Saturday, October 24, 2015
1:52 PM

Talked about genes, talked about fact that genes are located on chromosomes
Talk about genes actually are
At molecular level
Chromosomes are made up of DNA
Dioxide neucleic acid and proteins
For a long time people know that chromosomes responsible for genetic information
but unsure what part of chromosomes carried
Dna or proteins
Leading candidate was proteins
Proteins came in a bunch of varieties
Convey information
But alphabet fairly complex
Our alphabet 26 letters
Need alphabet extensive
Proteins have that
Dna no varieties so didn't think it was
Major question

Protein or DNA
Elegent experiment
Hersehy and chase decided matter
Hershey and chase
Viruses are very simple and we don't know if we want to call them organisms
Not a lot of characteristics
Reporoduce simple
Look like funny looking spider
Attack bacteria
Attach to outside
Virus attached itself to outsie
The virus - inserts some genetic material into cell and that genetic material takes
over and causes the bacterium to make virus particles or tihngs that bacterium
would do

Hershey and chaes knew that this particular virus had inside of it DNA - plain DNA
Outside of it was protein
Both protein and DNA question was when it inserts genetic information is it inserting
protein or DNA
Now ho can you tell difference
Use some radiioactive lables
Protein has chemical consituents - sulfer
Make radioactive suilfer do something where virus gets made protein part made
with radioactive sulfer
Than do Bacteriaphogue
All of protein radiactively labeled
That virus inserts genetic information into cell
If genetic information protein
Label inside the cell
Hershey and chase no radioactive sulfer lable inside cell
None of protein gotten inside
Protein not genetic information
To prove DNA was
Dna has phosphorus in it that protein doesn't
Constructed virus particles
Radioactive phosphorous have label
Virus to effect bacterium
Looked inside for radioactive label it was there
Genetic information inserted into cell

Cell do virus's bidding was dna DNA structure Determined that DNA is genetic material People very interested in what it was. what does it look like. what is it composed of Knew it is chemically but not what structure it was Structure held key to how it functioned How does someone find out what it is Can't put molecule under microscope and see where they are Indirect methods One of methods called xray defraction Shine xrays through it Xrays reflected in different direction Takes interpretiation to figure out what structure is Watson and crick in 1953 took information that others have produced Xray information and so on And thought quite a bit of what kind of molecule can produce some of patterns Come up with structure of dna .

phosphate group. sugar. and something called nitrogogen base Dna consists of 4 different nucleotides All have same phosphate and sugar group Differ in base they have 4 kinds of neucleotides we have Upper left hand adenine Upper right guanene Lower left thymine Lower right cytosine Blue part of molecule .polymer of neucleoties Neucleotide .look fairly similar Two hexagon shaped Thymine and cytosine bases somewhat similar one hexagon shaped things Are two classes of bases .What we know about dna .bases Some similarties Adeninie and guanine .

they are coiled .One which includes adenine and guanine And the other incluses thyneme and cytosine Dna structure contains 2 strands of nucleotides Structure of dna And this is where watson and crick amazing insights Contains 2 strands of nucleotides Not single stranded Two strands ropes Side by side Not only that .double helix .helical shape Like a twisted rope ladder Two strands are connected by base Rungs of ladder By bases part of nucleotide Each has base part of it Two strands are connected by the base on one strand connecting with base on other strand Bases are paired up in very specific way A base always pairs with t G base always pairs with c base See in picture An example of two strands Layed them out Ladder .

See one strand has string of nucleotides Carrying basses gcaccaata And that strand is then paired up with cgtggttat Complenmentary base pair .

Two strands connected by these nitrogogen base portions Bottom see there the t on the left is connected with the a on the right Moving up we see g connected with c In fact see the shapes of those nucleotides See that a one hexagon shape connects with a two hexagon shape complementary base pairs Things dna must do .

everytime it replicates Cell producing gametes meiosis or just duplicating mitosis Dna making copy of itself Mitosis.replication . meiosis Give directions on running the cell carries genetic information Directions on running cell Things cell should do Genes for making proteins How that happens DNA molecule with nucleotides and instructions for making proteins Genes have instructions for making proteins Does in elegant way .Make copies of itself .

in yellow Strand built pu as template Strand on left Original strand in blue New nucleotide G nucleotide brought in to compliment c one Another g brought in to another c T to compliment a nad so on As unzipping occurs nucleotides brought in added to each of strands to produce new strand Original strand on right same thing happening Unzipped completely two new strands Each new strands one of original strands and one completely new strand Replication another view .Two strands Smallerp icture on right What happens when dna replicates Two strands separate and one strands then serves as template to make new strand in yellow and other starnd serves as template to make new strand Picture on left unzips Complementary bases separaed and nucleotides brought in .

Base pairing htem Separated New neucleotides brougth in And matched up with complementary pairs Complementary strand to each of the two original strands Panel at bottom done with process See we now have two new dna molecules each composed of origian and new strand .

check if things done properly Bases paired with each other .Dna replication summary Making copies mitosis and meiosis Two nucleotide strands Unzip like zipper Each serves as template to build new strand Mentioned before Many processes involve dna polymerase Involved in replication process Brings in new nucleotides Joins with complementary base and connects it with previous nucleotides Stiches all new nucleotides to original strands Mutations Mistakes in dna replication 1 in a billion times the wrong nucleotide is inserted Proofreading enzyme Checks for mismatches in base pairs 3 billion nucleotides When dna replicates Bring in over 3 billion nucleotides Sometimes something can go wrong 1 in a billion times wrong thing inserted Isn't correct Other enzymes called proofreading enzyme .

process is called transcription Take it out of nucleus into cycoplamsa where it is located Transcription .gets out of nucleus Gets to ribosomes where proteins are made Use a messenger molecule.Pair in specific way A with t and g with c If you put wrong one in there Shape of molecules dna you get from that has bump in it Not quite semetrical it should be Proofreading enzyme can catch and snip those out and make sure rihgt one gets in Proofreading enzyme isn't perfect and proofreading enzyme doesn't catch it Dna molecule misinformation When misinformation is there .refered to as mutation Dna acts as gene or genetic information What do genes really do What is the information used for by cell Gene for blue or brown eyes Gene is a message about how to make a particular protein Blue eyes and brown eyes protein responsible for melenene deposited in eye Gene responsible for making particular protein What we need to know is how we go from dna to protein being made Protein synthesis to occur based on genetic information in dna Whatever genetic message is .

Once we get genetic message from nucleus to ribosome .getting message from dna in nucleus Transcriped message taken from nucleus to cytoplasma translated into protein Dna inside nucleus .read dna message and translate that into protein We know that dna molecule composed of sequence of nucleotides .series of amino acids Translate series of bases to series of amino bases Translation Two step process First transcription .differ in nitronogous bases Genetic information series of nitrogogen bases Protein .

Ribosomes outside nucleus Responsible for protein production Transcription Take dna message and write it out on molecule Comes out of nucleus and gets to ribosomes Messenger rna Talk about shortly Messenger rna molecule Comes out of nucleus Second part of process occurs .translation Translate messenger rna message into protein Encountering rna several times Talking about messenger rna Transfer rna Ribosomal rna Rna sounds like dna In fact very similar molecule Sugar part of nucleartide .bit different single stranded as opposied to dna Other differences 4 bases in dna agtc Instead of having t has different called u for uracil Talk about process of transcription transcribing dna message on rna molecule .

Molecule called as messenger rna Carrying message One other thing we see here Dna message has some things inserted into it that doesn't make a lot of sense Portions of the dna that is the gene that is non coding Doesn't contain relative information for making protein Nonsene information that got stuck in there One of things that has to happen is to snip out noncoding sections called introns) Dna molecule huge thing Only small portion constitutes gene If gene has to be activated to do something We don't need to use entire dna molecule Only use portion with particular genetic information we want Molecule opens up at that point Doublly stranded two strands come apart .

Sort of thing happening in dna replication Each strand serves as template to make new strands Little bit like it but somewhat different Two strands opening up One strand on top odesn't do anything Lower strand serves as template to make rna So just as we saw dna replication This strand of dna serves as template and nucleotides brought in to compliment bases of nucleutides that are already there Only difference We are makign single stranded molecule That’s a molecule of rna Other tihng that’s different Complimentary nucleotide Instead of bringing in t We bring in u instead Nitrogogous base .part of rna .

Two upper strands open up Lower template as rna molecule Only difference here See dna molecule Serves as template has the bases cgta And when we build a messaenger rna molecule Its base sequence gcau C and g go together t and a go toegher Instead of a pairing with t It has a u instead .

gene here Portions of it called introns which don't contain information Just nonsense sequence of nitrogogen bases But they exist That misinformation has to be snipped out before we complete transcription process Make messenger rna Some point in process snip out those introns On bottom you see genetic information Introns removed Translation Taken dna message and dna message is .4 bases one being uracel Translate message into sequence of amino acids What amino acids should be .taken dna messages transcribed it into rna languages .a sequence of bases .On top dna strand .

fair sized protein 100 amino acids in it Somehow information has to come from messenger rna And to make translation to make switch from something written in nitrogonous bases Know genetic code Know how to translate sequence of bases to sequence of amino acids Look at three of bases at time Tell you particular amino acid 3 bases called codon .About 20 different amino acids that can exist Protein .every codon particular amino acids it codes for Codons where protein starts and stops .

third base might be .second base in this triplet is If you look at right hand column .Look at all possible sequences of three bases What that sequence codes for Amino acids If you look at brown column on left First base of the three If you look along top .

thing you'll notice Some cases same amino acid made in several different ways by several different codons 64 different combinations of 3 bases Redundancy in genetic code Same amino acid coded for in several different ways Any particular code codes for one and only one We now know how to translate it See how it is physcially done Rna messenger How to use genetic code to translate it Reader .produces or has information make amino acid called serine Genetic code .serine .Top here .first base is a u U and not t because translating something from messenger rna Codon a u.molecules caled ribosomes . and another a u-a-a What does that mean? What amino acid does it code for Follow in chart Find uaa means stop Codon which is agc .take message and read it three bases at a time Every 3 bases they read . an a.

transfer rna Responsible for bringing in amino acids to link up to other amino acids to grow in this chain On its end 3 bases as anticodon Compliment 3 bases of codon This shows specificity Transfer rna molecules out there Carrying speccific amino acids And each one can only hook up to particular codon exactly complementary to it Transfer rna might look like One end have three bases Refered to anticodon If it recognizes three bases that re in codon in messenger rna Than it can attach at that point .They say okay these three bases amino acid called serine and put it in this particular position Another rna called trna .

See at other end carrying amino acid Dna and nucleus and messenger rna has been made Moved out to clunky looking thing robosome Fed through ribosome Ribosome reader of message Reads message Is looking at two codons at a time Top part of middle .see these are two little places where transfer rna molecules can come in Messenger rna molecule Two codons next to each other Place in ribosome where transfer rnas can come in First codon Codes for serine .

Trasnfer rna carrying serine having anti codon hooks up And second slot taken up by different transfer rna molecule Anticodon matches codon of rna Follow arrows second transfer rna coming in Middle of bottom Two in the slot First one that came in breaks away but leaves behind its amino acid Connected to the animo acid of the second transfer rna New transfer molecule comes in carrying an amino acid Amino acid hooked up to previous ones Another transfer rna leaves Reader shifts down one more slot And keeps going until we get this growing sequence of amino acids linked together Eventually we come to stop codon .

That’s the end and protein made Amino acids constitutes protein Think about what happens here Transcription Takes dna message Dna can't get out .stuck there Take information dna has and takes it to ribosomes Transcribe dna message to rna message Molecule meseger rna Snip out introns .

moves to another notch Goes to propper anticodon Linking up proper amino acids Messenger rna Sequence of bases Turns into proteins sequence of amino acids About protein synthesis Talk about mutations Talk first about simplest type .point mutation Situation where genetic message Sequence of nucleutides or bases Point mutation One of nucleotides is changed Whatever was supposed to be there isn't there .Messenger rna leave nucleus Goes out to clunky structure ribosome Ribosome takes message Looks at 2 codons at a time Each codon it finds transfer rna that has proper anticodon Hooks it in place And ribosome then goes down that message one codon at time Looking at 2 simultanously Each time it goes down Another transfer brings amino acid up to previous one.

one wrong base means we got a different codon than before.Codon that nucleotide is a part of Codon is different When we translate that odon using the genetic code Amino acid that’s made in that spot in protein is different This is the basis for all these genetic diseases we refered to before Sickle cell anemia Hemoglobin molecule Fairly big molecule more than 100 mutations Point mutation Hemoglobin that’s made .one wrong amino acid . different amino acid than before Ctt codon What happens when you have sickle cell That particular codon Instead of ctt you have cat One nucleotide with different base .

much more serious Consider what happens if you change one nucleotide from g to c .folding of molecule isn't quite like its used to be Enzyme molecule very important Doesn't take a lot to change function in important ways Other kinds of mutations .molecules fold back on themselves amino acids interact with others Change one .When we make messenger rna On the left hand side See what happens normally When we make messenger rna is complementary to ctt gaa and gaa codes for an amino acid called glutamic acid Consequence of point mutation instead of ctt we hae cat Messenger rna based on that gua Codon message gua Look that up in genetic code Codes for different amino acid called valene Should be glutamic acid theres valene Enzymes and proteins .

consequences more severe on organisms Structural gene .tell instruments what they are supposed to play and when .things talked about .one isn't playing exactly .may notice that BUT the overal symphony may sound what its supposed to sound If orchestra conductor different .very important Structural genes .What if we insert a nucleodtide where there isn't supposed to be one We have a dna molecule (blue on bototm) and above that messenger rna made from it Names of amino acids that codons would refer to What if in the middle we stick a nucleotide that doesn't belong Don't replace. we add one What's going to happen Everything shifted over Codon that was supposed to be uau in messenger is now uua Code for something different lucine Everything from thereon in off by one Three nucleotides supposed to be reading Two nucleotides of one and one of the other Cause some major changes to protein not just one amino acid but whole thing wrong What kinds of genes are mutated In general two kinds of genes Structural genes and regulator genes Genes aren't equal but some are intragally involved in developmental processes Regulatory .orchestra conductors .whole symphanthy break down sound different Regulator gene .orchestra members .eyes blue or brown .

Hair is brown or blonde or black Mutations in those genes effect how you look Overall be okay Regulatory much more serious Mutations cont.chek out what happens in dna replication process Dna replication .over 3 billion nucleotides in properpalce Mistakes can occur Repair enzymes go along and check things Base that’s not where it should be Physical demensions off and enzyme can recognize and attempt to fix it Mutagens .separate two strands and bring in nucleotides .once in a million due to DNA repair enzymes .increase mtation rates Cells somatic cells in body Cells producing gametes Consequeces of muations in these kinds of cells is different body cells Perhaps one of consequences Cancer or tumor starts growing That mutaiton cant be passed on to offspring of individual .build complementary strands Human dna .materials that increase mutation carcinogens Hemicals radiation viruses All these things general category . Mutations rare .

inheretant some mutation from grandfather Increases chances of bad mutation Individual inherited genetic disease .related to each other .not really problem Most mutations recessive Other parent .you should be okay Fairly rare in parents Individuals related to each other .normal alleles .few mutations Every parent gives child few mutations by way of gametes Most of time .fact that there are some mutations in gamete .Sematic cells can't make gametes Replicated in process of meiosis .that mutation can be passed on to offspring When gametes made .

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