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Explanation on basic of vibration

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**Mechanical Vibrations (ME-65): OLD Syllabus
**

Additional references

“Mechanical Vibrations”,Grover. G.K . , Nemchand and Bros. Roorkee

“Mechanical Vibrations”, V.P.Singh, Dhanpat Rai and Co., Delhi.

“Vibrations and Noise for Engineers”, K. Pujara, Dhanpat Rai and Sons,

New Delhi.

“Mechanical Vibrations”, J.B.K. Das and P.L. Srinivasamurthy, Sapna book

House, Bangalore.

.

Introduction:

Vibration is defined as a motion which repeats after equal interval of time and is

also a periodic motion.The swinging of a pendulum is a simple example of

vibration.Vibration occurs in all bodies which are having mass and elasticity. They are

caused due to several reasons such as presence of unbalanced force in rotating machines,

elastic nature of the system, external application of force or wind loads and earthquakes.

Vibrations are undesirable as they induce high stresses in system components leading to

noise and failure, in such cases they are to be minimized if not totally eliminated.. The

desirable effects are seen in musical instruments and cement compactors used in

construction work.

From subject point of view the following notations and definitions are very

important:

Periodic Motion:

It is a motion which repeats itself after equal intervals of time, e.g., the

oscillations of simple pendulum

Time Period (T) :

It is the time required for one complete cycle or to and fro motion.The unit is

seconds.

Frequency (f or ω) :

It is the number of cycles per unit time. The unit are radians/sec. or Hz.

Amplitude (X or A) :

It is the displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position. It has

units of length in general

.

Natural Frequency (fn):

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It is the frequency with which a body vibrates when subjected to an initial

external disturbance and allowed to vibrate without external force being applied

subsequently.

Fundamental Mode of Vibration:

A vibrating body may have more than one natural frequency and when it vibrates

with the lowest natural frequency ,it is the Fundamental mode of vibration.

Degrees of Freedom:

It is the minimum number of coordinates required to describe the motion of

system. Typically in our discussions 1DOF system will have one mass, e.g., a spring

attached with one mass , 2 DOF system will have two masses and likewise we have

3DOFsystem. A continuous system like a beam or plate consisting of infinite number of

particles with mass, are systems with infinite number of DOF.

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM):

It is a periodic motion with acceleration always directed towards the equilibrium

position. It can also be defined as projection of motion of a particle along a circle with

uniform angular velocity on the diameter of circle.

Damping:

It is the resistance offered to the motion of a vibrating body by absorbing the

energy of vibrations. Such vibrations are termed as damped vibrations

.

Forced Vibrations:

It is the vibration of a body when subjected to an external force which is periodic

in nature and vibrations occur as long as external force is present.

Resonance:

It is said to occur in the system when the amplitude of vibrations are excessive

leading to failure. This occurs in forced vibrations when the frequency of externally

applied force is same as that of natural frequency of the body.

Linear and Non Linear Vibrations:

When the vibrations are represented by linear differential equations and laws of

superposition are applicable for the system, we have Linear systems. Non linear

vibrations

**are experienced when large amplitudes are encountered and laws of superposition are not
**

applicable.

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**Longitudinal, Transverse and Torsional Vibrations:
**

When the motion of mass of the system is parallel to the axis of the system, we

have Longitudinal vibrations. When the motion of mass is perpendicular to the system

axis the vibrations are Transverse vibrations and when the mass twists and untwists

about the axis the vibrations are Torsional vibrations. Up and down motion of mass in a

spring mass system represents Longitudinal vibrations. Vibration of a cantilever beam

represents Transverse vibrations. The twisting and untwisting of a disc attached at the end

of a shaft represents Torsional vibrations.

Vector representation of SHM:

Any SHM can be represented as by the equation , x = A Sinωt ---(1) , where x is

the displacement , A is the amplitude , ω is the circular frequency and t is the time.

Differentiating eqn.1 w.r.t. t we have velocity vector and differentiating eqn 1

twice we have the acceleration vector. If x1 and x2 are two displacement vectors with

same frequencies then the phase difference between them is given by φ.

*******************

Session 2 date : (28/2/07)

Principle of Superposition:

When two SHM of same frequencies are added the resulting motion is also a

harmonic motion. Consider two harmonic motions x1 = A1Sinωt and x2 = A2 Sin(ωt +

φ) . Then if x is the resultant displacement , x = x1 + x2. The resultant amplitude x = A

Sin (ωt +θ), where A is the resultant amplitude and is acting at an angle θ w.r.t vector x1.

The above addition of SHMs can also be done graphically.

**********

Sample Problems:

1) Add the following harmonics analytically and check the solution graphically

x1= 3Sin (ωt + 30◦) , x2 = 4 Cos(ωt +10◦)

Solution:

Given : x1= 3Sin (ωt + 30◦) , x2 = 4 Cos(ωt +10◦)

Analytical method:

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Measure oc which should be equal to A and the angle oc makes with ox will be equal to θ.7 ◦ = 5. Ans.0) . (Hint: In the above problem the angles are to be converted to degrees. Graphical Method.49 ◦ ) www.44/1. tan θ = ASin θ/ ACos θ = 5. With respect to ox. draw oa equal to 3 units in length at an angle of 30◦ to ox and ob equal to 4 units at an angle of 100◦ to ox. x = x1 + x2 = A Sin (ωt+ θ) Make x1 and x2 to have same Sin terms always .76 .bookspar. The angles are in radians. A Sin (ωt+ θ)= 3 Sin (ωt + 30◦) + 4 Sin (ωt +100◦ ) Expanding LHS and RHS ASin ωt Cos θ + A cos ωt Sin θ =3 Sin ωt cos 30◦ + 3Cos ωtSin30◦ + 4 Sin ωt cos 100◦ + 4 Sin ωt sin 100◦ A Sin ωt Cos θ + A cosωt Sin θ = Sin ωt(1.904 Therefore . θ = 70.094/Cos 70. i.195.e. x1 = 2Cos(ωt + 0. ASin θ = 5. Complete the vector polygon by drawing lines parallel to oa and ob to intersect at point c.094) + Cos ωt (5.7 ◦ and A = 1.44 .com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS We know that.: Draw ox the reference line. θ = 73. c b a x O 2) Repeat the above problem given . x2 = 4 cos(ωt +10◦ + 90◦) = 4Sin (ωt +100◦ ) Hence..094. All angles measured in anticlockwise direction. A = 6.com | VTU NOTES 4 .44) Comparing the coefficients of A Cos θ and A Sin θ in the above equation ACos θ = 1.www.5) and x2 = 5Sin(ωt + 1.bookspar.

Due to existence of different frequencies the phase difference of the two vectors keeps on changing and shifting w. x1 = 10 Cos(ωt + π/4) and x2 = 8 Sin(ωt + π/6) .00 Therefore. φ = 58.com | VTU NOTES 5 .4282/8.99038)+ cosωt(A sin φ+14.14. substituting for φ = 58. 4) A body is subjected to 2 harmonic motions x1 = 15sin(ωt + π/6) . tan φ = A sin φ / A cos φ = 14. A cos φ = -8.r. Solution : Let the harmonic to be given to the two harmonics to make it to be in equilibrium be Asin (ωt + φ) Therefore.4282) = 0 Therefore.99038 .99038. the motion is x= 17sin(ωt + 58. Asin (ωt + φ)+ x1 + x2 = 0 Hence. This phenomenon of varying of resultant amplitude is called as Beats and this occurs at a frequency given by the difference of the individual frequencies of the two vectors.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS 3) Add the following harmonic motions analytically or graphically. A = 17.bookspar. A cos φ = -8. www.062˚.062˚) ************ Beats Phenomenon: Consider two harmonics x1 and x2 of slightly different frequencies and the A cos φ resulting motion will not be a SHM. Asinωt cos φ+A cosωt sin φ+15sinωt cosπ/6+15cosωt sinπ/6+8 cosωt cosπ/6+8 sinωt sinπ/6 = 0 sinωt (A cos φ+8.99038 A sin φ= .www. what harmonic is to be given to the body to it to equilibrium. x2 = 8 cos(ωt + π/6). The two harmonics when in phase have their resultant amplitude to be sum of individual amplitudes and when they are out of phase the resultant amplitude is difference of individual amplitudes.bookspar.062˚ From .4282 Therefore.t time.

b3….a1.bookspar.b2.. in the limits 0 to 2π/ω www.e.and b1.. bn sinnωt The constants a0.com | VTU NOTES 6 . F(t) a periodic function can be represented as F(t) = a0 + a1cosωt + a2cos2ωt + a3cos3ωt +…….. The process of obtaining the Fourier series of a periodic motion is called Harmonic analysis..a2.. etc. i.bookspar.an cosnωt + b1sinωt + b2sin2ωt + b3sin3ωt +……...www.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS A m p l i t u d e time Resultant amplitude variation during one cycle w **************** Session 3 date: (2/3/07) Fourier Theorem: Any periodic motion can be represented in terms of sine and cosine terms called as Fourier series. are obtained using the following formulae: a0 = (ω/2π) ∫ F(t).

2 a0= (10π/2π) ∫ (-20t +2 ) dt = 0 0 0.bookspar.2 a0=(ω/2π) ∫ x(t)dt 0 0. in the limits 0 to 2π/ω A 2cm 2cm B .2 t 4) Represent the above periodic motion using harmonic series Sol: Mathematically for one complete cycle we have the eqn for AB as x(t) = -20t +2 for 0<t<0.2. www. the harmonic series is .com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS an=(ω/π) ∫ F(t)cos(nωt) dt.2. x(t) = 4/π∑ (1/n) sin10πnt . for n =1.com | VTU NOTES 7 . ω= (2π/T) = 10π 0.….2 T=0.www..2 an = (ω/π) ∫ x(t)cos(nωt)dt 0 =0 0.2 bn = (ω/π) ∫ x(t)sin(nωt)dt 0 = (4/πn) Thus. in the limits 0 to 2π/ω bn= =(ω/π) ∫ F(t)sin(nωt) dt.bookspar.

5 secs.and remains zero for next 0.3 0. Represent the above cycle in form of a harmonic series. 0.com | VTU NOTES 8 .3. X. ************* www. it then drops down to zero at t = 0.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS 5) A periodic motion is represented by a saw tooth wave form. the amplitude is 0 at t=0 and rises to 10 cm. The next cycle again starts at t=0.www.2 seconds and one cycle is completed.bookspar. at t=0.2 Further problems refer the texts given in the additional references.bookspar.3 . c m s 10 Sec.

k(x+δ) + mg = -kx-kδ+mg = -kx-kδ+kδ Or mx” + kx = 0. k(x+δ) acting in the upward direction. Rewriting the equation of motion as www.bookspar. If now the mass m is given a displacement x in the downward direction and the system is allowed to vibrate. we have the following forces acting on the system: the spring force.bookspar. The Various ways in which the equation of motion is obtained are : a) Newton’s Method b) Energy Method and c) Rayleigh Method Newton’s Method When a mass m is attached to a spring it deflects by δ and the system is under equilibrium as mg = weight = kδ. The equation of motion is written taking equilibrium of forces as: mx” = . which is the governing differential equation for a single degrr of freedom system.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Mechanical Vibrations (ME 65) Session 4 date: (6/3/07) Undamped freee vibrations Single degree of freedom System k(x+δ) k m mx” m mg Displ. defined as force per unit length. where k is the spring stiffness. x This consists of a single spring attached with a single mass.com | VTU NOTES 9 .www. inertia force mx”acting in the upward direction and force mg acting in the direction of displacement x downwards.

Rayleigh’s Method: In this method the max kinetic energy of the system is equated to the maximum potential energy. Energy Method: In this method the concept of total energy of the system. kinetic energy is at the mean position which is equated to the potential energy.www. As the total energy of the system remains constant. potential energy is (1/2)kA2 . the kinetic energy is givenby (1/2)mx” and the potential energy stored in the system is (1/2)kx2 . Differentiating we have the governing differential equation as mx” + kx = 0.bookspar. Equating the two equations and simplifying we have again ωn = (k/m)1/2. and the natural frequency is given by ωn = (k/m)1/2. we have the quantity (k/m)1/2 as the natural frequency of the system ωn . For SHM the max. is made use of which remains constant always for any configuration of system while it is vibrating For a single DOF system of spring and mass.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS x”+ (k/m) x = 0. If A is the amplitude of vibration and ωn is the natural frequency the max.bookspar. ******** Session 5 date:(7/3/07) SPRINGS IN SERIES AND SPRINGS IN PARALLEL www. we have T+V = 0 or d(T+V)/dt = 0.com | VTU NOTES 10 . which is the sumof Kinetic energy (T) and Potential energy(V) . kinetic energy is given by (1/2)m(ωn A)2 and max.

and б2 – deflection of spring 2. where Ke= equivalent spring stiffness 1/Ke = 1/K1 + 1/K2 Considering fig (a) where springs are in parallel when the mass is subjected to a force F we have the total spring force equal to sum of individual spring forces. Hence we can write. Hence we can write F/Ke = F/K1 + F/K2 . Hence.x = K1. we can write the total force in the equivalent spring as Ke .bookspar.x + K2. the displacement of the equivalent spring as.www.com | VTU NOTES 11 .com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Consider figure (b) where the springs are in series. the displacement of mass ‘m’ is equal to deflections of sprimgs 1 & 2.bookspar. When the mass is subjected to a force ‘F’. б = б1 + б2 Where б1 – deflection of spring 1.x Therefore Ke = K1 + K2 Therefore the equivalent spring stiffness for springs in parallel is equal to Ke = K1 + K2 ********** www.

Ke= K1 + K2 + K3 1/Ke = 1/K1 + 1/K2 + 1/K3 www. for 3 springs in series and in parallel configuration K1 K2 K3 m i) for series spring combination.K3 K1K2 + K2K3 + K1K3 ii) for parallel spring combination.bookspar. 1/Ke = 1/K1 + 1/K2 + 1/K3 Therefore Ke = K1.com | VTU NOTES 12 .bookspar.www.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Problem: 1) Obtain an equivalent spring mass system and expression for ωn.K2.

bookspar. Therefore ωn = Therefore ωn = K1 + K 2 + K 3 m (1 / K1 + 1 / K 2 + 1 / K 3) m 2). we have www. Obtain the natural frequency of the system Solution: Given m = 109 N K1 = 10N/mm K2 = 10N/mm K3 = 5N/mm The spring equivalent when parallel springs are added.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Ke= K1 + K2 + K3 Ke Natural frequency ωn = √(K e / m) .www.com | VTU NOTES 13 .bookspar.

com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Ke1 = K1 + K2 = 20 N/mm Ke = Ke1 + K3 Ke1 + K3 = 20 (5) 25 = 4 N/mm = 4000 N/m ωn = √ (Ke / m) Therefore ωn = 18.com | VTU NOTES 14 .bookspar.012 Hz *********** www.bookspar.97 rad/s Frequency = fn = ωn /2π = 3.www.

Let x’ and x” be the velocity and acceleration of mass.E = 1/2mx’2 + 1/6 Ms.x’2 www.x’2 where. Ms = (Rho)L = Mass spring Therefore the entire K.E for the entire spring considering the mass of the spring becomes L ∫(½ )(Rho)(dy)(x’y/L)2 0 L = (Rho) x’2 / 2l2 ∫ (y3/3) 0 2 = 1/6 (Rho)x’ L = 1/6 Ms. The velocity of the spring element at a distance of ‘y’ from the fixed end is x’y/L We can write the K.E considering the mass of the spring.com | VTU NOTES 15 .E of the system K.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Session 6 date:(9/3/07) NATURAL FREQUENCY OF A SPRING: Considering mass of spring y L k dy m x Consider a spring mass system as shown in the figure where the mass is displaced by ‘x’. The total K. ‘L’ be the length of the spring.E of the mass ‘m’ and K. ‘dy’ is a small elemental spring length at a distance of y from the fixed end.www.E of the system is the sum of K.bookspar.E of the spring element ‘dy’ as (½ )(Rho)(dy)(x’y/L)2 Where Rho is the mass density Above expression is of the form KE = ½ mv2. The K.bookspar.

rad/s *************** www.bookspar.bookspar.x’2 + ½ Kx2 = constant Differentiating the above expression w.E = constant 1/2mx’2 + 1/6 Ms. ωn = (K/(m+1/3(Ms))1/2 . Therefore .com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS The potential energy of the system P.www.E + P.r.E = ½ Kx2 Therefore the total energy of the system = K.com | VTU NOTES 16 .t time we get Mx’x” + 1/3 Msx’x”+ Kxx’ = 0 Mx” + 1/3 Msx”+ Kx = 0 x” {m + 1/3 Ms} + Kx = 0 From the above expression.

www. The disc is given an angular displacement ‘θ’. we have.com | VTU NOTES 17 . x = 2r θ.bookspar. due to which the mass ‘m’ is displaced by ‘x’. the vertical displacement of centre ‘O’ is X1 = r θ www. from the figure. Also.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Session 7 date :(16/3/07) Problems 3 ) Determine the equation of motion and natural frequency of the system shown k x1 M O r θ x m Solution: It is assumed that: • The string is inextensible • The friction between string and disc is neglected.bookspar.

i. d (KE+PE) = 0 dt Differentiating the sum of KE and PE (2m+(3/4)M)2θ”+kθ = 0 Or θ”+ k/(4m+(3/2)m) = 0 .e. K.www.E. fn = (k/(4m+(3/2)m)1/2)/2π University Problems for practice 1) A homogenus cylinder of mass m and radius r is suspended by a spring and an inextensible cord as shown. Obtain the equation of motion and find the natural frequency of vibration of the cylinder. of the system is the strain energy stored in the spring due to displacement of centre x1. ωn = k/(4m+(3/2)m)1/2 and the natural frequency inHz.bookspar.e. www. P.E. System = 1/2mx’2 +1/2Mθ’2 +1/2Iθ”2 = 1/2 m(2rθ’)2+1/2M(rθ’)2+1/2(1/2Mr2)(θ’)2 Simplifying = r2 (θ’)2(2m+(3/4)M) Similarly.bookspar. we have the total energy of the system is constant at any given instant of time. which is in the form θ”+ ωn2 = 0 or ωn2 = k/(4m+(3/2)m).com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS By making use of the energy principle. (1/2)k(x1)2 . . which is (1/2)k(r2)(θ)2 According to Energy Method. i.com | VTU NOTES 18 .

Determine the natural frequency of the system if the mass of the rod m r is not negligible .bookspar. If it is free to roll without slipping.com | VTU NOTES 19 . determine the natural frequency.bookspar. www.www. Hz. Hz ************* 3) A circular cylinder of mass m and mass moment of inertia I is connected by a spring of stiffness k as shown.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS k m r Answer: θ”+(8k/3m)θ = 0. L m Answer: θ” + ((m +(mr /2))/((m+(mr /3))(g/L) = 0 fn = (√((m +(mr /2))/((m+(mr /3))(g/L))/2π. fn = (8k/3m)/2π. 2) A simple pendulum is as shown in fig.

a k L m ** www. For small oscillations. *************** 4) The Mass of an uniform rod is negligible compared to the mass attached to it.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Answer: fn = (√(2k/3m))/2π . Hz.www.bookspar.bookspar. calculate the natural frequency of the system.com | VTU NOTES 20 .

bearing defects leading to misalignment. Basic sources of excitation are external or inherent to the system.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Mechanical Vibrations (ME65) Session 8 date: (23/3/07) Forced Vibrations Forced vibrations are those whose amplitudes are maintained by application of external forces.bookspar.www. defective assembly . Forced vibration of damped single degree of freedom system kx Fsinωt Cx’ mx” m x kx is the spring force. bending and distortion of components. uneven distribution of mass in rotating components lead to creation of unbalanced forces causing a system to vibrate forcibly. The equation of motion is written as mx”+cx’+ kx = Fsinωt ----(i) www.The external force maintaining the vibrations are called external excitation and are random.Similarly. x is the displacement of mass in the direction shown.com | VTU NOTES 21 .Resonance of system produces large amplitudes leading to unbalanced forces. Machine subsystems are heated unevenly during operation and give rise to uneven deformation leading to generation of unbalanced force. cx’ is the damping force and mx” is the inertia force and Fsinωt is the external excitation . periodic or impulsive in nature.bookspar.Ringing of electric bell or machine tool vibrations are examples of forced vibrations.

Fsinωt . Fsinωt is the external force Diplacement x lags the external force kX is the spring force lagging F by φ cωX is the damping force lagging F by (φ+π/2) mω2 X is the inertia force. we have. which is written as Ae-ξωnt sin(ωd t + φ). i) Complimentary function (cf) and ii) particular integral(pi).φ)) = Fsinωt Rearranging . lagging F by (φ+π).com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS The solution of above equation is in 2 parts. we have.www.cωXsin( ωt-φ+π/2) .mω2 Xsin( ωt-φ+π) = 0 Where. F = (kx – mω2 X) 2 + (cωX)2.com | VTU NOTES 22 .bookspar. thus we have dx/dt = x’ as ωXsin( ωt-φ+π/2) and (dx/dt)2 = x” = ω2 Xsin( ωt-φ+π). substituting the values of x’ amd x” in eqn. simplifying X = F/((k– mω2 ) 2 + (cω)2) Therefore. The total solution x = x(cf) + x(pi). The x(cf) is the solution of equation mx”+cx’+ kx = 0. m(ω2 Xsin( ωt-φ+π) + c(ωXsin( ωt-φ+π/2)) + k(X sin(ωt .φ) . The vector diagram of these is as shown below: kx F x reference cωX mω2 X From the geometry of diagram. the total solution can be written as. x = x(cf) + x(pi) 2 = Ae-ξωnt sin(ωd t + φ) + F sin(ωt-φ) (/((k– mω2 ) 2 + (cω)2) ----(ii) www. (i).kX sin(ωt .φ). The particular integral x(pi) is assumed to be in the form x = X sin(ωt .bookspar.

first being the transient part. is one parameter in study of forced vibrations which is defined as the ratio of amplitude of steady state response X to Xst the zero frequency deflection or the static response under steady load F.bookspar.φ versus frequency ratio also called frequency response curves following observations can be made: (Refer any standard text for detailed curves) φ MF ω/ωn i) ii) iii) ω/ωn Phase angle is 90º at resonance M. = X/Xst = 1/(√(1-(ω 2/ωn 2 )2 + (2ξω/ ωn )2 ) This M. is given by.F.F. Magnification factor M.F . the first term in RHS . From the plots of M.com | VTU NOTES 23 .com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS The eqn(ii) is total response which consists of two parts. The M.F. (F/k) is called the Zero frequency deflection which is the deflection of spring mass under a steady force. is the steady state vibration which does not die with time. and this makes the study of steady state vibrations to be important for study and analysis. M. versus frequency ratio and phase angle.www. φ = tan-1 ((2ξω/ ωn )/ 1-(ω 2/ωn 2)) Magnification Factor: In a vibrating system the transient vibrations die out after passage of time and the steady state vibration continues with constant amplitude as long as the external excitations exsist.F. The phase angle. depends upon the frequency ratio ω/ωn and the damping factor ξ .F.bookspar. The expressions for amplitude X in dimensionless form and phase angle are as follows: X = (F/k)/√(1-(ω 2/ωn 2 )2 + (2ξω/ ωn )2 . which dies out with time and the second part the x(pi). is infinity at resonance and ξ = 0 For all frequencies th MF reduces with damping www.

the real part of x is given by Re(Feiωt /(k . H(ω) = Xe –iφ / F = (1/(k . Introducing the complexfrquency response H(ω) as ratio of output Xe –iφ to input F i. Condition for resonance .bookspar.bookspar. the inertia force is balanced by the spring force.mω2 ) 2 +(cω) 2 ) The phase angle. (MF)resonance = (Xr /Xst ) = (1/2ξ) Solution by complex algebra: Let the equation of motion be written as mx”+cx’+kx = Feiωt the response of which is x = X ei(ωt – φ) . where ωp is the frequency at which maximum amplitude occurs. Xe -iφ =(F/(k .www. substituting the expressions for x’ and x” into the equation of motion and simplifying . from which .2ξ 2 ).Impressed force is nearly equal to spring force. φ = tan -1 (cω/(k – mω2 )) ************** www.mω2 ) +icω).com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Maximum amplitude occurs at left of resonance For small values of frequency ratio. For large values of frequency ratio.mω2 ) +icω) = X/Xst = 1/√((k . the inertia and damping forces are small resulting in small phase angles. from which using x = X ei(ωt – φ) .mω2 ) + icω).com | VTU NOTES 24 . inertia force increases to a large value and damping and spring forces are small. For frequency ratio of 1.The impressed force balances the damping force. we have (-mω2 +icω +k) X ei(ωt – φ) = Feiωt . The frequency at which the maximum amplitude occurs is obtained by using the relation ωp = ωn √(1 .e.

equal to mo ω2 e . Let mo be the unbalance mass rotating with its CG at a distance of e from centre.bookspar. Hence we can write the equation of motion in the vertical direction as www.www./sec.This unbalanced mass gives rise to a centrifugal force .Let m be the total mass of equipment inclusive of mo and at any instant of time mo make an angle of ωt.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Session 9 date: (27/3/07) Rotating and Reciprocating unbalance a = esinωt e = eccentricity mo ω2 e x a mo x m k c The figure shows a rotating equipment rotating at a speed of ω rad. The equation of motion for this system can be written considering the effective mass ‘m-mo’ and the unbalanced mass ‘mo’.bookspar. we have the effective displacement of mo is sum of ‘x’ and ‘esinωt’.com | VTU NOTES 25 . Referring figure as shown below.

com | VTU NOTES 26 .mo ω2e sinωt = -Kx –Cx’ mx” + Cx’ + Kx = moω2sinωt The above equation is similar to mx” + Cx’ + Kx = Fsinωt Hence for an under damped system.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS (m-mo)x” + (mo)d2(x + esinωt) /dt2 = .Kx – Cx’ Ie.bookspar. we get the expression for steady state amplitude as X= moω2e/K (1 − ( w/w n ) 2 ) 2 + (2lyw / wn ) 2 Therefore __X__ = (moe/m) (w/wn)2 (1 − ( w/w n ) 2 ) 2 + (2lyw / wn ) 2 www.www.mox” +mox”+ mod{ωe cosωt}/dt = -Kx –Cx’ mx” . mx” .bookspar.

(X ) resonance = moe/ 2mξ From the plot of (X / emo m) v/s ω/ωn . Hence there is a need to eliminate or reduce the vibrations being transmitted to the foundations. it iserved that at low speeds. w = wn ie: X / moe/m = 1/2ξ Also. all the curves start from zero and at resonance (X / moe/m )= 1/2ξ and the amplitude of such vibrations can be controlled by the damping provided in the system.bookspar. the foundations can be damaged.www. etc.com | VTU NOTES 27 . X tends to 0.bookspar. The complete solution for the unbalanced system is x = A2e –ξωnt (sinωd t + Φ2 ) + (moew2 /k)/(√(1-(ω 2/ωn 2 )2 + (2ξω/ ωn )2 ) The following points are concluded for unbalanced system: • • • • • • Damping factor plays an important role in controlling the amplitudes during resonance. For low values of frequency ratio. At high speeds of operation. For low values of frequency ratio (w/wn). These elements isolate the www. damping effects are negligible. At resonance. because the inertia force is small.(w/wn )2 ) Same analysis is extended to reciprocating masses where exciting force becomes moew2sinwt where mo = Unbalanced mass of reciprocating masses. *************** Session 10 date : (28/3/07) VIBRATION ISOLATION AND TRANSMISSION: Vibration Isolation: High speed machines and engines due to unbalance give rise to vibrations of excessive amplitudes and due to the unbalance forces being setup. For very large frequency ratio. The peak amplitudes occur to right of resonance unlike for balanced systems. are placed between the machines and the foundations to reduce the vibrations or minimize then. dampers. (X / moe/m ) tends to one. springs. X tends to 0.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Φ = tan-1 {2ξ(w/wn) / (1 .

com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS vibrations by absorbing the vibration energy. rubber or cork. Felt pals are used for low frequency ratios. Rubber acts effectively as an isolator during shear loading. The sound transmitted by it is also low. The sound transmitted by them can be reduced by covering them with pads of felt. www.bookspar. substituting for X as X = F/((k– mω2 ) 2 + (cω)2). Thus the force transmitted to the foundation (Ftr ) is vector sum of the spring force (kX) and damping force (cωX). we have Ftr equal to. Heat and oil affect the rubber and it is usually preferred for light loads & high frequency oscillation. the spring and dashpot become the vibration isolators and the spring force and damping force are the forces between the mass and foundation. water or oil. Many small sized felt pads are used instead of a single large pad. They are not affected by air. Cork can be used for compressive loads. Ftr = X √(K2 + c2ω2 )..e.com | VTU NOTES 28 . This isolation of vibrations is expressed in terms of force or motion transmitted to the foundation. Ftr = F (√(K2 + c2ω2 ) / ((k– mω2 ) 2 + (cω)2) Transmissibility is defined as the ratio of force transmitted to the foundation to the force impressed on the system i. Helical & leaf springs of metal are used as isolators for high frequency ratios. We can write.www. TRANSMISSIBILITY: Fsinωt x m k c In a spring mass dashpot system subjected to harmonically varying external force.bookspar. The requirements of these isolating elements are that there should be no connection between the vibrating system & the foundation & it is to be ensured that in case of failure of isolators the system is still in of position on the foundation.

com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Tr = ε = Ftr / F = √(1 + (cω/k)2 / (√(1-(ω 2/ωn 2 )2 + (2ξω/ ωn )2 ) The angle of lag of the transmitted force is . as it ensures that transmitted force to the foundation is minimum and better isolation is achieved.bookspar. ************ Session 11 date:(30/3/07) FORCED VIBRATION DUE TO EXCITATION OF SUPPORT: Frame Z x m K C y VIBRATING BODY/ www.com | VTU NOTES 29 .www.bookspar.6 are spring control zone and from 0. In the plot the frequency ratio values upto 0. The operating values of frequency ratio to achieve this effect should be greater than √2 and the region beyond this value of frequency ratio is called mass control zone where isolation is most effective.6 to √2 is damping control zone and beyond that is mass control zone. is called the transmissibility curve . (φ – α) = tan – 1 (( 2ξω/ ωn) / 1-(ω 2/ωn 2)) .tan – 1(2ξω/ ωn ) Plot of Tr versus ω/ ωn (refer a text book) for various values of ξ . From the plot it is seen that all curves start from 1 and transmissibility Tr is always desired to be less than 1.

bookspar. then the absolute amplitude of mass ‘m’ is the displacement ‘x’. mx” + Cx’ + Kx – Ky .t the frame.www.sin(ωt + α) (1) Where α = tan-1 {cω/K} = tan-1 {2ξω/ωn} The solution of (1) consists of CF and PI. the mass ‘m’ is subjected to a displacement ‘x’.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Figure shows a basic sesmic instrument used for measuring vibrations.r.e.Cy’ = 0 Substituting for y and y’.φ (a) www.bookspar.com | VTU NOTES 30 . If ‘Z’ is considered as the displacement of mass ‘m’ w. then we have a relative motion of ‘m’ w. given by y = Ysinωt For such a system the equation for motion can be written as x mx” K(x-y) C(x’-y’) mx” + K(x-y) + C(x’-y’) = 0 i. If we consider ‘y’ be the motion of the base. Absolute amplitude: (neglect z) Let the displacement of base be ‘y’ viz: a sinusoidal motion. we get mx” + Cx’ + Kx – Kysinωt – Cωycosωt = 0 mx” + Cx’ + Kx = y {Kysinωt + Cωcosωt = 0} = y(√K2 + (cω)2 ).t the frame. When the system is excited by the vibrations of the base.r. The PI is x = X sin(ωt + α .

com | VTU NOTES 31 . energy gets absorbed by the dashpot . Energy dissipated/ cycle = πcωx2 .bookspar. Watts.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS (a) is similar to x = X sin (ωt – φ).my” mz” + cz’ + kz = -m(-ω2 y sinωt) i. z=x–y or. x=y+z substituting this value of x in the equation of motion.α ) = (tan-1 (2ξω/ωn2 / 1 – (ω/ωn)2 )) . The power required for vibrating the system can be obtained by the relation Power = Energy dissipated/ cycle / Sec. where x is the amplitude of steady state vibrations.. The ratio X/y is called the displacement transmissibility Relative Amplitude: If the displacement of the mass is considered relative to the frame and if this relative displacement is called z . m(y” + z”)+c(y’+z’)+K(y+z-y) = 0 my”+mz”+cz’+kz = .© Equations (a). mz” + cz’ + kz = mω2 y sinωt similar to eqn b. X= y (√K2 + (cω)2 ) (√(K . where X is the steady state amplitude. www.(tan-1 {2ξω/ωn}) ---.www.e.(cω2)2 + (cω)2) Therefore X/y = (√1+ (2ξω/ωn)2 ) / (√(1 – (ω/ωn)2)2 + (2ξω/ωn)2 ) (b) Φ = (tan-1 (2ξω/ωn2 / 1 – (ω/ωn)2 )) α = (tan-1 {2ξω/ωn}) (Φ . then we have. (b) and (c) completely define the motion of the mass due to the support or base excitation.bookspar. we have z/y = (ω/ωn)2 / (√(1 – (ω/ωn)2)2 + (2ξω/ωn)2 ) The expressions for Φ – α is same as given above for absolute amplitude. Energy dissipated by Damping. The energy dissipated or workdone per cycle is given by. When a syatem undergoes steady state forced vibration swith viscous damping. .

bookspar.ω1) = 1/2ξ www. It also gives the side band of frequencies ω1 and ω2 on either side of the resonance by which resonance can be avoided during operation.com | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS | NEWS | RESULTS Sharpness of Resonance: In forced vibration. The expression of Q is given as follows: Q = ωn / (ω2 .www. quantity Q is related to damping which becomes a measure of the sharpness of resonance.com | VTU NOTES 32 .bookspar.

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