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onto a higher frequency carrier signal.

INFORMATION
MODULATED SIGNAL
James Rodney P. Santiago
CARRIER
Need for Modulation

“deliver” the information over vast distances.

1. Direct transmission of the information will be
easily overwhelmed by “interference” since the
RF is the same as the information.
2. Information (audio) usually resides on low
frequencies which limits the radiation via an
antenna (Tx/Rx) physically impractical.

carrier
signal

Es/Ec

Es – Signal Voltage ; Ec – Carrier Voltage ; m – modulation index

James Rodney P. Santiago

Mathematical Explanation
Vc = Vc Sinώc t ;
Vm = Vm Sinώm t

Vc

Vm
A

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Mathematical Analysis

number between 1 & 0.

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Double Side-Band Modulator
Message
Spectrum
INFORMATION
MODULATED SIGNAL
fc
Carrier
Spectrum
fc
Modulated
Spectrum
CARRIER

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Mathematical Analysis

Vc = Vc Sinώc t
;
Vm = Vm Sinώm t

Vc

Vm
A

James Rodney P. Santiago

Practical Explanation

2

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Practical Explanation

FBW = (FC + FUSB) - (FC - FLSB)

James Rodney P. Santiago

Single Side-Band Modulator
Message
multiply
Spectrum
INFORMATION
fc
Carrier
90º
Phase
Spectrum
Shift
fc
Modulated
Spectrum
multiply
CARRIER
CARRIER

General Definition

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Tower Design
H
0.5H
0.5H
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Guyed Tower Details (Top view)
Anchor
0.5H
120º
120º
Anchor
Anchor
120º

•Compare the effect of the velocity of propagation in relation to the physical and electrical height of the tower.

James Rodney P. Santiago

General Definition
AM Transmission operates
at quarter wavelength due
to the physical “difficulties”
λ/4
in constructing the
structure
Electrical λ/4
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STRENGTH

BASED ON TERRAIN PROPERTIES
5000
50
20
10
5

CONDUCTIVITIES

Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator

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Theoretical V & I Distribution on a Vertical Radiator

Y = height in degrees of the current element ia.

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Grounded Towers, Shunt Fed and Folded Monopoles

Earth Mat

There are 120 Cu conductors
laid on the base of the tower
to increase conductivity and
generate a better electrical
image of the λ/4 tower.
Why do we need an earth mat?

James Rodney P. Santiago

Electrically Long/Short towers

James Rodney P. Santiago

 N C R COMPANY CALL-SIGN FREQ. POWER (kW) LOCATION Radio Mindanao Network DZXL 558 40 Obando, Bulacan Republic Bctg. System, Inc. DZBB 594 20 Obando, Bulacan ABS-CBN Bctg. Corp. DZMM 630 50 Obando, Bulacan Manila Bctg. Company DZRH 666 50(d)/25(n) Bo. Malanday, Valenzuela Far East Broadcasting Co. DZAS 702 50 Bocaue, Bulacan Philippine Bctg. Service DZRB 738 40 Malolos, Bulacan Interactive Bctg. Media, Inc. DWWW 774 25 Quezon City Rajah Bctg. Network, Inc. DZRJ 810 10 Quirino Hi-way, Novaliches Radio Veritas-Global Bctg. DZRV 846 50 Malolos, Bulacan Aliw Bctg. Corp. DWIZ 882 50 Obando, Bulacan Philippine Bctg. Service DZFM 918 10 Marulas, Valenzuela Christian Era Bctg. Service DZEM 954 40 Obando, Bulacan Trans-Radio Bctg. Corp. DWRT 990 10 (D)/5 (N) Panghulo, Malabon Nation Bctg. Corp. DZAR 1026 25 Obando, Bulacan Eagle Bctg. Corp. DZEC 1062 40 Obando, Bulacan Crusaders Bctg. System DWAD 1098 10 209 E. dela Paz St., Mandaluyong, M.M. Dept. of National Defense DWDD 1134 10 Camp Aguinaldo, Q.C. Office of the Civil Defense DZCA 1170 10 Agham Rd. Science Garden, Pag-asa Planetarium Intercontinental Bctg. Corp. DWAN 1206 10 Broadcast City, Q.C. FBS Radio Network DWBL 1242 20 Caloong, Malanday, Val. Bureau of Broadcasts DZRM 1278 10 Noveleta, Cavite, Delta Bctg. System DWXI 1314 30 Noveleta, Cavite Mabuhay Bctg. System, Inc. DZXQ 1350 10 Malabon Prime Bctg. Netwrok P/Pu 1386 10 Metro Manila Exodus Bctg. Network DWBC 1422 10 Bo. Ugong del Norte, Q.C. Ultrasonic Bctg. System DWSS 1494 10 Novaliches, Quezon city Capitol Bctg. Center DZME 1530 25 Ubando, Bulacan Philippine Air Force DZHH 1566 10 Villamor Air Base, Pasay City University of the Philippines DZUP 1602 1 UP, Diliman, Q.C. Guzman Institute of Tech. DWGI 1674 0.01 Quiapo, Manila Municipality of Marikina DZBF 1674 1 Marikina, M.M. TOTAL NO. OF AM STATIONS = 31