Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

Joao B. Florindo
Physics Institute of Sao Carlos - University of Sao Paulo - Brazil
College of Medical and Dental Sciences - University of Birmingham
jbflorindo@gmail.com
http://scg.ifsc.usp.br

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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University of Sao Paulo
Top university in Latin-America (QS World University Rankings)
Numbers (approximate):
Established as university in 1934
93,000 students (30,000 PhD)
Total area: 76 million m2

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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1

Introduction

2

Fractal Geometry

3

Fractal Descriptors

4

Results

5

Other Works

6

Conclusions

7

Bibliography

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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Introduction Introduction Fractals are geometrical objects defined within an infinite range of scales Complex and self-similar structures at any scale Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 5 / 45 .

Introduction Introduction Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 6 / 45 .

1982] Complex and self-similar objects (within a limited range of scales) Joao B.Introduction Introduction Nature shows many fractal-like processes [Mandelbrot. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 7 / 45 .

. 2007. Florindo SHAPES Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 8 / 45 . 2009] Good results in texture and shape analysis [Xu et al. 2009. Xu et al. 2012] TEXTURES Joao B. Backes et al. 2013a. Florindo and Bruno...Introduction Introduction Fractal Theory has been widely applied to image analysis [Tian-Gang et al..

multiscale fractal dimension. 1982] This can be adapted to describe objects in nature Limited information / scale-dependent Multifractals.Introduction Introduction The most important measure of a fractal is its dimension[Mandelbrot. fractal descriptors Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 9 / 45 .

Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry Fractal dimension measures how the amount of details in the object changes according to scale Mathematically. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 10 / 45 . it is a real non-negative number provided by the Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension Such concept cannot be directly applied to finite objects (and images) but can be approximated Joao B.

Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry A general expression can be defined for real-world objects (fractal-like) and applied to the respective image representation D ∝ lim →0 Joao B. Florindo log(M()) log() Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 11 / 45 .

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 12 / 45 .Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry in Computer Vision Euclidean Geometry is limited to describe the complexity of nature Many objects in nature present high complexity and self-similarity and can be modelled by fractals Fractal dimension measures the complexity or spatial occupation Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 13 / 45 ... 2008] Joao B.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors Fractal dimension alone is scale-dependent and it is not sufficient in more complex problems Multiscale Fractal Dimension [Bruno et al. 2008] Figure based on [Bruno et al.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 14 / 45 . It uses the entire fractality curve Descriptors u : log() → log(M). either in microstructures or in a global viewpoint Joao B. etc. wavelets.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors Descriptors derived from the definition of descriptors in images: Fourier. Complete mapping of object complexity.

Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B. Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 15 / 45 .

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 16 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Texture SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

2013b] Space-scale Z +∞ U(b. a) = u 0 (t − b)ga dt n=−∞ Time-frequency Z +∞ U(b. Florindo Z ψ( < t −b )u(t)dt a Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 17 / 45 . a) = a Joao B. a) = g ∗ (t − b)u(t)e −2πat dt −∞ Time-scale 1 U(b.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Multiscale transform Multiscale transform [Florindo and Bruno.

. 2011] Measures on log-log curve are addressed through an analytical function The descriptors are obtained from the coefficients of the projection onto a set of basis functions FDA yji = u i (xji ) + ij 0 ui = q X 0 αj (u i )φj j=1 β(u) = Sα(u) Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 18 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: FDA Functional data analysis [Florindo et al.

.2 0.8 0. 2013a] .0 0.. K(ψ→n)] Joao B..0 1.2 10 20 30 40 50 k 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 k 40 50 60 70 80 90 k DlmaxM Dlmaxρ → φ i = [D1M(i) D2M(i) .4 0.4 0. DlmaxM(i)] → ψ i = [D1ρ(i) D2ρ(i) . K(φ→n) K(ψ→1) K(ψ→2) ..0 0.6 D(k) 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0..0 0...8 0.8 0.2 D(k) k 1.4 0.0 0.6 70 80 90 60 70 80 90 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.2 10 20 30 40 50 90 D2M k 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 D2ρ 50 60 70 80 90 1.0 D(k) 0. Dlmaxρ(i)] → EFV = [K(φ→1) K(φ→2) .4 0.2 0 0 0..Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Multilevels Multilevel descriptors [Florindo and Bruno..6 0.8 0.6 D(k) 1..2 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 90 10 20 30 40 50 k 1.0 1.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 k 70 80 0 90 10 20 30 40 50 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.6 D(k) 0.8 0.8 0.4 0 D(k) 10 D(k) 0 D(k) 60 k 1.6 0. 1.0 1. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 19 / 45 .6 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 D1M 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 D1ρ k k 60 70 80 0.2 D(k) D(k) 0.

and segmentation TRAINING TESTING WINDOWS WINDOWS DESCRIPTORS DESCRIPTORS CLASSIFIER Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 20 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Window-based Used in large dimension images. as usual in nanotechnology.

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 21 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Colour SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 22 / 45 . 2011b] Joao B.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Colour Combining descriptors from EEE channels [Florindo and Bruno.

Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Shapes SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B. Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 23 / 45 .

. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 24 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Curvature (shapes) Curvature fractal descriptors [Backes et al. 2012] Joao B.

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 25 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Spectrum SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 26 / 45 ..Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Gabor Gabor-transformed fractal descriptors [Zuniga et al. 2014] Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 27 / 45 .Results Results: Brodatz Joao B.

99 0.98 0.97 Joao B.975 0. Florindo T1 T2 0 10 20 30 k Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 40 50 60 28 / 45 .Results Results: Brodatz 1 T1 0.995 D(k) 0.985 T2 0.

85 Bouligand-Minkowski Multilevels + TS Probability + TS Lacunarity + TS Wavelets + TS Triangular + TF Fourier 14 18 8 10 8 10 10 99.46 99.10 94.92 92.25 87. Florindo Method Multifractals LBP Fourier GLCM Gabor ND 17 20 16 20 7 CR (%) 92.52 82.10 98.61 92.28 99.83 86.46 99.Results Results: Brodatz KNN Joao B.16 Lacunarity+Multilevels Brownian+Multilevels Fourier+Multilevels Probability+Multilevels + TS Bouligand-Minkowski+Multilevels + TS Triangular+Multilevels Lacunarity+Wavelets + TS 11 19 20 16 20 19 13 99.14 82.28 99.75 84.46 99.01 88.61 89.95 Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 29 / 45 .

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 30 / 45 . 2014] Joao B..Results Results: Taxonomy [Florindo et al.

2010] Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 31 / 45 .Results Results: Taxonomy [Florindo et al..

2014] Joao B..Results Results: Microscopy [Silva et al. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 32 / 45 .

. Florindo 20 40 r 60 Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 33 / 45 .4 0 Joao B. 2013] 0.4 D(r) 0.Results Results: Nanotechnology [Florindo et al.2 -0.2 0 -0.

Results Results: Segmentation Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 34 / 45 .

Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods Fractal Geometry is an example of complexity modelling Here ”complexity” means the degree of heterogeneity of a texture or irregularity of a shape Other examples of complexity-based methods are Complex Networks. Deterministic Partially Self-avoiding Walks. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 35 / 45 .. etc. Joao B. Complex Networks and Fractal Geometry are related [Song et al. 2005].

Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods DIFFUSION DYNAMIC Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 36 / 45 .

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 37 / 45 .Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods BOX-COVERING log NB (lB ) lB →0 log lB D ∝ lim Joao B.

Florindo log k(d) log d Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 38 / 45 .Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods CLUSTERING COEFFICIENT D ∝ lim d→0 Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 39 / 45 .Conclusions Conclusions Fractal descriptors express all the complexity of the object They capture nuances at different levels of scale They discriminate among complex materials automatically and with high precision Inexpensive technique (both in terms of computational and money resources) and providing promising results in different applications Joao B.

Conclusions Thank you all! Questions ... Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 40 / 45 .

40(10):4022–4028. B. 22(1):043103. O. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 41 / 45 . Florindo. de Oliveira Plotze. and de Castro. (2013a).. M.. J. Florindo.. Chaos. R. Expert Systems with Applications. M. and Bruno. R. (2008). Joao B. J. Falvo. A.. O. Inf. Texture analysis by multi-resolution fractal descriptors. 178(12):2722–2733. M. M. and Bruno..Bibliography Bibliography I Backes. O. Sci. Fractal dimension applied to plant identification. Shape analysis using fractal dimension: a curvature based approach. Bruno. (2012).

M. Backes. D-14197 BERLIN. Chaos. B. Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the fourier transform. volume 6134 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. O. B. pages 456–462. J. Joao B. 21(4):1–10. J. A. GERMANY. Fractal descriptors in the fourier domain applied to color texture analysis. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 42 / 45 . and Bruno. HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3. O... R. J. PROCEEDINGS. In IMAGE AND SIGNAL PROCESSING.Bibliography Bibliography II Florindo. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. Florindo. Leaves shape classification using curvature and fractal dimension. M. and Bruno. (2011b). M. and Bruno. (2010). Chaos Solitons & Fractals. (2011a). 44(10):851–861. O. Florindo. B.

Multiscale fractal descriptors applied to texture classification. M. O.. N. Florindo. R. V... M. 410(1):012022. M. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. and Bruno. De Castro. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. O. (2013b)... F. de Cerqueira Luz.Bibliography Bibliography III Florindo. da Silva. Herling.. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 43 / 45 . R. 22(9):929–952. J. O. J. B. M. J. de Fatima da Silva. P. Enhancing volumetric bouligand-minkowski fractal descriptors by using functional data analysis. 103(0):48 – 54. Joao B... H. (2014). Brachiaria species identification using imaging techniques based on fractal descriptors. (2011). Romualdo. L. B. International Journal of Modern Physics C. B. M. and Bruno. Florindo. and Bruno.

B. Characterization of nanostructured material images using fractal descriptors. (2014). Silva. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. O. Florindo. S. C. N. E. J.Bibliography Bibliography IV Florindo.. Sikora. Joao B. Freeman. 392(7):1694 – 1701. and Bruno.. B. O. 490(1):012085. and Bruno. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. M. M. Mandelbrot.. Kolb. R. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. J. Fractal descriptors for discrimination of microscopy images of plant leaves. B. M... (2013). B. Pereira.. C. G´ omez. M. R. M.. (1982). Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 44 / 45 .

H.. Havlin. G. and Makse. J. and Bruno. Florindo.Bibliography Bibliography V Song. Y. A. C.. C.. Ji. 83(1):85–100. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 45 / 45 . (2007). Comput. S. J. M.. A.. Xu. Self-similarity of complex networks. 433(7024):392–395. S. and Ferm¨ uller. 31(8):665–671. (2005). H. N... Wa. Pattern Recognition Letters. Nature. (2009). Tian-Gang. L. Zuniga. O. Viewpoint invariant texture description using fractal analysis. Fractal research of pathological tissue images.. 36:135–143. B. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. Gabor wavelets combined with volumetric fractal dimension applied to texture analysis. Int. (2014). Vision. Joao B. and Zhao.

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