Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

Joao B. Florindo
Physics Institute of Sao Carlos - University of Sao Paulo - Brazil
College of Medical and Dental Sciences - University of Birmingham
jbflorindo@gmail.com
http://scg.ifsc.usp.br

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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University of Sao Paulo
Top university in Latin-America (QS World University Rankings)
Numbers (approximate):
Established as university in 1934
93,000 students (30,000 PhD)
Total area: 76 million m2

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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1

Introduction

2

Fractal Geometry

3

Fractal Descriptors

4

Results

5

Other Works

6

Conclusions

7

Bibliography

Joao B. Florindo

Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis

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Introduction Introduction Fractals are geometrical objects defined within an infinite range of scales Complex and self-similar structures at any scale Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 5 / 45 .

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 6 / 45 .Introduction Introduction Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 7 / 45 .Introduction Introduction Nature shows many fractal-like processes [Mandelbrot. 1982] Complex and self-similar objects (within a limited range of scales) Joao B.

2009.Introduction Introduction Fractal Theory has been widely applied to image analysis [Tian-Gang et al. Florindo SHAPES Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 8 / 45 .. Xu et al. Florindo and Bruno. 2012] TEXTURES Joao B. 2013a.. 2007... 2009] Good results in texture and shape analysis [Xu et al. Backes et al.

Introduction Introduction The most important measure of a fractal is its dimension[Mandelbrot. fractal descriptors Joao B. multiscale fractal dimension. 1982] This can be adapted to describe objects in nature Limited information / scale-dependent Multifractals. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 9 / 45 .

Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry Fractal dimension measures how the amount of details in the object changes according to scale Mathematically. it is a real non-negative number provided by the Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension Such concept cannot be directly applied to finite objects (and images) but can be approximated Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 10 / 45 .

Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry A general expression can be defined for real-world objects (fractal-like) and applied to the respective image representation D ∝ lim →0 Joao B. Florindo log(M()) log() Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 11 / 45 .

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 12 / 45 .Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry Fractal Geometry in Computer Vision Euclidean Geometry is limited to describe the complexity of nature Many objects in nature present high complexity and self-similarity and can be modelled by fractals Fractal dimension measures the complexity or spatial occupation Joao B.

Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors Fractal dimension alone is scale-dependent and it is not sufficient in more complex problems Multiscale Fractal Dimension [Bruno et al. 2008] Figure based on [Bruno et al.. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 13 / 45 . 2008] Joao B..

It uses the entire fractality curve Descriptors u : log() → log(M). etc. either in microstructures or in a global viewpoint Joao B. wavelets. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 14 / 45 . Complete mapping of object complexity.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors Descriptors derived from the definition of descriptors in images: Fourier.

Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B. Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 15 / 45 .

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 16 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Texture SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

Florindo Z ψ( < t −b )u(t)dt a Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 17 / 45 . 2013b] Space-scale Z +∞ U(b. a) = a Joao B.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Multiscale transform Multiscale transform [Florindo and Bruno. a) = g ∗ (t − b)u(t)e −2πat dt −∞ Time-scale 1 U(b. a) = u 0 (t − b)ga dt n=−∞ Time-frequency Z +∞ U(b.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 18 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: FDA Functional data analysis [Florindo et al.. 2011] Measures on log-log curve are addressed through an analytical function The descriptors are obtained from the coefficients of the projection onto a set of basis functions FDA yji = u i (xji ) + ij 0 ui = q X 0 αj (u i )φj j=1 β(u) = Sα(u) Joao B.

2 0 0 0.8 0.2 0.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Multilevels Multilevel descriptors [Florindo and Bruno..2 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 90 10 20 30 40 50 k 1.6 0.8 0.0 0..6 0.4 0.6 0.8 0...2 0..0 0..2 D(k) D(k) 0.2 10 20 30 40 50 90 D2M k 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 D2ρ 50 60 70 80 90 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.2 10 20 30 40 50 k 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 k 40 50 60 70 80 90 k DlmaxM Dlmaxρ → φ i = [D1M(i) D2M(i) .2 D(k) k 1. K(φ→n) K(ψ→1) K(ψ→2) .6 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 D1M 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 D1ρ k k 60 70 80 0. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 19 / 45 . 1.6 D(k) 1.4 0.8 0.0 1.8 0.0 1.8 0.6 0. DlmaxM(i)] → ψ i = [D1ρ(i) D2ρ(i) .2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 k 70 80 0 90 10 20 30 40 50 0.4 0. Dlmaxρ(i)] → EFV = [K(φ→1) K(φ→2) . 2013a] ..6 D(k) 0.8 0. K(ψ→n)] Joao B..6 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.4 0 D(k) 10 D(k) 0 D(k) 60 k 1..4 0.8 0.8 0.6 70 80 90 60 70 80 90 0.4 0.4 0.0 1..0 D(k) 0.6 D(k) 0.4 0.2 0.

as usual in nanotechnology. and segmentation TRAINING TESTING WINDOWS WINDOWS DESCRIPTORS DESCRIPTORS CLASSIFIER Joao B.Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Window-based Used in large dimension images. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 20 / 45 .

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 21 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Colour SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

2011b] Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 22 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Colour Combining descriptors from EEE channels [Florindo and Bruno.

Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Shapes SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B. Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 23 / 45 .

. 2012] Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 24 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Curvature (shapes) Curvature fractal descriptors [Backes et al.

Florindo COLOUR Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 25 / 45 .Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Spectrum SPECTRUM TEXTURE IMAGE SHAPE Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 26 / 45 ..Fractal Descriptors Fractal Descriptors: Gabor Gabor-transformed fractal descriptors [Zuniga et al. 2014] Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 27 / 45 .Results Results: Brodatz Joao B.

985 T2 0.995 D(k) 0.99 0.Results Results: Brodatz 1 T1 0. Florindo T1 T2 0 10 20 30 k Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 40 50 60 28 / 45 .975 0.98 0.97 Joao B.

83 86.52 82.92 92.25 87.10 94.28 99.16 Lacunarity+Multilevels Brownian+Multilevels Fourier+Multilevels Probability+Multilevels + TS Bouligand-Minkowski+Multilevels + TS Triangular+Multilevels Lacunarity+Wavelets + TS 11 19 20 16 20 19 13 99.61 89.46 99. Florindo Method Multifractals LBP Fourier GLCM Gabor ND 17 20 16 20 7 CR (%) 92.46 99.61 92.01 88.Results Results: Brodatz KNN Joao B.75 84.46 99.10 98.95 Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 29 / 45 .85 Bouligand-Minkowski Multilevels + TS Probability + TS Lacunarity + TS Wavelets + TS Triangular + TF Fourier 14 18 8 10 8 10 10 99.28 99.14 82.

Results Results: Taxonomy [Florindo et al.. 2014] Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 30 / 45 .

. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 31 / 45 .Results Results: Taxonomy [Florindo et al. 2010] Joao B.

. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 32 / 45 .Results Results: Microscopy [Silva et al. 2014] Joao B.

2 0 -0. Florindo 20 40 r 60 Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 33 / 45 .4 D(r) 0..Results Results: Nanotechnology [Florindo et al. 2013] 0.2 -0.4 0 Joao B.

Results Results: Segmentation Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 34 / 45 .

. Joao B.Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods Fractal Geometry is an example of complexity modelling Here ”complexity” means the degree of heterogeneity of a texture or irregularity of a shape Other examples of complexity-based methods are Complex Networks. etc. Deterministic Partially Self-avoiding Walks. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 35 / 45 . Complex Networks and Fractal Geometry are related [Song et al. 2005].

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 36 / 45 .Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods DIFFUSION DYNAMIC Joao B.

Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods BOX-COVERING log NB (lB ) lB →0 log lB D ∝ lim Joao B. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 37 / 45 .

Florindo log k(d) log d Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 38 / 45 .Other Works Other Complexity-Based Methods CLUSTERING COEFFICIENT D ∝ lim d→0 Joao B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 39 / 45 .Conclusions Conclusions Fractal descriptors express all the complexity of the object They capture nuances at different levels of scale They discriminate among complex materials automatically and with high precision Inexpensive technique (both in terms of computational and money resources) and providing promising results in different applications Joao B.

Joao B.Conclusions Thank you all! Questions . Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 40 / 45 ...

. R... Inf. Florindo. R. 40(10):4022–4028. M. B. (2008). and de Castro. Shape analysis using fractal dimension: a curvature based approach. Falvo. J. Texture analysis by multi-resolution fractal descriptors... Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 41 / 45 . Joao B. and Bruno. 22(1):043103. A. J. Bruno. M. (2012). 178(12):2722–2733. M. M. O. O. Expert Systems with Applications. (2013a). Chaos. Florindo.Bibliography Bibliography I Backes. de Oliveira Plotze. and Bruno. Fractal dimension applied to plant identification. Sci. O.

PROCEEDINGS. (2011b). volume 6134 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Fractal descriptors in the fourier domain applied to color texture analysis. pages 456–462. 21(4):1–10. (2011a). Leaves shape classification using curvature and fractal dimension. J. Joao B. Chaos. O. Chaos Solitons & Fractals.Bibliography Bibliography II Florindo. 44(10):851–861. M. M. and Bruno. J. B. R. D-14197 BERLIN. and Bruno. Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the fourier transform. B. Backes. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 42 / 45 . M. J. Florindo.. Florindo. (2010).. GERMANY. In IMAGE AND SIGNAL PROCESSING. A. HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3. O. O. and Bruno. B.

Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 43 / 45 .. Multiscale fractal descriptors applied to texture classification. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. O. and Bruno. L.. O. Brachiaria species identification using imaging techniques based on fractal descriptors.. B. R. Herling. M.. M.. Florindo. O. (2011). Enhancing volumetric bouligand-minkowski fractal descriptors by using functional data analysis. J.. M. Romualdo. M. (2013b). Journal of Physics: Conference Series. F. M. De Castro. da Silva. Joao B. R. and Bruno. 410(1):012022. H.Bibliography Bibliography III Florindo. de Fatima da Silva. P. and Bruno. International Journal of Modern Physics C.. (2014). J. Florindo. N. B. de Cerqueira Luz. J. 22(9):929–952. B. 103(0):48 – 54. V..

C.. (2013).. M. Silva. Joao B. M. Kolb. and Bruno. Sikora. 392(7):1694 – 1701. O. Mandelbrot.. B. R. Fractal descriptors for discrimination of microscopy images of plant leaves. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. M.Bibliography Bibliography IV Florindo. R. B. J.. Pereira. and Bruno.. C. 490(1):012085. Florindo. N. M. G´ omez. S. Characterization of nanostructured material images using fractal descriptors. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 44 / 45 . (1982). B. M. (2014). Freeman.. E. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. J. O.. B.

O. B. A. (2014). S. Florindo Fractal Descriptors Applied to Image Analysis 45 / 45 . Florindo.. H. 433(7024):392–395.. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. 83(1):85–100. and Ferm¨ uller. and Bruno. M.Bibliography Bibliography V Song. Comput. C. C. Fractal research of pathological tissue images. J. N. Joao B. Tian-Gang. Wa. J.. S. Zuniga. H. Self-similarity of complex networks. (2007). (2005)... and Zhao. Y.. A. 36:135–143. Viewpoint invariant texture description using fractal analysis. 31(8):665–671.. Pattern Recognition Letters. Xu. Vision.. L. Nature. Gabor wavelets combined with volumetric fractal dimension applied to texture analysis. G. Ji. Int. (2009). and Makse. Havlin.

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