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UNIT 4 - NETWORK LAYER

1) What is generic routing encapsulation?


Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) is an encapsulation scheme which supports other network
protocols in addition to IP. It allows the encapsulation of packets of one protocol suite into the
payload portion of a packet of another protocol suite.
2) Define COA.
The COA (care of address) defines the current location of the MN from an IP point of view. All
IP packets sent to the MN are delivered to the COA, not directly to the IP address of the MN.
Packet delivery toward the MN is done using the tunnel.
3) What is meant by Transparency?
Mobility should remain invisible for many higher layer Protocols and applications. The only
affects of mobility should be a higher delay and lower bandwidth which are natural in the case of
mobile networks.
4) What is Generic Routing encapsulation?
Generic Routing encapsulation (GRE) allows the encapsulation of packets of one protocol suite
into the payload portion of a packet of another protocol suit.
5) What is Binding Request?
Any node that wants to know the current location of an MN can send a binding request to the
HA. The HA can check if the MN has allowed dissemination of its current location.
6) What are the possibilities for the location of care-of-address (COA)?
The two possibilities for the location of care-of-address are:
i. Foreign agent COA
ii.Co-related COA
7) What are the requirements for the development of mobile IP standard?
The requirements are:
a.Compatibility
b.Transparency
c.Scalability and efficiency
d.Security
8) What is Dynamic source Routing?
Dynamic Source Routing eliminates all periodic routing updates. If a node needs to discover a
route, it broadcast a route request with a unique identifier and the destination address as
parameters. Any node that receivers a route request gives a list of addresses representing a
possible path on its way toward the destination.
9) Why is need of routing?
Routing is to find the path between source and destination and to forward the packets
appropriately.

10) Define Mobile node:


Mobile node:
A mobile node is an end-system or router that can change its point of attachment to the Internet
using mobile IP. The MN keeps its IP address and can continuously with any other system in the
Internet as long as link layer connectivity is given.
11) What is Encapsulation and Decapsulation?
Encapsulation is the mechanism of taking a packet consisting of packet header and data and
putting it into the data part of a new packet. The reverse operation, taking a packet out of the data
part of another packet, is called decapsulation.
12) Define Dynamic source routing.
In an adhoc networks where nodes exchanges packets from time to time. Dynamic Source
routing divides the task of routing into two separate problems:
i) Routing Recovery: A node only tries to discover a route to destination if it has to send
something to this destination and there is currently no known route
ii) Route Maintenance: If a node is continuously sending packets via route, it has to make sure
that the route is held urgent. As soon as a node detects problem with the current route it has to
find an alternative node.
13) Define Compatibility.
support of the same layer 2 protocols as IP
no changes to current end-systems and routers required
mobile end-systems can communicate with fixed systems
14) What is Home Agent (HA)?
Home Agent (HA)
system in the home network of the MN, typically a router
registers the location of the MN, tunnels IP datagrams to the COA
15) Define Foreign Agent (FA).
system in the current foreign network of the MN, typically a router
forwards the tunneled datagrams to the MN, typically also the default router for the MN
16) Define Agent Advertisement.
HA and FA periodically send advertisement messages into their physical subnets
MN listens to these messages and detects, if it is in the home or a foreign network
MN reads a COA from the FA advertisement messages
17) Define Registration.
MN signals COA to the HA via the FA, HA acknowledges via FA to MN
these actions have to be secured by authentication
18) Define Key distribution
Home agent distributes session keys
foreign agent has a security association with the home agent

mobile host registers a new binding at the home agent


home agent answers with a new session key for foreign agent and mobile node

19) Applications of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.


simplification of installation and maintenance of networked computers
supplies systems with all necessary information, such as IP address, DNS server address,
domain name, subnet mask, default router etc.
enables automatic integration of systems into an Intranet or the Internet, can be used to acquire
a COA for Mobile IP
20) Define DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector).
Expansion of distance vector routing
Sequence numbers for all routing updates
assures in-order execution of all updates
avoids loops and inconsistencies
21) List the examples for interference based routing.
Least Interference Routing (LIR)
calculate the cost of a path based on the number of stations that can receive a transmission
Max-Min Residual Capacity Routing (MMRCR)
calculate the cost of a path based on a probability function of successful transmissions and
interference
Least Resistance Routing (LRR)
calculate the cost of a path based on interference, jamming and other transmissions
LIR is very simple to implement