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MODULATION

James Rodney P. Santiago

General Definition Modulation - a process of mixing two sinusoidal signals, it includes a low frequency

General Definition

Modulation

- a process of mixing two sinusoidal signals, it

includes a low frequency signal being imposed

onto a higher frequency carrier signal.

INFORMATION MODULATED SIGNAL James Rodney P. Santiago CARRIER
INFORMATION
MODULATED SIGNAL
James Rodney P. Santiago
CARRIER
Need for Modulation
Need for Modulation
Need for Modulation - modulation becomes important if we want to “deliver” the information over vast

- modulation becomes important if we want to

“deliver” the information over vast distances.

1. Direct transmission of the information will be easily overwhelmed by “interference” since the RF is
1. Direct transmission of the information will be
easily overwhelmed by “interference” since the
RF is the same as the information.
2. Information (audio) usually resides on low
frequencies which limits the radiation via an
antenna (Tx/Rx) physically impractical.

James Rodney P. Santiago

Types of Modulation in Broadcast
Types of Modulation in Broadcast
Types of Modulation in Broadcast There are two major modulation techniques used in broadcast today. Amplitude

There are two major modulation techniques used in broadcast today.

Amplitude Modulation Frequency/Phase Modulation

Note : Digital Modulation techniques are not

included.

James Rodney P. Santiago

AMPLITUDE MODULATION

James Rodney P. Santiago

Basic AM Linear combination of the signal and carrier. e carrier e output e signal carrier

Basic AM

Linear combination of the signal

and carrier.

Basic AM Linear combination of the signal and carrier. e carrier e output e signal carrier
   
e carrier e output e signal

ecarrier

e carrier
 

eoutput

esignal

   
e carrier e output e signal
carrier signal
carrier
signal

James Rodney P. Santiago

Definition AM is a method that employs “Non - Linear” combination of the information and carrier

Definition

AM is a method that employs “Non-Linear” combination of the information and carrier.

Percentage Modulation

A measure of the extent of the carrier

voltage variation with respect to the signal.

% Modulation

=

(Es/Ec)x100%

=

Emin Emax x 100% Emin + Emax

m

=

Es/Ec

Es Signal Voltage ; Ec Carrier Voltage ; m modulation index

James Rodney P. Santiago

Mathematical Explanation
Mathematical Explanation
Mathematical Explanation Vc = Vc Sinώc t ; Vm = Vm Sinώm t Vc Vm A
Vc = Vc Sinώc t ; Vm = Vm Sinώm t
Vc = Vc Sinώc t ;
Vm = Vm Sinώm t
Mathematical Explanation Vc = Vc Sinώc t ; Vm = Vm Sinώm t Vc Vm A

Vc

Vm A
Vm
A

James Rodney P. Santiago

Mathematical Analysis
Mathematical Analysis
Mathematical Analysis Condition : • Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it

Condition :

Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it has a constant Vc.

Mathematical Analysis Condition : • Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it

Upon the application of the information, the instantaneous voltage is now changed to Vm.

Mathematical Analysis Condition : • Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it
Mathematical Analysis Condition : • Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it

The instantaneous change in Carrier amplitude (A) is Vm Sinώm t.

Mathematical Analysis Condition : • Initially, a Carrier is without a modulating information ; therefore it

Modulation index is the ratio of the Vm over Vc, it is a

number between 1 & 0.

James Rodney P. Santiago

Double Side-Band Modulator Message Spectrum INFORMATION MODULATED SIGNAL fc Carrier Spectrum fc Modulated Spectrum CARRIER
Double Side-Band Modulator
Message
Spectrum
INFORMATION
MODULATED SIGNAL
fc
Carrier
Spectrum
fc
Modulated
Spectrum
CARRIER

James Rodney P. Santiago

Mathematical Analysis
Mathematical Analysis

From the previous conditions : Let us derive the

Mathematical Analysis From the previous conditions : Let us derive the double sideband AM modulator A

double sideband AM modulator

A = Vc + Vm

Vc = Vc Sinώc t ; Vm = Vm Sinώm t
Vc = Vc Sinώc t
;
Vm = Vm Sinώm t

Vc

Vm A
Vm
A

James Rodney P. Santiago

Practical Explanation
Practical Explanation

Since DSBM simply is a sum and difference of

Practical Explanation Since DSBM simply is a sum and difference of information to the carrier, we

information to the carrier, we can simply express it as

:

Information

Carrier

- Low frequency - Higher frequency

FLSB + FC + FUSB

(FC Fm) + FC + (Fc + Fm)

2

2

James Rodney P. Santiago

Practical Explanation
Practical Explanation
Practical Explanation Computing for the Bandwidth Assuming there is only one sideband on the upper and

Computing for the Bandwidth

Assuming there is only one sideband on the upper and lower part with respect to the carrier.

Fsb = Fc +/- nFm

Fsb

=

Frequency of the Sideband

Fc

=

Carrier Frequency

N

= number of sidebands

Fm

-

Frequency of the information/message

FBW = (FC + FUSB) - (FC - FLSB)

James Rodney P. Santiago

Single Side-Band Modulator Message multiply Spectrum INFORMATION fc Carrier 90º Phase Add Spectrum Shift fc Modulated
Single Side-Band Modulator
Message
multiply
Spectrum
INFORMATION
fc
Carrier
90º
Phase
Add
Spectrum
Shift
fc
Modulated
Spectrum
multiply
CARRIER
CARRIER

James Rodney P. Santiago

General Definition James Rodney P. Santiago

General Definition

General Definition James Rodney P. Santiago
General Definition James Rodney P. Santiago
General Definition James Rodney P. Santiago

James Rodney P. Santiago

Tower Design H 0.5H 0.5H James Rodney P. Santiago
Tower Design
H
0.5H
0.5H
James Rodney P. Santiago
Guyed Tower Details (Top view) Anchor 0.5H 120º 120º Anchor Anchor 120º
Guyed Tower Details (Top view)
Anchor
0.5H
120º
120º
Anchor
Anchor
120º

James Rodney P. Santiago

Insulated Tower • Very simple AM tower implementation of which the current is 90º from the

Insulated Tower

Very simple AM tower implementation of which the current is 90º from the top (can be from the base if tower height is less than 90º).

Compare the effect of the velocity of propagation in relation to the physical and electrical height of the tower.

James Rodney P. Santiago

General Definition AM Transmission operates at quarter wavelength due to the physical “difficulties” λ/4 in constructing
General Definition
AM Transmission operates
at quarter wavelength due
to the physical “difficulties”
λ/4
in constructing the
structure
Electrical λ/4
James Rodney P. Santiago

FIELD

STRENGTH

BASED ON TERRAIN PROPERTIES 5000 50 20 10 5
BASED ON TERRAIN PROPERTIES
5000
50
20
10
5

CONDUCTIVITIES

Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator
Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator

James Rodney P. Santiago

Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator
Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator
Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator • Assuming constant tower cross-section, the current

Assuming constant tower cross-section, the current distribution can be computed via :

ia

=

Ia sin (G y)

ia = current in amperes at height y. Ia = max. current in amperes

G = tower height in degress

Y = height in degrees of the current element ia.

James Rodney P. Santiago

Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles Structures with grounded base can be utilized as an
Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles
Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles

Structures with grounded base can be utilized as an AM radiator, the base impedance of such is zero, impedance increases as the elevation of the feed point increases.

Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles Structures with grounded base can be utilized as an
Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles Structures with grounded base can be utilized as an

James Rodney P. Santiago

Earth Mat There are 120 Cu conductors laid on the base of the tower to increase

Earth Mat

There are 120 Cu conductors laid on the base of the tower to increase conductivity and
There are 120 Cu conductors
laid on the base of the tower
to increase conductivity and
generate a better electrical
image of the λ/4 tower.
Why do we need an earth mat?

James Rodney P. Santiago

Electrically Long/Short towers
Electrically Long/Short towers
Electrically Long/Short towers James Rodney P. Santiago
Electrically Long/Short towers James Rodney P. Santiago

James Rodney P. Santiago

 

N C R

         

COMPANY

CALL-SIGN

FREQ.

POWER (kW)

LOCATION

Radio Mindanao Network

DZXL

558

40

Obando, Bulacan

Republic Bctg. System, Inc.

DZBB

594

20

Obando, Bulacan

ABS-CBN Bctg. Corp.

DZMM

630

50

Obando, Bulacan

Manila Bctg. Company

DZRH

666

50(d)/25(n)

Bo. Malanday, Valenzuela

Far East Broadcasting Co.

DZAS

702

50

Bocaue, Bulacan

Philippine Bctg. Service

DZRB

738

40

Malolos, Bulacan

Interactive Bctg. Media, Inc.

DWWW

774

25

Quezon City

Rajah Bctg. Network, Inc.

DZRJ

810

10

Quirino Hi-way, Novaliches

Radio Veritas-Global Bctg.

DZRV

846

50

Malolos, Bulacan

Aliw Bctg. Corp.

DWIZ

882

50

Obando, Bulacan

Philippine Bctg. Service

DZFM

918

10

Marulas, Valenzuela

Christian Era Bctg. Service

DZEM

954

40

Obando, Bulacan

Trans-Radio Bctg. Corp.

DWRT

990

10 (D)/5 (N)

Panghulo, Malabon

Nation Bctg. Corp.

DZAR

1026

25

Obando, Bulacan

Eagle Bctg. Corp.

DZEC

1062

40

Obando, Bulacan

Crusaders Bctg. System

DWAD

1098

10

209 E. dela Paz St., Mandaluyong, M.M.

Dept. of National Defense

DWDD

1134

10

Camp Aguinaldo, Q.C.

Office of the Civil Defense

DZCA

1170

10

Agham Rd. Science Garden, Pag-asa Planetarium

Intercontinental Bctg. Corp.

DWAN

1206

10

Broadcast City, Q.C.

FBS Radio Network

DWBL

1242

20

Caloong, Malanday, Val.

Bureau of Broadcasts

DZRM

1278

10

Noveleta, Cavite,

Delta Bctg. System

DWXI

1314

30

Noveleta, Cavite

Mabuhay Bctg. System, Inc.

DZXQ

1350

10

Malabon

Prime Bctg. Netwrok

P/Pu

1386

10

Metro Manila

Exodus Bctg. Network

DWBC

1422

10

Bo. Ugong del Norte, Q.C.

Ultrasonic Bctg. System

DWSS

1494

10

Novaliches, Quezon city

Capitol Bctg. Center

DZME

1530

25

Ubando, Bulacan

Philippine Air Force

DZHH

1566

10

Villamor Air Base, Pasay City

University of the Philippines

DZUP

1602

1

UP, Diliman, Q.C.

Guzman Institute of Tech.

DWGI

1674

0.01

Quiapo, Manila

Municipality of Marikina

DZBF

1674

1

Marikina, M.M.

TOTAL NO. OF AM STATIONS =

31