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Saturday, October 24, 2015
Other uses of dna technology
Take a look at other dna technology
Why would we want to do this
We can detect gnees that are there
Find those genes and make copies of them
We can do things like determine who is related to whom
Useful for evolutionary purposes
Do something like dna fingerprinting
Idnetify in criminal cases to see who is involved in crimes
How to visualize dna sequences
Dna carries genetic information exists as sequence of bases
One things we can do to see dna
Get seqence of those bases in dna
Possible to directly sequence large quantities of dna
Small sections of dna done easily
enormouse amount of time 5-10 years Make a lot faster Takes a long time with current technology Faster approaches Chop dna into fragments Don't know sequence of all dna Just fragment of it that we're interested in Chop dna into fragments .Machiens to look at large sections and takes time to do this Human genome project Sequence entire human genome Currently exists .from 3 individuals Cut up into fragments by restriction enzymes Placed in little wells at ends of gel Have power source creates electrical gradiant across cell .using restriction enzymes And separate fragments into pieces of dna into length by gel electrophoresis Take gel Something containing 3 samples of dna .
when you turn electricity of Migrated to diferent distances Then use some kind of dye to tell you where on gel some fragments ended up Lines .bar code All fragments in sample of dna You uput in wells Criminal cases .Dna negatively charged Move towards anode end of cell Little pieces negatively charged Move thorugh gel towards anode Rate which they move depends on size Little ones move faster Big ones sluggish and odn't move far After length of time .
I cut myself while shaing Doesn't hold up Defendents blood Those lines don't match at all with lines from dna on shirt The human genome Human dna .not specified in this case what happened Assault took place Have one lane here at bottom Indicates victims blood Dna fragments come from victims blood Gel electrophoresis In this case Defendant had blood on clothes Blood analyzed run on gel eletrophoresis Faintly blood on short and pants matches victims blood Defendents case .5 or more year project sequence of all nucleotides in human genome 30.3 billion nucleotide pairs long .3 billion nucleotide pairs Long term .A victim .my blood .000 genes Posibility fairly slow Both private and government founded groups got involved found ways to speed up Interesting reelations Human genome .
appears as if they are junk Dna in there by a variety of means Hasn't been removed Seen before that genes themseles hae bits of junk in them Introns .thousand Complex orgainsms require lots of genes Dones't seem to be case Other genomes deterimned Fruitflies 15 thousdand genes Nemotodes almost 20 thousand Certain plants 25 thousand Appear to be much more complex Another thing Part already know Only 5 percent of dna codes for proteins Are genes Repeating sequences of nucleotides Rest may be junk If they do have a function? At present .sections that aren't coding for anything .Large genome What was a surprise How few genes there were Gestamated .maybe 100 thousand genes Only about 30.
like the gene we're interested in Don't know where gene is in genome Want to see the gene itself Take piece of dna that we hae Take radioactive tag on it Probe the genome Dna binds to anything that has complementary sequence Take probe and put it into genome and bind where gene actually is Tells you where gene is in genome Don't know what gene product is .Just noise Messenger rna made Introns snipped out What remains of exons expressed squence that are gene Finding genes in the genome Wat to .In order to learn about it or change it If gene product (protein) is known can work backward to infer dna sequence Can find dna with that sequence from a dna library or manufacture it Can use that dna with a radioactive tag to prove the genome Can work backwwards genetic code to see what sequwence of nucleotides were used to produce amino acids Find dna sequence in dna library Or manufacture it Section of dna .
000 possible genes Best way to find out which one Find families with disease Compare dna of those who have the disease with those who don’t Fairly similar Things diferent Some have diseases some don’t Sequence of nucleotides of that gene Others have diferent sequence Chop them up Gel electrophoresis Some have diferent sequence of nucleotides of gene Fragments are going to be diferent than normal gene Requires a lot of work Lucky find gene .people have found this gene Dna can be broken into fragments by restriction enzymes Fragments will be of diferent lengths .Looking for gene for huntingtons disease is Don't know what bad enzyme is Can't work backwards How to find bad allele How to know what its all about 30.hundreds of fragments Separate them out Select diferent portiosn to narrow it down .
Find one place of consistant diference Individuals that have disease and those who don’t Scertain fragment associated with disease Fragment .individuals who have particualr pattern of fragments have that bad allele Once a marker has been found then you can look for gene itself Sequence the dna to find the mutated part Compare dna sequence for that fragment with a normal individual Cystic fibrosis 3 base pairs missiong 1 amino acid missing in the enzyme Most common genetic diseases in whites Determining relatedness Every individual genetically unique (except twins .same) Every individual sequence all dna .would be unique Often times Determine relatedness of indivudal to see how similar their dna is Expensive to look at whole sequence Produce rflp profile .includes bad allele May include other dna as well Fragment isnt gene itself just portion of dna that has it Genetic marker .
Picture of all fragments of dna and how they look on a gelrflp profile Blood on defendant and victim on pants and shirt Close to being unique Creating fragments .missing information in between them Never find two individuals with the same rflp profile Dna fingerprinting in criminal cases Paternity cases Daytime talkshows Whose father of cild What they're doing Used by biologists to determine paternity Maky kinds of studies of other organisms People want to know parents of ofspring are Tell us about behavior and mating Used extensively by biologists Uses by evolutionary biologists Whose related to whom Rely exclusively on morphology What does morphology look like We look at lions and chetas Tell us they are all cats Related to each other in some way Who is related to whom .
Gets difficult Whats closest living relative to cheeta Make determinations based on morphology Dna of organisms Dna is more similar than a third organism Those towo more closely related Similarity who is your borther and who is cousin Same thing to look at species Which one is more closely related Revolutionized . make lots of copies to work with Crime scens and also interested in fossil dna Not fossilized dna .many cases Difficult to determine relatedness Species gone under enormous morphologica changes Dna .find similarities to tell they are related More useful technology Pcr .can make small amounts of dna and make many copites of it so there is enough to be analyzed polimerous chain reaction Make copies of it Enough to be analyzed Crime scenes Small amount of dna Amount of analysis by dna sequencing what you would like to do Take little amount.
Possible to get small amounts of dna from orgainsms that have been dead for thousands of years Question about that Typically amount of dna is small Pcr Way of amplifying small amount of dna Primers to build new complementary strands of dna Once process have been done Cool it down and build more strands Everytime you do it .
sheep named dolly Taking a sheep One on left Donor sheep .Cloning Take nucleus from a cell of the individual to be cloned Put that nucleus and put it in a embryo cell whose nucleus has been removed Let embryo develop First cloned animal .
Took cells from utter of shepe and grew them in culture In certain point and took egg cells from another sheep and they removed the nucleus from those egg cells and put in nucleus from the first sheep So now they have egg cell that has nucleus from another sheep Allowed that embryo to develop for certain period of time And transplated it into surrogate mother Dolly was born and genetically identical to sheep who provided utter cells Not easiest thing to do Vary high number of failures Clone actually occurs small amount But the whole technology still in earlty stages and a lot of questions we don't know about Is dolly really genetically identical to animal it came? Some suggestions that infact some things happen to dna of adult organisms Take dna from adult cell and make clone of it Alterations occurred .
One things you want to know besides what a gene is is what its actually doing A way to determine what genes are active in an organism at any point of time Translated into proteins Find messenger rna Tell something how active a gene was Making lots of rna Not active not much at all Look at gene expression by looking at how much messenger rna is being produced Do this byputting little pieces of dna on grid Represents thousands of genes Color indicates something about how gene actictity there is .