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Mechatronics

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/mechatronics

Xiaojie Su a, Xiaozhan Yang a, Peng Shi b,c,, Ligang Wu a

a

Space Control and Inertial Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia

c

College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 27 December 2012

Revised 1 July 2013

Accepted 20 August 2013

Available online 23 September 2013

Keywords:

Electromagnetic suspension systems

Fuzzy controller design

TakagiSugeno fuzzy model

21 Performance

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents a TS model-based fuzzy controller design approach for electromagnetic suspension

systems. The TS fuzzy model is rstly applied to represent the nonlinear electromagnetic suspension

systems. Then, based on the obtained TS fuzzy model, a fuzzy state feedback controller is used to ensure

the required mixed 21 performance of original electromagnetic suspension system to be achieved.

This controller is designed in a nonparallel-distributed compensation scheme. And sufcient conditions

for the existence of such a controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, numerical

simulation on an electromagnetic suspension system is performed to validate the effectiveness of the

proposed approach.

Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Owing to its environmental, commercial and technological

attractions, the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system [1] has

been widely adopted in many real world applications. Systems,

such as that in high-speed maglev passenger trains [24], levitation of wind tunnel models, levitation of molten metal in induction

furnaces, vibration isolation and frictionless bearings, are all based

on EMS systems. The main objective of EMS system is to overcome

the inuence of gravity by means of electromagnetic forces. Thus,

in this view, EMS system can be regarded as repulsive system or

attractive system which is based on the source of electromagnetic

levitation forces. Due to the involvement of magnetic force, this

kind of system is described by highly nonlinear differential equations and it is usually open-loop unstable. The nonlinear property

of EMS system presents additional difculties in its manipulation.

Then constructing the high-performance feedback controllers will

be an important task for the regulation of EMS system. Over the

past few years, various controllers have been considered to manipulate the EMS system. To mention a few, nonlinear control methods are proposed in [5,6]; model reference adaptive control has

been studied in [7]; sliding mode control has been adopted by

q

This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of

China (61174126 and 61222301), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the

Central Universities (HIT.BRETIV.201303), the National Key Basic Research Program

(2012CB215202), and the 111 Project (B12018).

Corresponding author at: School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,

University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Tel.: +61 8 83136424.

E-mail addresses: suxiaojie1985@gmail.com (X. Su), peng.shi@adelaide.edu.au

(P. Shi), ligangwu@hit.edu.cn (L. Wu).

about active suspension system is given in [1012].

On the other hand, it is well known now that fuzzy logic based

controller design is an effective approach for the manipulation of

complex nonlinear systems. Recent years have witnessed the rapidly growing popularity of fuzzy control systems in practical applications. Usually fuzzy controller is designed in accordance with the

fuzzy-type model of original nonlinear system. Among various

kinds of fuzzy models, the TakagiSugeno (TS) fuzzy model [13]

is viewed as one of the most popular. This kind of model is described by a group of fuzzy IF-THEN rules which describe the local

inputoutput relationships of original nonlinear system. Constructing a group of weight functions from the membership functions in each rule, we can obtain the weighted sum of all local

linear systems. This weighted sum, which is equivalent to the original nonlinear system, can be regarded as a special kind of timevarying linear system. Thus, most of the classical linear control

methods will be applicable. There are numerous cases in this approach. For example, the application to permanent magnet synchronous motor was analyzed in [14]; the guaranteed cost

controller design was illustrated in [15,16]; state estimation problem was solved in [17,18], and passivity-based output feedback

control problem was widely studied in [19,20].

Over the past few decades, a framework of robust control has

been developed to investigate the problems of stability and system

performance in presence of uncertainties and disturbance. Desired

system performances are achieved by minimizing the appropriate

norms (such as H1 (or 22, for continuous-time cases, should

be replaced by L), 21 and 11) of a transfer function. Since

the 2-norm of a signal describes its energy and the 1-norm

0957-4158/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2013.08.002

329

represents its peak value, the above three kinds of norms can be

also described as energy to energy, energy to peak, and peak to peak

performances. Many works are analyzed based on those special

norms of the transfer function, namely, the energy to energy robust

control problem in [2124]; energy to peak optimization problem

in [2527]. In some practical cases, the 21 control is more reasonable in achieving the desired system performance. Such a control procedure ensures that, the controlled output is less than a

prescribed level in case of energy-bounded noise input.

In this work, we are motivated to design a 21 fuzzy controller

for the EMS system of maglev train. This controller is designed such

that, in presence of energy bounded disturbance, the position offset

of maglev train is within an allowable scale. Consequently the comfort level of high speed maglev train will be greatly improved. To

construct such a controller, rstly the nonlinear dynamic equations

of EMS system are obtained from physical laws. Then, discrete-time

TS fuzzy model [28,29] is applied to approximate the original nonlinear dynamic equations. Further, using the LyapunovKrasovskii

technique, sufcient 21 performance conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are obtained, thus the desired controller is designed. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the

feasibility and effectiveness of our controller design method.

The remaining parts of this paper are organized as follows. The

dynamic analysis of EMS system is illustrated in Section 2, and the

TS fuzzy modeling is performed in Section 3. Sections 4 and 5 provide the 21 performance analysis and the controller design

method respectively. And in Section 6, simulation results are represented to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 7.

1.1. Notations

The notations used throughout this paper are fairly standard.

The superscript T stands for matrix transposition; Rn denotes

the n-dimensional Euclidean space; the notation P > 0(P0) means

that P is real symmetric and positive denite (semi-denite); In and

0mn represent n n identity matrix and m n zero matrix,

respectively; diag{ } stands for a block-diagonal matrix; k k2 denotes the Euclidean norm (2-norm) of a vector; k k1 indicates the

1-norm of a vector; In symmetric block matrices or long matrix

expressions, we use an asterisk () to represent a term that is induced by symmetry. Matrices, if their dimensions are not explicitly

stated, are assumed to be compatible for algebraic operations.

2. Dynamic analysis of the EMS system

The maglev train is a kind of high-tech transportation

means. In the normal working state, this kind of train is

levitated by the EMS system. A single module of the EMS system is presented in Fig. 1.

The parameters of the EMS system module in Fig. 1 are presented as follows,

gross mass of carriage and electromagnet

coil resistance

valid pole area of the coil

gravitational acceleration

number of turns in the coil

vertical disturbance force

suspension airgap

current of the electromagnet coil

voltage of the electromagnet coil

m

Rm

am

g

N

fd(t)

d(t)

i(t)

u(t)

motion of the system can be described by

8

2

>

m d dtdt

>

2 Fit; dt fd t mg;

>

>

>

h i

>

>

< Fit; dt l0 N2 am it 2 ;

4

dt

2:1

>

dWit;dt

>

>

ut Rm it;

>

dt

>

>

>

: Wit; dt l0 N2 am it ;

2dt

where F(i(t), d(t)) is the suspension force produced by electromagnet; W(i(t), d(t)) is the magnetic potential of the electromagnetic

system; l0 is the permeability of air. By some simple manipulations,

dynamics in (2.1) can be changed into the following equivalent

equations

8

h i

2

>

l0 N2 am it 2

< m d dt

fd t mg;

2

4

dt

2dt

l0 N2 am

dt

>

: dit

dt

it ddt

dt dt

2:2

ut Rm it:

_

and

Assuming that the system states are z1(t) = d(t), z2 t dt

z3(t) = i(t), the state-space equations in (2.2) are expressed as

8

z_ 1 t z2 t;

>

>

>

h i2

<

N 2 am z3 t

g m1 fd t;

z_ 2 t l04m

z1 t

>

>

>

: z_ 3 t 2R2 m z1 tz3 t z2 tz3 t 2z12t ut:

z1 t

l N a

l N a

0

2:3

position z1e = dref, the corresponding equilibrium of the system will

p

p

T

be ze , z1e ; z2e ; z3e T dref ; 0; jdref and ue jRm dref , where

j,

4mg

l0 N 2 am

3 2

3

x1 t

z1 t z1e

xt , 4 x2 t 5 4 z2 t 5:

x3 t

z3 t z3e

Guideway

Area am

(t )

F (i (t ), (t ))

Turns N

2:4

is easy to obtain the following equivalent state-space equations for

the system in (2.3),

8

x_ 1 t x2 t;

>

>

p

>

<

2 jd x3 tgx3 t

2dref x1 tgx1 t

x

m1 fd t;

x_ 2 t jxreftd

2

2

1

1 tdref

ref

>

p

>

x t jd

jx td

>_

:

x3 t 3x1 td ref x2 t 12mg ref Rm x3 t v t:

2:5

ref

u ( t)

Electromagnet

mg

f d (t )

i (t )

nonlinear. Then the conventional linear control scheme will be

not applicable to regulate this nonlinear system. To solve this problem, we will adopt the fuzzy control scheme which is mainly based

on the approximated TS fuzzy model of (2.5).

330

(3) When h1(t) is near h1min and h2(t) is near h2max, the nonlinear

equations can be simplied as

3. TS fuzzy modeling

Before the design of fuzzy controller, rstly we should get the

TS fuzzy model of original nonlinear system. Let us dene h1(t) , x1(t) and h2(t) , x3(t). With the denition

8

>

h1 t;

< h1 max , max

xt

h1 min , minh1 t;

>

: h2 max , maxh2 t;

h2 min , minh2 t;

xt

xt

3:1

xt

(4) When h1(t) is near h1min and h2(t) is near h2min, the nonlinear

equations can be simplied as

3:2

where nij(hj(t)) 2 [0, 1] for all (i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2), and

n11 h1 t n21 h1 t 1;

8_

x1 t x2 t;

>

>

p

>

>

2 jdref h2 max gx3 t

2dref h1 min gx1 t

>

< x_ 2 t

h

m1 fd t;

2

jh1 min dref 2

1 min dref

p

h2 max jdref

jh1 min dref

>

>

Rm x3 t v t;

>

2mg

> x_ 3 t h1 min dref x2 t

>

:

yt x1 t:

n12 h2 t n22 h2 t 1:

3:3

Then, based on 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, the membership functions can be

calculated as

8

< n11 h1 t

h1 th1 min

h1 max h1 min

max h1 t

n21 h1 t hh11max

;

h1 min

: n12 h2 t

h2 th2 min

h2 max h2 min

max h2 t

n22 h2 t hh22max

;

h

3:4

8_

x1 t x2 t;

>

>

p

>

>

2 jdref h2 min gx3 t

2dref h1 min gx1 t

>

< x_ 2 t

h

m1 fd t;

2

jh1 min dref 2

1 min dref

p

h

jdref

jh

dref

>

>

x2 t 1 min

Rm x3 t v t;

x_ 3 t 2hmin

>

2mg

>

1 min dref

>

:

yt x1 t:

Then, employing the Euler rst-order approximation, we will

get the following discrete-time TS fuzzy model.

Plant Form:

2 min

In this work, fd(t) is regarded as the exogenous noise input, and

we are interested in the inuence of fd(t) on d(t). Thus, the output

of this system is chosen as y(t) = x1(t). By using the local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces [30], the corresponding four-rules

fuzzy model can be obtained for the EMS system.

(1) When h1(t) is near h1max and h2(t) is near h2max, the nonlinear

equations can be simplied as

8

x_ 1 t x2 t;

>

>

>

p

>

2 jdref h2 max gx3 t

2dref h1 max gx1 t

>

1

>

>

< x_ 2 t jh1 max dref 2 h1 max dref 2 m fd t;

p

>

>

h

jdref

jh

dref

>

>

x2 t 1 max

Rm x3 t v t;

x_ 3 t 2hmax

>

2mg

1 max dref

>

>

:

yt x1 t:

(2) When h1(t) is near h1max and h2(t) is near h2min, the nonlinear

equations can be simplied as

8_

x1 t x2 t;

>

>

p

>

>

2 jdref h2 min gx3 t

2dref h1 max gx1 t

>

< x_ 2 t

h

m1 fd t;

2

jh1 max dref 2

1 max dref

p

h2 min jdref

jh1 max dref

>

>

Rm x3 t v t;

>

2mg

> x_ 3 t h1 max dref x2 t

>

:

yt x1 t:

xk 1 A1 xk B11 xk B21 v k;

yk C 1 xk:

xk 1 A2 xk B12 xk B22 v k;

yk C 2 xk:

xk 1 A3 xk B13 xk B23 v k;

yk C 3 xk:

xk 1 A4 xk B14 xk B24 v k;

yk C 4 xk:

where w(k) is the discrete form of fd(t); M11 and M21 represent

about h1max; M31 and M41 represent about h1min; M12 and M32

represent about h2max; M22 and M42 represent about h2min.

Correspondingly, their membership functions are as follows

M31 h1 k M41 h1 k

n21 h1 k;

M12 h2 k M32 h2 k n12 h2 k;

M22 h2 k M42 h2 k

n22 h2 k:

21

( 1 (t ))

11

( 1 (t ))

22

( 2 (t ))

12

( 2 (t ))

1

1min

1max

(t )

2

2min

2max

(t )

331

1

6 T2dref h1 max g

6 h d 2

A1 6

1 max

ref

4

0

B11

2 3

0

6 7

4 mT 5;

T

1

6

B21 4

7

5;

jdref h2 max g

1

2 3

0

6 7

4 mT 5;

6

B22 4

7

5;

1

2mg

p

T2 jdref h2 max g

1

p

Th2 max jdref

h1 min dref

1

i1

v k K i xk;

2 3

1

6 7

C T2 4 0 5;

i 1; 2; 3; 4;

3:7

the controller in (3.7) can also be represented by

P

v k ri1 hi hkK i xk, with its compact form:

6 T2dref h1 min g

6

A3 6 h1 min dref 2

4

0

7

7

7;

5

2mg

i1

Assume that the premise variable of the fuzzy model h(k) is available for feedback, which implies that hi(h(k)) is available for feedback. Suppose that the controllers premise variables are the same

as those in the plant. The parallel distributed compensation strategy

(PDC) is utilized and the fuzzy state feedback controller obeys the

following rules,

Controller Form:

Rule i: IF h1(k) is Mi1 and h2(k) is Mi2 , THEN

4

X

hi hkB1i ;

4

X

B2 k ,

hi hkB2i :

i1

p

Th2 min jdref

h1 max dref

B1 k ,

i1

2 3

1

6 7

C T1 4 0 5;

p

T2 jdref h2 min g

4

X

hi hkAi ;

4

X

Ck ,

hi hkC i ;

6 T2dref h1 max g

6

A2 6 h1 max dref 2

4

0

Ak ,

7

7

7;

5

2mg

2mg

B12

T2

p

Th2 max jdref

h1 max dref

where

v k Kkxk;

3

7

7

7;

5

3:8

where

Kk

2mg

4

X

hi hkK i :

3:9

i1

B13

2 3

0

6 7

4 mT 5;

6

B23 4

7

5;

0

1

6 T2dref h1 min g

6

A4 6 h1 min dref 2

4

0

2 3

0

6 7

4 mT 5;

p

Th2 min jdref

h1 min dref

6

B24 4

7

5;

8

4 X

4

X

>

>

>

hi hkAi hj hkB2i K j xk B1i xk;

> xk 1

>

<

1

i1 j1

jdref h2 min g

jh1 min dref 2

T2

2mg

B14

2 3

1

6 7

C T3 4 0 5;

4

>

X

>

>

>

hi hkC i xk:

>

: yk

7

7

7;

5

i1

3:10

2mg

2 3

1

6 7

C T4 4 0 5;

yk Ckxk:

2mg

hi hk ,

3:11

where

2

Y

b

xk 1 Akxk

B1 kxk;

b

Ak

, Ak B2 kKk:

Mij hj k

j1

4 Y

2

X

i 1; 2; 3; 4;

Mij hj k

i1 j1

h1 hk n11 h1 k n12 h2 k;

h2 hk n11 h1 k n22 h2 k;

h3 hk n21 h1 k n12 h2 k;

h4 hk n21 h1 k n22 h2 k:

variable v(k) explicitly. Then the defuzzied TS fuzzy model can be

given by

8

4

X

>

>

>

xk 1

hi hkAi xk B1i xk B2i v k;

>

<

i1

4

>

X

>

>

>

hi hkC i xk:

: yk

required in the assumption, so we can easily construct the

regulator by the state-feedback controller. But we should also

note that, in some practical cases where not all the system states

are available, additional state observer or dynamic output controller is needed to reproduce the unavailable system states.

Before presenting the main objective of this paper, we rst

introduce the following denitions for the closed-loop system in

(3.11), which will be essential for our main results.

Denition 1. The closed-loop system in (3.11) is said to be

asymptotically stable if under x(k) = 0,

lim jxkj 0;

k!1

3:5

where jxkj ,

p

xT kxk.

i1

xk 1 Akxk B1 kxk B2 kv k;

yk Ckxk;

3:6

is said to be asymptotically stable with an 21 performance c, if it

is asymptotically stable under x(k) = 0, and satises

80 x 2 2 0; 1;

332

6

4

q

kykk1 , sup yT kyk;

k

qX

1

kxkk2 ,

xT kxk:

k0

"

Remark 2. The 2-norm of a signal stands for its energy, and the

1-norm stands for the peak of its value, so the 21 performance

is also called the guaranteed energy-to-peak performance.

Our objective in this work is to determine the fuzzy controller

matrices in (3.8) such that the closed-loop system in (3.11) is

asymptotically stable with a guaranteed 21 performance level c.

8

T

1

b

>

>

< Pk , G kPkG k;

P4

Pk , i1 hi hkPi ;

>

>

P

:

Gk , 4i1 hi hkGi ;

4:1

b

Vk , xT k Pkxk:

4:2

Then, based on the fuzzy LKF (4.2), we can obtain the following

result.

Theorem 1. The closed-loop system in (3.11) is asymptotically stable

with a guaranteed 21 performance level c if there exist matrices

Pi > 0 and Gi, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, which are dened in (4.1), such that for any

integer k, the following matrix inequalities hold for any integer k,

Gk 1 GT k 1 Pk 1

c2 I CkGk

Pk

c I Ck

b

Pk

I

> 0:

4:8

respectively to

"

b T k Pk

b

b 1 Ak

b

A

Pk

b T k Pk

b 1B1 k

A

b 1B1 k I

BT k Pk

b

B1 k

AkGk

Pk

I

3

7

5 < 0;

!k ,

J k , Vk

xT ixi:

i0

T

k1

X

xi

xi

k1

X

k1

X

DVi xT ixi

i0

i0

xT ixi

xi

:

Xi

xi

4:12

where

"

b T i Pi

b Pi

b 1 Ai

b

A

#

b T i Pi

b 1B1 i

A

:

b 1B1 i I

BT i Pi

1

Pk 1 Gk 1P 1 k 1Pk 1 Gk 1 P 0;

b

<

xT k Pkxk

we have

b 1 k 1 6 Gk 1 GT k 1 Pk 1:

P

k1

X

J k Vk V0

4:4

#

b T k Pk

b 1B1 k

A

:

b 1B1 k

BT k Pk

b T k Pk

b

b 1 Ak

b

A

Pk

i0

> 0:

4:10

By (4.9) and (4.11), it follows that DV(k) < 0, thus the closed-loop

system in (3.11) is asymptotically stable.

In the following, we shall investigate the 21 performance.

Under the zero initial condition, we have V(0) = 0. Dene an index

as

4:3

k1

X

xT ixi:

4:5

b

yT kyk < c2 xT k Pkxk:

Pk

I

3

7

5 < 0:

4:13

i0

Thus, it follows from (4.3) and (4.5) that the following inequality

holds

b

B1 k

AkGk

4:9

where

b 1 k 1

P

< 0;

b 1xk 1 xT k Pkxk

b

DVk , Vk 1 Vk xT k 1 Pk

T

xk

xk

;

4:11

!k

xk

xk

Xi ,

6

4

Considering the fuzzy LKF (4.2), and along the trajectories of the

closed-loop system in (3.11), we have

"

following fuzzy LyapunovKrasovskii function:

"

2

4:7

b

< 0:

C T kCk c2 Pk

the EMS systems is introduced. Based on this LyapunovKrasovskii

functional candidate, a new stability criterion with the 21 performance level c is derived.

To this end, let

6

4

4. Performance analysis

3

b

B1 k

Ak

7

b

Pk

0 5 < 0;

b 1 k 1

P

4:6

yT kyk < c2

k1

X

xT ixi:

4:14

4:15

i0

T k , diagfI

G1 k Ig;

Pk1 T

i0 x ixi with k ? 1, we obtain

Sk , diagfI

G1 kg:

fS T k; Skg and fT T k; T kg, respectively, and considering (4.1),

we have

1

X

xT ixi:

4:16

i0

Obviously ky(k)k1 < ckx(k)k2 holds for all nonzero x(k) 2 2[0,1),

and the proof is completed. h

333

obtain TS fuzzy system is fuzzy-rule-dependent. By constructing

the quadratic LyapunovKrasovskii function V(k) , xT(k)Px(k), we

can obtain the fuzzy-rule-independent stability condition directly,

which is a special case of Theorem 1 and has much large conservativeness for the concerned TS fuzzy systems. Moreover, the 21

fuzzy-rule-dependent controller is obtained directly by this fuzzyrule-dependent method.

feedback controller for the EMS system in (3.11). Assume that all of

the states are available for feedback control. As in [31], the following nonparallel distributed compensation (non-PDC) control law is

considered for the closed-loop system (3.11),

v k KkG1 kxk;

5:1

Obviously, if we take Gi = G, (5.1) becomes a PDC controller. Substituting (5.1) into (3.6), we obtain the following closed-loop system

e c kxk B1 kxk;

xk 1 A

5:2

e c k Ak B2 kKkG1 k.

where A

Theorem 2. The closed-loop system in (5.2) is asymptotically

stable with a guaranteed 21 performance level c if there exist

matrices Pi > 0 and Gi,i = 1, 2, 3, 4, which are dened in (4.1), such

that inequality in (4.4) and the following inequality hold for any

integer k,

6

4

written as

4 X

4 X

4

X

hs hk 1hj hkhi hkPsij < 0;

5:8

s1 j1 i1

4 X

4

X

hj hkhi hkUij < 0:

5:9

j1 i1

3

Gk 1 GT k 1 Pk 1 AkGk B2 kKk B1 k

7

0 5 < 0:

Pk

I

5:3

b

e c k. Following the same line of the

replace Ak

in (3.11) with A

proof of the Theorem 1, the result can be easily derived. The proof

is completed. h

It is noted that Theorem 2, expressed in the form of fuzzy-basisdependent matrix inequalities, cannot be directly implemented for

the fuzzy controller design with 21 performance level c. Our

next objective is to convert the inequalities to some nite LMIs,

which can be readily solved by using standard numerical software.

We have the following result.

By using [32], if conditions (5.4)(5.6) and (5.7) hold, then (5.8) and

(5.9) are fullled. Therefore, it follows from Theorem 2 that the EMS

system in (3.11) is asymptotically stable with a guaranteed 21

performance level c. Thus, the proof is completed. h

6. Simulation results

In this part, the proposed method is applied to design a fuzzy

feedback controller for the afore mentioned EMS system. The

parameter values of the EMS system are given in Table 1 (other sets

of parameter values can be found in [2,5,6]), and the allowable

bounds of h(k) are listed in Table 2.

With the parameter value given in Tables 1 and 2, we will get

the exact expressions of original nonlinear EMS system and its

approximated TS fuzzy model. Firstly let us analyze the stability

property of the original system. We set the initial state of the

EMS system as x(0) = [0.0001, 0, 0]T. And then system states of the

original open-loop system are plotted in Fig. 4. Obviously the origi-

Table 1

Parameter values of the EMS system.

Parameter

Unit

m

kg

Rm

X

Value

150

1.1

g

m/

s2

9.8

am

m2

N

kilo

l0

H/m

dref

m

T

ms

1.024 102

4p 107

0.004

0.5

Table 2

Allowable bounds of h(k).

Parameter

Unit

Value

h1max

m

0.001

h1min

m

0.001

h2max

A

1

h2min

A

1

100

150

200

0.2

with a guaranteed 21 performance level c if there exist matrices

Pi > 0, Gi and Ki, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, which are dened in (4.1), such that for

any s, i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4, the following inequalities hold,

1

1

Psii Psij Psji < 0; i j;

3

2

Psii < 0;

1

1

Uii Uij Uji > 0; i j;

3

2

Uii > 0;

5:4

5:5

Psij , 4

Gs

GTs

Ps

Ai Gj B2i K j

P i

0.2

0.4

0.6

5:6

5:7

where

B1i

0 5;

I

0.8

1

1.2

0

50

c2 I C i Gj :

Uij ,

Pi

334

matlab and setting c = 0.005, we can nd the following matrices

which satisfy inequalities (5.4)(5.6) and (5.7).

5

0.05

K 3 105 0:0001 0:0159 2:1868 ; K 4 105 0:0001 0:0100 2:1925 ;

3

2

3

0:0000 0:0011 0:0001

0:0000 0:0011 0:0001

6

7

6

7

G1 4 0:0011 0:2835 0:0820 5; G2 4 0:0011 0:2780 0:0325 5;

0:0052 3:0222 57:9373

0:0053 3:0567 58:3998

3

2

3

0:0000 0:0011 0:0002

0:0000 0:0011 0:0001

6

7

6

7

G3 4 0:0010 0:2969 0:5271 5; G4 4 0:0010 0:2892 0:3933 5;

0:0051 2:8855 55:9006

0:0051 2:9619 55:9910

system states of the closed-loop system. State response of the controlled TS fuzzy system is expressed in Fig. 5. It can be seen from

Fig. 5 that the approximated TS fuzzy system has been stabilized

by our designed fuzzy controller. Also note that approximation errors have been inevitably introduced in the process of fuzzication,

so the approximated fuzzy model is not completely equivalent to

our original nonlinear dynamic model. To achieve the prescribed

21 performance of the original system, we should also make sure

that the constructed TS fuzzy controller is robust enough to overcome the encountered approximation errors and possible parameter uncertainty. Then the obtained fuzzy control method is

applied to regulate the original nonlinear model. The control result

of original nonlinear system is plotted in Fig. 6, from which we can

nd that, compared with the fuzzy model, the controlled nonlinear

model just takes a bit longer time to converge to its equilibrium.

Obviously, the constructed controller can be well applied to manipulate the original nonlinear system, even there exist approximation

errors when we get the fuzzy-type model of the original nonlinear

system. And in this manner, the robustness of the illustrated

21 fuzzy control strategy is thus conrmed.

Furthermore, let us analyze the 21 performance of the controlled EMS system. Here, we set x(0) = [0, 0, 0]T and choose the following exogenous disturbance,

xk

0.1

100

50

200

150

250

x 10

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

0;

0.05

when k 6 0 or k P 20:

p

P1

T

By calculation, we have kxkk2

k0 x kxk 392:3. Corresponding output of the controlled nonlinear system is shown in

Fig. 7, where the peak value of y(k) is about 3 105. So the actual

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

10

0.05

0.05

10

0.1

15

50

100

150

200

250

20

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

1

value of kkykk

xkk in this situation is well below c = 0.005, which exactly

2

veries that our designed fuzzy controller has ensured the prescript

21 performance of the given EMS system. The fuzzy control input

u(k) is presented in Fig. 8.

7. Conclusions

In this paper, the TS fuzzy model based 21 fuzzy control

method has been proposed for the nonlinear EMS system. The

standard nonlinear dynamic equations of the EMS system have

been rstly obtained from some physical laws. Then the original

nonlinear system has been presented by a TS fuzzy model. Further, 21 performance analysis of the EMS system has been performed based on its approximated TS fuzzy model, and

corresponding fuzzy controller design method has been derived

under a non-PDC scheme. Finally, simulation results have been

presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller design method.

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