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Modul #02

TE3223
SISTEM KOMUNIKASI 2

MATCHED FILTER
((by
y Budi Prasetya)
y )
Program Studi S1 Teknik Telekomunikasi
Jurusan Teknik Elektro - Sekolah Tinggi
gg Teknologi
g Telkom
Bandung 2008

Today we are going to talk about:

R
Receiver
i
structure
t t
Demodulation

(and sampling)

Detection
D t ti

First step for designing the receiver


Matched
M t h d

filt
filter receiver
i

Correlator receiver

Vector representation of signals (signal


space), an important tool to facilitate:
Signals

presentations,
presentations receiver structures
Detection operations
( MODUL 3)
Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Demodulation and detection


Pulse g i (t ) Bandpass si (t )
modulate
modulate
channel
transmitted symbol
hc (t )

Format

mi

estimated symbol

Format

m i

Detect

M-ary modulation

i = 1, K, M

n(t )
Demod.
Demod
z (T ) & sample r (t )

Major
j sources of errors:
Thermal noise (AWGN)
disturbs the signal in an additive fashion (Additive)
has flat spectral density for all frequencies of interest (White)
is modeled by Gaussian random process (Gaussian Noise)
Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)
Due to the filtering
f
effect
ff
off transmitter, channel and receiver,
symbols are smeared.
Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Example: Impact of the channel

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Example: Channel impact

hc (t ) = (t ) 0.5 (t 0.75T )

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Receiver job:

Demodulation and sampling:


Waveform

recovery and preparing the received


signal for detection:
Improving the signal power to the noise power (SNR)
using matched filter
Reducing ISI using equalizer
Sampling the recovered waveform

Detection:
Estimate

the transmitted symbol based on the


received sample

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Receiver structure
Step 1 waveform to sample transformation

Step 2 decision making

Demodulate & Sample

r (t )

Frequency
down-conversion

Received waveform

Equalizing z (t )
filter

Receiving
filter

For bandpass signals

Detect

z (T )

Threshold
comparison

m i

Compensation for
channel induced
ISI

Baseband pulse
(possibly distored)

Baseband pulse

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Sample
(test statistic)

Baseband and bandpass

Bandpass model of detection process is


equivalent to baseband model because:
The

received bandpass waveform is first


transformed to a baseband waveform.
Equivalence theorem:

Performing bandpass linear signal processing


f ll
followed
db
by heterodyning
h t d i the
th signal
i
l tto th
the b
baseband,
b d
yields the same results as heterodying the bandpass
signal to the baseband, followed by a baseband linear
signal processing.

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Steps in designing the receiver

Find optimum solution for receiver design


with the following goals:
1. Maximize SNR
2. Minimize ISI

St
Steps
in
i design:
d i

Model the received signal


Find separate solutions for each of the goals
goals.

First, we focus on designing a receiver


which maximizes the SNR.

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

Design the receiver filter to


maximize the SNR
Model the received signal
si (t )

r (t ) = si (t ) h c (t ) + n(t )

r (t )

hc (t )

n(t )
AWGN

Simplify
y the model:
Received
Ideal channels
hc (t ) = (t )

signal in AWGN
r (t )

si (t )

r (t ) = si (t ) + n(t )

n(t )
AWGN
Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

10

Matched filter receiver

Problem:
the receiver filter h(t ) such that the SNR is
p g time when si (t ), i = 1,,...,, M
maximized at the sampling
is transmitted.

Design

Solution:
The

optimum filter, is the Matched filter, given by

h ( t ) = hopt ( t ) = s i (T t )
*
H ( f ) = H opt ( f ) = S i ( f ) exp( j 2 fT )
*

which is the time-reversed and delayed


y version of the conjugate
j g
of the
transmitted signal
h(t ) = hopt (t )

si (t )
0

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

11

Example of matched filter


si (t )

h opt (t )

A
T

A2

A
T

si (t
()

h opt (t
()

A
T

A
T

T/2 T
A
T

z ( t ) = si ( t ) hopt ( t )

2T

z ( t ) = si ( t ) hopt ( t )
A2

T/2 T
A
T

0 T/2 T 3T/2 2T

A 2T
2

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

12

Properties of the matched filter


1
1.

The Fourier transform of a matched filter output with the matched


signal as input is, except for a time delay factor, proportional to the
ESD of the input signal.

Z ( f ) =| S ( f ) |2 exp(( j 2fT )
2.

The output signal of a matched filter is proportional to a shifted


version of the autocorrelation function of the input signal to which
th filt
the
filter is
i matched.
t h d

z (t ) = Rs (t T ) z (T ) = Rs (0) = Es
3
3.

The output SNR of a matched filter depends only on the ratio of the
signal energy to the PSD of the white noise at the filter input.

Es
S
max =
N T N 0 / 2
4.

Two matching conditions in the matched-filtering operation:

spectral phase matching that gives the desired output peak at time T.
T
spectral amplitude matching that gives optimum SNR to the peak value.
Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

13

Correlator receiver

The matched filter output at the sampling


time T, can be realized as the correlator
output.
z (T ) = hopt (T ) r (T )
T

= r ( ). si ( )d =< r ( t ), s( t ) >
*

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

14

Implementation of matched filter receiver


Bank of M matched filters

s (T t )
*
1

z1 ( t )

z1 (T )

r ((t )
sM (T t )
*

z M (t )

z M (T )

z i ( t ) = r ( t ) s i (T t )

z1
M = z

zM

Matched filter output:


z Observation
vector

i = 1,..., M

z = ( z1 (T ), z 2 (T ),..., z M (T )) = ( z1 , z 2 ,..., z M )

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

15

Implementation of correlator receiver


Bank of M correlators

s 1 (t )

r (t )
s

(t )

z1 (T )

z1
M

zM

=z

Correlators output:
z Observation
vector

z M (T )

z = ( z1 (T ),
) z 2 (T ),...,
) z M (T )) = ( z1 , z 2 ,..., z M )
T

z i (T ) = r ( t )si ( t )dt i = 1,..., M


0

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

16

Example of implementation of matched


filter receivers
s1 (t )

Bank of 2 matched filters

A
T

z1 (T )

A
T

r (t )
0

s2 (t )
0
0
A
T

z 2 (T )

z1
= z

z2

A
T

Modul 2 - Siskom 2 - Matched Filter

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