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Zandi Ernomo - 012


This paper discusses the language used in English classroom
interaction. The topic is interesting because one teacher may use
different language use when interacting with the students. semi
direct observation was taken in order to find out language
realisation between teacher and student in the class. Data
analysis was based on Flander’s theory of interaction analysis
categorization (FIAC). The findings showed that the teacher
used direct and indirect influence when interacting with the
students. The student seemed to be in difficult situation when
they wanted to give response to teacher’s questions.

A. Introduction
Not only does classroom interaction between teacher and students build particular situation
within the class, it also encourages a student to talk so that they can be a good foreign language
speaker in both situations, that is, inside and outside the classroom. According to Chen (2015)
“English learning is a lifelong journey, not one that begins and ends in a language classroom. In
Indonesia, It is important to have students be exposed and use target language as much as they can
since English is mostly used in the class instead of outside the class. To create classroom
interaction atmosphere, teacher may organize some activities that encourage and help students to
use their communication strategies. Some teachers may use both L1 and L2 in class while others
do not allow the use of L1 in the class. The present study focus on investigating target language
used by teacher and student in a classroom. The method used to gather the data is observation.
The data, in the form of video, was taken from YouTube. The class was quite small since there are
only seven students. The language allowed to use in the class was only target language, English.
The materials used in the class was adopted from a textbook and the topic was about the use of
B. Classroom Interaction
The meaning between communication and interaction may have little difference. According to
Oxford online dictionary, communicate means exchanging ideas, information, and news, while
interactions is reciprocal action or influence. In other words, communication only use verbal
language in order to transmit the message to others or give response. As for interaction, it uses
both verbal and non-verbal language so as to influence others and there is an action based on the
communication. For example, in the early stage of teaching, teachers may ask students some

Most educators agree that such pattern describes teacher centered approach. After delivering some questions to introduce the lesson. 1976 in Nunan 1991. The third type may represent pair work activity. Common Pattern of Participants’ Classroom Interaction There are some common patterns in organizing classroom interaction. If we are too adamant we risk taking initiative away from the student. or in the very beginning of teaching. C. and direct the student/s into less guided activity. This is called interactions.questions related to the topic of lesson. 2) teacher – a learner or a group of learners interaction. 3) learner – learner interaction 4) a group of learners – a group of learners interaction. Jeremy harmer labels such function as ‘prompter’. This pattern may occur in the learning process when the teacher do controlled practice toward particular vocabulary or structure of target language. which is usually considered as group work. The second pattern may take place when the teacher do evaluation for one learner or a group of learners.” (Long et al. Flanders stated that two third of classroom activities consisted of talk and two third of the talk was teacher’s talk. It is also used for lead in stage. which mostly in the form of referential question. If. “It has been shown that learners use considerably more language. 1) Teacher – all learners interaction. with discretion. The first pattern points out that the teacher’s role is a true leader who decide kinds of activities in the classroom. In 1970. Such learning process delineate the use of audiolingual approach through which the student practice several target languages by drilling or repeating and memorization. which is being a consultant or prompter. In other words. 51). the teacher communicate with the students and this is called two way communication – expecting someone’s response by means of verbal language. the teacher may let the students complete the task based on the communication. According to Harmer “when we prompt we need to do it sensitively and encouragingly but. on the other hand. two students working each other to complete a task. Consequently. just let them think creatively. . and exploit a greater range of language functions when working in small groups as opposed to teacher fronted tasks in which all students proceed in a lockstep fashion. Classroom teacher may develop some activities from these classroom interaction. the teacher’s role is possibly as similar as the third pattern.” As for the last pattern. At this pattern. It is better to understand that the teacher should not give too much clues to the students. above all. the last two patterns are supportive for creating classroom interaction atmosphere. we may not supply the right amount of encouragement. we are too retiring. Of four patterns. I may define classroom interaction as the process of influencing each other between teacher and student in a classroom by means of non-verbal and verbal language. the teacher serves as consultant. At this stage.

interaction analysis favors data gathered through natural setting. As teacher brings more of his own ideas . 3. 2. Praises or encourages: Jokes that release tension. that is: discourse analysis and conversation analysis. Accept Feeling: Accepts and clarifies the feeling tone of the students in a non-threatening manner. or saying ‘um hum’ or ‘go on’ are included. but not at the expense of another individual. building. Accepts or uses ideas of students: clarifying. Flanders (1970) proposed ten interaction analysis categories (FIAC) from which an observer define the participant’s talk in the classroom. Having similar characteristic with conversation analysis. it is better to know the other two similar analysis. interaction analysts prefer to use discursive and/or interpretive type of analysis. not invented. interaction analysis is concerned with both linguistic and non-linguistic aspect of spoken data. Feeling may be positive or negative. interaction analysis deals with spoken rather than written data. Discourse analysis Conversation Interaction analysis Method of Invented analysis Naturalistic Elicited generating data Elicited Naturalistic Naturalistic Mode Spoken Spoken Spoken Written Type of analysis Categorical Interpretive Interpretive Units of analysis Linguistic Non – Linguistic Both non-linguistic and linguistic Adopted from ‘research methods in language learning by Nunan (1992) As clearly seen on the table. or developing ideas suggested by a student. Then. some experts believes that the students do not frequently make errors and even learn each other mistakes when working in small groups (Porter.Moreover. nodding head. Predicting or recalling feeling are included. 1986) D. Interaction Analysis In order to understand what interaction analysis is. To analyze the data. Categories for Interaction Analysis INDIRECT INFLUENCE 1.

Flanders E. Adopted from a technique for quantifying teacher influence by Ned A. expressing his own ideas. If he did. or. Criticizing or justifying authority: statements intended to change student behavior from nonacceptable to acceptable pattern.e. For example. T: everyday okay (focusing teacher’s attention to the student answering the question). commands. Teacher initiates the contact or solicits student statements. in the beginning of teaching.. Silence or Confusion: pauses. Giving directions: directions. If calling on student is only to indicate who may talk next. Ask questions: asking a question about content or procedure with the intent that a student answer TEACHER TALK DIRECT INFLUENCE STUDENT TALK 5. stating why the teacher is doing what he is doing.. which was indirect influence. The questions the teacher asked were in the form of referential questions (some questions addressed to students because the teacher do not know the answer). shift to category five. asking rhetorical questions. Concerning teacher’s talk. Student talk – response: talk by students in response to teacher. Findings and discussion I will discuss my findings based on the Flander’s category. This is called nominated speaker. Do you use it like for study or for work? . the teacher used both direct and indirect influences to the students. 10. The intention of asking those questions was to introduce the topic of the lesson so that the students could recall their understanding about the lesson (i. 4. S: one of students in the class. or orders to which a student is expected to comply. the teacher focused her attention to the student and asked the student with a new question. T: how often do you usually go to the internet? S: everyday. 8. 7. building up student’s background knowledge). extreme self-reference. teacher asked some questions to student. When one student responded the questions. use this category. Student talk – initiation: talk by students which they initiate. Extract 1 T: Teacher. 9. observer must decide whether student wanted to talk. 6. bawling someone out. short periods of silence and periods of confusion in which communication cannot be understood by the observer.into play. Lecturing: giving facts or opinions about content or procedures.

man uses internet or women uses internet. the teacher insisted to use target language when explaining some difficult words encountered by students while reading the text.. In the internet. giving directions or instructions for the next activity). Other shorter expression is welcome to use when the class is fulfilled with low level learners like ‘Okay.yes. Another way to build up student’s knowledge.. talk a little bit first.. sometimes you have documents.. S: sorry.. Extract 3 T: Teacher... noun clause) when conducting framing move (i.e. S: (still looks confused) T: when you have a clipper with paper [s] [and then] you put it together [it means] you attach. attach or. it may create confusion among students in class.. However.. S: one of students in the class S: What is the meaning of word ‘attachment’? T: Ok attachment. the action is to.. One advantage of totally using target language in the class (i. direct method) is the students have a lot of opportunity to get in touch with the target language. in some occasions. As for direct influence of teacher’s talk...you three... For me.... one student initiated the talk and was responded by the teacher. all right.. What I want you to do is to discuss.. T: for entertainment.. S: (shaking his head). Extract 4 T: Teacher. [instead] you do it with electronic..... when you are sending an e-mail.. At this moment.. it is a bit complex to use when dealing with low level students. [it’s] like you post that T: yeah yeah yes. T: for fun.. what is most common...e. T: okay usually.S: ahhhh. in my opinion.. you two..now’... S: one of students in the class . which is popular nowadays in English language teaching. S: okay Concerning target language produced by the students........ exactly. most of student’s talk occurred when they were given a task and worked on it in small group. Although the teacher was working with low level students.. you cannot do it with a paper... S: one of students in the class T: now.. what kind of websites do you usually visit? S: facebook T: facebook all right etc..... an EFL teacher usually use pictures or videos... S: for entertainment usually..aha.e... Extract 2 T: Teacher. the teacher used longer expression (i.

1991. Second. the teacher asked female student a referential question and she was a way longer to respond the question. D..box (search engine). mostly native speaker from English speaking countries. http://www. . In one scene of the video. What exactly do you do for this? S: . Harmer.oxforddictionaries. Harlow. regard it as impolite behaviour.1 ISSN 2162-6952. Regarding the latter justification. Prenctice hall Nunan. Interaction analysis: a technique for quantifying teacher influence... (unclear response/talk) T: exactly.. F. Journal of Studies in Education. H. Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.. To search for specific information The other aspects of interaction analysis is silence period. Language teaching methodology: a textbook for teachers. 1992. ERIC.com/ Nunan. The Practice of English Language Teaching. it is bound with cultural diversity where some nations regard longer response is fine.I 2015 Learner Autonomy and the Use of Language Learning Strategies in a Taiwanese Junior High School. Flanders.S: What does it mean ‘search forward’? T: ah. Longman. the student might have been in difficulty to catch the question and confuse as to what to say.. When you click on the google. Vol. The teacher may have variety of judgement about that. No. D. First.. Hemel Hempstead. 2001. the teacher might have justify that the female student was impolite.A. you will find this bar. 5.. while the other nations. References Chen. J. N...