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GSM Services
Service Category




Bearer Services

Supplementary Services

Full Rate 13Kbps

SMS (Short Message

Point to Point & Cell Broadcast

Asynchronous Data

300 9600bps

Synchronous Data

300 9600bps

Call Forward

Subscriber Busy, Not Reachable

Call Barring

International & Incoming Calls

900 MHz. Up link Frequency 890-915 MHZ.

Down link Frequency 935-960 MHz

1800 MHz. Up link Frequency 1725-1780 MHZ.

Down link Frequency 1820-1870 MHz

124 carriers.
There are 8 channels in each carrier.
Channel separation is 200 KHz.
Ciphering modifies the contents of the eight interleaved blocks through the use of
encryption techniques to the particular mobile station and base transceiver station.
Two types of ciphering algorithms, called A3 and A5, are used in GSM to
prevent unauthorized network access and privacy for the radio
transmission respectively.

Authentication is the process of uniquely proving an identity to a certain service,

network or device and the verification of the given identity.
The Au C is associated with the HLR (Home Location Register) in a GSM or UMTS
network. It provides authentication parameters for the authentication process such as
authentication triplets in GSM or authentication vectors within UMTS
A3 - Authentication Algorithm A3
Authentication algorithm used in conjunction with Ki the authentication key and
RAND the random number generated in the AuC (Authentication Centre) to produce
the SRES (Signed Response) This variable is used by the network to authenticate a MS
(Mobile Station) requesting network resources.

Equalization is the technique used to improve the redial link performance.

That is to minimize instantaneous bit error rate (Inter symbol
interference).since the mobile feeding channel is random and time varying,
equalizers must track the time varying characteristics of the mobile
channel, and thus are called as adaptive equalizers.

In reality, bit errors often occur in sequence, as caused by long fading dips affecting
several consecutive bits. Channel coding is most effective in detecting and correcting
single errors and short error sequences. It is not suitable for handling longer sequences.
For this reason, a process called interleaving is used to separate consecutive bits of a
message so that these are transmitted in a non-consecutive way.
The major drawback of interleaving is the corresponding delay: transmission
time from the first burst to the last one in a block is equal to 8 TDMA frame

Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital format. In this

format, information is organized into discrete units of data (called bits) that can be
separately addressed (usually in multiple-bit groups called bytes).

The GSM speech code transform the analog signal (voice) into a digital representation,
has to meet the following criteria:
A .good speech quality
B. to reduce the redundancy in the sounds of the voice