Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.

org/

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

GLOSSARY

USED

IN

OF

%VELL

TERIS

LOGGIiG

By
R.

E.

SHERIFF

Reprintedfrom
GEOPHYSICS

VOL. 35, No. 6, December, 1.970

Society of Exploration
P.O.

Geophysicists

Box 3098

Tulsa, Oklahoma 74]35

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 35, NO. 6 (DECEMBER

GLOSSARY OF T/F!$

ROBERT

E.

1970), P. 1116-113% 15 FIGS

USED IN WELL LOGGING-t'

SHERIFF*

The "Glossary of Terms Used in Geophysical


Exploration" publishedin Geophysicsin February 1968 met with some justified criticism becauseof the emphasison seismicexplorationfor
oil. The Addendum published in April 1969
attempted to restore balanceas far as mineral
explorationwas concerned.But onemajor area of
geophysicshad sti!l been slighted:that of well
logging. This present addendum is intended to
complete our coverageof geophysicalexploration
terms.

Well loggingtechnologyhas seenrapid development in the last few years with the advent of several types of acoustic and radioactive logging
methodsand other new loggingtools. Computers
are beginningto have an impact on this field by
making readily available, from combinationsof
logs, information which previously could be extracted only by tedious methods.
The author believes that a "geophysicist"
should be conversantwith aspectsperipheral to
his central concern and central application, and
that a geophysicalinterpretation ought to be consistent with all available data of all kinds, not
merely with that portion of the data in which the

A revision of the "Glossaryof Terms Used in


Geophysical
Exploration"is now underwayand it
is intendedthat this "Glossaryof Terms Used in
Well Logging" should be included as an integral
part of the revision. The present publication is
made, therefore,in the samesenseas the previous
publications:as a semifinaldraft of the entriesaccessiblefor proofreadingby a much wider group
of knowledgeablegeophysiciststhan we could
otherwise reach. Comments, corrections, or disagreementsare invited, so that they may receive
consideration before the revision is finalized.

Readerswill note that someentriesappearboth


in the previousglossaryand in the present one
with somewhat different specializedmeanings,
dependingon the area in which the word is used.
Becausesuchdifferencesinvolve vocabularyoutside of well loggingusage,it did not seem appropriate to includethem here. The forthcoming
revisionwill attempt to clarify such differences.
Groundruleshave beenessentiallythe sameas
those laid down for the precedinggeophysical
glossary:
1. An equal sign indicatesthat what follows is
an equivalent.Logsindicatedas beingequiv-

interpreter specializes.
Sonic logginginformation
is vital to seismic interpretation and density
logginginformationto gravity interpretation.But
vital also are measurementsof other physical
propertieswith which an interpretationought to
be consistent, just as a seismic interpretation
oughtto be consistentwith gravity and magnetic
observations.In a rapidly changingfield such as
ours,the boundaries
betweenareasof specilization
must be crossed more and more often as we ad-

vanceinto the future. Hence it seemsappropriate


to present a "Glossary of Terms Used in Well
Logging."

alent, however,may not be identical (e.g.,


neutronlifetime log and thermal decaytime
log).
2. A colon indicates that what follows is a defi-

nition or explanation.
3. Wordsunderlinedwith a singleline are listed
themselves and should be referred to in order

to complete the defintion.

4. Wordshavebeendefinedastheyareactually
used.

5. The numberingof differentmeaningsdoes


not indicatepreferenceas to usage.

6. Whereseveraltermsare essentially
equiva-

? Manuscriptreceivedby the Editor June 8, 1970.

* ChevronOil Company,Houston,Texas.

Copyright() 1970by the Societyof ExplorationGeophysicists.


All rightsreserved
1116

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Glossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

lent, the principal entry is that most used,


even where this gives preference to a trade
name over a generic name.
Trade names are included where they are
in general use. Such entries begin with a

lower caseletter wheretheir usageis for the


classof devices;althoughthe namefor a specific loggingtool may begin with a capital.
An attempt has been made to include trademark registration where 17 was aware of
such. Neither

inclusion nor exclusion should

I wish to expressmy appreciationto the companiesand peoplewho have helped me, including
do not know.

Oil Company, Jackson,Mississippi; Mr. E. E.


Finklea of Schlumberger
Limited, Ridgefield,Connecticut; Mr. Noel Frost of the Birdwell Division

of SSC, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. D. W. Hilchie of


Dresser Atlas, Houston, Texas; Mr. John I.
Myung of the Birdwell Division of SSC, Tulsa,
Oklahoma; Mr. R. A. Robertson of Standard Oil
Companyof California, San Francisco;Mr. Terry
Walker of Welex, Houston, Texas; and Mr. J. E.
Walstromof StandardOil Companyof California,
San Francisco. I also want to thank the Chevron

imply any judgments about the merits of


specific devices.

some whose names I

I want to

Oil Companyand the StandardOil Company of


California for permissionto publishthis glossary.
I again remind you that I do not regard this
draft as final and invite suggestionsfor corrections,additions,or revisions.

thank especially' Mr. G. W. Burns of Chevron

Fro.

1. Idealized

1117

acoustic wave train.

R. E. Sheriff

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1118
Sheriff

BEFORE
SQUEEZE
AFTER
SQUEEZE

,diP*

I,,,

FIc. 2. Microseismogram
log usedas cementbond log. CourtesyWelex.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

MUDCAKE

Fr:... (a) Schematicof compensateddensity log sonde. (b) Compensateddensity log.


Courtesy Schlumberger.

O
rn

TRUE DIP ANGLE

IDEPTH I

INTERVAL

TRUE

DRIFT

DIRECTION
OF HOLE

Fro. 4. () Dipmeter log. (b) Calculateddipmeter log (tadpole plot). CourtesySchlumberger.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1120

Sheriff

SPOHTANEOUS
POTEHTIAI

1E$ I $ T I V I TY

mllllval,i

//

ohms,.m'/m

AMPLIFIER
AND

OSCILLATOR

RECEIVER

,/ HOUSING

/ COIL

RECEIVER

AMPLIFIER

GROUND

LOOP

FOUCAULT
CURRENT

T RANSM

ION

I TTER

IITRANSMITTER
::R

OSCILLATOR
COIL

Fro. 5. (a) Schematicof two-coil inductionsonde.(b) Dual induction--laterolog. CourtesySchlurnberger.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Glossary of Terms Used in We Logging

? oo.....

o-

..

RADIAL

FOR MATION
WATER
)__! ..........
........................

DISTRIBUTION

OF

FLUIDS

i
i

I
I

I
I

I
I

Rxor ....

RrncI" -If
Rm

iRADIAL DISTANCE

i
RADIAL

II

DISTRIBUTION
I

I
I

OF RESISTIVITY

II

ii

itz

i1 i

!1

11:::)I

I I

II

MUD ;
CAKE I

Rt

!1

11LI

BOREHOLE

ABOUT

ABOUT BOREHOLE

-I . iNVADED I
I
ZONE
I

I
1

UNCONTAMINATED
ZONE

Fro. 6. Invaded zone. Courtesy Schlumberger.

1121

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1122

Sheriff

LXTEROLOG
CONDUCTIVITY
400

200

.:_:::::.=5:::::

Fro. 7. (a) Schematicof laterolog7 showingcurrentflow lines.(b) Laterologwith hybrid scale.


Courtesy Schlumberger.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

GJossa':y
of Tea'msUsed in Well Logging
RESISTIVITY

RESISTIVITY
ohml - ml/m

ohml - m/m

1123

Fro. 8. Microlog and microcaliperlog (on left), nd


microlaterolog(on right). CourtesySchlumberger.

io
cro

Nm.mal 2"

I0

MICROCALIPER

ORRELATioN
.....
CUEVE

COUNTS
PER
MINUTE
..........

....

SIGMA
.

_..

...................................

POROSITY

Per

Cent

Fro. 10. Neutron lifetime log.


Courtesy Dresser Atlas.

Fzo. 9. Movable oil plot. Courtesy Schlumberger.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1124
Sheriff

NEUTRON
160

GENERATOR
METER

a
GENERATOR
ME TE R

CING

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Glossaryof Terms Usedin We Logging

1425

14'iC;.
1l. (a) Neutron log. (b) Sidexvallneutronlog. CourtesySchlumberger.

CALIPER
HOLE

BHC

iNCHES

SONIC

LOG

2 SPAN

DIAM.

At u SEC/FT.
!oo

7o

40

,.

Ri

LOWER
TRANSMITTE/
1/////////
a

!3. (a) Schema'it BHC sonic log sonde. (b) Sonic log. Courtesy Sclllumberger.

12. Basicelectric1o arrangements'(a) Normal configuration.(b) Lateral configuration.


Courtesy Schlumberger.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1126

Sheriff
S.R
o rnv

--

I+

RESISTIVITY
0 SHORT
0

NORMAL

LONG

NORMAL

!0
I0

SAND-LINE

F'm. 14. SP log in a sand shale serieswith


fresh mud in borehole. Courtesy Schlumberger.

J SHALE

?AS,E
-LINEI
,

i!'i

'

,,

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossay of Terms [Jsed in We Logging

1127

MICROSECOND----.>
1000

BOUNDARY.WAVE

SHEAR

'

WAVE

Fro. 15. Three-dimensionalvelocity log. CourtesyBirdwell Division of SSC.

1500

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1128

Sheriff

a9.stial.l_o.o_: (1) a generic term for well logs


which display

gation.

an aspect

of acoustic

In some acoustical

logs

tinuous velocity
log),
the traveltime
of the
compressional wave between two points is mea-

sured.

sured perpendicular
to the buddn
sured parallel
to the bedding.

wave propa-

(soni,

con

In others (amp_l.
itud.e...].,o.), the ampli-

tude of part of the wave train is measured.


Still
other acoustical
logs (character
log, three

a__nn_o_U]_u.s:
(1) That space between a drill ;i:, and
the formations through which the returr,]ng olling fluid (mud) returns to the surfcu.
2) Tne
space between tubing and casing or between casing
and formation.
(3) A low resistance ring seinetimes produced by invasion processes in hydrocarbon-bearing beds.
Because of their greater

orol,
VDL
log,
microseismogram
log,
display
most
of the v&avetrain
insignature
wiggle
variable density form. Still
others (cement
bond log, fracture log) are characterized
the objective
of the measurements rather
their

form.

tical

log also--pically,

wave:
from

'

Borehole

: elastic

Specifically,

the

emission

of

televiewer

is

mobility,

by
than

tion

an acous-

a sonic log_,

pulse

of various

by a

of energy transfer.
The first arrival usually
results from compressional (P or longitudinal)

Figure

ity
as

in the

API cali-

wit

fresh

water)

is

defined

units.

arrival.

The resistivity
log,

ence of
adjacent

)
A

which

mud column,
beds, etc.

fo rm 1ai:
tween

the

times

written

zone,

Empirical

formation

recurdd
from the
influence

of

relationships

resistivity

FR), porosity

factor

water

F (some-

saturation

in clean granular rocks.

F : R0/R
w= a c-m,
R0/Rt : Sw ,

(t_G__JYj=JL
(electrochemical):
a substance

where m

some nuclei
into
radioisotopes
is measured after
a time lag.

: acoustic velocity
to enter

into

log = sonic log.

The relative
a reaction.

electrochemical

SP can

be

found

from

tendency

= proportionality
to

or cementation
facbetween 1.5 and 3,

constant

varying

from

1.5,

R0 : resistivity
of the formation
when 100
percent saturated
with formation
water,

When

the

= porosity
exponent
tor, which varies
0.6

the shales adjacent to a reservoir


are perfect
cationic
membranes and the permeable bed is clean.

Rw = formation water resistivity,

ac-

tivities
(equiValent concentrations of dissolved
salts) of the formation water and mud fittrate.

Rt : true formation resistivity,


n

saturation

exponent;

often

n = 2.

j=p( S__P
:S :). Theratioofp.s_eudostatic
SPto static

"ArchiJ'sLaw"assumes
that m: 2 anda = 1

_.D.._l_._.__9.q,:_
heborehole
ofused
theamplitude
a portion of t A
acoustic lo
w ve
in acoustic of

The Humble formula

logging,

by

true

because of the pres-

invaded

Sw, and resistivities

See

differs

of the formation

that
transmute
whose radiation

the

between t))e hgh

sections

saturated

API

resistivity

CtJv_o__t]o.n_
19:
Awe.
techniqeUe
in
-E5
-ormation
is ll
irradloqing
ated with
n utrons

of

and is
lOO0

an electrical

t.

forma-

6.

The difference

LS,....i]:

Rayleigh arrivals
(not Rayleigh waves as used
in seismology).
Compressional waves travelling
through t13e mud usually have relatively
high
frequency content.
One or more modes of high
amplitude, low frequency tube waves or Stonetey
a very distinct

farther

conductive

modes

waves travelling
in the formation;
h inverse of
its velocity
is measured by the sonic 1o.
A
second arrival
is sometimes iden"Ffied as shear
(S) wave travel
in the formation,
sometimes as

waves are usually

See Figure

than

bration pit is defined as 200 API units.


(2) The
reading in the Indiana limestone portion of the
API calibration
pit (which has 19 percent poros-

pects of it are measured (see acoustical io_9).


is a composite

water.

zone

and low radioactivity

sonic logging sonde. This wave train is detected


by one or more nearby detectors and various asThe wave train

invaded

g9m_9-r.

which results

an acoustical

the

I==UJ.___.._..t,:
(l) A unit of counting rate for the

wave : seismic wave - sonic

the wave train

hydrocarbons are displaced

beyond

See cement bond log and fracture

2.15

and

is

the special

case where m =

a = 0.65.

log,

j gg'nlJa
bow
spring
orlever
connected
a
sonde
which
presses
against
the o
ore.,_
._: olheVariation
of aalephYnsical
depending
orientation
g whic roperty
it is
hole wall to centralize
the tool, to push the
measured.
(2) "Microscopic
anisotropy"
is a
variation
of a property
of a formation
measured
perpendicular
to the bedding from that measured
parallel
to the bedding because plate-like
mineral grains and interstices
tend to orient
themselves parallel
to the sedimentation.
(3) "Macroscopic anisotropy"
is a variation
due to the volume over which a measurement is made, including

.thin
(4)

beds whose properties

differ

tool

to the opposite

side

of the borehole,

to hold a sensor pad to the borehole wall.


To prepare a perforating
gun for firing.

.azro:::plo
or

drift

: _a_dole plot:

A display

of dipmeter

data.

appreciably.

The resistivity
anisotropy
coefficient
square root of the ratio of the resistivity

is the
mea-

= lO-

cm: A unit for measuring.c-

- ture cross-section.

or
(2)

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossary of Terms Used in Wet Logging

ease-line

silift:

A change i. the icat_or.

shale

base line

occur

when

separated
fect

on the

waters

of

by shale

cationic

SP curve.

differerst

when

depth

in

the

the

are

beds %.,'hlch do not

membranes,

water salinity
changes
or when the resistivity

it

A $hkft
sllnities

the

act

,G.,aQ$_U_.
e._C,
rQ_S
-__s
_6_]0.: ( 1 ) "A t omi c c a pt u r e c r o s s -'--
for neutrons
is the effective
area within which a neutron
has to pass in order to be

as per-

captured
bilistic

formation

',vithin a permeable
bed,
of the mud changes ,zith

of

: borehole

compensated

sonic

log.

a Dresser

Atlas

by an atomic nucleus.
value dependent on the
particle

as

well

nucleus.

as

Atomic

the

It is a probanature and energy


nature

capture

of

the

cross-section

is often measured in Darns (1 barn : 10-cm),


(2) "Macroscopic capture cross-section"
is the

See com-

BHCis a Schlumberger

BHC Acoustilog

the

capturing

borehole.

pensated lo.

1t29

effective
cross-sectional
area per unit
volume
of material
for
capture
of neutrons;
hence,
it
depends on the number of atoms present
as well

traderlame.

as

their

atomic

capture

cross-sections.

The

B....H_=
: bottom hole temperature.

unit of measure for 7] s cme/cm or reciprocal


cm (cm'); :C is often measured in "capture units"

B__H._T_]
: borehole

r
units."of1 c.u.
: ]O'cm
TM
. ith
3)The
-ate "sigma
of absorption
therma
neutrons
a

televiewer.

.b._!..]_n__.z..A?:
A portion
of a formation
in which a
logging tool response is too low; also called
"shadow

zone."

A blind

zone

occurs

because

of

the finite
size or configuration
of tha logging
tool.
For the lateral
curve,
a blind
zone (ab-

normally

low reading)

is recorded

velocity

A distortion

cause
of the size
hole
or sometimes

borehole

and
the

of

influence
invaded

a well

of
zone.

A unit

tem wherein a pulsed,

log

the

laterolog,
sidewall

of macroscopic

capture

cross-

microlaterolog,
sonic,
density,
and
neutron logs which includes
a secondarz

]'9]ltFndex

be-

bore-

curve and a movable oil

1ot.

.9=,,,,0_,._C]-!..r. a t_.r: A mag ne t i c o r sc r a t c he r


device for locating
casing collars,
whict are
used for correlating
collars
with other logs and
hic.h often
serve as reference
depths in subsequent completion
operations.

A well

narrow acoustic

log sys-

(sonar)

beam scans the borenole wall in a tight


helix as
the tool moves up the borehole.
A display of the

amplitude of the
tube (television
ing a picture of
fractures,
rugs,

of measure

section.

1o__.9_
= wel 1 1og.

b.ou%e_b_9_]e
!;..e]_?__v_i_ewec
: seisviewer'

tqus

when a bed

which is highly
resistive
compared to the overlying and underlying
formations
is present between current
and measuring electrodes.
b__f_ehf_e_6_ii:

v is

=Fture un. = c.u. = s.u. = sigma unit = lO'cm - .

reflected
wave on a cathode ray
screen) is photographed yieldthe borehole wall, revealing
etc.
BHTV is a Mobil Oil trade-

c..a_t_i.=_nJ,,,...,m_,mb.e:
A me mb r a n wh i c h p e r mi t s t h e
passage of cations
but not of artions.
Shale

ac:s as such a membrane, allowing


5odium ions
Co pass but not chloride
ions.
Important
in
generating
the electrochemical
SP.

,.% : cement bond lo.

mark.

b_o._.n.d.
wat_e/_: Water absorbed in or chemically
bined with shales,
gypsum, or other material
which

is

not

free

to

flow

under

natural

comand

condi-

= continuous

dmeter.

rti_a._G.,.E.:

The exponent

m in

the

rchie

formula.

tions.

nt=
b_r_i_d/: The insulation-covered
lower
the cable to which the logging tool

portion of
is con-

nected.

_b_J_ktc
k _e_]_E.6_t_r__4__
: Lu_a
rd el ec trodes.
b_u]]_t:
cores.

(t) A device for obtaining


sidewall
(2) A device for e.r__ati_.

butl;or[:

The small

resistivity

circular

electrode

of

bo_n_d
..]._:
the

acoustic

before

sonde.

and/or

after

test

records run

a log run and attached

to the

logs.

cal.j_er
Awell
logwhich
measures
di........
=m'e"e
r,lo:
-open
hoe caliper
logging
too ole
s some
times

have 1, 2, 3, or 4 arms.

Also

called

section gage. See Figures 8 and 13. Tools


for studying the corrosion of casing or tubing
use many "fingers."

tne

degree

(CBL) which repre-

sents the amplitude


of a portion
of the longitudinal
acoustic wave train or (2) a display
of

Calibration

indi.cates

sist of (1) an ltude_l

on a micro-

the

ter log,
acoustic

_81ib_ati:

A wel I log of the amol i rude


wave which

of bonding of the cement to the pipe.


If the
casing is poorly cemented, energy travel
through
the casing at the fast speed of acoustic
waves
in steel
is strong and little
energy travels
in
the formation;
if the casinq is well cemented,
the casing signal nearly disappears
and the
formation
signal
is strong.
The log may con-

c.ba.

acoustic

wave

three-D,
signature

train

such

as

the

charac-

microseismogram,
VDL, or
log.
See Figure 2.

: signature

log:

A display

of the

acoustic
wave train
to the similar
sort

in wiggle form, as opposed


of display
in variable
form in the three-D lo, microseismo-

density
gram, or VDL log.

1,

See also sonic


and cement bond l o.

1o,

fracture

.G.hl_oni_ne
:
A log based on the counting rate of
capture gamma rays produced by capture of thermal
neutrons by chlorine
in the formation.
By limiting the count to a certain energy range, the tool

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

30

is

Sheriff

made

more

sensitive

to

chlorine

and

rela-

continuous

tively
insensitive
to formation
porosity.
The
chlorine
log is now essentially
replaced
by the
neutron lifetime
loq and thermal decay time log.

cvcleskip.:
arrival
the

cbro_at:

See

arion

gas chromatograph.

locator.

.c_O_l_p_a_j_on
c_,_r_e_.LJD_:
An empirical
correction
applied to porosity
derived
from the sonic log in
uncompacted

formations

such

depths or formations
under
sures.
Undercompaction
is
mally low sonic velocities

as sands

at

log (FDC) uses the signal

from a secondary
detector
to
effect
of mud cake and small

correct

for

the

irregularities
in
the borehole wall.
The compensated sonic log
(BHC) uses a special arrangement of the trans-

ducers
hole

to correct
size

and

for

sonde

irregularities

in

is

sometimes

receiver

closest

= sonic

long_.

logging

strong

enough to

to

transmitter

the

the firs1
trigger
but

not

shallow

abnormally high presindicated


by abnorin adjacent
shales.

.cm_.__n__s
t_e:
Awel
1 1og
madte
a sonde
designed
to correct
out
unwan
ed with
effects.
The
compensated density

log

or sonic

the farthest
receiver,
which may then be triggered by a later
cycle resulting
in an erroneously high transit
time.
This situation
is
called
"cycle skipping."
Its onset is characterized
by an abrupt deflection
corresponding
to an added cycle of travel
between receivers.
"Short cycle skipping"
where the near receiver
is triggered
a cycle too late can also occur,
resulting
in an abnormally
short traveltime.

J_et_: Containing
no appreciable
amount of clay
or shale.
Applied to sandstones and carbonates.
Compare _!_tjL.

;_O_l]_dc__]_D:
: ccollar

velocity

In acoustic

bore-

A unit

of permeability;

the permeability

which will
allow a flow of one milliliter
per
second of fluid
of one centipoise
viscosity
through one square centimeter
under a pressure
gradient
of one atmosphere per centimeter.
The
commonly used unit is the millidarcy
or 1/1000
darcy.

_DarcJL_s
law'
rate

A relationship

for the fluid

flow

q.

tilt.
kA

QJ]_cLc_t_i_v_i: The ability


of a material
to conduct electrical
current.
See m.ho per meter.
Conductivity
is the reciprocal
of resistivity.

,ojl_n___te__%_ej:
(1) Water trapped in sediments at
the time of deposition.

_ec_t.OL:
against

(2)

A microloE

the

borehole

Formation

wall.

Welex tradename.

_Q..e
_n_a_l:

Cores from boreholes

as

are analyzed

See core analysis.

and up to three

smooth

sity.

(1) The determination

stratigraphic

ferent

well
tures

long from the

wells.

position

of

Similarities
serve

as

markers

(2)

wel I data

or

.rossplotz:

in

different

the

in dif-

char. acter

of distinctive
from

the next are used.


wel 1 1 ogs and other
well

is

one

well

of

feato

The matching of different


either

in

the

same

wells.

A graph to determine

the relationship

between two different


measurements.
A crossplot
of porosity
measured from a sonic log against
porosity
from a density
log, for example, is used
to show secondary porosity
effects.

cr__c9_Sse
icLi_O_: See cpture

cross-section.

pressed

and detector

against

compensated density

are

on a skid

the borehole

logging

tool

wall.

The

(FDC) includes

a secondary detector
which responds more to the
mud cake and small borehole
irregularities;
the
response of the second detector
is used to correct the readings of the main detector.
Density
is related
to porosity
by the equation

q= Pma
' Plog,

side

of equivalence

formations
in

togs and the occurrence


which

The source

which

Pma-

borehole.

c r_r:
in

feet

log which records the forma-

so shielded
that it records backscattered
gamma
rays from the formation.
This secondary
radiation
depends on the density
of electrons,
which is roughly proportional
to the bulk den-

c.q._=__5_l.,._i_g_ez:
device
using
which cuts aA
triangular
corediamondt-edged
abou one incbades
on
a side

A well

is a Dresser

tiondensity.
Th
logging
tool
consists
ofa
e.g.,
Cs?)
and
a detector

depth.

of

Densilog

tradename.

area,
across

gamma-ray source

for porosity,
permeability,
fluid
content
and identification,
lithology,
and structure
(fractures,
cross bedding, etc.).
Results are
often illustrated
on a log or coregraph on which
porosity,
permeability,
water saturation,
oil
saturation,
and lithology
are graphed against

._r_:

Atl

.dei_...t._..
:

CVL i s a

1 trademark.

where k : permeability,
A : cross-sectional
= viscosity,
,p = pressure differential
the thickness,
x.

.d9...si]_ = densi.

in which the sonde is held

n_g9_u_s ._e]_zJ___y.
_ : son i c l og.
Bi rdwel

water.

q --- --x
'

Pf

wherePmais the densityof the rock matrix, Plog


is the density recordedon the log, and pf is the
density of the fprmation fluid.
Sometimes called
gamma-gammaqg.
Compare nuclear cement log and

hotS.

a__tur

See Figure

curve:

3.

Graphs which allow one to cor-

rect for measuring conditions


which differ
from
standard.
Such curves,
for example, might
correct
for differences
in temperature,
hole diameter, mud type, adjacent
beds, invasion,
etc.

de?thof

..nvasio...n.: See invaded zone.

ep.th of investJ.gation:

The radius about a logging

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossay of Tems Used n Wel Logging

sonde within
which material
nificantly
to the readings

contributes
sigfrom the sonde.

of the hole.
The tape is
the log.
Welex tradename.

dual inducti'

._.d_e_t.i:
A borehole log plotted at a scale
larger than conventional
(1 inch per 100 ft);
specifically,
inches

an electric

per

eLi:

log at a scale

of

Departure of a borehole from vertical.


directional

_d_iP_.og= dieter.

survey_and

two

played

back to obtain

An induction

induction

curves

with

log consisting

different

deoths

of

investigation.
Usually
run with a focused resistivity
device with a shallow
depth of investigation,
such as a shallow laterolog.

of 5

100 ft.

See drift,

13

rectify.

= deep well
temperature

thermometer:

A sonde for recording

logs,

Diplog is a Dresser Atlas

tradename.

.c[!'._p____..:
(1) A well

log from which formation dip

magnitude and azimuth can be determined.


The
resistivity
dipmeter includes
three or four
microresistivity
readings
made using sensors
distributed
in azimuth about the logging sonde
and a reading of the azimuth of one of these;
a reading of the hole deviation
or drift
angle
and its bearing;
and one or two caliper
measurements.
The microresistivity
curves are
correlated

to

determine

the

differences

in

depth of bedding markers on.different


sides
the hole.
(2) Other types of dipmeter use
three

(3)

SP curves,

three

wall

scratchers,

A log showing the formation

lated
stick
azimuth

sur_e:

and

vertical.

inclination

of

a borehole

survey

is

measurements

with

are

made

at

plot

with

the

the

made

discrete

levels

amount of

shale dispersed
in the interstices.
Such shale
lowers the permeability
and effective
porosity
and affects
the readings
of many types of logs.

down.hole_____ground:
A long electrode often attached
to the logging cable some distance (perhaps 100
ft)
above an electrical
just
below the casing,

logging sonde or hung


used as the reference

electrode
instead
of a reference
the surface,
Used in the case
ference
from electrical
surface
tell

uric

__.f.t_:

borehole

azimuth
through

axis

a borehole.

and

is the angle
the borehole

is the angle
the

vertical;

formation,

often

between
the

between a vertical
and north.

indicative

of

which

: electrolog:

usually

consists

a unit

wave

a Dresser

A borehole log

resistivity

Atlas

elec-

of SP and two or more

logs, such as ort

and long normal

logs.

Electrolog

tradename.

The component of the SP comprised of the sum of the liquid-junction


potential
and the shale potential,
both of which are

determined
formation

by the ratio
water

The liquid

drift

plane

penetration

into

to

that

junction

of the activits.
of

the

potential

of the

mud filtrate.

is produced in

the formation
at the contact
between
the invasion
filtrate
and the
formation
water
as a result
of the differences
in ion diffusion
rates
from the more concentrated
to the more dilute

solution
("concentration
cell").
The negatively
charged chloride
ions have greater
than the positive
sodium ions and an
excess negative
charge tends to cross the
boundary, resulting
in an emf.
The shale po-

mobility
tential

results

because

the

shale

bed

acts

as

a cationic
membrane permitting
the sodium
cations to flow through it but not the chloride
anions.
The liquid
junction
potential
and

shale potential

are additive.

See also SS_____.P.

elect__r_
k_c__
?._Lte__.nij...a_..]
: streaming potential
=
----ectrofiltration
potential:
A component of the
as a result

of movement of the

through the mud cake.

Variations

inva-

in

ion concentration
produced by the processes which
generate the electrochemical
SP tend to be swept
along by the movement of the invading
fluid
and
this flow of charge results
i n the el ectrokinetic
potential.
The electrokinetic
potenti al i s usual 1 y cons i dered smal 1 compared to
the electrochemical
SP and is often
neglected
when estimating
formation
water resistivity
from
the

SP.

zone.

elecron.__denit:

!]...ling

= seismic

A generic term including all


Compare electrical
surve_..

e]_e_c]ric 1%=

-fon fluid

The drif

?i]]ing___bak:
An increase in the penetration
speed of the drill
bit caused by a change in
a porous

ee]_e_l;ric_al_
10:
trical
logs.

SP produced
of

angle or hole deviation


the

electrode
at
of bad SP interfacilities
or

currents.

The attitude

wave

wave.

e_]eCrochem:

often

Containing appreciable

wall.

or

a photoclinometer.

dir_fw = shaly:

borehole

w__a_v_e.
= acoustic

sonic

is

as part of a dipmeter survey or sometimes as a


continuous
log with a poteclinometer.
Sometimes

elastic

A device which presses a sonde

the

and long lateral

calcu-

Measurements of drift,

A directional

against

resistivity

etc.

dips

from the above, such as a tadpole


plot.
See Figure 4 and HDT.

dire_ti_o]

of

_5?c.n_t.e
'._:

%jm]_O:
thickness

A record of he time to drill

of

formation.

or

d__i._]__l_p_i_p_e
Awell
obtained
from
a logging lo_:
instrument
wog
i chwich
as a is
self-contained
recording
mechanism.
The log consists
of an SP
and short and long normals.
The tool is lowered
through the drill
pipe and the flexible
electrode assembly is pumped through a port in the
bit.
The log is recorded by a tape recorder
within
the tool during the process of coming out

See density

1og.

mp:_h_o_],l:A borehole which is filled


e__:

gas.

A s ne

e=oo_ithe_r_m
.1.n:
E..S: electrical

1og.
See neutron loq.
survey.

with air

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1132

Sheriff

F__&_]
: formation

anal sis lo .

as measured by the nu___clear


m_a neti.
gives

F_D_C.
= compensated formation
F

: formation

F_F__=
= free
ifl_,?,

_f__%h_:
Very low in dissolved salts.
,used

densi.

fluid

Gas

a low FFI.

densi., loci.

index:

comparatively

with

respect

Sometimes

to normal

sea

water (which is 35,000 parts of dissolved salts


per million),
sometimes used comparing formation

See also nuclear magnetism

water

with

than

2000

mud flitrate.

"Fresh

ppm dissolved

water"

has

less

salts.

= mud cake.

]_a_t-__t_o_j=n=q=:
A maximumbeyond which values are
not

recorded,

1]ion of

Loss

some part

of

of

sensitivity

the

due

measuring

to

satura-

q:NN===__,:

system.

].O].e_.r A device which measures the flow


fluid.
Sometimes the flowmeter
is lowered
the

flow

stream

in

a borehole;

set in one spot with

sometimes

a packer.

of
through
it

is

m._=.r__]g:
radioactivity,
reflects

See inner

ing

imZ,:

l_!d

See format

,.[_:

See

ion

"'--

invaded

as

zone.

-''stivity

an app rent poro-

based on induction

density log dta.


_r$__J.,a_v

pretation
in

terms

their

t i,_o:
the

log and either

of

content.

evaluation

sonic

or

T h e a na 1y s i s a nd i nt e r -

nature
are

to

drillstem
the

The

tests,

formations

objectives

ascertain

if

etc.

and

of

= F:

tivity
the

The

of a formation
water

formation

fined

with

which

factor

is,

ratio

of

to the resistivity
it

is

See microlaterolo,

_e]o:
tude
tool
zone
the

sands (for

Welex tradename.

of the wave arrivals


from a sonic logging
during a certain
gate time.
A fracture
attenuaCes
the acoustic
energy and delays
of

the

shear

SP for

correlation

for

3, 7, and ll,

radioactive

(2)

Used in explora-

minerals.

weight-

$r.]!j__qz.a_qetn: A device for determining


the
density
of the wellbore
fluid
by measuring the
pressure
on two bellows
tical
pressure
gradient.

and therefore

the

ver-

8_,njs_l_m: A combination of logs or a computation procedure for calculating


the depth of
invasion
and

and the

resistivity

uncontaminated

duction laterolog
laterolog.

zones,

of

both

based

invaded

on a dual

and a proximity

in-

log or micro-

,.q,cJ.__e.]_co.J...e
= bucking electrodes:
from

which

current

flows

so

that

flow from a measuring


electrode
the formation.
See laterolog.

the

is

...d__j_=.. : laterolo
uard electrodes.

: focused log:

dipmeter:

Electrodes
current

focused

into

Log made with

to
fluid.
Hydrostatic,
are recorded,

A well log of the cumulative ampli-

arrival

the

run on a wireline

obtain samples of formation


flow,
and shut-in
pressures

_:

for

de-

1 a.

A tool

in clays

While

speaking,

only for clean brine-saturated

.[mimo_$__Le_:

contain-

most common of

ing factor
for determining
how the conductivities
of each medium in the vicinity
of a sonde affect
the apparent
conductivity
measurement,
especially
used with the induction
log.

of

saturated.

strictly

minerals

(the

tend to concentrate

9,.g$__e_t_tF_i_r.._ajf_,G$_o_r_:
The geometry dependent

resis-

which it is nearly
independent
of the fluid
resistivity),
it is often used without
this
restriction.
Apparent formation
factor
is a
function
of porosity,
pore structure
and size
distribution,
and clay content.
See Archie's
formu

tion

commerci-

the

a substitute

See Figures

forma-

ally
productive
hydrocarbons are present and
the best means for their
recovery
and to derive
lithology
and other information
on formation
characteristics
for use in further
exploration.
_o0_

because

isotopes

purposes in cased holes,


in nonconductive
muds
in open holes,
and for thick
carbonate
intervals.

Also called Rwaanalysis log.

of v'"'i-'i--logdata,
of

fluid

tion

content

and shales.
Volcanic
ash, qranite
wash, and
some salt deposits
may also give significant
gamma-ray readings.
The log often functions

tester.

__e__.....,].,.: Often refers to la[erolo


or guard
log.
Sometimes refers
[o induction
lo.

sity

shale

radioactive

which is potassium)

s u v..
Z.

See de ns__i_ty.
A well log uhich records the natural
(1) In sediments the log mainly

= high resolution

A dipmeter

which

records four high resolution


micrOresirstivity
curves and has an additional
electrode
on one pad
which yields
another curve at displaced
depth.
The displaced
depth curve is used to correct
for
variations

in

sonde

velocity.

wave.

.Ce,.fluid
id
= FFI:
The percent of the bulk
volume occupied by fluids
which are free to flow

h,i.b _reso]_u=tioo];_b__m_e:
A small-diameter
fastresponse thermometer for logging open or cased

boreholes with a temperature resolution of 0.5F.

_h_otwi]_e_:
A device used to detect hydrocarn gases returned
to the surface by the drilling mud. Basically
a Wheatstone bridge,
two

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Glossary of Terms Used in Wel Logging

the pressure

arms of which are kept at a high temperature.


Hydrocarbon
gases become oxidized
as they pass
over one arm, which increases
its
temperature,

that

applicable

in granular

form of Archio's

where

F = formation

rion.

formula,

is

linear

with

and linear

with

resistivity)
ure

for

conductivity

(the

=h===ro
e:

pared with

that

in fresh
mainly

ume filled

with

filtrte.
trate

of

Neutron

survey:

al,,ot

is

all

,:f

than tt]e maximum depth reached by


In oil-bearing

may [ush

a bank

intervals,

of

f<:rma!:ien

the

fli-

ware, ahead

low resistivity
important witt

induction logs. See Figure


at

maximum hydrocarbon saturation.


It represents
water trapped
by adhering
to rock surfaces,
trapped in smaller
pore spaces and narrow interstices:
etc.,
which has not been displaced
by
hydrocarbons.
Irreducible
water saturation
is

of the pore vol-

electrical

.han
cke"

pore v'"Tumeoccupied by water in a reservoir

log

index.

hydrocarbons.

IEL = induction

"rilud

:he mud ca'e

iFom ,lcn

deep iFesigating

volume com-

water.

great,'r
A

limitin d furIFr
into th furma-

of it to lJroduce a relatively
"annulus" w)lich is especially

See Fig-

on hydrogen

!_L.d_...r...,.0_._..a_r__b_0n
s__Lturai_o_9_:
Fraction

S.

reciprocal

Hydrogen per unit

depends

behind

zone"

modl rather
which

1o,; resistivities

for high resistivities.

7.

response

resistivity

laterclogs

kept

fluids.

tivities
and other pro,,Jerties and tensefluently
the value which logs read.
The "depth of
vasion" is the equivalent
depth in an delzed

and = porosity.

used with

Directly

"flushed

(sucrosic)--6's:

factor

the mud is

formation

formation
water and most of the h'/drecarbc, ns
have been displaced
by filate.
ThL, invasion process alters
the distribution
of resis-

F = 0.62

.,b__ri__....]_e:
A scale

of

the

builds on the formatinn


wall,
flow of mud fluid
(Flitrate)

changes its resistance,


and unbalances the bridge.
The hot wire analyzer
response is sometimes
plotted
as a well log.

Humbl_e.fo_rmula:
A special

of

1133

an equilibrium
situation.
It differs
from
"residual
water saturation,"
the value measured by core analysis,
because of filtrate
invasion
and the gas expansion
ttat occurs when

A bore-

hole log which usually includes SP, 16 inch nor____-_


a
m 1, and deep-investigation
induction loq._.s.

the
core
is
removed
to the
surface.

froIll

the

bottom

of

the

hole

]LL_d
= deep i nvesti gati on i nducti on 1 oq..
I_L_nl: medium investigation

induction

loq.

inclin_or_t_e_.r.: A device for measuring hole inclination and azimuth.


See directional
survez.

l__a__te_r.9]_:
A resistivity

.n___G_ti_n__
electrical
conductivity/resis'i---il : logAn
based
on e 1ectromagnetic
induc
tion

principles.

A high-frequency

current

of constant

flow

the

in

intensity

formation.

This

alternating

induces

current"

flowing
intheformation
"geround
1o"causes
an alternating
magnetic fi ld whic
reduces a
current in a receiving
coil.
The receiving
coil
current
is nearly
proportional
to the conductivity
of the formation.
Induction
sondes may
have several
transmitting
and receiving
coils
to produce a highly focused log.
An induction

log can be recorded where the borehole

fluid

conductive
or
muds or gas.

base

nonconductive,
See Figure
5.

?]_L,..s,_t_j.._tJ_a.l__,L.,L_:
Water

as in

i n the

oil

is

ces or

pressional
tance,
P-wave
usually

The traveltime

of a com-

sonic -eismic) wave over a unit dis-

hence proportional
to the reciprocal
of
velocity.
Measured in the sonic log,
in microseconds
per foot.

i nt r i ns_r
ma 1 n__e__u_t_Q_n__d_e_C___.
_te__: The t r ue
decay time of the formation as opposed to the
measured decay time which is sub3ect to hole and
diffusion

effects.

See neutron

lifetime

loq.

inva.ded zone:
The portion about a wellbore
into
which drilling
fluid has penetrated,
displacing
some of

takes

the

place

formation

fluids.

This

nvasion

in porous permeable zones because

on the

A constant
while

the po-

The MN distance is slnall compared

to the "spacing,"

the distance

current

and the midpoint

electrode

the potential
feet

current

A on the bridle

surface

difference
is measured across two elecM and N, located
on the sonde; see

8 inches.

electrodes,
A "short

between the

typically

lateral"

uses a spacing of 6 to 9 feet.

between

about 18

sometimes

The potential

electrodes
are usually
below tte current
electrode but on the reciprocal
sonde the functions

are interchanged

so that

trodes

the

are

lateroloq.
i ntersti

pore spaces in a formation.


in;_[?j__..t_si:

tential
trodes,

Figure 12.

current

"Foucault

log.

is passed between an electrode

and an electrode

above

= guard

the potential

current

elec-

electrode.

log : focused

log:

A resis-

tivity
log made with a sonde that is focused
by use of guard or bucking electrode
arrangements, which force the "surveying
current"
to
flow nearly
at right
angles to the logging
sonde.
One type uses three electrodes
and
guard electrodes.
In the lateroleg-7,
sufficient
current
is fed into the bucking electrodes,
A and A, above and below the current
electrode

so

electrode

A flows

that

right angles
lustration).
and 1.1' are
trode

trode.

nearly

used :o adjust

currents

until

this

and guard

above

and

See Fiqures

Schlumburqer

current

from

in

to the sonde (grey


Sensing electrodes

The lateroleg-3
electrodes

the

out

below

the
flow

the

a sheet

current

at

area in ilM, Mz', M,


bucking
condition

elecexists.

log use long bucking


the

7 and 5.

current

elec-

Lateroleg

is

trademark,

l_iu i dZu_nc_jt
ion_=_==p_Q_$]t
i]_a_!_
= 1i quid boundary potent-':

See el ectrochemi

cal

SP,

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1134

Sheriff

lttle

s_la

= small

slam.

about a borehole, recorded with electrodes on a

]_j.']_h_Q]:
A log showing lithology as a function of depth in a borehole.
Sometimes a strip__
lo__0_9.
based on samples,

other

borehole

See we!l

sometimes interpreted

from

logs,

values

for

= 1/1000

material
rance
of

pos ire

being

the

A unit

the

that

the

curren

flow

is

concentrated

into

is
of
a small volume of formation in front of the pad.
For the proximity
log the electrodes
are mounted
on a wider pad and the focusing is such that

8.

mark.

mud cakes have less effect.

Micro!aterolog

See Figure

is a Schlumberger trade-

wall.

The

pressed

lower

against

electrode

is

the borehole
the

gives

a 2 inch

micronormal

and the

dif-

ference between the two upper electrodes gives


a 1 inch microinverse (lateral
type measure-

ment).
ciably

ference

The remainder represents


left

in the invaded

zone.

cake:

wall

as

The residue
the

deposited

mud loses

retard
See

further
invaded

loss
zone.

of

on

filtrate

The mud cake


and hence

fluid

to

the

used to measure mud resis-

borehole

wall.

=:

See

also

invaded

zone.

A 1og made with a mi crol oc) sonde with

the arms collapsed


so that
is not pressed against
the
sures

resistivity

of

the

the measuring

pad

borehole
wall.
Meamud at in-hole
con-

ditions.

j:

Analysis of samples of the drilling

(or mud) and cuttings


which

have

entered

to detect

the

signs of

mud from

tions.
Hydrocarbons may be evidenced
rescence,
by chromatographic
analysis,

the

forma-

by fluogas, and

other ways.
The mud is also monitored
for
salinity
and viscosity
to indicate
water loss
cut.

Plots

sample

):jp.]
to

of

such

log and a drill

........

measure

several

data

often

time

curve.

_t.ool: A device
the

direction

levels,

of

include

run in a borehole
the

borehole

See directional

at

survey.

Because the mud cake usual ly has appre-

smaller

microinverse

normal

The

inci-

ELUJL.f._i_]_C2Lt_:
Fluid which enters permeable formations from the mud, leaving a mud cake on the

or

A current

electrode.
The potential
of the upper electrode
with respect to a reference
electrode
on the
surface

two curves

tivity.

fluid

icrolo_ : contact log : minilog:


A type of microresistivity
log using three button electrodes
spaced in a line one inch apart and located on

the

borehole

fluids

a pad which is

first

9.

mud._.cu: A container

gradually
flaring
tube.
Since the spacing
small, the log responds to the resistivity

thicker

the

hydrocarbons

tends
to
formation.

of ohm-meter.

log = FoRxo =
t--
.'
A microresistivity
log of the
!aterolog
type wit h a bucking electrode
and two
monitor
electrodes
arranged concentrically
on a pad which is pressed against
the formation
so

between

into porous, permeable


formations.
generally
has very low permeability

min ifocused

pororesis-

cares the volume fraction of hydrocarbons in


the noninvaded zone and the separation between
the last two curves indicates the volume frac-

m__u_d___c_a_ke
: filter

of

of a

See microlo.

microlateroloe.

device such as the microlaterolog.

separation

tion of movable oil.

conductivity

Rec iprocal

tivity

residual

a meter
c ube of which
offers
a resisone ohm t o current
flow between op-

.j,c.
nv..e_.
e
'
.........r o)]i n

conduction,

of ohm.

zparent
water
porosity
of theflusheid
one" xo
fromfialled
shallow
investigation
res s-

See Figure

mud filtrate.

faces.

A unit of electrical

tivity eviceSUCh
asthe!aerolog;
and"ap-

log terms to indicate

ll.r.hrOr:r,,,per.:r.t_=_r
- lOO0 mmho per meter:
conductivity,

See Figure 2.

from the sonic log; "apparent water-filled


sity" derived from a deep investigation

darcy.

used with
the

See

Izo=v_o_ble_l
..
: MOP: A well log calculated from
other logs on which three "porosity" curves are
plotted: "total porosity," qt, such as is derived

_.r_oic
.i_Q_=:
Resistivity
perpendicular
to the bedding which differs
froin resistivity
parallel
to the bedding because of the inclusion
of interbeds of markedly different
resistivity.

Subscript

lo:

1/1000 of a mho, the reciprocal

apart.

__= millidarcy

the borehole wall.

See microlog_. Dresser Atlas tradename.

_mmho
: mil!imho:

__: Subscript
used with log terms to indicate
values appropriate
to the rock matrix.

three-D

m..ini].:

log.

lo.j. normal:
A normal resistivity
log made with
the A and M electrodes in the sonde (usually)
64 inches

pad pressed against

microlo.g.and microlaterolo 9.
microse___im_o_cLr_am
]qL : variable density log :

resistivity
will

(called

than the formation,

read

when mud cake is

less

present.

"separation")

than

the

This

indicates

micro-

dif-

a per-

meable formation.
A caliper
log is usually
corded at the same time.
Microlog is a
Schlumberger trademark.
See Figure 8.

.m_cronormal:

re-

See microlog.

micm.
oresisti.vitv
lo): Awell
log
to
m-easur6
he-Fs'ivity
of the
f esigned
ushed zone

neutro.Q lifetime
time

log.

tor
of

!og:

A well

cross-section.

Similar

in use to the decay

log of thermal
A Van de Graaff

in the sonde periodically


neutrons

which

enter

the

neutron
neutron

releases
formation

capture
genera-

a burst
and begin

to lose energy in collisions.

At two discrete

time

burst,

intervals

after

a neutron

measure-

ments are made of the gamma rays which result


from the capture of neutrons by nuclei in the
thermal

decay time

log,

whereas measurements

are

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossay of Tems Jsed n We Logging

made

of

the

thermal

lifetime
log.
the reciprocal
unit

of

time,

sometimes,
lation

called

the

to

I i fetime

neutrons

in

the

neutron

The quantity
plotted
is sometimes
of the percentage
which decay per

fall

time
to

the

for

thermal

the

half

value,

L; sometimes

the

decay

thermal

time

neutron

called

the

macroscopic

popu-

is a part.
decays very

The sgnal
from
rapidly
because

(from steel

worn from drill

response.

fluid

going (2 = 4.55/

and water).

Thermal neutrons are

captured mainly by the chlorine


present and hence
this log responds to the amount of salt in formation waters.
Hydrocarbons result
in longer decay
times than salt water.
Log readings
are porosity
dependent and sensitive
to clay content and permeability
changes.
This log is used in cased
holes where resistivity
logs cannot be run or to
monitor reservoir
changes to optimize
production.
It resembles a resistivity
log with which it is
generally
corre!atable.
Dresser Atlas trademark.
See Figure 10.
neutron

lost:

A well

log of

hydrogen

density.

Fast

neemitted
by a source in the tool are
slowed to thermal speed by collisions
with (main-

pipe and bits);

(the

Thus the

do not give appre-

FFI

hydrogen in free
Gas gives

by

of measuring
tie
Fluids
bound to sur-

(as the water in shales)

ciable

cross-section7., whichis derivable fro t-he fore: 3.!5/L).

the uorehole
fluid
of disseminated
iron

slightly
delaying
the time
hole signal
is minimized.

faces

neutron

cap_ture

35

indicates

fluid

the

free

hydrocarbons

a low reading

because of

its low hydrogen density.


Sometimes thermal
relaxation
time,
the rate of polarization
buildup
as a function
of polarizing
time,
is measured
to distinguish
between water and oil.

T='meter, being th i
cube

which

offers

vity of a meter

resistance

flow of current
between
rocal
of mho per meter.

of

one

opposite

ohm

faces.

to

the

Recip-

ly) hydrogen atoms.


The thermal neutrons are then
captured by atomic nuclei of the surrounding mate-

rial

(mainly chlorine

characteristic
The neutron

log

atoms) at which time a

gamma ray of capture


detector
may record

is given off.
the capture

gammarays (n -y),
thermal neutrons (n - n), or
epithermal neutrons (those just above thermal
speed).
A low hydrogen density indicates
low
liquid-filled
porosity.
Porosity calculated
from
the neutron

log is affected

tion

and by the

matrix

somewhat by the forma-

presence

of

gas.

Neutron

logs are used in crossplots to detect gas and determi ne 1 i thol ogy.
Neutron 1 ogs are sometimes
scaled in API units,
sometimes in porosity
units
assuming a limestone matrix.
See also sidewall
neutron log.
The neutron log can be recorded in
cased hol es
See Figure 11.

NML = nuclear magnetism log.

another

reference

and N).

electrode

electrode

about

16 inches

for
is

in

at the

The "spacing"

A and M electrodes

used

the

sonde

surface

and

normal.

for

the

64 inches for the medium or long


Figures 12 and 14.

between the

A spacing

short

normal

normal.

of
and

See

be sensitive

to the density of material


in the anUsed for distinguishing
between cement and
behind casing.
Can be run in empty hole.

Ur__l_aroj_ejLim
].O.q= NML - free

fluid

log'

'V-611
'i6-'-hihS
dependent
on the alignment
of
the magnetic momentof protons (hydrogen nuclei)

with an impressed magnetic fi el d.


Protons tend
to align themselves with the magnetic field and
when it i s removed they precess i n the earth ' s
magnetic field and gradually return to their
original
state.
The proton precession produces
a radiofrequency
signal whose amplitude is
measured as the free fluid index (FFI).
The
rate of decay of the precession signal depends
on interactions
with neighboring
atoms and hence
on the

nature

of

the molecule

of

A footing
against

on the end of an

the

borehole

which

the

wall.

_pt.jti?_._.n___qas__c.
h__r_o_m_a_t9_q=r_r
.a.h_: A de v i ce f or q ua n t i tative
analysis
of hydrocarboq
constituents.
A fixed quantity
of sample is carried
,;ith a
stream of sweep gas through a partition
column
packed with an inert
sol i d coated with a nonvolatile
organic
liquid.
The lighter
fractions
traverse

the

fractions
ately
at

so that the components


aF,?ear separthe column exit,
where their
amounts

can

be

column

faster

than

the

heavier

measured.

_.._
r_fo_cat!:

r:

Opening holes through casing and into

so
into

that
the

fluids
borehole.

can

flow

from

the

A measure of the ea3e with which a

formation

permits

a fluid

Measured in millidarcy

to flow

(1/1000

tirough

darcy)

it.

units.

ph_h_O_t_oclin.me__Jze.
J?_:
Arecords
wellloggin
device
'-p-h'o-togr'aphiCally
the
ngle
andwhich
azimuth
of

borehole

deviation

from

the

vertical.

proton

Com-

pare potecIinometer.

...o_t_o____9: A wel 1 1og oi scattered

)l_..ql
ear cemen%I oR: A wel 1 1og of scattered gamma
rays, differing
from the density loll in that the
gamma-ray source and detector are so spaced as to
nulus.
fluids

pad:

presses

(electrodes

is the distance
the

arm which

a formation
formation

[Lp_r_lsa.L:A resistivity
well log in which a constant
current is passed between a current electrode
in
the sonde and one at the surface (electrodes
A
and B) while the potential
difference
is measured
between

[a__d_
= sidewall

gamma rays,

differing
from a densit1o
in that tile
is not pressed against the borehole wall
hence is especially
sensitive
to changes
hole diameter
or density
of the fluid
in

sonde
and
in
the

borehole.

__:
Often

Pore
volume
erunivolume
offormation.

indicated y th symbo . Porosity is determined from sonic loqs using the [,]zllie rela-

tionship, from densit----i-og3_,


from ntltron lo9_[,

oresi

sti{-i'"6-g"S--by
assumi
-l-q-{i
on-

ship such as Archie's formula.

lp...

See movableoil

"Primaryporosity" refers to the porosity

remaining after

the sedimen's have been com-

pacted but without considering changesbecause

of subsequen: chemical action or flow of waters

through the sediments.

"Secondaryporosity"

is the additional
porosity created by such
chemical changes, especially fissures, frac-

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

tures,
solution
vugs, and porosity
created
by dolomitization.
"Effective
porosity"
is
the porosity
available
to free fluids,
excluding
unconnected porosity
and space occupied by
bouncJ :ate'

,:-o.qi

and

ferent

logs

during

arm

the

needle
tanc

i'

so

angle

on top

tat

with

the

the

jc,a:

based on dif-

acous

of each other.

resistance

vertical

moves another
arm
is a measure
of te

dipmeters.

J.! = pars

values

A device for measuring the angle


of borehole
deviation
continuously
run.
A pendulum moves a variable

a log

resistor

shale.

?orosity

plotted

.?tectinneter:
and direc'ion
cf

disseminated

overlay:

is

a measure

and a compass

so that
a2imuth,

another
Often

_r_l_d_ioa..c__i_l=q::A well log of natL, ral or induced radiation.


Usually refers to qamma ra_y_
1_o but sometimes also 'a a dens.,
neutron
l,
neutron lifetime
1o, or other types of logs,
tic

Con,pare otoclinometer.

.e.,:

log run in a production

or

injection
well.
Small diameter
sondes are
used so that they can be lowered through 2 inch
ID tubing.
Devices
include
continuous
flowmeter,
packer flot,meter,
gradiomanometer,
mano-

tracer
collar

j::=:

watercutmeter,

thermometer,

tools,
through-tubing
calilocator,
and fluid
sampler.

A microresistivity

the microIaterolo
cake ticknesses.

log similar

to

but less sensitive


to mud
"Proximity"
is a Schlumberger

gn=j)o.?_:ometE=___,jja]
fac?_,_O:A coefficient
the response

used for

of a resistivity

surzmentRa at different

mea-

invasion depths:

To adjust

contaminated
geometrical

zone resistivity,

zone resistivity,
factor,
a function

e..EdOS]_O:.],_c_.
= PSP:
sand.

Static

: porosity

SP refers

unit

to

a clean

= 1 percent

Rt : un-

and J = pseudoof invasion


depth.

The "static

SP"of
sand.

makes

them

on a

log for

true

ver-

di ffi

cult

a shaly

resistivity

of total
porosity occupied by disSee _rodu__cibili_t.y_.inde___Zx.

correl

ate

with

read-

formation.

_elat[e
b9__
i:
Azimuth
respect to the reference

of

hole

deviation

with
sonde

on the meter
(such as the No. 1 electrode).

The ability

of a porous

medium to permit fluid


flow through it when
there are two or three phases present
in the
pore space.
The relative
permeability
is the
ratio
of the permeability
for a given phase compared with the permeabi 1 i ty when only that one
phase is present and depends on the fraction
of
the pore space occupied by that phase.
Since
the various
phases inhibit
the flow of each
other,
the sum of the relative
permeabilities
of
all phases present is always less than unity.

= specific

of

tri

cal

material

which

current.

resistance:
resists

The property

the

flow

See ohm meter.

re_3_.t]]

= Ro/Rt:

of

The

of resistivity
is conductivity.
)arent
resistivitz.

elec-

reciprocal

See also

The ratio

of the re-

sistivity
of a formation
bearing
hydrocarbons
to the resistivity
it would have if 100 percent
saturated
with
Archie'
s formulas.

porosity.

to

the formations
difused for correcting

_.f_n_:
An increase in resistivity
ing as the upper (A) electrode
of a lateral
sonde (see Figure 12) passes a thin high-

j.l:
and induction
:q=: The fraction
persed shale.

in the drillpipe

a borehole

other logs which intersect


ferently.
Also sometimes
for formation
dip.

sti

Ra : RxoJ+ Rt(1 - j),


N,here Rxo = flushed

The fluid

_t.i.:

trademark.

estimating

(2)

tical
depth.
Logs in slant holes are usually
recorded
in distance
measured along the hole,

]LO....dJt.j...,9_]],: A well

radioactive
per, casing

See

stem test which did not produce enough


to fill
the pipe and flow at the surface.

which

densimeter,

wave in a borehole.

(1) The core recovered compared to the

amount cut.

_:

per million.

.howing ,'Lffective
porosity
and the percent
q of
the total
porosity
occupied by clay.
Low clay
content and high fluid-filled
porosity
suggest
good permeability.

meter,

A surface

ytp_..._sp.:
A sonde witn the current and
measuring trodes
interchanged.
See lateral.

drill
fluid

resisrun

,ave.

lo

formation

water.

See

S.
eeMnormal,
lateral,
late,
'siEi-''-"
logs
derive

their readings from 10 to 100 ft of material


about the sonde. Microresistivity...].O_9..s on the
other

hand derive

cubic

inches

of

their

readings

material

near

from

the

a few

borehole

wall.

_a.j_O...t]_V.__tn.ac._e_r__],_:
A 1og i nvo1v i ng t he de tection
water

of
radioactive
or oil
to detect

materials
movement

dissolved
of fluids.

in
A

slug of radioactive
material
might be injected
into the fluid
and movement of the slug monitored to detect
casing lea';<s or points
of fluid
entry or exit;
or points
where fluid
enters
formations
might be shown by residual
radioacti vi ty at those 1 evel s,

.sit:
readings

Irregularity
of

logging

of a borehole
tools

which

wall.

have to

The
be held

in contact with the hole wall (such as density


and microresistivity
logs) are affected by rugosity.

sal_n_t:

Refers to total

salts

in solution

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Gossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

(sodium, potassium,

_$_a.,d
count:
---permeable
other

section

electrical
of

zones.

shale
Often

permeable

etc.)

of thick

thickness of
streaks

from

(2) The number

sands separated

by imper-

zones.

sand
line:(1)deflections
Alinethat
can
berawn
through
for
thic
, clean
sands

-thimum

on an SP log in a section where the formation

water

is of constant

salinity.

shales

See SP and

resistivity
conduction

measurements

_s.ho.r];o_mal:

inside

the

pipe.

with

saturation

exponent:

sawtooth

SR:

When a very

sand containing
fresh

See Archie's

cumulate

just

below

streak

the

filtrate

the

shaly

streak,

cell

to

appearance.

a sawtooth

5_C]3_m.d''

dip or drift

from the

to

setting

diagram

the

dip

alteration

tures,

of

ti on,

Porosity

the

vugs,

resulting

formation

solution

such

channels,

from the

as

by frac-

in

conjunction

with

from sonic log

either

density

or

from
a densit f (or
neutron
log and calneutron
logvalues.
qD
is theorosity

cu ated

sonic

is the porosity

calculated

from a sonic

log, SPI is sometimesdefined as (D - sonic),


usually as (1 -sonic/dD).

: borehole

televiewer.

two curves
resistivity

different

on a log.
readings

thicker

where

formations

cause the apparent

shallow

measurement

to

(see Figures

mud cake,

meable,

which

are

more

resistivity

be lower

per-

of a

than

that

of

a deeper measurement, a situation


called
"positive separation."
See also movable oil

line

drical

bullet

shadow

See

minimum dctions

blind

(1)

zone.

A line

of imper-

meable shales on an SP log (see Figure 14),

which

is used as the reference


in making measurements
to determine
the characteristics
of sands and

their

formation

waters.

(2)

about

bed effect:

Effect

tool

sample obtained

from which

a hollow

fired

the

is

into

with

cylin-

formation

and

lo

- SNP'

An epithermal

to

wal 1 and may cut

minimize

borehole

into

The
to

neutron

the mud

effects.

SNP

See Figure

is

11.

sidertall
pad: A measuring
device which is pressed
against
the side of a borehole,
such as used
with microresistivity
logs, density
logs, many
radioactivity
logs,
etc.
A wireline

cross-secti

device

A unit

for

taking

of measure of

on.

en=
of the d""f'rection of a boreho e at a particular
depth.
See directional
survey.

skin e..ffec...t.: (1) The tendency of alternating


currents

to

ductor.
magnetic

(2) The propagation of an electrowave through a conductive


formation

The characteristic

flow

near

the

surface

of

con-

results
in a phase shift
which shows up as a
reduction
in apparent conductivity.
In induction logging in high conductivity
formations,
is

made

for

this

effect.

See cycle s:kip.

m l__sl__5.]_.:
A log combination and computation
procedure for calculating
the resistivity
of

drawn through the

characteristic

adjacent

Schl urnberger trademark.

o:
zone:

sonde

retrieved
by cable attached
to the bullet.
type of bullet
and size of charge is varied
optimize
recovery
in different
formations.

a correction

plot_.

_shale base line_'

the

single.hot
tool: A deviceto obtalnonemeasure-

= SP.

(2) The difference


in
from two tools which have

Low resistivity

A formation

a wire

capture

in reading between

depths of investigation

5 and 8).

effect

&ddeall_:

._.

self-.Dotentia_l_ : spontaneous potential

becomes

bed

siema uni : capture unit:

Birdwell

trademark.

e_B_a.ratiQQ:
(1) A difference

log made

in

apart.

idewall.,
samoler:
'i dbwall c e'

.%e__.OgaLL_q9.
: ..a.
1i per 1og.
Seivie

M electrodes

lo__9_.
made
witha si which
is pressed

A measure of the

calculated

wave.

of adjacent
beds on a log reading.
For example,
high resistivity
beds adjacent
to a low resistivity
bed may result
in more current
flowing
in the low resistivity
bed than if the high
resistivity
bed were not present,
thus changing
the apparent
resistivity
of the low resistivity

cake

values

A and

the borehole

secondary porosity,

acoustic

A n_.orm_.9_at
- resistivity

$.i.dewall_ neutron

dolomitiza-

etc.

secondary porosit_v 'n]_o_d_e


= SPI:

electrical

bed.

or

center.

5_e.c..ondary_
porosity.:

because

and the dis-

indicates

drift
magnitude.
In the "modified
Schmidt diagram" used for plotting
low dips, zero dip is
on the outside and dips become larger
toward
the

the

shoulder

ac-

where the angle

direction

origin

water

which causes the SP

A polar plot

indicates
tance

salt
tends

See

16 inches

is invaded by

up an electrochemical
develop

formula.

permeable

a shaly

mud filtrate,

SP.

in a

in shales is an ion exchange process whereby electrons


move between exchange
sites
on the surface
of clay particles.
See
dirt/.

_s_b_e_rwave:

tools

log.

of the electrochemical

dominantly
nonshale formation.
The degree to
which ion exchange processes contribute
to

drill

used to run or recover

A part

h_s_b_a]_ines__.
_ :
The content of shale (or clay)

Figure 14. (2) A wire line on a driTTing rig

often

on the gamma ray

shale.p..ot_en._ti.Ll:

or

determined

logs (SP or microlog).

separate
e

sulfate,

effective

excluding

impermeable

meabl

chloride,

(1) The total

1137

the invaded
zones, the true resistivity,
the
diameter
of invasion,
and the water
saturation
based on a dual induction-laterolog
and a

porosity

log of some type,

often

SNP= sidewall neutron (porosity)

a sonic

lo_9..
.

log.

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

1138

She,iff

A poorly

consolidated

sand-shale

sequence.

,t_iC_t__9__k
= sedimentary rock: Usedto distinguish
between mining (hardrock) and petroleum (softrock)

objectives.

&Jzz]_d_:A logging

ehole

acti vi ty,

tool

such as is lowered

to record resistivity,

velocity log:

= tatic

would

be

self

recorded

of

actual

SP

to

The maximum
SP that
potential:
when the sonde passes -Fom a

el ectroki

neti

c SP

approximately

waves over .a unit

is often

neglected)

is

giv en by:

SSP = -K log

log = continuous

A well log of the travel,time

time) for acoustic

ratio

position
well ins idea
very thick,
porous,
permeable,
clean sand to a point well within
thick
shale
The electrochemical
SSP (the

or other types of 1ogs.

= acoustic velocity
(transit

into

sonic, radio-

The

;Pred.
uction_fa_ctor

lO[aw/amf]
'

are
theactivity.
of theformawhere
a and
. Betion wa:er
anmmfu
d
filtra{
e, eSpectively

distance, and hence-"h-e're-ciprocal


of the
longitudinal wave (P-wave)velocity.
Usually
Especial ly

cause of the inverse relationship


and equivalent
resistivity,
this

measured i n microseconds per foot.

used
forhPOrosity
byte
l_.
Wis
ip.
Thedetermination
interval
transit
ime

between activity
equation can be

written:

relations

integrated

down the borehole to give the total

traveltime.
averaging

SSP
:-KlOglo
IRmfe/Rwe).

For the compensatedsonic log,

two transmitters

are pulsed alternately;

the measurements

errors

due to sonde tilt

size.

See also c cl,

tends

For NaCl mudsthat are not too saline, Rmfe : Rmf;

to cancel

or changes in hole

three-D 1,

character lOcL,cementbondlo..q.,and-ractureloq.
See Figure

for other muds an activity


made.
In these equations,
T = Fahrenheit
temperature.

correction
should be
K = 60 + 0.133 T, where

the-wall

(2)

13.

: spontaneous potential

: self potential:

ducing

well log of the difference betweenthe potential

of a movable electrode
in the borehole and a
fixed reference electrode at the surface.
The
SP results from electrochemical
SP and electro-

satic

the borehole.
this

SP = SS_.__P
= static

kinetic potentia which' a'e--prn t at the


inter;face between permeable beds and adjacent

st.ckplQ:
where the
according
a vertical
this plane

(se Fiqure 14).

$:t.oe]e_v..a..:

to shale.
In impermeable shales, the SP is
fairly
constant at the "shale base line" value
the deflection

In ermeable formations

depends on the contrast

between

See acoustic

s_te_amng
potentia.l:

thickness, invasion and bed boundary effects,

str!p:]:O:

In thick,

formations,

permeable,

clean

nons hale

the SP has the fairly

formation
water
disseminated
salinity
clay
chanle
s le In
, tsnd
e P
containing

static

not reach the sand line and a pseudoSP value will

be recorded.

The SP is

posi've with respect to the shale base line in


sands filled

with

hole

See also

fluid.

fluids

fresher

than the bore-

SSP.

vnet:
that

pendently.

J;L:
The separation of certain electrodes
or sensors on logging sondes.
In nuclear
devices usually the distance from the source
to the detector.
See Figures 3 and 12. See
a 1so

_&J3: The separation of certain sensors on log-

ging sondes. On the sonic sonde, span is the


distance between two receivers of a pair wherefrom transmitter

to

the
ndP6-'-nt
of the corresponding
receiver pair.
See Figure 13.

s_D_an
ad.iustment:
calculation
ofof
a log
W''dha'e
rsultA
ed
row heuse
a which
different

from the one actually

sp_inner.
survej:

used.

A log of the rate of flow of

fluid in the wellbore, casing, or tubing at

specified

levels

in the wellbore.

soontan.e.ou.s.
potential

- self

potential

See flowmeter.

= SP.

in colors

potential.
and symbols)

by a borehole,
indiof oil,
gas, etc..

A unit

for

cross-section.

A combination of data elements such


more information
is apparent from the com-

bination
trademark.

as spacing is the distance

A record (often

capture

results
a line
1 onto
dip in
segments.

wave.

= sigma unit = .c..apture unit:


measuring

or pro-

potential.

See electrokinetic

of the lithology
penetrated
cating also shows and tests

constant

"sand line" value, which will change if the

will

self

A presentation
of dipmeter
well bore is represented
by
to the projection
of the wel
plane and the components of
are indicated
by short line

the ion content of the formation water and the


drilling
fluid,
the clay content, the bed
etc.

device

separation.

than

from

the

Synergetic

J;Jld.p.].e::.p!__o.t
: arrow plot:

elements

treated

inde-

Log is a Schlumberger

A plot

of dipmeter or

drift
results
where the dip angle is plotted
versus depth as the displacement
of a dot.
A line segment points from the dot in the direction of dip using the usual map convention of
north being up. See Figure 4.

tel, eviewer:

See borehole

televiewer.

.._kp__Cjl_tu
re l og: A w
"'m
de wi ''h- a-fe s i s t a nce th rmometer (thermistor).
Used for locating
t he top of cement behind
casing (because the setting
of cement i s exothermic
and hence
r aises temperature),
interval s which are prod uci ng gas (because the
the borehole
expansion of gas as i t enters

ell log
e of temperature,
often

Downloaded 06/28/14 to 134.153.184.170. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Glossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

lowers the temperature),


fluid flows (particularly

and the location


behind casing).

of
The

differential
temperature
log records
the difference
between two thermometers
usually
about
6 ft apart and is especially
sensitive
to
very small changes in temperature
gradient.

.%enl; old:

Sudden deflections

resulting

water saturation = Sw: Fraction of the pore volume


filled

with

water
''

corresponds to ambient temperatures;


neutrons
with mean energies of the order of 0.025 elec-

cut:

from

DT is a Schlumberger

1o.

trademark.

_ii_hmlr_:

See nuclear magnetism

log.

The volume fraction

wave

train

received

a short

Having very

ime

distance

1 ow permeabi 1 i ty.

con_stLD_iL: A time

over

which

averaged to remove statistical


as with

nuclear

log

are

individual

curves

into

wave

over

one-ft

made

which

are

also

by a cable.

Examples

(natural

radioactivity,

neutron

etc.

Well

lowered

into

log recorded

the

porosity

hole

by a sonde which

by a cable.

An empirical expression for


qbfrom sonic log transit

times:

a compressional

distance.

themselves,

the hole

calculating

of

of depth

sometimes

logs, etc.),
and miscellaneous measurements
(hole size, temperature, etc.).
(2) Other
types of well logs are made of data collected
at the surface; examples are core logs, drilling
time logs, etc.
(3) Still
other logs show
quantities
calculated
from other measurements;
examples are movable oil plots, synergetic

is

readings.

The traveltime

is

called logs.
(1) Wireline logs are recorded
by means of sondes carrying sensors which are

W l=!Ree
]Jtt_jo.nh:

time:

acoustic

the

wi_r__elin:

fluctuations,

sonde.

transit

Distinction

between a log as an entire record which may


contain curves showing several measurements and

logs,

readings

produced

A record of one or more

measurements as a function

a borehole.

surements

-3 to fl) from a sonic wave transmitter.


See
also character log., cement bond lo, and sonic
lo__.. Birdwell tradename. See Figure 15.
:

of water

include logs which record electrical


measurements (SP, resistivity,
etc.),
acoustic measurements (sonic, three-D,
etc.),
nuclear mea-

Drilling

1;hree-D loQ = microseismogram log = variable


density log'
A display of the seismic or
acoustic

in

lowered

hjxptro_pi__c:
A property of gels which allows
them to become liquid
when agitated.
muds are often thixotropic.

See Archie's

a well.

physical

See neutron lifetime

water.

_well
!___ = borehole log:

volts.

_il]jlt.]... deca _...:

formation

formulas.

sticking.

thmer.].Oeu_o_: A neutron whose motion energy


tron

y_._is:gosi.i__:
Resistance
ofa fluidtoflow;
(stressi
(rate
of shear
.

of a sonic log

from c_..__skip_ or tool

1139

See sonic

At - Atma

1.

um?.e[:

A microlateroloq,

electrodes
electrode

trated

are concentric
about the current
so that
the current
flow
is concen-

in a tube which

qb: &tf - Ztma'

in which the guard

gradually

flares

where/t : observed
interval transit tie,
5tf = transit time in the pore fluid, and
Atma= transit time in the rock matrix This

out.

relation workswell in cleanconsolidated

formations

with

uniformly

In vuggy formations,

ltralq..g.l=p],,].9

= ULSEL: A modified

long normal borehole log mounted on a 5000-ft


bridle.
The A to M spacings can be made 75,
600, or 1000 ft.
sured resistivities
ties
calculated

logs indicate
Used to

nearby resistivity

define

150,

Differences
between the meaand anticipated
resistivifrom conventional
resistivity
the

distance

to

pores.

overestimate porosity.
In such cases the
formula may be empirically modified to give
better

values.

anomalies.

a salt

dome

flank.

x__o_:
Subscript used with log terms to indicate
values appropriate
cent

.v_riab!e. de.nsit...v loe : microseismogram

log = three-

log"'= V'D
k 1g,"
VDL lo: = three-D

l.ocimeter_:

log:

Schlumberger

trademark.

A device which measures fluid

flow;

a fl owmeter.

.vi__..[scomet_ezi:
A device for measuring visc.o..sity.
Also

distributed

the sonic log may not

reflect
the secondary porosity;
and in unconsolidated
formations,
this relationship
may

called

viscosimeter.

to

the

borehole.

to the flushed zone adja-