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PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
RESOURCE LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxvii
History Essay: The Last Century of the Roman Republic . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Reading 1: D bell Gallic 1.1 Gaul and Its Inhabitants . . .
Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns;
Relative Pronouns
Asyndeton, Ellipsis
Reading 2: D bell Gallic 1.2 The Conspiracy of Orgetorix
Adjectives with Genitive in us and Dative in ;
Participles Including Gerunds and Gerundives
Reading 3: D bell Gallic 1.3 Preparations to Leave . . . .
Gerunds and Gerundives in Purpose Constructions;
Subjunctive Purpose Clauses and Indirect
Reading 4: D bell Gallic 1.45 The Death of Orgetorix . .
Ablative Absolutes; The Active Periphrastic
Litotes, Polysyndeton, Alliteration
Reading 5: D bell Gallic 1.67 Caesars Response
to the Helvetians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect Statements; The Passive Periphrastic;
Review of Gerund and Gerundive Uses

. . . . .9

. . . . 20

. . . . 27

. . . . 36

. . . . 45

Chapter 2: Gaius Valerius Catullus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Reading 1: Carmen 1 The Dedication of Catulluss Libellus
Complementary Infi nitives and Infi nitives with
Impersonal Verbs; Partitive Genitive; Diminutives
Reading 2: Carmen 5 A Thousand and More Kisses . . . .
Cum Clauses
Chiasmus, Sibilance, Anaphora
Reading 3: Carmen 8 Farewell, Girl . . . . . . . . . . .
Imperatives and Prohibitions
Apostrophe, Rhetorical Question
Reading 4: Carmen 13 An Invitation to Fabullus . . . . .
Conditional Sentences
Reading 5: Carmen 49 A Thank You . . . . . . . . . . .
Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Adjectives
and Adverbs
Reading 6: Carmen 51 Love for Lesbia . . . . . . . . . .
Genitive and Dative Pronouns
Onomatopoeia, Transferred Epithet

. . . . . 60

. . . . . 71

. . . . . 81

. . . . . 92

. . . . 100

. . . . 105

Chapter 3: Marcus Tullius Cicero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Reading 1: Pr Archi pot 4.24 Archias and Antioch
Result Clauses
Reading 2: Pr Archi pot 5.13 Archiass Reputation .
Comparison; Contraction of vi and ve
Reading 3: In Catilnam I 1.12 Ciceros Accusations
Against Catiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Alternate Ending re
Reading 4: In Catilnam I 4.810; 5.1011 Revealing
Catilines Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relative Clauses of Purpose and Characteristic
Hyperbole, Metonymy, Tricolon
Reading 5: In Catilnam I 6.1516; 7.1618 Alleged
Attempts to Kill Cicero; The Personified Patria Speaks
Parallelism, Ellipsis (Gapping), and Words to be
Preterition, Metaphor, Personification, Oxymoron

vi Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

. . . . . 120
. . . . . 128

. . . . . 135

. . . . . 145

. . . . . 157

Reading 6: In Catilnam I 13.3133 Ciceros Final

Appeal to Catiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
The Volitive Use of the Present Subjunctive
Simile, Climax, Crescendo, Synecdoche
Reading 7: D amciti 5.206.22 The Benefits of
Friendship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


History Essay: Augustus and the Principate . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Chapter 4: Publius Vergilius Maro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Reading 1: Aeneid 1.111 Prologue and Invocation . . . .
Substantives (Adjectives Used as Nouns)
Epithet, Synchesis
Reading 2: Aeneid 1.421440 The Construction of
Carthage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended Simile
Reading 3: Aeneid 2.201222 Death of Laocoon and
His Sons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflexive/Middle Voice
Reading 4: Aeneid 2.547566 Pyrrhus and the Death
of Priam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patronymics and Other Names
Hysteron Proteron, Anastrophe
Reading 5: Aeneid 2.705729 Flight from Troy . . . . . .
Assimilation and Dative with Compound Verbs
Reading 6: Aeneid 4.160192 Aeneas and Dido in the Cave
Figures of Speech and Meaning
Reading 7: Aeneid 4.642666 Didos Suicide . . . . . . .
Alternate Endings and Syncopated Words
Euphemism, Royal or Editorial We

. . . . 207

. . . . 217

. . . . 231

. . . . 246

. . . . 258
. . . . 268

. . . . 282

Chapter 5: Quintus Horatius Flaccus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Reading 1: Odes 1.5 The Changeability of Love . . . . . . . . . 302
Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case

Contents vii

Reading 2: Odes 1.11 Seize the Day . . . . . . .

Reading 3: Odes 1.23 Chloes Maturity . . . . .
Infi nitive of Purpose, Review of Purpose
Constructions, and Review of Infi nitive Uses
Reading 4: Odes 2.10 The Golden Mean . . . . .
Reading 5: Odes 3.30 The Immortality of the Poet

. . . . . . . . 309
. . . . . . . . 315

. . . . . . . . 323
. . . . . . . . 331

Chapter 6: Publius Ovidius Naso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

Reading 1: Metamorphss 4.6577 [Pyramus and Th isbe]
The Chink in the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading 2: Metamorphss 4.7896 Th isbes Arrival for
a Nightt ime Rendezvous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading 3: Metamorphss 4.96127 Pyramuss Fatal
Mistake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Genitive of Quality and Ablative of Quality
Antithesis, Golden Line
Reading 4: Metamorphss 4.128166 Lovers United
in Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Review of Possession and Dative of Possession
Zeugma, Paradox
Reading 5: Metamorphss 10.243269 [Pygmalion]
Pygmalions Love for His Ivory Girl . . . . . . . . .
Indirect Questions; Fear Clauses
Assonance, Polyptoton
Reading 6: Metamorphss 10.270297 The Granting
of Pygmalions Secret Desire . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 342
. . . . . 348
. . . . . 354

. . . . . 364

. . . . . 375

. . . . . 385


History Essay: Why Post-Antique Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Chapter 7: Desiderius Erasmus and Other Post-antique
Latin Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Reading 1: Erasmus to Arnold Bostius A Dream
Deferred and a Fit of Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Reading 2: Erasmus on His Poem to Henry VII
A Royal Embarrassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Reading 3: The Poet Andrelinus to Erasmus Mutual
Admiration and a Letter of Praise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

viii Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

Reading 4: Erasmus to Jodocus Jonas The Founding

of a Special School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading 5: Erasmus to Thomas Linacre, MD Self-Praise
and Need of a Prescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading 6: Erasmus to Thomas More A Portrait of a
Lifelong Friendship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cum Circumstantial Clauses
Reading 7: Bishop John Fisher to Erasmus In Praise of
Your Translation Despite Printers Errors . . . . . . .
Substantive Clauses of Result
Reading 8: Petrarch Ode to Vergil . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading 9: John Parke An Ode In Praise of Horace . . .

. . . . . 416
. . . . . 422
. . . . . 429

. . . . . 434
. . . . . 441
. . . . . 449


Contents ix

Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3 provides an extensive introduction to
Latin literature and to Roman and later European culture in which Latin
served as a spoken and a literary language. Each chapter presents the Latin
language combined with historical and cultural information.


The principal readings in the first six chapters consist of authentic Latin passages
from major authors of the Republic and Augustan periodsCaesar, Catullus,
Cicero, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid. The seventh chapter mostly contains letters
written by Erasmus, the pre-eminent humanist of the 15th century.
Our methodological approach focuses on giving students as much help as
they need to read the fi rst selection of unadapted Latin from a classical author.
The assistance provided includes plentiful vocabulary entries and notes. In addition, in the fi rst reading of Chapters 16, words to be supplied because of
ellipsis have been added in parentheses; fonts different from that used for the
text make it clear that certain words belong together, such as noun-adjective
agreement or the relationship between antecedents and dependent clauses.
These aids are intended to help students translate the passage and become acquainted with an authors style.
After the fi rst reading in each chapter, the Latin texts usually do not feature
any reading aids. The exception to this occurs in the Cicero chapter, in which
the reading aids continue past the fi rst reading due to the difficulty of the
authors periodic style of writing. Copious vocabulary entries and notes that
continue to accompany each reading offer suggestions for translations, include
grammatical and syntactical information, contain historical and cultural material, and present ideas for interpreting and analyzing the Latin.
Study Tips provide information that students should learn. By the Ways introduce figures of speech or small points of grammar or syntax or additional
material. A Reminder icon signals that information is being repeated from earlier in the text for the benefit of the students who have so much to remember
at this point in their study of Latin. A Take-Note icon signifies that additional
information of interest is being provided.

The historical overview essays and the introductions to each chapter provide context for the Latin readingsinformation about the author, his literary achievements, and the time in which he lived. Students should also gain
from these introductions a good grasp of the historical events that fostered
or enabled the creation of the literature they are reading. For each of the essays, we provide a set of comprehension questions in this manual and in the
LNM Teachers Lounge. Each Latin reading is also followed by a short set of
comprehension questions. Teachers may wish to ask their students to answer
these sets of questions in writing or orally in class, either in Latin or in English.
Students are asked to cite the Latin as part of the answer to several of the comprehension questions for each Latin reading, which will help to prepare them
for writing the essay questions at the end of each selection.


Figures of speech are introduced in the student text in the By the Ways. Here
students will fi nd a defi nition of the figure, an example taken from the passage
the students are reading, and an explanation of how the figure augments the
interpretation of the Latin. After a figure of speech occurs the fi rst time, any
future references may occur in the notes or occasionally elsewhere. We introduce figures of speech gradually in the course of the Latin readings so as not to
overwhelm students as they learn the skills of literary analysis.
In this Teachers Manual, all new figures of speech are listed at the beginning of each reading. Figures of speech that were learned previously, whether
mentioned in a note or not (those not mentioned feature an asterisk to alert the
teacher), are listed in a Teaching Tip that follows the translation of the Latin.
The teacher may wish to take advantage of this list to review the figures by asking students to describe how the figure enhances meaning.

Via teaching tips, we suggest that students listen to experts read Latin aloud,
often in meter, and that they themselves read Latin prose and poetry aloud and
in meter where appropriate. The text also emphasizes the interplay between
sound and meaning.
Level 3 does not contain exercises that focus on oral Latin or Latin conversation. It is not our intent to advise teachers to abandon whatever competency
their students have gained in using oral Latin in LNM 1 and 2, but the focus of
this text is different. LNM 3 is based on reading, understanding, and analyzing authentic literatureespecially poetry. Based on the oral competency of
xii Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

a given class, teachers may wish to discuss in Latin the content or analysis of
any Latin reading in LNM 3. Furthermore, since many of the grammatical/
syntactical topics in Level 3 are a review of a topic already introduced in LNM
2, the oral Latin exercises in the LNM 2 TM may be used with LNM 3 also,
or the teacher may adapt oral exercises from LNM 2 for LNM 3 as they wish.


Understanding Latin grammar and syntax is essential to reading Latin with
facility. Short answer questions, labeled Exercise 1, following each passage are
intended to focus on both of these elements.
In the Language Facts section of each chapter, examples of the syntax, usually taken from current readings, include the passage from which they are
drawn so that students can go back and look at the context. Exercises that follow the Language Fact sections are intended to provide practice mastering the
grammar or syntax introduced in the Language Fact. The sentences in these
exercises are based on Latin passages in the text that students are currently
reading or have read earlier. For some answers to the exercises, we provide
additional information in parentheses for teachers benefit. Student answers
would not be expected to include this information.
Some points of grammar, too small to appear in a Language Fact, will be
found in a Study Tip or a By the Way. For each Latin Reading in a chapter,
this Teachers Manual lists all the grammar and syntax presented in Language Facts, Study Tips, and By the Ways, whether the grammar or syntax is
new or a review of what students learned in LNM 1 or 2. Review is included
because some teachers may not have taught from LNM 1 or 2, or because
students may have forgotten part of what they learned earlier, or because students now need to be aware of certain aspects of the syntax that had not been
previously presented. An example of the fi nal point is the frequent omission
of is, ille, and hic as antecedents of a relative clause, something not commonly
taught when these demonstratives are introduced at the beginning of a students study of Latin.
Some Language Facts presented in Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3 are
a review of what the students have already learned. Depending on the strengths
and weaknesses of the class, the teacher may choose which of the review Language Facts a given class should study. A weaker student can always be referred
to any of these Language Facts. It is recommended that language facts that the
class has not learned previously be covered thoroughly since these topics are
necessary for reading Latin literature.

Preface xiii

In the selections from Catullus, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid, Ovid, Petrarch, and
Parke, students are asked to identify the meter and scan several lines of the
poetry. Th is exercise enables students to master Latin scansion and at the same
time sensitizes them to syllabic wordplay and the Latin poets manipulating
the meter for effect. For example, in Vergils Aeneid 4.163164, two largely dactylic lines complement the sense of the Latin that describes the mad dash of
Trojans and Tyrians to fi nd shelter from a sudden thunderstorm and the rush
of rivers that occurs as a result of the concomitant rain showers.

The essay questions are intended to provide students with practice thinking
and writing about literary topics. It is a good prewriting activity to have students jot down ideas before beginning their essays. The answers to the essay
questions in this Teachers Manual may provide teachers with ideas on what
topics they might wish to cover in discussing the literary passages with their
students. Most of the answers to the essay questions are intended to be comprehensive; students will not cover the subject as extensively in their own essays. Teachers may of course substitute their own essay questions for the ones
suggested in the text.


At the start of each chapter in the student text can be found a famous quote
from the chapters author, which is aptly called Memorbile Dict. We encourage students to learn the Latin phrase and its significance because it will increase their understanding of the thoughts and ideas of the author they are

Students are not asked to master specific new vocabulary in LNM 3 as students
were asked to do in the Vocabulary to Learn and Vocabulary to Know sections
of Levels 1 and 2. Instead, a Vocabulary Builder follows many of the Latin passages. Th is section offers information and exercises on ways that students can
increase their Latin vocabulary, such as by studying Latin prefi xes, suffi xes,
and word families. For teachers convenience and use ad libitum, we provide
word lists by author for the vocabulary in each chapter of LNM 3. These can be
accessed in the LNM Teachers Lounge.

xiv Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

Th roughout the Teachers Manual we provide materials on derivatives that
teachers may share with their students. We recognize the important contribution that the study of Latin can make to a students building an enhanced
English vocabulary.

The pictures on the opening page of each chapter are intended to stimulate a discussion that provides an introduction to what the students will be reading. The
pictures in each chapter along with their captions make connections between
the Latin readings and material culture. They also provide a point of departure
for discussion on topics related to the reading selection. The five maps and the
plan of the Roman Forum enable students to connect place-names mentioned
in the background essays or the Latin readings themselves with their geographical locations. These help students build geographical literacy.


An icon alerts teachers to Teaching Tips that contain a variety of suggestions
for classroom activities and teaching strategies.


An icon marks each of these entries that provided additional notes about the
grammar, syntax, and diction of the Latin readings. The Teacher by the Ways
also present background information on a variety of topics related to the content of LNM 3.
H.D. and L.A.O.

Visit www.lnm.bolchazy.com to see the Links Latinae electronic resources

that enhance the LNM 3 student text and teachers manual bibliographies. The
LNM Teachers Lounge provides a range of teaching materials including maps,
derivative lists for students, various supplementary handouts mentioned in the
Teachers Manual as well as a test bank for the Latin readings and for the English derivatives. The Teachers Lounge invites teachers using LNM to share
ideas and materials with their colleagues across the world.

Preface xv


The initial page of each chapter features a work of art chosen
to stimulate discussion. Teachers might consider using this image as a prelection activity to generate ideas about the author
about to be studied. For instance, the Mantegna painting of the
triumph of Caesar highlights the tuba players and standardbearers. Teachers might ask students what they predict about
the subject matter of the Caesar readings. Students might also
consider Caesars reputation through the ages as this painting
is from the fi fteenth centurythe Renaissance.
Teachers might also ask students what ideas the Memorbile
Dict generates about the author and readings. Th is is a prelection activity for each of the texts seven chapters.


Andrea Mantegna was one of the most important early Renaissance masters in Italy. In 1459 he was appointed court painter to
Ludovico Gonzaga, the duke of Mantua. His masterpiece in Mantua is the Room of the Marriages where Mantegnas frescoes celebrate the Gonzaga family.
Francesco Gonzaga II, a successful military leader, commissioned a set of nine canvases of the Triumph of Caesar. As was the
custom of the Renaissance, Mantegna researched his subject matter and depicted what some scholars identify as the fi rst truly historical cycle of paintings.
While Gonzaga identifies with Caesar, the Renaissance political philosopher Machiavelli and the humanist historian Leonardo
Bruni respectively held a skeptical and negative view of Caesar.
Charles I of England purchased Mantegnas series and displayed
them at Hampton Court.

Chapter 1 5


These comprehension questions can be found in a document without answers
in the Teachers Lounge on the LNM website at www.lnm.bolchazy.com.
Teachers can make copies of the document for their students, project the document electronically in class, or email the document to their students.
1. During Caesars formative years, who were the two most important political figures of the time?
Marius and Sulla.
To which of these two individuals was Caesar related?
He had family ties to Marius because Marius married Caesars aunt
2. What happened to individuals who were proscribed?
They were hunted down and killed and their property was confiscated. (Caesar barely escaped proscription.)
3. What were the fi nancial consequences of Caesars election to the aedileship, to the religious post of pontifex maximus, and to the praetorship?
The consequences were that Caesar ended up deeply in debt. Crassus
had to guarantee that Caesar would pay these debts before he was allowed to depart for Spain for his governorship there.
4. How did Caesar strengthen his ties with Pompey within the fi rst triumvirate?
Caesar strengthened his ties with Pompey by making him his son-in-law.
5. What territory was Caesar assigned for his proconsulship? What did
Caesar accomplish during his proconsulship?
Caesar was assigned Illyricum and Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul,
initially for a period of five years, and later, after renewing his private
alliance with Pompey and Crassus in 56 bce, his command was extended for another five-year period. During these ten years Caesar
conquered all of Gaul.
6. What events led to the Civil War in 49 bce?
After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, which resulted in the end of the
First Triumvirate, Pompey was won over to the side of the Optimates.
Earlier, Pompey had promised Caesar that he could retain his proconsular imperium when he returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph and
6 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

that he could run for a second consulship in absenti. Once the triumvirate ended, Pompey no longer felt compelled to abide by his promises to Caesar. Consequently, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down
his command when he returned to Rome, while allowing Pompey to
retain his. Caesar refused, and the Senate declared him a public enemy. Caesar then marched his army into Roman territory, a decision
which marked the beginning of civil war.

What did Caesar reputedly say when he and his army crossed the Rubicon
into Roman territory?
lea iacta est (The die has been cast.) The expression indicated the
uncertainty of the undertaking, which almost certainly would involve civil war.

Students who studied from LNM 1 may recall the phrase lea iacta est as they encountered it as the Memorbile Dict for Chapter
6, p. 81.
8. When Caesar won the batt le of Zela, what famously short report did he
send back to Rome?
Vn, vd, vc.
9. What mistake did Caesar make, after he won the Civil War, which led to
his assassination?
Caesar made the mistake of forgiving his enemies. Caesar thought
that as a result of his clmentia, his former enemies would be loyal to
him; instead, they resented him and particularly so when he established himself dictator for life.
10. List two of Caesars lasting achievements.
The reformed calendar and the subjugation of Gaul.
11. What were Caesars commentaries based on?
Reports to the Senate by Roman governors and generals in which
Caesar describes his and his armys experiences.
12. Describe one distinctive feature of Caesars style that reflects the literary
tradition in which he was writing.
Using reports to the Senate by Roman governors and generals as a
model, he writes in the third person singular because he is sharing
reports of events in Gaul with both the Senate and Roman people.
Chapter 1 7

Questions about the map on p. 17 can be found in a document without answers in the Teachers Lounge on the LNM website at www.lnm.bolchazy.
com. Teachers can make copies of the document for their students, project the
document electronically in class, or email the document to their students. Answers will be provided in a separate document for the teachers convenience.

Teachers may wish to assign students to read The Door in the Wall,
a novel of historical fiction based on the life of Julius Caesar. Benita
Kane Jaros novel is engagingly written and based on careful research. It is available from Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Th is novel may be read by the entire class as they read the selections from
Caesar in this book or may be an extra credit assignment for one or
more students who then report on the book to the whole class.
Teachers may also wish to encourage students to read Rubicon
and The Judgement of Caesar, both historical novels by Steven Saylor. The plot action in Rubicon occurs as Caesar marches on Rome
and during the early days of the Roman Civil War. The Judgement of
Caesar begins as the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey comes
to a conclusion. The affair between Caesar and Cleopatra is part of
the plot of this novel.
Another historical novel for students to be encouraged to read is
SPQR XIII: The Year of Confusion by John Maddox Roberts. Julius
Caesar as dictator of Rome decides to revise the Roman calendar.
Shortly after this project is begun, murders begin to occur.


Using historical novels in the classroom promotes student enthusiasm since historical novels are usually pleasant to read. Teachers
must be aware, however, that historical fiction is not the same as
history. Teachers should encourage their students to determine
where a historical novel diverges from the historical facts. Other
historical novels will be suggested for use throughout this teacher
manual and this caveat applies to all.

8 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

Review Grammar in Language Facts: Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns (pp. 197, 228, 343, 357358, LNM 1); Relative Pronouns (pp. 240
242, LNM 1)
New Grammar in a Study Tip, By the Way, or Notes: Ablative of Respect;
Dative with Certain Adjectives (near, dear, kind, etc.); Predicate Nominatives with Certain Intransitive Verbs (appear, name, call) in the Passive Voice; Rivers are Masculine in Gender; cum as a preposition vs. cum
as a conjunction
Review Grammar in a Study Tip, By the Way, or Notes: Active Translation
of Deponent Verb Tenses (p. 171, LNM 2); Preposition cum Attached to
Pronouns such as m, t, etc. (p. 233, LNM 2)
Figures of Speech Introduced in Th is Section: Asyndeton, Ellipsis
Standards: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2

LNM 3 Enrichment Reader
The Caesar passages in the LNM 3 Enrichment Reader present
Caesar as social commentator with selections about the Druids
D bell Gallic 6.13 and 6.1416. In addition, the LNM 3 Enrichment Reader includes Caesars D bell cvl 3.103104, a passage
which describes the death of his rival Pompey.


Study Tips and By the Ways in LNM 3 present Latin synonyms, Latin words
that are often confused, and translating tips. The teacher may wish to instruct
students to keep a list of these in a notebook or in a computer fi le for reference.
For most students, figures of speech will be new at level 3 in their study of
Latin. Students should learn the defi nition of each figure of speech when it
occurs in a By the Way. They should also be encouraged to recognize figures
of speech in a passage of Latin and, most importantly, teachers should impress
upon students the need to analyze how a figure of speech enhances the Latin.
After a figure of speech is introduced and explained in a By the Way, later uses
of the figure of speech are usually mentioned very briefly (and for each instance the student should explain how the figure of speech enhances the given
Chapter 1 9

Latin). Students who need a refresher on a particular figure of speech at this

point should consult Appendix C, which gives defi nitions and examples for
figures of speech presented in this textbook.

Instruct students to ask their grandparents (or other older adults) if they remember studying Caesar in school and if they were required to memorize the opening
lines of D bell Gallic 1.1. Compare students findings in class and then instruct
students to memorize and recite aloud to the class or to the teacher alone lines
13 or lines 15. Teachers may choose to bill this as a retro activity or a chance
for students to see what a Latin class was like in their grandparents day.

In Schola Cantans, available from Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Caesars
D bell Gallic 1.13 is set to music by the Czech composer Jan Novak. The
marching rhythm of Novaks arrangement suits these passages and will sensitize students to the pronunciation and sound of Caesars prose. Students may
also sing along with this music.

(NB: Only the fi rst page of the Latin passage translation will be listed.)
The translations in the Teachers Manual are intended to be rather literal. Words
that need to be supplied in the English translation, such as part in line 1 below,
will be placed in brackets. Parentheses will be used to indicate very literal translations, such as among themselves, in lines 34 below, or to clarify the Latin, as (i.e.,
German), in line 13 below.
Gaul as a whole is divided into three parts, one [part] of which the Belgians
inhabit, another [part] the Aquitanians, [and those] who are called Celts by
their own language, Gaul by our language [inhabit] a third [part]. All these
[peoples] differ from one another (among themselves) in language, customs,
[and] laws. The Garonne river [divides] the Gauls from the Aquitanians, the
Marne and the Seine rivers divide [the Gauls] from the Belgians. The bravest of
all of these [peoples] are the Belgians because they are farthest away from the
culture and civilization (humanity) of the Province, and merchants come and
go least often to these [people] and they bring in those [items] which pertain to
weakening courage. They (the Belgians) are nearest to the Germans, who live
across the Rhine, with whom they continuously wage war. For this reason the
Helvetians also surpass the rest of the Gauls in courage because they fight in

10 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

almost daily batt les with the Germans, when either they keep them from their
own boundaries or they themselves wage war in their (i.e., German) boundaries. One part of their territory (of them), which it has been said that the Gauls
hold, takes its beginning from the Rhone river, is bounded by the Garonne
river, the Ocean, [and] the territory of the Belgians, touches also the Rhine
river on the side of the Sequanians and Helvetians, [and] slopes toward the
north. The Belgians originate from the farthest territory of Gaul, extend to the
lower part of the Rhine river, [and] face the north and east. Aquitania extends
from the Garonne river to the Pyrenees mountains and that part of the Ocean
which is near Spain, [and] it faces between the west and north.

pp. 18, 20, 22
The teacher may wish to instruct students to draw the three parts
of Gaul, along with the river, the Ocean, and mountain boundaries
as described by Caesar in the text above. The teacher may choose
to have the students draw what they understand from Caesars
words before they have looked at a map. Then students can check
their comprehension of what Caesar wrote by comparing what was
drawn to what is on the map on p. 17. Alternatively, the teacher may
choose to have students compare the map on p. 17 to a modern map
and note the Latin-based names still in use.


p. 18, 20, 22
In the note on line 1, reference is made to Gallia Cisalpna,
Gaul on this side (cis) of the Alps, and to Gallia Trnsalpna,
Gaul across the Alps. The teacher may wish to call the students attention to the use of these same prefi xes in the word
cislunar and the phrase translunar space.
In the study tip on lines 23, it is noted that lingu, institts,
lgibus are ablatives of respect. Some books use the term ablative of specification instead, but in this book the term ablative
of respect will be used.
In line 6, cult atque hmnitte is an ablative of separation.
In line 9, virtte is an ablative of respect.

Chapter 1 11

1. Name in both Latin and English the three parts of Gaul that Caesar outlines.
Belgica, Belgium; Aqutnia, Aquitania; Gallia, Gaul
2. Which of these three parts is the bravest and why, according to Caesar?
The Belgians are the bravest, because they are most distant from the
culture and humanity of the Province and because merchants bring
to them least often things which would weaken their bravery.
3. Why are the Helvetians more courageous than the Gauls?
They fight almost daily with the Germans.


1. In line 1, what Latin word is the antecedent of qurum?
2. In lines 12, what three Latin words modify the understood noun partem?
nam, aliam, tertiam
3. In line 2, what is the case and use of ipsrum?
genitive of possession
4. What is the case and use of lingu in line 2?
ablative of means
5. In line 3, what is the tense, voice, and mood of appellantur?
present passive indicative
6. In line 4, to what does s refer?
the Belgians, Aquitanians, and the Gauls

What is the case and use of Aqutns in line 4?

ablative of separation

8. In lines 45, what are the Latin subjects of dvidit?

Garumna, Matrona, Squana
9. What is the case and degree of fortissim in line 5?
nominative, superlative
10. What is the case and use of cult in line 6?
ablative of separation

12 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

11. What is the subject of commeant in line 7?

12. What is the antecedent of qu in line 8?
13. What is the case and use of virtte in line 9?
ablative of respect
14. In line 10, what is the subject of praecdunt?
15. In line 10, what is the case and use of proelis?
ablative of means
16. In line 11, to whom does es refer?
the Germans
17. What is the antecedent of quam in line 11?
18. In line 12, what is the tense, voice, and mood of dictum est?
perfect passive indicative
19. In lines 1214, pars is the subject of what four verbs?
capit, contintur, attingit, vergit

It is easier to read passages of D bell Gallic if you know the geographical
terms for the peoples and places Caesar is discussing. Here are terms that will
help you read; can you fi nd each of these on the map on p. 17?
Using a Latin dictionary to help you, what are the Latin adjectives that correspond to the peoples listed above. Be careful since there are a few difficult
ones in the list of people.
Example: Gall, -rum, m. pl. the Gauls Gallus, -a, -um Gallic
Belgae, -rum, m. pl. the Belgians
Belgicus, -a, -um Belgian
Aqutn, -rum, m. pl. the Aquitanians
Aqutnius, -a, -um Aquitanian
Germn, -rum, m. pl. the Germans
Germnus, -a, -um German
Chapter 1 13

Helvti, -rum, m. pl. the Helvetians

Helvtius, -a, -um Helvetian
Squan, -rum, m. pl. the Sequanians
Squanus, -a, -um, Sequanian
Hispn, -rum, m. pl. the Spaniards
Hispnus, -a, -um Spanish
Celtae, -rum, m. pl. the Celts
Celticus, -a, -um Celtic
Aedu, -rum, m. pl. the Aeduans
No Latin adjective corresponds to this people

Identify the demonstrative pronoun/adjective in each sentence, indicate
whether it is being used as a pronoun or an adjective, and translate the entire
1. Hrum omnium fortissim sunt Belgae.
hrum, pronoun
Of all these [men], the Belgians are the bravest. Or The Belgians are
the bravest of all these [men].
2. Ill Belgae ab extrms Galliae fnibus oriuntur.
ill, adjective
Those Belgians arise from the farthest territory of Gaul.
3. Erum na pars, quam Gall obtinent, initium capit flmine Rhodan.
erum, pronoun
One part of them (i.e, their territory), which the Gauls hold, takes
[its] beginning from the Rhone river.
4. Sus fnibus hunc prohibent.
hunc, pronoun
They keep him from their territory.
5. Aqutnia ab e flmine ad Prnaes monts pertinent.
e, adjective
Aquitania stretches from that river to the Pyrenees mountains.

14 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3

6. Hanc partem incolunt Belgae, illam Aqutn, et eam Gall.

hanc, illam, eam; adjectives
The Belgians inhabit this part, the Aquitanians that [part], and that/
this [part] the Gauls.

In erum fnibus bellum gerunt.

erum, pronoun
They wage war in their territory.

8. Fer ctdins proelis cum ills contendunt.

ills, pronoun
They fight with them in almost daily batt les.
9. Haec pars initium capit Rhodan flmine.
haec, adjective
Th is part takes its beginning from the Rhone river.
10. Ill Germn quibuscum continenter Belgae bellum gerunt incolunt trns
ill, adjective
Those Germans with whom the Belgians continuously wage war live
across the Rhine.

1. Gallia est omnis dvsa in parts trs, qurum nam partem incolunt Belgae.
Gaul as a whole is divided into three parts, of which the Belgians
inhabit one part.
2. na pars, quae initium capit Rhodan, contintur Garumn flmine.
One part, which takes its beginning from the Rhone, is bounded by
the Garonne River.
3. Qu cult atque humnitte prvinciae longissim absunt fortissim sunt.
Those who are farthest away from the culture and the civilization of
the Province are most brave.
4. Matrona, Squana, Garumna quae sunt tria flmina in Galli sunt longissim.
The Marne, Seine, [and] Garonne, which are three rivers in Gaul, are
very long.
Chapter 1 15

5. Qu lingu, nstitts, lgibus inter s differunt.

They differ from one another in language, customs, [and] laws.
6. Belgae qurum mlits sunt fortissim mults proelis cum Germns
The Belgians, whose soldiers are very brave, fight with the Germans
in many batt les.

Mlits es grtis agunt ab quibus cibus ad castra importtur.

The soldiers give thanks to those by whom food is carried to camp.

8. Belgae ab extrms fnibus qu sunt in Galli oriuntur.

The Belgians arise from the farthest territory that is in Gaul.

p. 29
Essay questions are included in this book so that teachers may implement some pre-AP essay writing or across-the-curriculum analysis
and writing practice if they so choose. The first essay question that
students will see is the question about Caesar, D bell Gallic, 1.1. If
students have had little or no exposure to essay writing, the teacher
will want to give students some guidance about writing essays such as
students must cite Latin from the passage to support their
points or, in the case of a longer citation, may give the line numbers instead. The Latin citation should be written immediately
after the point it supports.
students must translate into English the Latin they cite. Translations should be inside quotation marks and should be literal.
teachers may wish to share with the students the AP essaygrading rubric, which can be found at the AP website.
students should be reminded to implement what they have
learned in their English classes about including topic sentences
for paragraphs, writing an introduction and a conclusion to the
essay, and using correct English grammar, punctuation, and
spelling. Students may need to be reminded that in a handwritten essay, the title of a book is underlined, but in a word-processed essay the title should be placed in italics.

16 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3


p. 29
Th is fi rst essay question requests more information than is supplied in the Latin passage and only a small amount of information
that is analytical in nature. As students become more familiar with
essay writing, more analysis will be required in subsequent essay

In lines 49 Caesar discusses the factors that he believes contribute to the
bravery, fi rst of the Belgians and then of the Helvetians. In a short essay identify these factors. Point out and explain the significance ofthe factor that he
mentions in the case of the Belgians but not of the Helvetians.
What does this omission indicate?
Support your assertions with references to the Latin text throughout the
passage above.
All Latin words must be copied or their line numbers provided, AND they
must be translated or paraphrased closely enough that it is clear that you understand the Latin. Direct your answer to the question; do not merely summarize the passage. Please write your essay on a separate piece of paper.

p. 29
The teacher should instruct the students to use either the line numbers from the fi rst passage of D bell Gallic on pp. 18, 20, 22 or
from the Redux passage on p. 28. It will help the teacher when reading/grading the essay if all students use the same passage and therefore the same line numbers. In the sample essay answer below, the
line numbers from pp. 18, 20, 22 are used.


p. 29
In their essays students should distinguish between cultus, external luxuries, and hmnits, moral and intellectual refi nement,
and discuss how these qualities can make men less brave. Students
should include in their discussion the effect that living close to the
Germans and to the Romans has upon the inhabitants of Gaul.

Chapter 1 17

In writing about the peoples who inhabit Gaul, Caesar singles out the
Belgians as being the bravest (hrum omnium fortissim sunt Belgae, line
5). He gives three reasons for this. First, the Belgians are the farthest distance from the external luxuries and moral and intellectual refi nement
of the Province ( cult atque hmnitte provinciae longissim absunt,
line 6). It is interesting that Caesar, a well-educated Roman, views intellectual refi nement as detracting from valor. Second, merchants travel
least often to this people and, as a result, few luxuries are imported that
weaken the courage of the Belgians (minimque ad es merctrs saepe
commeant atque ea quae ad effminands anims pertinent important, lines
68). The potentially negative effect that the merchants and their wares
might have on the Belgians is reinforced by the prepositional phrase ad
effminands anims in line 7 echoing ad es in line 6. Th ird, the Belgians
are the bravest owing to their close proximity to the Germans, with whom
they are continuously engaged in warfare (proximque sunt Germns, qu
trns Rhnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt, lines 89).
Caesar then adds that the Helvetians, too, surpass the rest of the peoples
of Gaul in courage because they are in almost daily batt les with the Germans (Qu d caus Helvti quoque reliqus Galls virtte praecdunt,
quod fer ctdins proelis cum Germns contendunt, lines 910) What
Caesar leaves unsaid is that the Helvetians, who also live in close proximity to the Romans, do not seem to be adversely affected by the Province
with its external luxuries and moral and intellectual refi nement. Caesar
credits the ferocity of the Helvetians totally to their daily military batt les
(skirmishes) with the Germans.

Student List:
appell appeal, appellate, appellation
hmnits humanity, humanist, humanitarian
merctor merchant, merchandise, commercial, market, mercantile
effmin effeminate
cotdinus quotidian
verg converge, diverge, divergent

18 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3


appell The Latin verb means call by name but also speak to, beseech, and
it is this latter meaning which leads to appeal (an earnest request).
An appellate court is called upon to review cases decided in a lower court.
The appellation of chairman was given to him gratuitously while the real
power lay in the hands of the CEO.
hmnits Th is word is derived from hom (mankind) and therefore refers
to humans. Its derivatives have the same meaning and usually refer to humane
qualities such as benevolence as well as the studies of classical languages and
literature, the arts, philosophy, etc., as opposed to the sciences.
A humanist studies human nature and affairs and has a strong interest in
the well-being of people. Th is term was also applied to scholars of the Renaissance who concentrated on the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome.
A humanitarian is concerned with improving the lot of the human race;
for example, Andrew Carnegie was a philanthropist (lover of man) who
founded the public library system.
merctor (from merx = goods, wares, wages)
merctor is someone (-tor) who deals in merchandise.
The word market owes its spelling changes to the Vulgar Latin marcitus
(from merctor) through Middle English and refers to a place where goods
are sold.
A related derivative, commerce (and commercial) is derived from the
Latin cum = together, and merx = goods, and refers to an interchange of
buying and selling.
The United States is a mercantile nation, for it is in the business of buying
and selling goods.
effmin The word effeminate dates back to the 15th century and is derived
from ex = out of, and fmina = woman. The literal meaning out of woman
came to mean make a woman of, the Latin meaning of the verb. The term
effeminate is always pejorative in English.
cotdinus Th is word is derived from quot (how many, every) and dis
(day). The English quotidian reflects the root spelling as well as the meaning, e.g., The New York Times is a quotidian newspaper.
verg The derivative diverge (from dis = apart and verg = to turn) appears in
the fi rst line of Robert Frosts memorable poem, The Road Not Taken: Two
roads diverged in a yellow wood . . . .
Chapter 1 19

Divergent opinions can result in interesting and fruitful discussions, or

they can lead to rousing arguments.
The antonym of diverge is, of course, converge.

Review Grammar in in Language Facts: Adjectives with the Genitive Singular in ius and the Dative Singular in i (p. 248 251, LNM 2); Present
Active, Perfect Passive, and Future Active Participles (pp. 334 336, 367,
LNM 1; pp. 242243, LNM 2 ) Gerunds and Gerundives (pp. 338344,
LNM 2)
New Grammar in a Study Tip, By the Way, or Notes: Singular mlle Compared to Plural mlia + Partitive Genitive; Dative after Verbs of Pleasing,
Trusting, Believing, Persuading, Resisting, Commanding, Obeying,
Serving, and Sparing; Ablative of Cause
Figures of Speech Introduced in Th is Section: Hendiadys
Standards: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2

In Schola Cantans, Caesars D bell Gallic 1.13 is set to music by the Czech
composer Jan Novak. The marching rhythm of Novaks arrangement suits
these passages and will sensitize students to the pronunciation and sound of
Caesars prose. Students may also sing along with this music.

Use the map on p. 17 to help students understand the geography
that Caesar is discussing in this section. A project for students to do
in conjunction with Caesar 1.1 and 1.2 is to create, build, or draw a
map. Students can also be instructed to fi nd pictures of the rivers,
mountains, and lakes mentioned here and in 1.1 on the Internet.
Teachers may also want students to use Google Earth to look at
these places.

20 Latin for the New Millennium: Teachers Manual, Level 3