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what is frequency band

Frequency bands are groupings of radio frequencies that are used by mobile networks to
communicate with mobile phones. The frequency bands that a phone supports determine to a
large degree where and on which networks it can be used.

Frequency bands[edit]
There are fourteen bands defined in 3GPP TS 45.005, which succeeded 3GPP TS 05.05:[1]
Equivalent
LTE band

GSM band

(MHz)

Uplink (MHz)

Downlink (MHz)

(Mobile to Base)

(Base to Mobile)

T-GSM-380

380

380.2 389.8

390.2 399.8

dynamic

T-GSM-410

410

410.2 419.8

420.2 429.8

dynamic

GSM-450

450

450.6 457.6

460.6 467.6

259 293

GSM-480

480

479.0 486.0

489.0 496.0

306 340

GSM-710

710

698.2 716.2

728.2 746.2

dynamic

GSM-750

750

777.2 792.2

747.2 762.2

438 511

T-GSM-810

810

806.2 821.2

851.2 866.2

dynamic

27

GSM-850

850

824.2 849.2

869.2 893.8

128 251

P-GSM-900

900

890.0 915.0

935.0 960.0

1 124

E-GSM-900

900

880.0 915.0

925.0 960.0

975 1023, 0 - 124

Channel number

31

12

R-GSM-900

900

876.0 915.0

921.0 960.0

955 1023, 0 - 124

T-GSM-900

900

870.4 876.0

915.4 921.0

dynamic

DCS-1800

1800

1710.2 1784.8

1805.2 1879.8

512 885

PCS-1900

1900

1850.2 1909.8

1930.2 1989.8

512 810

bands 2 and 5 (shaded in blue) have been deployed in NAR and CALA (North American
Region [Canada and the US], Caribbean and Latin America)

bands 3 and 8 (shaded in yellow) have been deployed in EMEA and APAC (Europe, the
Middle East and Africa, Asia-Pacific)

all other bands have not seen any commercial deployments

P-GSM, Standard or Primary GSM-900 Band

E-GSM, Extended GSM-900 Band (includes Standard GSM-900 band)

R-GSM, Railways GSM-900 Band (includes Standard and Extended GSM-900 band)

T-GSM, Trunking-GSM

GSM frequency usage around the world[edit]


A dual-band 900/1800 phone is required to be compatible with most networks apart from
deployments in ITU-Region 2.

GSM-900, EGSM/EGSM-900 and GSM-1800[edit]


GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most parts of the world (ITU-Regions 1 and
3): Africa, Europe, Middle East, Asia (apart from Japan and South Korea where GSM has never
been introduced) and Oceania.
In common GSM-900 is most widely used. Fewer operators use GSM-1800. Mobile
Communication Services on Aircraft (MCA) uses GSM-1800.[2]
In some countries GSM-1800 is also referred to as "Digital Cellular System" (DCS).

GSM-850 and GSM-1900[edit]

GSM-1900 and GSM-850 are used in most of North, South and Central America (ITU-Region
2). In North America, GSM operates on the primary mobile communication bands 850 MHz and
1900 MHz. In Canada, GSM-1900 is the primary band used in urban areas with 850 as a backup,
and GSM-850 being the primary rural band. In the United States, regulatory requirements
determine which area can use which band.
The term Cellular is sometimes used to describe GSM services in the 850 MHz band, because
the original analog cellular mobile communication system was allocated in this spectrum.
Further GSM-850 is also sometimes called GSM-800 because this frequency range was known as
the "800 MHz band" (for simplification) when it was first allocated forAMPS in the United
States in 1983. In North America GSM-1900 is also referred to as Personal Communications
Service (PCS) like any other cellular system operating on the "1900 MHz band".

Frequency mixing between GSM 900/1800 and GSM 850/1900 [edit]


Some countries in Central and South America have allocated spectrum in the 900 MHz and
1800 MHz bands for GSM in addition to the common GSM deploymens at 850 MHz and
1900 MHz for ITU-Region 2 (Americas). The result hereof is a mixture of usage in the Americas
that requires travelers to confirm that the phones they have are compatible with the band of the
networks at their destinations. Frequency compatibility problems can be avoided through the use
of multi-band (tri-band or, especially, quad-band) phones.
The following countries are mixing GSM 900/1800 and GSM 850/1900 bands:[3]
Country

GSM-850

GSM-1900

GSM-900

GSM-1800

Antigua and Barbuda

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Barbados

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Brazil

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

British Virgin Islands

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cayman Islands

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Country

GSM-850

GSM-1900

GSM-900

GSM-1800

Costa Rica

Yes

No

No

Yes

Dominica

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Dominican Republic

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

El Salvador

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Grenada

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Guatemala

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Haiti

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Jamaica

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Saint Lucia

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Trinidad and Tobago

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Turks and Caicos Islands

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Country

GSM-850

GSM-1900

GSM-900

Uruguay

Yes

Yes

Yes

Venezuela

Yes

No

Yes

GSM-1800

Yes

Yes

GSM-450[edit]
Another less common GSM version is GSM-450.[4] It uses the same band as, and can co-exist with,
old analog NMT systems. NMT is a first generation (1G) mobile phone system which was primarily
used in Nordic countries, Benelux, Alpine Countries, Eastern Europe and Russia prior to the
introduction of GSM. The GSM Association claims one of its around 680 operator-members has a
license to operate a GSM 450 network in Tanzania. However, currently all active public operators in
Tanzania use GSM 900/1800 MHz. There are no publicly advertised handsets for GSM-450
available.
Very few NMT-450 network remain in operation. Overall, where the 450 MHz NMT band has been
licensed, the original analogue network has been closed, and sometimes replaced by CDMA. Some
of the CDMA networks have since upgraded from CDMA to LTE (LTE band 31).

Multi-band and multi-mode phones[edit]


Today, most telephones support multiple bands as used in different countries to facilitate roaming.
These are typically referred to as multi-band phones. Dual-band phones can cover GSM networks in
pairs such as 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies (Europe, Asia, Australia and Brazil) or 850 and 1900
(North America and Brazil). European tri-band phones typically cover the 900, 1800 and 1900 bands
giving good coverage in Europe and allowing limited use in North America, while North American triband phones utilize 850, 1800 and 1900 for widespread North American service but limited
worldwide use. A new addition has been the quad-band phone, also known as a World Phone,

[5]

supporting at least all four major GSM bands, allowing for global use (excluding non-GSM

countries such as Japan or South Korea).


There are also multi-mode phones which can operate on GSM as well as on other mobile phone
systems using other technical standards or proprietary technologies. Often these phones use
multiple frequency bands as well. For example, one version of the Nokia 6340i GAIT phone sold in
North America can operate on GSM-1900, GSM-850 and legacyTDMA-1900, TDMA-800,
and AMPS-800, making it both multi-mode and multi-band. As a more recent example the
Apple iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S support quad-band GSM at 850/900/1800/1900 MHz, quad-band
UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA at 850/900/1900/2100 MHz, and dual-band CDMA EV-DO Rev. An at
800/1900 MHz, for a total of 'six' different frequencies (though at most four in a single mode). This
allows the same handset to be sold for AT&T Mobility, Verizon, and Sprint in the U.S. as well as a
broad range of GSM carriers worldwide such as Vodafone, Orange and T-Mobile (Excluding-US),
many of whom offer official unlocking.

INDIA
2G capabilities

3G capabilities

4G capabilities

GSM 900, GSM 1800


UMTS 2100
LTE 850 (5), LTE 1800 (3), LTE 2300 (40)

2G, first introduced in 1992, is the second-generation of cellular telephone


technology and the first to use digital encryption of conversations. 2G networks
were the first to offer data services and SMS text messaging, but their data
transfer rates are lower than those of their successors.
3G networks succeed 2G ones, offering faster data transfer rates and are the
first to enable video calls. This makes them especially suitable for use in

modern smartphones, which require constant high-speed internet connection


for many of their applications.
4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone communications standards. It is a
successor of the 3G and provides ultra-broadband internet access for mobile
devices. The high data transfer rates make 4G networks suitable for use in
USB wireless modems for laptops and even home internet access.