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Braking system

a). The braking department must be able to install brakes which are able to
lock all the four wheels simultaneously and stop the vehicle in straight
line at the end of acceleration run when driven at a speed of 40kmph.
b) The brakes should be equipped with an over travel switch. This switch
must be installed such that in the event of brake system failure the brake
pedals over travels, activating the switch that will kill the ignition and cut
the power to any electrical fuel pumps system thereby stalling the engine
c) The vehicle must have proper brake lights which must be visible from
rear. According to the rule the lights must be mounted between the wheel
centerline and drivers shoulder level vertically and approximately on
vehicle centerline laterally
Baking system must provide a reliable and prompt deceleration for the
vehicle. Moreover, the driver must have complete control of the vehicle
while the brakes are activated. More importantly, the brakes must be capable
of locking up all four wheels while on the pavement, which is one of the
requirements stated by the SAE SUPRA rules. According to our calculation
of the clamp force requirement and the disc brake available in the market we
have we decided to use the disc brake of bikes of MARUTI 800. The
selectivity includes cost and availability of the disc brakes.
Reason for using MARUTI 800 braking system
The pedal system of MARUTI 800 matches with our vehicles
The weight of MARUTI 800 is comparable to our vehicle.
It also provides shortest stopping distance and optimum deceleration.
Braking system design:
1. Brake considerations:
We are incorporating front wheel as well as rear wheel with disc brakes.
Advantages of disc brake:
Proper air circulation through disc which reduces the chances of
deformation and brake fading.
Maintenance of disc brake is very easy.
Disc brake improves the longevity of the tires as less heat is
transferred to it.
It weighs less and hence it improves the steering ability.
Lesser unsprung weight of disc brake keeps the wheel intact with the
road surface.

Disc brake generally remains cleaner in comparison to the drum

brakes because of the centrifugal force.
Also the clamping action of the disc brake, do not cause deformation
in the rotor. Where as in the drum brakes , the brake pad cause
deformation in the drum.
Combination of brake rotors:
We are using disc brakes in all our four wheels because it provides more
efficient braking. In different SUPRA events we require quite precise
braking so disk brakes are best suited. The rotors we are using have
following specifications:
gray cast iron
Hydraulic system:
The brakes hydraulic system is controlled by single brake pedal, locking all
the wheels at a time. To achieve the optimum braking according to dynamic
weight distribution of vehicle, the braking pressure of front and the rear
wheels is controlled by using pressure regulatory valve used with the master
This is done to avoid locking of wheels. It is based on the principle of
Pascals law that pressure at a point in a fluid is equal in all direction in
space. So that the pressure applied on the fluid gets equally distributed to
get uniform braking action in all four wheels.
Master cylinder:
We are using a brand new master cylinder of MARUTI 800 having
bore diameter of 3/4 for actuation of brake fluid. Since we are using
disc brake, we had to increase the pressure ratio of brake pedal to 6:1.
This is done to meet our braking requirement.
Brake fluid:
The brake fluid which we are using this time is DOT 3. It is
economical and easily available.

Easily available
Eat paints
Works better than DOT 4 when water is absorbed


Easily available
Not favorable after water absorption
More boiling than dot 3

Brake pedal:
F1- Force in primary part of piston
F2- Force in secondary part of piaton
P1- pressure in front hoses
P2- pressure in rear hoses
A- Area of master cylinder
F3- force in front disc
F4- force in rear disc
T1- torque in front disc
T2- torque on rear disc
F5- braking force in front tire
F6- braking force in rear tire
W=weight of the vehicle
Wfs= Front axle static load
Wfr= Rear axle static load
A= deceleration
h= height of center of gravity from lowermost point of chasis
Let the pedal force = 90 lb = 40.82 Kg
So, force on bias bar = 40.82*6*9.81 = 2404 N
For 60:40 configuration
F1 = .6*2404 = 1442.4 N
F2 =.4*2404 = 961.6 N
Area of master cylinder =
= 2.85*
P1 = F1/A = 1442.4/1.98*
P2 = F2/A = 961.6/2.85*

= 5060644.992N/
=3374035.4 N/

Diameter of piston = .046 m

So, area of piston = (/4)*0.046^2 = 16.62*
Force acting on the front disc = 2**N
Where N=P*A

F3 = 2* (.39) * 5060644.99*16.62*

= 6644.5 N

F4 = = 2* (.78)*3374035.4 *16.62*

= 4422.211 N

Now, to calculate the torque on each disc

T1 = F3*[(D rotor/2) - (D piston/2)]
= 6603.31*(9-2.3) Ncm = 445.24 Nm
T2 = 4402.211*(0.09-.0.0023) = 296.28 Nm
F5 = T1/ (.3048) = 1460.76 N
F6 = T2/ (.3048) = 972.04N
Declaration due to brakes
a = 2*[F5 + F6] / W
a= 2*[1450.9 + 967.65] / 400 = 1.23g
Stopping distance:
V2-U2=2(a) S
V= 60 km/hr = 16.67 m/sec
S= V2/2(a) = (16.667)2/ (2*1.23*9.81) = 11.5 m
Reaction time + build up time + perception= 0.8 s.
Therefore total distance travel by vehicle in this time is
Se= 16.667*0.8= 13.336 m.
Therefore total distance (St) = S+Se =24.83m.
Stopping time:
V=U+ (a)*t
V=16.67 m/s, U= 0 m/sec
t= 16.667/ (1.3*9.81) = 1.38 s.
Total time taken to stop the vehicle after seeing the danger
T=t+0.8 s
T=2.18 sec.
Weight transfer

W=400 kg, l=71 inches, a= 1.3g, h=1.2 inches

Wf = Wfs+(h/l)*(w/g)*a
= 160 + 82.16 = 243.5kg
Wr = Wrs (h/l)*(w/g)*a
= 240 82.16 = 156.5 kg
Therefore the coefficient of breaking,
f = braking coefficient of front wheel
= (F5*2)/Wf
r = Braking coefficient of rear wheel
= (F6*2)/Wr
= a/(max) = 0.96
Therefore the efficiency of brakes is 96%
Thermal analysis
The braking performance is significantly affected by the temperature rise in
the process of halting the vehicle. Each moment (time step) during the
continuous braking process gives a different value of temperature
distribution as a result of the frictional heat generated on the rotor surface
which can cause high temperature rise. When the temperature rise exceeds
the critical value for a given material, it leads to undesirable effects in the
operation of the rotor such as thermal elastic instability (TEI), premature
wear, brake fluid vaporization and thermally excited vibrations. The material
properties of the brake rotor play an important role by influencing the
thermal conductivity and heat dissipation during braking. Recent studies
have shown that advanced composite such as aluminum matrix reinforced
with silicon carbide particle is a potential material for brake rotor
development due to its thermo-physical properties.
1. Theoretical thermal analysis:
T amb =ambient temperature=300 k
Q =flux produced in disc rotor (W/m2)
T max =maximum temp. attained by rotor=300 K
Arotor= area of rotor
Disc rotor is of gray cast iron hence value of following :D rotor =density of disc rotor = 7250 kg/m3
C =brake disc specific heat capacity = 460 J/kg/k

K=brake disc thermal conductivity = 57 W/(m k)

Ffriction= 6644.28 N
This friction force is acting from both side of rotor hence Ffriction on one side
Ffriction1= 6644.28/2 = 3322.14 N
Power (P) = Ffriction1 * V =3322.14 * 16.67
P = 55380.07W
Flux (Q) =P/ Arotor
Arotor = *(0.12 0.072) =0.016022 m2
Q =55380.07/0.016022 = 3.45 * 106 W/m2
Using fourier law we get the formula to calculate the max. temperature of
rotor is
T max=(0.527 * Q * t0.5) / ( D rotor * C * K)0.5 + T amb
=457 K
2. Analysis using ANSYS
We use the software CAD (Computer Aided Design) to complete the threedimensional parametric modeling of gears. SOLIDWORKS is able to model
the rack and pinion geometry and analysis is done on ANSYS
a). Thermal analysis

b) Stress analysis

Max. temperature = 510 K

Stress (calculated) = 2.6 * 10^5 N/m2

Stress (ANSYS) =1.99 * 10^5 N/m2

Thermal analysis

Stress analysis

Finite Element Analysis of Brake rotor

Finite element (FE) method for brake rotor analysis has become a preferred
method in studying the thermal distribution performance because of its
flexibility and diversity in providing solutions to problems involving
advanced material properties. Finite element analysis uses finite element
method to calculate the temperature at different nodes using MATLAB
software. Formula used to calculate the temperature throughout the rotor
T max=(0.527 * Q * t0.5) / ( D rotor * C * K)0.5 + T amb
T max =500 K
Braking is the very important system of the vehicle. The analysis shows that
calculated and simulated results for the MARUTI 800 brake rotor are in
good agreement.