000. The observed health benefits may be credited to the presence of the various phytochemicals like volatile compounds. Studies have shown that various extracts of fennel possess a range of pharmacological actions. hypoglycemic. thiamine. Each group of animals was under visual observation for 10 days for the external behavior of neurological toxicity created by plant extract. isoleucine. nickel. cadmium. cardiovascular. Hence. vulgare upto 5. antithrombotic. Conclusions The available scientific research on Foeniculum vulgare has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments. and 2000 mg/kg of body weight of mice. Studies carried out in the past and present indicate that fennel possesses diverse health benefits and are an important constituent of food. antinociceptive. emmenagogue. antispasmodic. anxiolytic. phenolic compounds. memory-enhancing property. Factors such as geographical and seasonal variation play an important role in the authentication of the chemical constituents responsible for the activity which also can be an area of interest. conjunctivitis. 7. It is difficult to reproduce the results of these studies and pinpoint the bioactive compounds. hypolipidemic. fever. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Indian Council of Medical Research. such as antiaging. apoptotic. iron. anticolitic. human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory.92. aperitif.5 g/kg concentration.75. 200. fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A. 11. Thus. The required information when available will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of fennel in our daily diet. anti-inflammatory. lead. Future studies should be focused on validating the mechanism of action responsible for the various beneficial effects and also on understanding which plant based compounds are responsible for the reported effects. expectorant. However. dieresis. there are many areas of research related to this plant that need to be further explored to fully recognize its beneficial effects for society. mouth ulcer. magnesium. the most prominent and the well studied effects are the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oil of fennel in different experimental models.25% of the diet. However. namely. for providing Centenary Postdoctoral . This can be fulfilled only by generating interest among the research community through writing of critical appraisals (paper) and extending the interdisciplinary research area to focused studies on Foeniculum vulgare. constipation. Evaluation of teratogenicity of essential oil using limb bud mesenchymal cells showed that the essential oil may have toxic effect on fetal cells. Thus. did not revealed any kind of toxicity in mice. This plant has been in use for a long period of time without any documented serious adverse effects. Otherwise. arthritis. antiallergic.

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