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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometre

of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor

arrangements and to understand modeling and performance of medium lines.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

Transmission line has four parameters namely resistance, inductance, capacitance and

conductance. The inductance and capacitance are due to the effect of magnetic and electric

fields around the conductor. The resistance of the conductor is best determined from the

manufactures data, the inductances and capacitances can be evaluated using the formula.

Inductance

The general formula

L = 0.2 ln (Dm / Ds)

Where,

Dm = geometric mean distance (GMD)

Ds = geometric mean radius (GMR)

I. Single phase 2 wire system

GMD = D

-1/4

GMR = re

= r

Where, r = radius of conductor

II. Three phase symmetrical spacing

GMD = D

-1/4

GMR = re

= r

Where, r = radius of conductor

III. Three phase Asymmetrical Transposed

GMD = geometric mean of the three distance of the symmetrically placed conductors

1/3

= (DABDBCDCA)

-1/4

GMR = re

= r

Where, r = radius of conductors

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The inductance of composite conductor X, is given by

Lx = 0.2 ln (GMD/GMR)

where,

GMD =_ (Daa Dab ).(D na .D nm )

GMR = n2_ (Daa Dab. Dan ).(DnaDnb.D nn) where, r a = ra e(-1/ 4)

Bundle Conductors

The GMR of bundled conductor is normally calculated

1/2

GMR for two sub conductor, Dsb = (Dsd)

2 1/3

GMR for three sub conductor, Dsb = (Dsd )

2 1/4

GMR for four sub conductor, Dsb = 1.09 (D sd )

where, Ds is the GMR of each subconductor d is bundle spacing

Three phase Double circuit transposed

The inductance per phase in mH per km

is L = 0.2ln(GMD / GMR L) mH/km

where,

GMRL is equivalent geometric mean radius and is given

by GMRL = (DSADSBDSC)1/3

where,

DSADSB and DSC are GMR of each phase group and given by

DSA = 4_ sb Da1a2)2 = [Dsb Da1a2]1/2

DSB = 4_ sb Db1b2)2 = [Dsb Db1b2]1/2

DSC = 4_ sb Dc1c2)2 = [Dsb Dc1c2]1/2

where,

Dsb =GMR of bundle conductor if conductor a1, a2.. are bundled conductor. Dsb =

ra1= r b1= ra2 = rb2 = rc2 if a1, a2. are bundled conductor

by GMD = [DAB * DBC * DCA]1/3

where,

DAB, DBC&DCA are GMD between each phase group A-B, B-C, C-A which are given by

DAB = [Da1b1 * Da1b2 * Da2b1 * Da2b2]1/4

DBC = [Db1c1 * Db1c2 * Db2c1 * Db2c2]1/4

DCA = [Dc1a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a2]1/4

Capacitance

A general formula for evaluating capacitance per phase in micro farad per km of a

transmission line is given by

C = 0.0556/ ln (GMD/GMR) F/km

Where,

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Where,

GMD is the Geometric mean distance which is same as that defined for inductance under 2

various cases.

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.

Type and save the program in the editor window.

Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.

EXERCISE

1.A 500kv 3 transposed line is composed of one ACSR 1,272,000-cmil, 45/7 bittern

conductor per phase with horizontal conductor configuration as show in fig.1. The conductors

have a diameter of 1.345in and a GMR of 0.5328in. Find the inductance and capacitance per

phase per kilometer of the line and justify the result using MATLAB.

A

D12=35

D 23=35

D =70

Fig.1

2.The transmission line is replaced by two ACSR 636,000-cmil, 24/7 Rook conductors which

have the same total cross-sectional area of aluminum as one bittern conductor. The line

spacing as measured from the centre of the bundle is the same as before and is shown in fig.2.

The conductors have a diameter of 0.977in and a GMR of 0.3924in.Bundle spacing is 18in

.Find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line and justify the result

using MATLAB.

18 A

B

D12=35

C

D 23=35

D13=70

Fig.2

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

3.A 345- KV double circuit three- phase transposed line is composed of two ACSR,

1,431,000-cmil, 45/7 Bobolink conductors per phase with vertical conductor configuration as

shown in fig.3. The conductors have a diameter of 1.427in and a GMR of 0.564 in .the

bundle spacing in 18in. find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the

line and justify the result using MATLAB.

a

S11=11m

c H12 = 7m

S22=16.5m

H12 = 6.5m

S33=12.5m

Fig.3

PROGRAM

clc,clear;

space=input('Enter the row vector[D12,D23,D13] in m=');

if length(space)~=3

disp('Values of D12,D23,D13 must be entered within square brackets, try again.'),end

D12=space(1); D23=space(2); D13=space(3);

GMD=(D12*D23*D13)^(1/3);

dia=input('conductor diameter in cm='); r=dia/2;

Ds=input('Geometric mean radius in cm='); %val=1.4173

nb=input('No. of bundled conductor (enter 1 for single conductor)=');

d=input('Bundle spacing in cm=');

Ds=Ds/100; r=r/100; d=d/100;

Dsb=2^0.125*(d*3*Ds)^(1/4); rb=2*0.125*(d^3*r)^(1/4);

GMRL=Dsb; GMRC=rb;

L=0.2*log(GMD/GMRL); %mH/km

C=0.0556/log(GMD/GMC); %microF/km

fprintf('GMD=%8.5fm \n',GMD)

fprintf('GMRL=%8.5fm',GMRL)

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fprintf('GMRC=%8.5f m \n',GMRC);

fprintf('L=%8.5f mH \n',L);

fprintf('C=%8.5f microfarad',C)

MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

Thus the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometre of a three

phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements were

determined and verified with MATLAB software.

The value of L and C obtained from MATLAB program are:

Case1: L=

C=

Case2: L=

C=

Case3: L=

C=

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To understand modeling and performance of Short, Medium and Long transmission

lines.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

The important considerations in the design and operation of a transmission line are the

determination of voltage drop, line losses and efficiency of transmission. These values are

greatly influenced by the line constants R, L and C of the transmission line. For instance, the

voltage drop in the line depends upon the values of above three line constants. Similarly, the

resistance of transmission line conductors is the most important cause of power loss in the line

and determines the transmission efficiency.

A transmission line has three constants R, L and C distributed uniformly along the

whole length of the line. The resistance and inductance form the series impedance. The

capacitance existing between conductors for 1-phase line or from a conductor to neutral for a 3phase line forms a shunt path throughout the length of the line.

Short Transmission Line:

When the length of an overhead transmission line is upto about 50km and the line

voltage is comparatively low (< 20 kV), it is usually considered as a short transmission line.

Medium Transmission Lines:

When the length of an overhead transmission line is about 50-150 km and the line

voltage is moderatly high (>20 kV < 100 kV), it is considered as a medium transmission line.

Long Transmission Lines:

When the length of an overhead transmission line is more than 150km and line voltage

is very high (> 100 kV), it is considered as a long transmission line.

Voltage Regulation:

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The difference in voltage at the receiving end of a transmission line between conditions of

no load and full load is called voltage regulation and is expressed as a percentage of the receiving

end voltage.

As stated earlier, the effects of line capacitance are neglected for a short transmission line.

Therefore, while studying the performance of such a line, only resistance and inductance of

the line are taken into account. The equivalent circuit of a single phase short transmission line

is shown in Fig. (i).Here, the total line resistance and inductance are shown as concentrated

or lumped instead of being distributed. The circuit is a simple a.c. series circuit.

Let I = load current

R = loop resistance i.e., resistance of both conductors

XL = loop reactance

VR = receiving end voltage

cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)

VS = sending end voltage

cos S = sending end power factor

The phasor diagram of the line for lagging load power factor is shown in Fig. (ii). From the

right angled traingle ODC, we get,

2

2

2

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An approximate expression for the sending end voltage VS can be obtained as follows. Draw

perpendicular from B and C on OA produced as shown in Fig. 2. Then OC is nearly equal to

OF i.e.,

OC = OF = OA + AF = OA + AG + GF

= OA + AG + BH

VS = VR + I R cos R + I XL sin R

Nominal T Method

In this method, the whole line capacitance is assumed to be concentrated at the middle

point of the line and half the line resistance and reactance are lumped on its either side as

shown in Fig.1, Therefore in this arrangement, full charging current flows over half the line.

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In Fig.1, one phase of 3-phase transmission line is shown as it is advantageous to work in

phase instead of line-to-line values.

Fig.1

Let

R = resistance per phase

XL = inductive reactance per phase

C = capacitance per phase

cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)

VS = sending end voltage/phase

V1 = voltage across capacitor C

The phasor diagram for the circuit is shown in Fig.2. Taking the receiving end voltage VR as

the reference phasor, we have,

Receiving end voltage, VR = VR + j 0

Load current, IR = IR (cos R - j sin R)

Fig.2

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Nominal Method

In this method, capacitance of each conductor (i.e., line to neutral) is divided into two

halves; one half being lumped at the sending end and the other half at the receiving end as

shown in Fig.3. It is obvious that capacitance at the sending end has no effect on the line

drop. However, its charging current must be added to line current in order to obtain the total

sending end current.

Fig.3

IR = load current per phase

R = resistance per phase

XL = inductive reactance per phase

C = capacitance per phase

cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)

VS = sending end voltage per phase

The phasor diagram for the circuit is shown in Fig.4. Taking the receiving end voltage as the

reference phasor, we have,

VR = VR + j 0

Load current, IR = IR (cos R - j sin R)

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

EXERCISE

A 220- KV, 3 transmission line is 40 km long. The resistance per phase is 0.15 per km

and the inductance per phase is 1.3623 mH per km. The shunt capacitance is negligible. Use

the short line model to find the voltage and power at the sending end and the voltage

regulation and efficiency when the line supplying a three phase load of

a) 381 MVA at 0.8 power factor lagging at 220 KV.

b) 381 MVA at 0.8 power factor leading at 220 KV.

PROGRAM

VRLL=220;

VR=VRLL/sqrt(3);

Z=[0.15+j*2*pi*60*1.3263e-3]*40;

disp=('(a)')

SR=304.8+j*228.6;

IR=conj(SR)/(3*conj(VR));

IS=IR;

VS=VR+Z*IR;

VSLL=sqrt(3)*abs(VS)

SS=3*VS*conj(IS)

REG=((VSLL-VRLL)/(VRLL))*10

EFF=(real(SR)/real(SS))*100

disp=('(b)')

SR=304.8-j*228.6;

IR=conj(SR)/(3*conj(VR));

IS=IR;

VS=VR+Z*IR;

VSLL=sqrt(3)*abs(VS)

SS=3*VS*conj(IS)

REG=((VSLL-VRLL)/(VRLL))*100

EFF=(real(SR)/real(SS))*100

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

RESULT

Thus the program for modeling of transmission line was executed by using

MATLAB and the output was verified with theoretical calculation.

The value of the voltage and power at the sending end, voltage regulation and efficiency

obtained from the MATLAB program are

Voltage

VS =

Power

SS =

Voltage regulation REG =

Efficiency

EFF =

10

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To determine the bus admittance matrix for the given power system Network.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

FORMATION OF Y BUS MATRIX

Bus admittance matrix is often used in power system studies in most of power system

studies it is necessary to form Y-bus matrix of the system by considering certain power

system parameter depending upon the type of analysis.

For example in load flow analysis it is necessary to form Y-bus matrix without taking

into account the generator impedance and load impedance. In short circuit analysis the

generator transient reactance and transformer impedance taken in account, in addition to line

data. Y-bus may be computed by inspection method only if there is no natural coupling

between the lines. Shunt admittance are added to the diagonal elements corresponding to the

buses at which these are connected. The off diagonal elements are unaffected. The equivalent

circuit of tap changing transformer may be considered in forming[y-bus] matrix.

FORMULA USED

Yij=Yij for i=1 to n

Yij= -Yij= -1/Zij

Yij=Yji

Where Yii=yjj= Sum of admittance connected to bus

Yij= Negative admittance between buses

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

EXERCISE

Form the Y bus matrix for the given data below

Line charging

Line Number Starting Bus Ending Bus Series Line Impedance admittance

0.02j

1

1

2

0.1+0.3j

0.0125j

2

2

3

0.15+0.5j

3

0.2+0.6j

PROGRAM

function ybus=ybus()

line datda=linedata3();

fb=linedata(:,1);

tb=linedata(:,2);

r=linedata(:,3);

x=linedata(:,4);

b=linedata(:,5);

z=r+1i*x;

y=1./z;

b=1i*b;

nbus=max(max(fb),max(tb));

nbranch=length(fb);

ybus=zeros(nbus,nbus);

for k=1:nbranch

ybus(fb(k),tb(k))=-y(k);

ybus(tb(k),fb(k))=ybus(fb(k),tb(k));

end

for m=1:nbus

for n=1:nbranch

if fb(n)==m||tb(n)==m

ybus(m,m)=ybus(m,m)+y(n)+b(n)/2;

end

end

end

fprintf(formation of ybus matrix Y=,ybus);

end

SUB PROGRAM FOR LINE DATA

function linedata=linedata3()

%frombus tobus r x b%

linedata=[1 2 0.1 0.3 0.02;

2 3 0.15 0.5 0.0125;

3 1 0.2 0.6 0.028;];

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

RESULT

Thus the bus admittance matrix of the given power system using inspection

method was found and verified by theoretical calculation.

10

MARKS

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To determine the bus impedance matrix for the given power system Network.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

FORMATION OF Z BUS MATRIX

Z-bus matrix is an important matrix used in different kinds of power system study such as

short circuit study, load flow study etc.

In short circuit analysis the generator uses transformer impedance must be taken into

account. In quality analysis the two-short element are neglected by forming the z-bus matrix

which is used to compute the voltage distribution factor. This can be largely obtained by

reversing the y-bus formed by inspection method or by analytical method.

Taking inverse of the y-bus for large system in time consuming; Moreover modification in the

system requires whole process to be repeated to reflect the changes in the system. In such cases

is computed by z-bus building algorithm.

ALGORITHM

Step 1: Read the values such as number of lines, number of buses and line data, generator

data and transformer data.

Step 2: Initialize y-bus matrix y-bus[i] [j] =complex.(0.0,0.0)

Step 3: Compute y-bus matrix by considering only line data.

Step 4: Modifies the y-bus matrix by adding the transformer and the generator admittance to the

respective diagonal elements of y-bus matrix.

Step 5: Compute the z-bus matrix by inverting the modified y-bus matrix.

Step 6: Check the inversion by multiplying modified y-bus and z-bus matrices to check

whether the resulting matrix is unit matrix or not.

Step 7: Print the z-bus matrix.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

EXERCISE

Form the bus impedance matrix for the given data

Line charging

Line Number Starting Bus Ending Bus Series Line Impedance admittance

0.02j

1

1

2

0.1+0.3j

0.0125j

2

2

3

0.15+0.5j

3

0.028j

0.2+0.6j

PROGRAM

function[Ybus] = ybus(zdata)

nl=zdata(:,1); nr=zdata(:,2); R=zdata(:,3); X=zdata(:,4);

nbr=length(zdata(:,1)); nbus = max(max(nl), max(nr));

Z = R + j*X;

%branch impedance

y= ones(nbr,1)./Z;

%branch admittance

Ybus=zeros(nbus,nbus);

for k = 1:nbr;

Ybus(nl(k),nr(k)) = Ybus(nl(k),nr(k)) - y(k);

Ybus(nr(k),nl(k)) = Ybus(nl(k),nr(k));

end

end

for n = 1:nbus

for k = 1:nbr

if nl(k) == n | nr(k) == n

Ybus(n,n) = Ybus(n,n) + y(k);

else, end

end

end

Zbus= inv(Y)

Ibus=[-j*1.1;-j*1.25;0;0]

Vbus=Zbus*Ibus

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

Thus the bus impedance matrix of the given power system using inspection method

was found and verified by theoretical calculation.

10

STAFF SIGNATURE WITH DATE

MARKS

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system network by Gauss Seidal

method.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

Load flow analysis is the study conducted to determine the steady state operating

condition of the given system under given conditions. A large number of numerical

algorithms have been developed and gauss seidal method is one of such algorithm.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

The performance equation of the power system may be written of

[I bus]=[Y bus][V bus]

Selecting one of the buses as the reference bus, we get (n-1) simultaneous equations.

The bus loading equations can be written as

Ii = Pi-jQi / Vi*

(i=1,2,3,..n)

Where,

n

Pi=Re [ Vi*Yik Vk.]

K=1

n

Qi= -Im [ Vi*Yik Vk].

k=1

The bus voltage can be written in form of

n

Vi=(1.0/Yii)[Ii- Yij Vj]

J=1

ji(i=1,2,n)& i slack bus

Substituting Ii in the expression for Vi, we get

n

new

o

o

Vi

=(1.0/Yii)[Pi-JQi / Vi * - Yij Vi ]

J=1

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

The latest available voltages are used in the above expression,we get

Vi

new

=(1.0/Yii)[Pi-JQi / Vi * - YijVj

J=1

- Yij Vi ]

j=i+1

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(7)

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

The above equation is the required formula .this equation can be solved for voltages in

interactive manner. During each iteration, we compute all the bus voltage and check for

convergence is carried out by comparison with the voltages obtained at the end of previous

iteration. After the solutions is obtained. The stack bus real and reactive powers, the reactive

power generation at other generator buses and line flows can be calculated.

ALGORITHM

Step1:Read the data such as line data, specified power ,specified voltages, Q limits at the

generator buses and tolerance for convergences

Step2: Compute Y-bus matrix.

Step3: Initialize all the bus voltages.

Step4: Iter=1

Step5: Consider i=2, where i is the bus number.

Step6:check whether this is PV bus or PQ bus . if it is PQ bus goto step 8 otherwise go to

next step.

Step7: Compute Qi check for q limit violation. QGi=Qi+QLi.

7).a).If QGi>Qi max ,equate QGi = Qimax. Then convert it into PQ bus.

7).b).If QGi<Qi min, equate QGi = Qi min. Then convert it into PQ bus.

Step8: Calculate the new value of the bus voltage using gauss seidal formula.

i=1

J=1

J=i+1

Adjust voltage magnitude of the bus to specify magnitude if Q limits are not violated.

Step9: If all buses are considered go to step 10 otherwise increments the bus no. i=i+1 and

Go to step6.

Step10: Check for convergence. If there is no convergence goes to step 11 otherwise go to

step12.

Step11: Update the bus voltage using the formula.

Vi

new

=Vi

old

+ (vi

new

-Vi

old

Step12: Calculate the slack bus power, Q at P-V buses real and reactive give flows real and

reactance line losses and print all the results including all the bus voltages and all the

bus angles.

Step13: Stop.

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FLOW CHART:

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.

Type and save the program in the editor Window.

Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.

View the results.

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PROGRAM

clc;

clear all;

y12=10-j*20;

y13=10-j*30;

y23=16-j*32;

v1=1.05+1i*0;

%code for PART-A

iter=0;

s2=-2.566-j*1.102;

s3=-1.386-j*0.452;

v2=1+j*0.0;

v3=1+j*0.0;

for i=1:10;

iter=iter+1;

v2=(conj(s2)/conj(v2)+y12*v1+y23*v3)/(y12+y23);

v3=(conj(s3)/conj(v3)+y13*v1+y23*v2)/(y13+y23);

i=i+1;

end

v2

v3

%code for PART-B

Pslack=conj(v1)*[v1*(y12+y13)-(y12*v2+y13*v3)]

%code for PART-C

I12=y12*(v1-v2)

I21=-I12

I13=y13*(v1-v3)

I31=-I13

I23=y23*(v2-v3)

I32=-I13

I23=y23*(v2-v3)

I32=-I23

s12=v1*conj(I12)

s21=v2*conj(I21)

s13=v1*conj(I13)

s31=v3*conj(I31)

s23=v2*conj(I23)

s32=v3*conj(I32)

sl12=s12+s21

sl13=s13+s31

sl23=s23+s32

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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EXERCISE

The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation

at buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at

buses 2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100MVA base and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.

a). using the gauss-seidal method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load

buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.

b).find the slack bus real and reactive power.

c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write an

algorithm.

1

0.02 + j0.04

256.6MW

0

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

110.2Mvar

138.6 MW

45.2 Mvar

MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULTS

A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by Gauss

Seidal method and the results are verified with model calculation.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system by Newton Raphson

method.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

The Newton Raphson method of load flow analysis is an iterative method which

approximates the set of non-linear simultaneous equations to a set of linear simultaneous

equations using Taylors series expansion and the terms are limited to first order

approximation. The load flow equations for Newton Raphson method are non-linear

equations in terms of real and imaginary part of bus voltages.

Vp fp = Imaginary part of

Vp

Gpq, Bpq = Conductance and Susceptances of admittance Ypq respectively.

ALGORITHM

Step1: Input the total number of buses. Input the details of series line impendence and line

charging admittance to calculate the Y-bus matrix.

Step2: Assume all bus voltage as 1 per unit except slack bus.

Step3: Set the iteration count as k=0 and bus count as p=1.

Step4: Calculate the real and reactive power pp and qp using the formula

P=vpqYpq*cos(Qpq+p-q)

Qp=VpqYpa*sin(qpq+p-a)

Evalute pp*=psp-pp*

Step5: If the bus is generator (PV) bus, check the value of Qp*is within the limits.If it

violates

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

the limits, then equate the violated limit as reactive power and treat it as PQ bus. If limit is

not violated then calculate,

|vp|^r=|vgp|^rspe-|vp|r

Qp*=qsp-qp*

Step6: Advance bus count by 1 and check if all the buses have been accounted if not go to step5.

Step7: Calculate the elements of Jacobean matrix.

Step8: Calculate new bus voltage increment pk and fpk

Step9: Calculate new bus voltage ep*h+ ep*

Fp^k+1=fpK+fpK

Step10: Advance iteration count by 1 and go to step3.

Step11: Evaluate bus voltage and power flows through the line .

EXERCISE

1. The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at

buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses

2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base

and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.

a) Using the Newton Raphson method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the

load buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.

b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.

c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write

an algorithm.

1

0.02 + j0.04

0

0.01+j0.03

138.6 MW

0.0125+j0.025

256.6MW

110.2Mvar

45.2 Mvar

Fig.1

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Type and save the program in the editor Window.

Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.

View the results.

PROGRAM

clear all;

clc;

n=input('no of buses');

n1=input('no of lines');

sb=[1 1 2];

eb=[2 3 3];

y=[inv(0.08+0.24i) inv(0.02+0.06i) inv(0.06+0.18i)];

ybus=zeros(n,n1);

for i=1:n1

k1=sb(i);

k2=eb(i);

ybus(k1,k1)=ybus(k1,k1)+y(i);

ybus(k2,k2)=ybus(k2,k2)+y(i);

ybus(k1,k2)=-y(i);

ybus(k2,k1)=ybus(k1,k2);

end

ybus

bcode=[1 2 3];

v=[1.06+0i 1+0i 1+0i];

sg=[0+0i 0.2+0i 0+0i];

sd=[0+0i 0+0i 0.6+0.25i];

qmin=0;

qmax=0.35;

e=real(v);

f=imag(v);

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g=real(ybus);

b=-imag(ybus);

pg=real(sg);

qg=imag(sg);

pd=real(sd);

qd=imag(sd);

con=10;

if(con>0.001)

for j=2:3

p(i)=0;

q(i)=0;

for k=1:3

p(j)=p(j)+(e(j)*(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k))+f(j)*(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k)));

q(j)=q(j)+(f(j)*(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k))-e(j)*(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k)));

end

end

for i=2:n

ps(i)=pg(i)-pd(i);

qs(i)=qg(i)-qd(i);

delp(i)=ps(i)-p(i)

delq(i)=qs(i)-0

end

for j=2:3

sumpe=0;

sumpf=0;

sumqe=0;

sumqf=0;

for k=1:3

if(k~=j)

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sumpe=sumpe+(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k));

sumpf=sumpf+(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k));

sumqe=sumqe-(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k));

sumqf=sumqf+(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k));

end

if(k~=1)&(k~=j)

delpe(j,k)=e(j)*g(j,k)-f(j)*b(j,k);

delpf(j,k)=e(j)*b(j,k)+f(j)*g(j,k);

delqe(j,k)=e(j)*b(j,k)+f(j)*g(j,k);

delqf(j,k)=e(j)*g(j,k)+f(j)*b(j,k);

end

end

delpe(j,j)=(2*e(j)*g(j,j))+sumpe;

delpf(j,j)=(2*f(j)*g(j,j))+sumpf;

delqe(j,j)=(2*e(j)*b(j,j))+sumqe;

delqf(j,j)=(2*f(j)*b(j,j))+sumqf;

end

for j=1:2

for k=1:2

delpem(j,k)=delpe(j+1,k+1);

delpfm(j,k)=delpf(j+1,k+1);

delqem(j,k)=delqe(j+1,k+1);

delqfm(j,k)=delqf(j+1,k+1);

end

delpm(j)=delp(j+1);

delqm(j)=delq(j+1);

end

jacob=[delpem delpfm ; delqem delqfm];

dels=[delpm delqm];

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con=max(dels);

c=jacob;

for j=2:3

e(j)=e(j)+c(j-1);

f(j)=f(j)+c(j-1);

end

end

p

q

delpm

delqm

jacob

t=inv(jacob)

r=[delpm delqm]

res=t*r

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by Newton

Raphson method and the results are verified with model calculation

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system by Fast Decoupled method.

THEORY

Due to the weak coupling between PV and q- half of the elements of jacobian matrix

are neglected further the assumptions made are

Cos ij = 1

Sin ij = 0

Qi << Bij

2

|V|

The simplified FDLF equations are

(P / |V|) = [B][ ]

(Q / |V|) = [B][

|V|]

One iteration implies one solution for [] to update [] and one solution for [P/|V|] to

update [|V|] and is termed as 1- and 1-V iteration. The convergence for the real and reactive

power is achieved when max [P] < P; max [Q]<=Q.

The main advantage of the decoupled load flow as compared to Newton Raphson method is

its reduced memory is storing Jacobian.

ALGORITHM

Step1: Input the total number of buses.

Step2: Input the Y-bus matrix of order n X n.

Step3: Assume all the bus voltages are 1 pu except slack bus.

Step4: Form susceptance matrix B and B.

Step5: Set the iteration count as K=0.

Step6: Set Vs=0; rv=0.

Step7: Calculate the real and reactive power Pi using the formula

r

Pi = VpqYpq*cos(Qpq + p - q)

r

r

Step9: Test for convergence if max ( Pi < P) then set rs = 1 and go to next step otherwise go

to step 2.

Step10: Check if rv = 1 then calculate the slack bus power and all line flows and print the result

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otherwise go to step 13.

r

r+1

Step12: Calculate i

= i + i .

r

Step14: Test for convergence if max (Qi )<Q then set rv = 1 and do next step otherwise go to

step 17.

Step15: Check if rs=1 then go to step 19.

Step16: Otherwise advance the iteration count by 1 and go to step 8.

r

r

Step19: Calculate slack bus power and all line flows and print the result.

EXERCISE

The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at

buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses

2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base

and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.

a) Using the Fast decoupled method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses

2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.

b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.

c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write

an algorithm.

2

0.02 + j0.04

256.6MW

0

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

110.2Mvar

138.6 MW

45.2 Mvar

Fig.1

The Fig.2 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at

buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses

2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base

and the line charging susceptances are neglected.

a) Using the Fast decoupled method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.

b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.

c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software

write an algorithm.

Z= 0.02 + j0.04

400MW

0

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

250Mvar

V3=1.04

Pgen= 2 p.u

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.

Type and save the program in the editor Window.

Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.

View the results.

PROGRAM

clear all;

clc;

tic;

busdata=[1 1 0 0 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;

2 3 0.4 0.3 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;

3 3 0.2 0.15 0.5 0.4 1.04+j*0 0 0;

4 2 0.6 0.2 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;];

linedata=[1 2 0.04 0.06 0.03;

1 3 0.03 0.25 0.015;

2 3 0.05 0.15 0.02;

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3 4 0.06 0.10 0.01;

4 1 0.02 0.06 0.025;];

busno=busdata(:,1);

type=busdata(:,2);

pl=busdata(:,3);

ql=busdata(:,4);

pg=busdata(:,5);

qg=busdata(:,6);

abs_v=busdata(:,7);

qmax=busdata(:,9);

qmin=busdata(:,8);

is=find(type==1);

ipv=find(type==2);

ipq=find(type==3);

ip=find(type==2|type==3);

[nb,nn]=size(busdata(:,1));

[nl,nw]=size(linedata(:,1));

del=zeros(nb,1);

qq=zeros(nb,1);

sb=linedata(:,1);

eb=linedata(:,2);

abs_v(ipq)=1.00;

z=linedata(:,3)+j*linedata(:,4);

bl=j*linedata(:,5);

pg(is)=0.0;

ndel=length(ip);

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ybus=zeros(nb,nb);

y=ones(nl,1)./z;

for k=1:nl

l=sb(k);

m=eb(k);

ybus(l,m)=ybus(l,m)-y(k);

ybus(m,l)=ybus(l,m);

end

for l=1:nb

for m=1:nl

if sb(m)==1

ybus(l,l)=ybus(l,l)+y(m)+bl(l);

elseif eb(m)==1

ybus(l,l)=ybus(l,l)+y(m)+bl(l);

else,end

end

end

for k=1:nb

ybus(k,k)=ybus(k,k);

end

g=real(ybus);

b=imag(ybus);

j1=[b(nb-2:nb,nb-2:nb)];

j4=[b(nb-2:nb-1,nb-2:nb-1)];

J1=-j1;

J4=-j4;

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abs_ybus=abs(ybus);

ang_ybus=angle(ybus);

conv=10;

it=0;

p=zeros(nb,1);

q=zeros(nb,1);

while((it<=30))

it=it+1;

P=zeros(nb,1);

Q=zeros(nb,1);

for i=1:nb

for k=1:nb

P(i)=P(i)+(abs_v(i)*abs_v(k)*abs_ybus(i,k))*cos(ang_ybus(i,k)-del(i)+del(k));

Q(i)=Q(i)-(abs_v(i)*abs_v(k)*abs_ybus(i,k))*sin(ang_ybus(i,k)-del(i)+del(k));

end

end

ipv=find(type==2);

ipq=find(type==3);

for i=1:nb-1

delp(i)=pg(i)-pl(i)-P(i);

delp(4)=0.5-P(4);

end

delq=qg-ql-Q;

Delp=[delp(2:4)]./1.04;

Delq=[delq(2:3)]./1.04;

B1=inv(J1);

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B2=inv(J4);

s=B1*Delp';

t=B2*Delq;

abs_v(ipq)=abs_v(ipq)+t;

del(ip)=del(ip)+s;

del_deg=del*180/pi;

pgg=(p+pl);

qgg=(q+ql);

res=[abs_v del_deg pgg qgg pl ql];

end

disp('Result');

disp('res');

disp('abs_v del_deg pgg qgg pl ql');

disp(res);

disp('abs_v(ipq)');

disp(abs_v(ipq));

disp('del(ip)');

disp(del(ip));

toc;

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by fast

decoupled method and the results are verified with model calculation.

.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

INFINITE BUS SYSTEM

AIM

To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability

analysis of Single-Machine-Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this experiment are:

1. To study the stability behavior of one machine connected to a large power system

subjected to a severe disturbance (3-phase short circuit)

2. To understand the principle of equal-area criterion and apply the criterion to study

the stability of one machine connected to an infinite bus

3. To determine the critical clearing angle and critical clearing time with the help of

equal-area criterion

4. To do the stability analysis using numerical solution of the swing equation.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces to compensate for the

disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as stability. If the forces

tending to hold the machines in synchronism with one another are sufficient to overcome the

disturbing forces, the system is said to remain stable.

The stability studies which evaluate the impact of disturbances on the behavior of

synchronous machines of the power system are of two types transient stability and steady

state stability. The transient stability studies involve the determination of whether or not

synchronism is maintained after the machine has been subjected to a severe disturbance. This

may be a sudden application of large load, a loss of generation, a loss of large load, or a fault

(short circuit) on the system. In most disturbances, oscillations are such magnitude that

linearization is not permissible and nonlinear equations must be solved to determine the

stability of the system. On the other hand, the steady-state stability is concerned with the

system subjected to small disturbances wherein the stability analysis could be done using the

linearized version of nonlinear equations. In this experiment we are concerned with the

transient stability of power systems.

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A method known as the equal-area criterion can be used for a quick prediction of

stability of a one- machine system connected to an infinite bus. This method is based on the

graphical interpretation of energy stored in the rotating mass as an aid to determine if the

machine maintains its stability after a disturbance. The method is applicable to a onemachine system connected to an infinite bus or a two- machine system. Because it provides

physical insight to the dynamic behavior of the machine, the application of the method to

analyze a single-machine system is considered here.

Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is

subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the

disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.

Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission

loss equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed

and system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large

disturbance such as three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power

balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either acceleration or

deceleration. The system may come back to a steady state condition maintaining

synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may pull out of

synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the later case it is said

to be unstable.

Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state, normal operating

condition, the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and

generation, change in field voltage, change in mechanical toque etc., the nature of system

response to small disturbance depends on the operating conditions, the transmission system

strength, types of controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbance may be

of two forms,

(i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronizing torque.

(ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque.

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EXERCISE

A 60Hz synchronous generator having inertia constant H = 9.94 MJ/MVA and a direct axis

transient reactance Xd= 0.3 per unit is connected to an infinite bus through a purely resistive

circuit as shown in fig.1. Reactances are marked on the diagram on a common system base.

The generator is delivering real power of 0.6 p.u, 0.8 pf lagging and the infinite bus at a

voltage of 1 per unit. Assume the p.u damping power coefficient d=0.138. Consider a small

disturbance change in f=10 degree.(The breaker open and close quickly) which is equal to

0.1745 rad. Obtain the equation describing the motion of rotor angle and the generator

frequency. (a) A temporary three phase fault occurs at the sending end of the line at point F.

When the fault is cleared both the lines are in fact. Determine the critical angle and critical

fault clearing time. (b) verify the result with the MATLAB program.

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PROGRAM

E=1.35;

V=1.0;

H=9.94;

X=0.65;

Pm=0.6;

D=.138;

fo=60;

Pmax=E*V/X

do=asin(Pm/Pmax)

Ps=Pmax*cos(do)

wn=sqrt((pi*60)/(H*Ps))

z=D/2*sqrt((pi*60)/(H*Ps))

wd=wn*sqrt(1-z^2);

fa=wd/(2*pi)

tan=1/(z*wn)

th=acos(z)

Ddo=10*pi/180;

t=0:0.01:10;

Dd=Ddo/sqrt(1-z^2).*exp(-z*wn*t).*sin(wd*t+th);

d=(do+Dd)*180/pi;

Dw=-wn*Ddo/sqrt(1-z^2).*exp(-z*wn*t).*sin(wd*t+th);

f=fo+Dw/(2*pi);

subplot(211),plot(t,d),grid

xlabel('tsec'),ylabel('delta degree')

subplot(212),plot(t,f),grid

xlabel('tsec'),ylabel('frequency Hz')

subplot(111)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

Thus the stability analysis of single machine infinite bus system is verified using the

MATLAB program.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To become familiar with various aspects of the transient stability analysis of Multi Machine-Infinite Bus (MMIB) system.

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this experiment are:

To analyze the transient stability of multi machine systems by solving swing equations

by numerical integration.

To determine the stability of the given multi machine system for various fault clearing

times.

To determine the critical clearing time using swing curves.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces to compensate for the

disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as stability. If the forces

tending to hold the machines in synchronism with one another are sufficient to overcome the

disturbing forces, the system is said to remain stable.

The stability studies which evaluate the impact of disturbances on the behavior of

synchronous machines of the power system are of two types transient stability and steady

state stability. The transient stability studies involve the determination of whether or not

synchronism is maintained after the machine has been subjected to a severe disturbance. This

may be a sudden application of large load, a loss of generation, a loss of large load, or a fault

(short circuit) on the system. In most disturbances, oscillations are such magnitude that

linearization is not permissible and nonlinear equations must be solved to determine the

stability of the system. On the other hand, the steady-state stability is concerned with the

system subjected to small disturbances wherein the stability analysis could be done using the

linearized version of nonlinear equations. In this experiment we are concerned with the

transient stability of power systems.

A method known as the equal-area criterion can be used for a quick prediction of

stability of a one- machine system connected to an infinite bus. This method is based on the

graphical interpretation of energy stored in the rotating mass as an aid to determine if the

machine maintains its stability after a disturbance. The method is applicable to a onemachine system connected to an infinite bus or a two- machine system. Because it provides

physical insight to the dynamic behavior of the machine, the application of the method to

analyze a single-machine system is considered here.

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Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is

subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the

disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.

Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is subjected

to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the disturbances are small

and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.

Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission loss

equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed and

system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large disturbance such as

three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power balance is upset and the

generating units rotors experience either acceleration or deceleration. The system may come

back to a steady state condition maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one

or more machines may pull out of synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable

and in the later case it is said to be unstable.

Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state, normal operating condition,

the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and generation,

change in field voltage, change in mechanical toque etc., the nature of system response to small

disturbance depends on the operating conditions, the transmission system strength, types of

controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbance may be of two forms,

(i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronizing torque.

(ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque.

FORMULA USED

0 = sin-1((Pe*X)/EER))

Find out X from the equivalent circuit during post fault condition.

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PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M-file by selecting File-NewM-file.

Type and save the program.

Execute the

program.

View the results.

EXERCISE

1. A typical multi machine power system network with three generators is shown in Fig.1. The

load data and the voltage magnitude, generation schedule, and the reactive power limits for the

voltage controlled buses are given in the following tables. Bus 1 is the reference bus. The line

data on 100 MVA base are also tabulated. The generators transient reactance in p.u. and the

inertia constants in seconds expressed on a 100-MVA base are given in Table.

Fig.1

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Load Data

Bus No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Load (MW)

0

0

0

100

90

160

Load (Mvar)

0

0

0

70

30

110

From Bus

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

To Bus

4

5

6

4

5

6

6

R (p.u.)

0.035

0.025

0.400

0.000

0.000

0.028

0.026

X (p.u.)

0.225

0.105

0.215

0.035

0.042

0.125

0.175

B/2 (p.u.)

0.0065

0,0045

0.0055

0.0000

0.0000

0.0035

0.0300

Generation Schedule

Bus

No.

1

2

3

Voltage

mag

1.06

1.04

1.03

Generation

(MW)

--150

100

Mvar Limits

Minimum Maximum

----0

140

0

90

Machine Data

Generator

1

2

3

Reactance Xd

0.20

0.15

0.25

Inertia constant H

20

4

5

For the multi machine system, determine the stability and critical clearing time for various

cases.

(i) A three-phase fault occurs on line [5 6] near bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

(ii) A three-phase fault occurs on line [4 6] near bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

(iii)A three-phase fault occurs on line [1 6] nea r bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

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(iv) A three-phase fault occurs on line [5 6] near bus 5 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

(v) A three-phase fault occurs on line [4 6] near bus 4 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

(vi) A three-phase fault occurs on line [1 6] near bus 1 and is cleared by simultaneously

opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

PROGRAM

clear all;

clc;

format long

%step1 initialisation wiyh load flow &machince data

f=50;

tstep=0.01;

h=[12 9];

pgnetterm=[3.25 2.10];

qgnetterm=[0.6986 0.3110];

xg=[0.067 0.10];

%use of ; is to transpose without taking the conjugate of each element

v0=[1.0193+j*0.14753 1.012+j*0.12713];

%m is no of generators other than slack bus

m=2;

%step 2

v0conj=conj(v0);

ig0=conj((pgnetterm+j*qgnetterm)/v0);

edash=v0+j*(xg*ig0);

pg0=real(edash0*conj(ig0));

x1_r=angle(edash0);

%initialisation of state vector

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pg_r=pg0;

%pg_rplus1=pg0;

x2_r=[0 0];

x1dot_r=[0 0];

x2dot_r=[0 0];

x1dotrplus1=[0 0];

x2dotrplus1=[0 0];

%step 3

ybusdf=[5.7986-j*35.6301

0

-j*11.236

-0.0681+j*5.1661

0

0

ybuspf=[1.3932-j*13.8731

-0.2214+j*7.6289

-0.0681+j*5.1661

0.1362-j*6.2737];

-0.2214+j*7.6289

0.5+j*7.7898

-0.0901+j*6.0975

-0.0901+j*6.0975

0

0.1591-j*6.1168];

%step 4

%set values for initial time t(occurance of %fault)and

%tc is time of fault clearance

t=0;

tc=0.08;

tfinal=1.0;

r=1;

edash_r=edash0;

edash_rplus1=edash0;

while t<tfinal

%step5 compute generator powers using appropriate ybus

%the ybus choosen in the following step is set accordind to the current

%time

if t<=tc

ybus=ybuspf;

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end

i=ybus(2:m+1,:)*[1 edash_r];

pg_r=real(edash_r*conj(i));

%step6 compute x1dot_r and x2dot_r

x1dot_r=x2_r;

for k=1:m

x2dot_r(k,1)=(p1*f/h(k))*(pg0(k)-pg_r(k));

end

%step7 compute first state estimates for t=t(r+1)

x1_rplus1=x1_r+x1dot_r*tstep;

x2_rplus1=x2_r+x2dot_r*tstep;

%step8 compute first state estimates

edash_rplus1=abs(edash0)*(cos(x1_rplus1)+j*sin(x1_rplus1));

%step9 compute pg for t=t(r+1)

i=ybus(2:m)*[1 edash_rplus1];

pg_rplus1=real(edash_rplus1.conj(i));

%step10 compute state derivatives at t=t(r+1)

x1dot_rplus=[0 0];

x2dot_rplus=[0 0];

for k=1:m

x1dot_rplus1(k,1)=x2_rplus1(k,1);

x2dot_rplus1(k,1)=p1*f/h(k)*(pg0(k)-pg_rplus1(k));

end

%step11 compute average values of state derivaties

x1dotav_r=(x1dot_r+x1dot_rplus1)/2.0;

x2dotav_r=(x2dot_r+x12dot_rplus1)/2.0;

%step 12 compute final estimate for edash at t=t(r+1)

x1_rplus1=x1_r+x1dotav_r*tstep;

x2_rplus1=x2_r+x2dotav_r*tstep;

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%step 13 compute final estimate for edash at t=t(r+1)

edash_rplus1=abs(edash0)*(cos(x1_rplus1)+j*sin(x1_rplus1));

%step14 print state vector

x2_r=x2_rplus1;

x1_r=x1_rplus1;

edash_r=edash_rplus1;

%step15

time(r)=t;

for k=1:m

ang(r,k)=(x1_r(k)*180)/pi;

end

t=t+tstep;

r=r+1;

end

plot(time,ang)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No:

Date:

AIM

To obtain the frequency response and steady state frequency deviation of single and two

area power system using MATLAB.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

Active power control is one of the important control actions to be performed to be

normal operation of the system to match the system generation with the continuously changing

system load in order to maintain the constancy of system frequency to a fine tolerance level.

This is one of the foremost requirements in proving quality power supply. A change in system

load cases a change in the speed of all rotating masses (Turbine generator rotor systems) of

the system leading to change in system frequency. The speed change form synchronous speed

initiates the governor control (primary control) action result in the entire participating generator

turbine units taking up the change in load, stabilizing system frequency. Restoration of

frequency to nominal value requires secondary control action which adjusts the load - reference

set points of selected (regulating) generator turbine units. The primary objectives of automatic

generation control (AGC) are to regulate system frequency to the set nominal value and also to

regulate the net interchange of each area to the scheduled value by adjusting the outputs of the

regulating units. This function is referred to as load frequency control (LFC).

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new Model by selecting File - New Model.

Pick up the blocks from the Simulink library browser and form a block

diagram. After forming the block diagram, save the block diagram.

Double click the scope and view the result.

EXERCISE 1

12. An isolated power station has the following

parameters Turbine time constant, T = 0.5sec

Governor Time constant, g = 0.2sec

Generator inertia constant, H = 5sec

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Governor speed regulation = R per unit

The load varies by 0.8 percent for a 1 percent change in frequency, i.e., D=0.8

(a) Use the Routh Hurwitz array to find the range of R for control system stability.

(b) Use MATLAB to obtain the root locus plot.

(c) The governor speed regulation is set to R = 0.05 per unit. The turbine rated output is 250MW at

nominal frequency of 60Hz. A sudden load change of 50 MW (PL = 0.2 per unit) occurs.

(i) Find the steady state frequency deviation in Hz.

(ii) Use MATLAB to obtain the time domain performance specifications and the frequency

deviation step response.

SIMULATION DIAGRAM FOR SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEM

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EXERCISE 2

A two area system connected by a tie line has the following parameters on a 1000MVA common

base.

Area

Speed Regulation

Frequency sens. load

Inertia Constant

Base Power

1

R1=0.05

D1=0.6

H1=5

1000MVA

2

R2=0.0625

D2=0.9

H2=4

1000MVA

Turbine Time Constant

g1= 0.2sec

T1=0.5sec

g2= 0.3sec

T2=0.6sec

The units are operating in parallel at the nominal frequency of 60Hz. The synchronizing power

coefficient is computed from the initial operating condition and is given to be P s = 2 p.u. A load

change of 187.5 MW occurs in area1.

(a) Determine the new steady state frequency and the change in the tie-line flow.

(b) Construct the SIMULINK block diagram and obtain the frequency deviation response for the

condition in part (a).

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MODEL GRAPH

Change in

power of

area1,

change in

power of

area2,

change in

tie line

power

Change in

frequency

,

Change in

line flow

time(sec)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No:

Date:

ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS

AIM

To understand the fundamentals of economic dispatch and find the real power generation

and the total fuel cost for the given power system using classical method with and without line

losses using MATLAB.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY

Mathematical Model for Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units without Transmission Loss

Statement of Economic Dispatch Problem

In a power system, with negligible transmission loss and with N number of spinning

thermal generating units the total system load PD at a particular interval can be met by different

sets of generation schedules

Out of these NS set of generation schedules, the system operator has to choose the set of

schedules, which minimize the system operating cost, which is essentially the sum of the

production cost of all the generating units. This economic dispatch problem is mathematically

stated as an optimization problem.

Given: The number of available generating units N, their production cost functions, their

operating limits and the system load PD

To determine: The set of generation schedules,

(1)

Which minimize

e the total production cost

Min ;

(2)

And satisfies the power balance constraint

=

And the operating limits

(3)

(4)

The units p

roduction cost function is usually approximated by quadratic function

(5)

Where

are constants

The ED problem given by the equations (1) to (4). By omitting the inequality constraints

(4) tentatively, the reduce ED problem (1), (2) and (3) may be restated as an unconstrained

optimization problem by augmenting the objective function (1) with the constraint multiplied by

LaGrange multiplier, to obtained the LaGrange function, L as

Min:

(6)

The necessary conditions for the existence of solution to (6) are given by

;

(7)

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solving simultaneously the necessary

conditions (7) and (8) which state that the economic generation schedules not only satisfy the

system power balance equation (8) but also demand that the incremental cost rates of all the units

be equal be equal to which can be interpreted as incremental cost of r eceived power.

When the inequality constraints (4) are included in the ED problem the necessary condition (7)

gets modified as

(9)

Economic Schedule

(10) Incremental fuel cost

(11)

PROCEDURE

Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

Create a new M-file by selecting File-NewM-file.

Type and save the program.

Execute the program .

View the results.

EXERCISE

1. The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in $/h are given by

The total load, PD is 800MW.Neglecting line losses and generator limits, find the optimal dispatch

and the total cost in $/h by analytical method. Verify the result using MATLAB program.

2. The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in $/h are given by

Generation Limits:

Find the optimal dispatch and the total cost in $/h by analytical method. Verify the result using

MATLAB program.

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PROGRAM

alpha=[500,400,200];

beta=[5.3,5.5,5.8];

gama=[0.004,0.006,0.009];

pd=800;

delp=10;

lambda=input('enter the estimated value of lambda=');

fprintf('\n');

disp(['lambda p1 p2 p3 dp... grod delambda'])

iter=0;

while abs(delp)>=0.001

iter=iter+1;

p=(lambda-beta)/(2*gama);

delp=pd-sum(p);

j=sum(ones(length(gama))/(2*gama));

delambda=delp/j;

disp(['lambda,p(1),p(2),p(3);delp,j,delambda'])

lambda=lambda+delambda;

end

totalcost=sum(alpha+beta*p+gama*p^2)

axis([0 450 6.5 10.5])

p1=250:10:450;

p2=150:10:350;

p3=100:10:250;

ic1=5.3+0.008*p1;

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ic2=5.5+0.012*p2;

ic3=5.8+0.018*p3;

px=0:100:400;

plot(p1,ic1,p2,ic2,p3,ic3,px,lambda*ones(1,length(px)),'-m');

xlabel('p,mw')

ylabel('$/mwh'),grid

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No :

Date:

FAULT ANALYSIS OF AC POWER SYSTEMS USING PSCAD

AIM

To become familiar with fault analysis of AC power system using PSCAD and obtain

the output response of the given power system when subjected to various faults at various

places in power system.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: PSCAD

THEORY

Introduction to PSCAD/EMTDC

Electromagnetic Transient including DC (EMTDC) is an implementation of the EMTP

type, initially designed for the solution of ac-dc power systems analysis. It includes models

of various physical components contained in functional modules. It is a related software

packages that provide the user with a very flexible power systems electromagnetic transient

simulation tool. EMTDC is the software, which actually performs the electromagnetic

transient analysis on the user defined power system. While Power Systems Computer Aided

Design (PSCAD) is the software that uses the graphical interface. The interface between

PSCAD and EMTDC is shown in Figure.

Fig.1

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Characteristics of Overvoltage in power system

Electromagnetic transient overvoltage is voltage stresses which directly effective to

equipment in power system and especially to insulation. It is severe to the system in case of

stored energy in the line such as trapped charge in capacitor. The overvoltage can be

classified into two groups; the first group is external overvoltage such as lightning. This

causes from natural events. The second group is internal overvoltage due to switching and

temporary overvoltage as show in table:

Table: Cases and shapes of overvoltage Standard v oltage shapes and standard withstand

tests

Fig.2

Switching Overvoltage in power system

Switching overvoltage is one of the internal over voltages which generate many

changes in the operating conditions of network. There are a great variety of events that

would initiate a switching surge in a power network, whenever a switch in an electric circuit

is opened or closed; this is true for transmission as well as distribution circuits. The

interruption by switching operations of a circuit having inductance and capacitance may

result in transient oscillations that can cause overvoltage on the systems. The switching

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operations of greatest relevance to insulation design can be classified as following:

Line energization

Line reenergization

Switching off of small capacitive

currents

Switching off of small inductive

currents Fault initiation

Fault clearing

Case study

Two Thevinen Impedance sources connected via one 100km transmission

line. System voltage is 230kV settable via source equivalents.

Simulates two substations connected via one transmission line.

Four fault positions for full fault control ahead and behind station

relays. Two breakers are independently timed controlled. (Default is

closed).

Independent breaker pole tripping is possible.

.

Main circuit

This case uses global substitutions. To change between 50Hz/60Hz. right-click on your

project name in the project tree. From the pop-up window select Global Constants. In this

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window, change the value of f to the desired frequency. Also make sure that you select the

appropriate system frequency in RTP/COMTRADE recorders

Plot circuit

Control circuit

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Model Graph

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RESULT

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Expt. No.:

Date:

EMTP

AIM

(i) To study and understand the electromagnetic transient a phenomenon in power systems

caused due to switching and faults by using Electromagnetic Transients Program

(EMTP).

(ii) To become proficient in the usage of EMTP to address problems in the areas of

overvoltage protection and mitigation and insulation coordination of EHV systems.

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this experiment are:

(i) To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a

non-ideal source with line represented by model.

(ii) To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a

non- ideal source and line represented by distributed parameters.

(iii)To study the transient over voltages due to faults for a SLG fault at far end of a line.

(iv) To study the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) associated with a breaker for a threephase fault.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB

THEORY

"Transients", a term we'll use for simplicity here, are actually "Transient Voltages".

More familiar terms may be "surges" or "spikes".

Basically, transients are momentary changes in voltage or current that occurs over a short

period of time. This interval is usually described as approximately 1/16 (one sixteenth) of a

voltage cycle (in the US, about 1/60th of a second) or about 1 milliseconds (milli = .0 0 1--one

thousandths...In laymen's terms, .0166 seconds......or really darned quick.).

Voltage transients normally last only about 50 microseconds (micro = .0 0 0 0 0 1--one

millionth) and current transients last typically 20 microseconds according to the ANSI

C62.41-1991 which is the standard for transients in facilities operating under 600 Volts.

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Common Internal Sources of Transient Activity

Photocopiers

PC Power Supplies

Laser Printers

Electronic

Ballasts

Welders

Power

Factor

Correction

Equipment Power Supplies

TemperatureControllers

Motor Controllers

Pumps Inverters

Compressors Generators

Variable Speed Motors

Standard Electric Motors

Intentional and inadvertent switching operations in EHV systems initiate over

voltages, which might attain dangerous values resulting in destruction of apparatus. Accurate

computation of these over voltages is essential for proper sizing, coordination of insulation

of various equipment and specification of protective devices. Meaningful design of EHV

systems is dependent on modelling philosophy built into a computer program. The models of

equipments must be detailed enough to reproduce actual conditions successfully an

important aspect where a general purpose digital computer program scores over transient

network analysers.

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Dommel. The essence of this method is discretization of differential equations associated

with network elements using trapezoidal rule of integration and solution of the resulting

difference equations for the unknown voltages. Any network which consists of

interconnections of resistances, inductances, capacitances, single and multiphase circuits,

distributed parameter lines, and certain other elements can be solved. To keep the

explanations simple, however, single phase network elements will be used, rather than the

more complex multiphase network elements.

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Program:

clc;

clear all;

l=1.58e-3;

irms=7000;

c=0.0028e-6;

x1=2*3.14*50*1;

v1=irms*x1*1.414*1e-3;

slc=sqrt(l*c);

t1=0e-6:0.1e-6:10e-6

v2=v1*(1-cos(t1/slc))

plot(t1,v2,'r-')

xlabel('time(sec)');

ylabel('voltage(v)');

title('etps');

k1=sqrt(3);

k2=1.5;

k3=1;

ary=k1*k2*k3*v1

rv=v1

mrv=v1*2

t=3.14*slc;

rrrv=mrv/t

106

www.Vidyarthiplus.com

www.Vidyarthiplus.com

EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

RESULT

10

STAFF SIGNATURE WITH DATE

MARKS

107

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