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IBM North America Technical Leadership Team

Accelerate with IBM Storage:


Spectrum Virtualize Copy Services

Byron Grossnickle: Consulting I/T Specialist - Virtualization


Bill Wiegand: Consulting I/T Specialist - Virtualization

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Agenda
Volume Mirroring
FlashCopy
Metro Mirror
Global Mirror

Global Mirror with Change Volumes

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Volume Mirroring
Volume mirroring allows creation of one Volume with two
copies of MDisk extents
There are not 2 volumes with the same data on them
Copies can be in different storage pools

In SVC that can mean across 2 storage frames

Copies can be of completely different structures

Image, striped, sequential, space-efficient, compressed

Minimal impact to volume availability if one set of MDisks goes offline

Automatic incremental resync

Volume mirroring sits below the upper cache and copy


services
FlashCopy, Metro Mirror, Global Mirror have no awareness that a
Volume is mirrored

Anything that can be done today with a volume can be done with a mirrored volume
including migration, expand/shrink, etc.
In version 7.3 mirroring can take advantage of the lower cache

Volume mirroring can be used for:


Data Protection
Data Transformation

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Copy Rate On Initial Sync/Re-Sync

Mirror Rate Setting

Data Copied/s

1-10

128 KB

11-20

256 KB

21-30

512 KB

31-40

1 MB

41-50

2 MB

51-60

4 MB

61-70

8 MB

71-80

16 MB

81-90

32 MB

91-100

64 MB

5/19/2016

Default

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FLASHCOPY

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IBM Storwize - FlashCopy


Up to 256
targets
FlashCopy
Relationships

FlashCopy:
Volume level
point-in-time copy
with any mix of thin
and fully-allocated

Source
vdisk

Map 1

Disk0
Source

Disk1
FlashCopy
target of Disk0

Incremental FlashCopy:
Volume level
point-in-time copy
Map 2

Disk2
FlashCopy
target of Disk1
Map 4

Disk3
FlashCopy
target of Disk1

Disk4
FlashCopy
target of Disk3

Start incremental FlashCopy

Data copied as normal


Later

Some data changed by apps


Start incremental FlashCopy

Only changed data copied


by background copy

Cascaded FlashCopy:
Copy the copies

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FlashCopy Overview
Source volume may be spread across multiple disk subsystems or pools
Target volume may be to one or more disk subsystems, different than
source

Create up to 256 copies of a source volume


Because we use linked lists the source volume is only impacted by 1 copy on write
operation regardless of the number of copies

Copy is accessible almost immediately


Copy may be updated independently of the source
Background Copy Rate establishes copy rate goal
Value of 0 has a "No Copy" effect
Data rate 128 KB/s to 64 MB/s per Volume

Support for 128 Consistency Groups


Support for 4096 mappings
Invoked via Web User Interface, CLI or script
With 7.5 code 2 GB of FlashCopy bitmap space
Enough to FlashCopy 4 PB using a 256 KB grain size
Prior to 7.5 enough to copy 1 PB using a 256 KB grain size

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Types of FlashCopy

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Snapshot
This is also known as a FlashCopy no copy
Only stores changed grains from the original
A grain is 64 or 256 kb in size
Default is 256 kb
64 kb grain size uses 4X the bitmap space but can save physical disk space

Background copy rate will be set to 0


Raising the background copy rate will produce a full copy
Will generally always show copying in the status

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Clone
Produces a full, standalone copy of the original
The target can be used for read/write immediately

The Background Copy Rate determines the speed of the


background copy
Default of 50 (2 MB/s)

Relationship is automatically deleted once the copy is


finished

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Backup (aka Incremental FlashCopy)


Produces a full copy of the original
The target can be used for read/write immediately
Tracks changes from the original
When started again, only transfers the changes to update the full copy to the new point
in time of the original

The Background Copy Rate determines the speed of the


background copy
Default of 50 (2 MB/s)

Relationship is maintained once copy is finished

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Automated FlashCopy by Right Click

Automatically creates a target of the same type as the


original
Puts the copy in the same pool as original
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Advanced FlashCopy

Allows you to use existing target volumes OR create target


volumes of the type you designate
Allows you to designate the target pool ( if you choose to
create them)

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Background Copy Rate vs Clean Rate


Background Copy Rate The rate at which data is copied to the
target when the background copy rate is > 0
Default is 50 (or 2 MB/s) for non-snapshot copies and 0 for snapshots
A FlashCopy nocopy can be changed to a full copy by raising the copy
rate to something > 0

Clean Rate The rate at which data is copied between copies in


a linked list when the clean rate is > 0 and the background copy
rate = 0
Default is 0 for snapshots and 50 (or 2 MB/s) for non-snapshot copies
If clean rate is > 0, each target gets grains that have been changed from
the original to maintain it's point in time. This, in turn, means that in a
multiple copy situation, each target may contain many of the same grains
as other targets

Eliminates stop time

If clean rate = 0, each target only gets grains that are unique to it's copy
that no other copy has. This saves space, but can extend the amount of
time that it takes to stop a FlashCopy

Saves space

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Background/Clean Copy Rate


Copy rate setting

Data copied/s

256 KB grains/s

64 KB grains/s

110

128 KB

0.5

1120

256 KB

2130

512 KB

3140

1 MB

16

4150

2 MB

32

5160

4 MB

16

64

6170

8 MB

32

128

7180

16 MB

64

256

8190

32 MB

128

512

91100
101-110

64 MB
128 MB

256
*By RPQ

1024

111-120

256 MB

*By RPQ

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FlashCopy Overview 1
Multiple targets are arranged in a
linked list
Most recently started mapping is at the
head and dependent on source
Targets started earlier are dependent on
newer target mappings

IncrFC-1
(latest)

Progress = 100%

Depends upon
Depends upon

Only dependent until fully copied

Snap-3

Write to source causes write to


newest target in linked list
Older targets get their data from newer
target for unsplit grains

Write to target causes write to next


older target in linked list
Assumes there is still a dependency on
that target

Example assumes clean rate of 0 on


snapshots

Source

Progress < 100%

Depends upon

Snap-2

Progress < 100%

Depends upon

Snap-1
(oldest)

Progress < 100%

Use the lsfcmapdependantmaps


command to figure out where
dependencies exist

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FlashCopy Overview 2
Snap-1
(latest)

Progress < 100%

No Dependency
Depends upon

IncrFC-1

Source

Progress = 100%

Depends upon

Snap-3

Progress < 100%

Depends upon

Snap-2
(oldest)
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Progress < 100%

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FlashCopy Overview 3
It is important to note
that when using GMCV
in combination with
FlashCopy, the best
practice is to stop
GMCV, start your FC
and then restart GMCV
This ensures that the
GMCV relationship is at
the top of the dependency
tree and will stop and start
freely with the cycling
mode.

IncrFC-1
(latest)

Depends upon
Depends upon

Snap-1

Source

Progress < 100%

No Dependency

Snap-3

Progress = 100%

Depends upon

Snap-2
(oldest)

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Progress < 100%

Progress < 100%

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Day1 - FlashCopy #1 w/clean rate = 50

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Day 2 - FlashCopy Mapping #2 w/cleanrate = 50

After starting the FlashCopy #2 mapping change the block B to B

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Day 3 - FlashCopy Mapping #3 w/cleanrate = 50

After starting the FlashCopy #3 mapping change the block C to C


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Starting FlashCopy Mapping 1-3 w/cleanrate = 0

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Single Platform for Remote Copy Services

Single point for copy services

Use to meet business needs

Asynchronous remote copy/Global Mirror

Disaster recovery up to 25000KM

Synchronous remote copy/Metro Mirror

Business Continuance up to 300KM

Compatible between all members of the


Storwize family

Works with native and externally


virtualized storage

Fibre Channel and/or IP Replication

Network Protocol Flexibility

Mirroring types can be used in any


combination

Environment Flexibility

Storage
Network
Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Storage
Network
Virtual LUNs

Node

Managed Disks

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Virtual LUNs

Node

Node

Managed Disks

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Spectrum Virtualize

REMOTE COPY

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Spectrum Virtualize Metro Mirror Function

Metropolitan distance synchronous remote mirroring function


Up to 300km between sites for business continuity

As with any synchronous remote replication, performance requirements may limit usable distance

Host I/O completed only when data stored at both locations

Unless write rates are low, not a good candidate for IP based replication
Important to keep subsystem performance similar

Designed to maintain fully synchronized copies at both sites

Once initial copy has completed


During resync data is not consistent; use a point-in-time copy

All mirroring types/transports delivered as single feature

Offers great implementation flexibility

Operates between members of the Storwize Family at each site

Local and remote volumes may be on any Spectrum Virtualize supported disk systems
In order to replication between SVC and Storwize, the receiving Storwize must be in the replication layer
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Spectrum Virtualize Global Mirror Function

Long distance asynchronous remote mirroring function


Up to 25000 km distance (250ms) between sites for business continuity

Does not wait for secondary I/O before completing host I/O
Helps reduce performance impact to applications

Designed to maintain consistent secondary copy at all times


Once initial copy has completed
Copies are not consistent during a re-sync

Use a FlashCopy for a good point-in-time

Built on Metro Mirror code base


All remote copy functions delivered as single feature
Offers great implementation flexibility

Operates between Storwize members at each site


Local and remote volumes may be on any Storwize Family supported disk systems
To replicate between SVC and Storwize, the Storwize system must be in the replication layer
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Low Bandwidth Remote Mirroring GMCV

Potential Problem: Spectrum Virtualize Global Mirror delivers very high data
currency at remote site but requires network bandwidth to support this currency
No mechanism to control RPO

Global Mirror with Change Volumes (GMCV) option makes regular copies of data
at primary location and transmits them to secondary location
RPO and network bandwidth consumption can be regulated

User can select frequency of these copies, which determines network bandwidth
required and data currency
Provides much more flexibility to meet specific application currency and network
cost requirements
GMCV is limited to 256 relationships per system
With RPQ and 7.x code this can be lifted to 2048 relationships per system
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Global Mirror with Change Volumes (GMCV)

Initially copy all data from primary volume to secondary volume at point-in-time of when GM
relationship started
When copy completes a point-in-time copy of the secondary is taken to ensure data consistency
Cycle is started again Either immediately or when cycle timer trips
Maximum Round Trip Latency

FC with DH8, V9K, V7KG2, V5KG2 - 250 ms. All other equipment 80 ms
IP - 1Gb 80ms, 10Gb 10ms

Bandwidth sized based on RPO desired (10 minutes to hours)


No FlashCopy license is required
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GMCV Cycling Period


The user configures the cycling period
This is the minimum time between cycle starts
Default is 300 seconds (5 minutes)
If the link is slow or I/O throughput is high, it may take longer than this for the
new data to be transferred to the secondary
If so then the next copy will start as soon as the last one has finished

RPO is up to 2X the cycling period

Actual RPO is determined by the Freeze Time listed on the


relationship

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GMCV Cycling Period Options


Options for -cyclingmode are none | multi
Specifies the behavior of Global Mirror for this relationship

Specifying the default none gives identical behavior to


regular Global Mirror even though you may have change
volumes attached to the relationship

Specifying multi uses the cycling protocol


To start a relationship with cycling mode set to multi there
must be change volumes defined for the relationship
Admin can create change volumes or let system create them via GUI
when configuring GM with Change Volumes option
Note that the cycling mode can only be changed when the relationship
is stopped and in a stopped state

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Remote Copy Partnership Topologies


Up to 4 Spectrum Virtualize family members in direct or
indirect partnerships
Topologies are related to remote copy partnerships
This differs from remote copy relationships (a volume and its mirrored
partner)

Only 1 IP partnership per Storwize family member is


supported
The rest must be made up of Fibre Channel relationships.

Topology Types
Quadrature or Triangle
Line
Star

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Remote Copy Partnership Topologies


Quadrature (or triangle) Partnership Topology

Since any system can only have 1 IP partnership only 2 of these


partnerships could be IP
The rest have to be Fibre Channel

Both Storwize systems in this example need to be in the


replication layer in this instance
If all were Storwize systems, they could be in the default storage layer
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Remote Copy Partnership Topologies


Line Partnership Topology

Since any system can only have 1 IP partnership only 2 of these


partnerships could be IP
The rest have to be Fibre Channel

All Storwize systems in this example need to be in the replication


layer in this instance
If all were Storwize systems, they could be in the default storage layer

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Remote Copy Partnership Topologies


Star Partnership Topology

Since any system can only have 1 IP partnership only 2 of these


partnerships could be IP
The rest have to be Fibre Channel

All Storwize systems in this example need to be in the replication


layer in this instance
If all were Storwize systems, they could be in the default storage layer
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Fibre Channel Connectivity Options


Unix

Wintel

Max 250 ms roundtrip latency


(80ms pre 7.4 and older hardware)

SVC/Storwize

IP WAN

DS5K

DS8K

Others

SVC/Storwize

Native Fibre Channel - Including FCoE


Dark Fiber
FCIP Either Brocade or Cisco

DWDM/CWDM
DS3/4/5K

Others
XIV

Note: Storwize members have no knowledge of WAN


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Native IP Remote Copy Partnership


Enables use of 1Gbit or 10Gbit Ethernet
connections using TCPIP without the need for Fibre
Channel or FCIP routers for replication
Supports all remote copy modes MM and GM

GM with Change Volumes preferred mode

Covered by normal remote copy license

It is not a new replication offering, but rather a new transport versus using
a Fibre Channel network

WAN Optimizers are NOT supported with this technology

Configuration:
Automatic path/session configuration via discovery of remote
cluster using IP management addresses of both systems in
the IP remote copy partnership
Configure IP partnership using either 1Gbit or 10Gbit
Ethernet ports but not both at same time
Currently cannot switch speeds anywhere in end-to-end link
other then WAN

E.g. cannot connect 10Gbit port to 1Gbit switch and then connect 1Gbit
out to WAN
E.g All 10Gbit->WAN<-10Gbit or 1Gbit->WAN<-1Gbit

CHAP-based authentication supported

Includes Bridgeworks SANSlide IP network


optimization technology
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Bridgeworks SANSlide Optimization

(Figure from REDP5023)

With TCP/IP, information transfer slows the further you go.


This is because of the latency caused by waiting for
acknowledgment of each set of packets sent since the next packet
set cannot be delivered until the previous one has been
acknowledged by the remote system.
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Bridgeworks SANSlide Optimization 2


Latency in standard IP network (1Gb link speed):
depends on the routing infrastructure
depends on distance

Latency = Round Trip Time (RTT) for a single packet set

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(Figure from REDP5023)


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Bridgeworks SANSlide Optimization 3

(Figure from REDP5023)

Enhanced parallelism by using multiple virtual connections (VC) that share the same IP links
and addresses:
When waiting for one VCs ACK, it sends more packets across other VCs
If packets are lost from any VC, data will be retransmitted
Artificial Intelligence engine adjusts number of VCs, receive window size, and packet size as appropriate
to maintain optimum utilization/performance of the links

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Bridgeworks SANSlide Optimization 4


Latency in IP network (1Gb link speed):
depends on the routing infrastructure
depends on distance

Latency = Round Trip Time (RTT) for a single packet set

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(Figure from REDP5023)


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Remote Copy IP Partnership Requirements


If you use IP replication, you must meet the following requirements:
TCP ports 3260 and 3265 are used by systems for IP partnership communications

These ports must be open on any firewalls


Port 3260 is the port used by the systems to initially discover each other
Port 3265 is for the actual IP Replication sessions used to transmit data

The maximum supported round-trip latency between sites is 80 ms for a 1 Gbps link
The maximum supported round-trip latency between sites is 10ms for a 10 Gbps link
The recommended method of replication is Global Mirror with Change Volumes
The inter-cluster heartbeat traffic consumes 1 Mbps per link
The minimum bandwidth requirement for an inter-cluster link is 10 Mbps

Maximum throughput is currently restricted based on use of 1gigE or


10gigE ports
One 1gigE port could do up to 111 MB/s unidirectional / 190 MB/s bidirectional
Two 1gigE ports could do 220 MB/s unidirectional / 325 MB/s bidirectional
One 10gigE ports could do up to 200 MB/s unidirectional
Two 10gigE ports could do up to 400 MB/s unidirectional

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Native IP Remote Copy


Configuring Ethernet Ports

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Native IP Remote Copy


Configuring Partnership

Link bandwidth setting is configured using Mbits not MBytes and you
set this to what the communication link actually can sustain or what
is actually allocated for Spectrum Virtualize replication
Background copy rate setting is a percentage of the link bandwidth
and determines the bandwidth available for initial sync and resyncs
or for GMCV
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Native IP Remote Copy


Partnership Properties

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Native IP Replication
One Link One I/O Group

Either Ethernet port 1 or 2 on a node/node canister can be configured for IP


replication but not both
The remote copy port group on each system includes two IP address, one from
each node, and when initially configured the system will establish which one from
each site is used

This pairing can not be chosen or changed by an administrator


In this example H1 and M2 have established a session

If H1 node fails then the session between H1 and M2 fails and the system
automatically establishes another session between H2 and either M1 or M2

The IP address used for replication on H1 does not failover to H2

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Native IP Replication
One Link Two I/O Groups

The remote copy port group on each system includes four IP address, one from each node,
and when initially configured the system will establish which one from each site is used
If H1 node fails then the session between H1 and M2 fails and the system automatically
establishes another session between H2, H3 or H4 and M1, M2, M3 or M4

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Native IP Replication
One Link More Than Two I/O Groups

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Native IP Replication
Dual links with all ports active and no standby ports

Remote copy port group setup for dual redundant links:


Port group 1: two IP addresses, each on a different node in different system (green)
Port group 2: two IP addresses, each on a different node in different system (orange)

Maximum of 2 simultaneous IP replication sessions at any time


Only one active per node, so in this configuration if node A1 would fail then Link 1 would no longer be
available and only link 2 would be active

Result is loss of half of the bandwidth available for replication


If bandwidth sizing dictates dual links required and if one link fails resulting in MM or regular GM not able to operate
properly, recommendation is to have 2 I/O Groups at each site to allow the failed link to restart on other nodes available in
systems

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Native IP Replication
Dual Links - One I/O Group, One Port per Node
1
H1

Primary
Volume

H2

M1

Remote Copy Port Group 1

Secondar
y Volume

Remote Copy Port Group 2

M2

Again maximum of 2 simultaneous IP replication sessions at any


time
Only one active per node so in this example if node M2 would fail then Link 1 would no longer be
available and only link 2 would be active

Result is loss of half of the bandwidth available for replication

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Native IP Replication
Dual Links - Two I/O Groups, One Port per Node

Each remote copy port group on each system includes two IP address, one from I/O Group in
this example, and when initially configured the system will establish the pairings used
If H1 node fails then the session between H1 and M2 fails and the system automatically
establishes another session between H3 and either M2 or M4 since they are all in the same
remote copy port group with H1
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Native IP Replication
Miscellaneous Information
Cannot today non-disruptively switch from a FC partnership to an IP
partnership
Must delete relationships and delete partnership and start over basically
If currently replicating over FC and can take outage on hosts replicating volumes, we have a method using
sync flag on mkrcrelationship

SANSlide What it does and doesnt do:


It optimizes link utilization, but not latency
It uses standard TCP/IP no UDP
It doesnt do any encryption, compression or de-duplication

Only two systems can be in one IP Replication partnership


Can do A->B partnership
Cannot do A->B->C->D or A/B/C->D

A system can be in an IP partnership with one other system and in FC


partnership with others
Still a maximum of 4 systems in partnership with each other

FC replication and IP replication can be used with any combination of


Spectrum Virtualize systems all running V7.2
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Replication Implementation Considerations


Port Usage
Although not required, it is highly recommended to dedicate ports to
the remote copy process
Dedicate SAN ports for FC mirroring
Dedicate IP ports for IP replication

ISCSI and IP replication not recommended on the same ports

Port dedication can help with the following problems:


SAN buffer to buffer credit issue for FC replication

If ports are shared, this can cause production traffic slowdown

1920 errors due to insufficient WAN bandwidth


Spectrum Virtualize Node to Node communication issues

On Spectrum Virtualize and V9000 with code 7.x, this will require that
you use port masking to take node to node traffic off the dedicated
ports
The local_fc_port_mask parameter can be set on a cluster to restrict the node to node traffic to specific
ports
Other members of the Storwize family (V3700,V5000,V7000) do not need this set, because node to node
traffic prefers the back-plane to the FC SAN.

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Best Practice Port Designations

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Replication Implementation Considerations


What type of partnership do I use?
Use an IP partnership when:
FCIP equipment is not an option
Only when IP network is stable

Does not work well on IP networks that are not healthy

When bandwidth requirements do not exceed 200-300 MB/s


Only use 10Gb when latency does not exceed 10 ms

Use a Fibre Channel partnership when


You have reached the maximum (1) IP partnerships per system and need another
High bandwidth is a requirement (greater than 200-300 MB/s)
You have a method of taking FC over the WAN (FCIP routers)

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Replication Implementation Considerations


What kind of remote copy relationship do I use?
Use Metro Mirror when:
You absolutely have to have a base RPO of 0

Base RPO - Meaning rolling logs forward does not count

Only when you have the bandwidth to sustain it

Production traffic will be slowed if you don't

Use Global Mirror when:


You don't need base RPO of 0, but want a small base RPO (2 min or less)
You don't quite have the bandwidth for Metro Mirror
You don't want your production applications to be affected by somewhat slower replication
Use of 7.2 code can improve situations when bandwidth is not an issue

Use Global Mirror with Change Volumes when:


You can tolerate a base RPO of 10 minutes or greater
Your production applications are being affected by slow downs from Global Mirror
Your WAN link is not sufficient to keep up with the peaks from Global Mirror
Generally when you are using IP based replication

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Mirroring Adjustable Parameters


Link Bandwidth
Amount of bandwidth in Mb/s for Spectrum Virtualize to use on the WAN link

Background Copy Rate


% of link bandwidth that can be used for initial sync and re-sync traffic

GMCV is always initial synch/resync traffic

Relationship Bandwidth Limit


CLI only

lssystem, chsystem

The speed in MB/s that any ONE relationship is allowed to go

GM Link Tolerance
CLI only

lssystem, chsystem

Specified the length of time in seconds for which an inadequate intersystem link is
tolerated for a GM operation. Default = 300 seconds

GM Max Host Delay


CLI only

lssystem, chsystem

Specifies the maximum time delay in ms, at which the GM link tolerance timer starts
counting down. Default = 5 ms

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Mirroring Adjustable Parameters


GM Inter-cluster Delay Simulator
CLI only
lssystem, chsystem

Can simulate a delay between Spectrum Virtualize systems in ms

GM Intra-cluster Delay Simulator


CLI only
lssystem, chsystem

Can simulate a delay between I/O groups for Hyperswap distance


simulation in ms

Max Replication Delay


CLI only
lssystem, chsystem

Maximum amount of time in seconds that I/O can be delayed without


producing a 1920 error
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Multi-Cloud Storage Gateway Vision Future Capability


Hybrid Use Cases: The Future of Storage Economics

Spectrum
Virtualize

Compressed
Private Cloud

Backup
Encrypted

Replicated

DR

Rackspace

Tiering
Amazon S3

Archive

Spectrum
Scale

Data
sharing

Integrity
Validated

Microsoft
Azure

Multi-cloud Storage Gateway


Note: The Multi-cloud Storage Gateway
is a planned future enhancement
Vision is to support other platforms like Spectrum Accelerate and DS8000

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Information and Trademarks


IBM, the IBM logo, ibm.com, IBM System Storage, IBM Spectrum Storage, IBM Spectrum Control, IBM Spectrum Protect, IBM Spectrum Archive, IBM Spectrum Virtualize, IBM Spectrum Scale, IBM
Spectrum Accelerate, Softlayer, and XIV are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the
Web at "Copyright and trademark information" at http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of other companies.
Adobe, the Adobe logo, PostScript, and the PostScript logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States, and/or other countries.
IT Infrastructure Library is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited.
Linear Tape-Open, LTO, the LTO Logo, Ultrium, and the Ultrium logo are trademarks of HP, IBM Corp. and Quantum in the U.S. and other countries.
Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Centrino, Intel Centrino logo, Celeron, Intel Xeon, Intel SpeedStep, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel
Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both and is used under license therefrom.
ITIL is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
* All other products may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Notes:
Performance is in Internal Throughput Rate (ITR) ratio based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput that any user will
experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed.
Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput improvements equivalent to the performance ratios stated here.
All customer examples cited or described in this presentation are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved.
Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual customer configurations and conditions.
This publication was produced in the United States. IBM may not offer the products, services or features discussed in this document in other countries, and the information may be subject to change
without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the product or services available in your area.
All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.
Information about non-IBM products is obtained from the manufacturers of those products or their published announcements. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the
performance, compatibility, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
Prices subject to change without notice. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography.
This presentation and the claims outlined in it were reviewed for compliance with US law. Adaptations of these claims for use in other geographies must be reviewed
by the local country counsel for compliance with local laws.

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Special notices
This document was developed for IBM offerings in the United States as of the date of publication. IBM may not make these offerings available in other countries, and the
information is subject to change without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the IBM offerings available in your area.
Information in this document concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of these products or other public sources. Questions on the capabilities of nonIBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these
patents. Send license inquires, in writing, to IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, New Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 USA.
All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.
The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is provided "AS IS" with no warranties or guarantees either expressed or
implied.
All examples cited or described in this document are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some IBM products can be used and the results that may be achieved.
Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual client configurations and conditions.
IBM Global Financing offerings are provided through IBM Credit Corporation in the United States and other IBM subsidiaries and divisions worldwide to qualified commercial
and government clients. Rates are based on a client's credit rating, financing terms, offering type, equipment type and options, and may vary by country. Other restrictions
may apply. Rates and offerings are subject to change, extension or withdrawal without notice.
IBM is not responsible for printing errors in this document that result in pricing or information inaccuracies.
All prices shown are IBM's United States suggested list prices and are subject to change without notice; reseller prices may vary.
IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply.
Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a controlled environment. Actual results may vary significantly and are dependent on many factors
including system hardware configuration and software design and configuration. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been made on development-level
systems. There is no guarantee these measurements will be the same on generally-available systems. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been
estimated through extrapolation. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment.

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Trademarks
The following are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.
Not all common law marks used by IBM are listed on this page. Failure of a mark to appear does not mean that IBM does not use the mark nor does it mean that the product is not
actively marketed or is not significant within its relevant market.
Those trademarks followed by are registered trademarks of IBM in the United States; all others are trademarks or common law marks of IBM in the United States.

For a complete list of IBM Trademarks, see www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml:


*, AS/400, e business(logo), DBE, ESCO, eServer, FICON, IBM, IBM (logo), iSeries, MVS, OS/390, pSeries, RS/6000, S/30, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA,
WebSphere, xSeries, z/OS, zSeries, z/VM, System i, System i5, System p, System p5, System x, System z, System z9, BladeCenter

The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of other companies.


Adobe, the Adobe logo, PostScript, and the PostScript logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States, and/or other countries.
Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both and is used under license therefrom.
Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.
Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.
Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Centrino, Intel Centrino logo, Celeron, Intel Xeon, Intel SpeedStep, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel
Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
ITIL is a registered trademark, and a registered community trademark of the Office of Government Commerce, and is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
IT Infrastructure Library is a registered trademark of the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency, which is now part of the Office of Government Commerce.
* All other products may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Notes:
Performance is in Internal Throughput Rate (ITR) ratio based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput that any user will
experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed.
Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput improvements equivalent to the performance ratios stated here.
IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply.
All customer examples cited or described in this presentation are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual
environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual customer configurations and conditions.
This publication was produced in the United States. IBM may not offer the products, services or features discussed in this document in other countries, and the information may be subject to change without
notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the product or services available in your area.
All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.
Information about non-IBM products is obtained from the manufacturers of those products or their published announcements. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the performance,
compatibility, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
Prices subject to change without notice. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography.

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