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## COMPUTATION OF LINE PARAMETERS USING MATLAB

AIM
To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometre
of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor
arrangements and to understand modeling and performance of medium lines.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
Transmission line has four parameters namely resistance, inductance, capacitance and
conductance. The inductance and capacitance are due to the effect of magnetic and electric
fields around the conductor. The resistance of the conductor is best determined from the
manufactures data, the inductances and capacitances can be evaluated using the formula.
Inductance
The general formula
L = 0.2 ln (Dm / Ds)
Where,
Dm = geometric mean distance (GMD)
Ds = geometric mean radius (GMR)
I. Single phase 2 wire system
GMD = D
-1/4
GMR = re
= r
Where, r = radius of conductor
II. Three phase symmetrical spacing
GMD = D
-1/4
GMR = re
= r
Where, r = radius of conductor
III. Three phase Asymmetrical Transposed
GMD = geometric mean of the three distance of the symmetrically placed conductors
1/3
= (DABDBCDCA)
-1/4
GMR = re
= r
Where, r = radius of conductors
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## Composite conductor lines

The inductance of composite conductor X, is given by
Lx = 0.2 ln (GMD/GMR)
where,
GMD =_ (Daa Dab ).(D na .D nm )
GMR = n2_ (Daa Dab. Dan ).(DnaDnb.D nn) where, r a = ra e(-1/ 4)

Bundle Conductors
The GMR of bundled conductor is normally calculated
1/2
GMR for two sub conductor, Dsb = (Dsd)
2 1/3
GMR for three sub conductor, Dsb = (Dsd )
2 1/4
GMR for four sub conductor, Dsb = 1.09 (D sd )
where, Ds is the GMR of each subconductor d is bundle spacing
Three phase Double circuit transposed
The inductance per phase in mH per km
is L = 0.2ln(GMD / GMR L) mH/km
where,
GMRL is equivalent geometric mean radius and is given
where,

DSADSB and DSC are GMR of each phase group and given by
DSA = 4_ sb Da1a2)2 = [Dsb Da1a2]1/2
DSB = 4_ sb Db1b2)2 = [Dsb Db1b2]1/2
DSC = 4_ sb Dc1c2)2 = [Dsb Dc1c2]1/2

where,
Dsb =GMR of bundle conductor if conductor a1, a2.. are bundled conductor. Dsb =

ra1= r b1= ra2 = rb2 = rc2 if a1, a2. are bundled conductor

## GMD is the equivalent GMD per phase & is given

by GMD = [DAB * DBC * DCA]1/3
where,
DAB, DBC&DCA are GMD between each phase group A-B, B-C, C-A which are given by
DAB = [Da1b1 * Da1b2 * Da2b1 * Da2b2]1/4
DBC = [Db1c1 * Db1c2 * Db2c1 * Db2c2]1/4
DCA = [Dc1a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a1 * Dc2a2]1/4
Capacitance
A general formula for evaluating capacitance per phase in micro farad per km of a
transmission line is given by
C = 0.0556/ ln (GMD/GMR) F/km
Where,
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Where,
GMD is the Geometric mean distance which is same as that defined for inductance under 2
various cases.
PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.
Type and save the program in the editor window.
Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.

## View the results.

EXERCISE
1.A 500kv 3 transposed line is composed of one ACSR 1,272,000-cmil, 45/7 bittern
conductor per phase with horizontal conductor configuration as show in fig.1. The conductors
have a diameter of 1.345in and a GMR of 0.5328in. Find the inductance and capacitance per
phase per kilometer of the line and justify the result using MATLAB.
A

D12=35

D 23=35

D =70
Fig.1
2.The transmission line is replaced by two ACSR 636,000-cmil, 24/7 Rook conductors which
have the same total cross-sectional area of aluminum as one bittern conductor. The line
spacing as measured from the centre of the bundle is the same as before and is shown in fig.2.
The conductors have a diameter of 0.977in and a GMR of 0.3924in.Bundle spacing is 18in
.Find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line and justify the result
using MATLAB.
18 A

B
D12=35

C
D 23=35

D13=70
Fig.2

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3.A 345- KV double circuit three- phase transposed line is composed of two ACSR,
1,431,000-cmil, 45/7 Bobolink conductors per phase with vertical conductor configuration as
shown in fig.3. The conductors have a diameter of 1.427in and a GMR of 0.564 in .the
bundle spacing in 18in. find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the
line and justify the result using MATLAB.
a

S11=11m
c H12 = 7m

S22=16.5m

H12 = 6.5m
S33=12.5m

Fig.3

PROGRAM
clc,clear;
space=input('Enter the row vector[D12,D23,D13] in m=');
if length(space)~=3
disp('Values of D12,D23,D13 must be entered within square brackets, try again.'),end
D12=space(1); D23=space(2); D13=space(3);
GMD=(D12*D23*D13)^(1/3);
dia=input('conductor diameter in cm='); r=dia/2;
Ds=input('Geometric mean radius in cm='); %val=1.4173
nb=input('No. of bundled conductor (enter 1 for single conductor)=');
d=input('Bundle spacing in cm=');
Ds=Ds/100; r=r/100; d=d/100;
Dsb=2^0.125*(d*3*Ds)^(1/4); rb=2*0.125*(d^3*r)^(1/4);
GMRL=Dsb; GMRC=rb;
L=0.2*log(GMD/GMRL); %mH/km
C=0.0556/log(GMD/GMC); %microF/km
fprintf('GMD=%8.5fm \n',GMD)
fprintf('GMRL=%8.5fm',GMRL)
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fprintf('GMRC=%8.5f m \n',GMRC);
fprintf('L=%8.5f mH \n',L);

MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT
Thus the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometre of a three
phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements were
determined and verified with MATLAB software.
The value of L and C obtained from MATLAB program are:
Case1: L=
C=
Case2: L=

C=

Case3: L=

C=

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## MODELING OF TRANSMISSION LINES

AIM
To understand modeling and performance of Short, Medium and Long transmission
lines.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
The important considerations in the design and operation of a transmission line are the
determination of voltage drop, line losses and efficiency of transmission. These values are
greatly influenced by the line constants R, L and C of the transmission line. For instance, the
voltage drop in the line depends upon the values of above three line constants. Similarly, the
resistance of transmission line conductors is the most important cause of power loss in the line
and determines the transmission efficiency.
A transmission line has three constants R, L and C distributed uniformly along the
whole length of the line. The resistance and inductance form the series impedance. The
capacitance existing between conductors for 1-phase line or from a conductor to neutral for a 3phase line forms a shunt path throughout the length of the line.
Short Transmission Line:
When the length of an overhead transmission line is upto about 50km and the line
voltage is comparatively low (< 20 kV), it is usually considered as a short transmission line.
Medium Transmission Lines:
When the length of an overhead transmission line is about 50-150 km and the line
voltage is moderatly high (>20 kV < 100 kV), it is considered as a medium transmission line.
Long Transmission Lines:
When the length of an overhead transmission line is more than 150km and line voltage
is very high (> 100 kV), it is considered as a long transmission line.
Voltage Regulation:

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The difference in voltage at the receiving end of a transmission line between conditions of
no load and full load is called voltage regulation and is expressed as a percentage of the receiving
end voltage.

## Performance of Single Phase Short Transmission Lines

As stated earlier, the effects of line capacitance are neglected for a short transmission line.
Therefore, while studying the performance of such a line, only resistance and inductance of
the line are taken into account. The equivalent circuit of a single phase short transmission line
is shown in Fig. (i).Here, the total line resistance and inductance are shown as concentrated
or lumped instead of being distributed. The circuit is a simple a.c. series circuit.
R = loop resistance i.e., resistance of both conductors
XL = loop reactance
VR = receiving end voltage
cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)
VS = sending end voltage
cos S = sending end power factor

The phasor diagram of the line for lagging load power factor is shown in Fig. (ii). From the
right angled traingle ODC, we get,
2

2

2

## = (VR cos R + IR) + (VR sinR + IXL)

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An approximate expression for the sending end voltage VS can be obtained as follows. Draw
perpendicular from B and C on OA produced as shown in Fig. 2. Then OC is nearly equal to
OF i.e.,

OC = OF = OA + AF = OA + AG + GF
= OA + AG + BH
VS = VR + I R cos R + I XL sin R

## Medium Transmission Line

Nominal T Method
In this method, the whole line capacitance is assumed to be concentrated at the middle
point of the line and half the line resistance and reactance are lumped on its either side as
shown in Fig.1, Therefore in this arrangement, full charging current flows over half the line.
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In Fig.1, one phase of 3-phase transmission line is shown as it is advantageous to work in

Fig.1
Let

## IR = load current per phase

R = resistance per phase
XL = inductive reactance per phase
C = capacitance per phase
cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)
VS = sending end voltage/phase
V1 = voltage across capacitor C

The phasor diagram for the circuit is shown in Fig.2. Taking the receiving end voltage VR as
the reference phasor, we have,
Receiving end voltage, VR = VR + j 0
Load current, IR = IR (cos R - j sin R)

Fig.2

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Nominal Method
In this method, capacitance of each conductor (i.e., line to neutral) is divided into two
halves; one half being lumped at the sending end and the other half at the receiving end as
shown in Fig.3. It is obvious that capacitance at the sending end has no effect on the line
drop. However, its charging current must be added to line current in order to obtain the total
sending end current.

Fig.3
IR = load current per phase
R = resistance per phase
XL = inductive reactance per phase
C = capacitance per phase
cos R = receiving end power factor (lagging)
VS = sending end voltage per phase
The phasor diagram for the circuit is shown in Fig.4. Taking the receiving end voltage as the
reference phasor, we have,
VR = VR + j 0
Load current, IR = IR (cos R - j sin R)

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EXERCISE
A 220- KV, 3 transmission line is 40 km long. The resistance per phase is 0.15 per km
and the inductance per phase is 1.3623 mH per km. The shunt capacitance is negligible. Use
the short line model to find the voltage and power at the sending end and the voltage
regulation and efficiency when the line supplying a three phase load of
a) 381 MVA at 0.8 power factor lagging at 220 KV.
b) 381 MVA at 0.8 power factor leading at 220 KV.

PROGRAM
VRLL=220;
VR=VRLL/sqrt(3);
Z=[0.15+j*2*pi*60*1.3263e-3]*40;
disp=('(a)')
SR=304.8+j*228.6;
IR=conj(SR)/(3*conj(VR));
IS=IR;
VS=VR+Z*IR;
VSLL=sqrt(3)*abs(VS)
SS=3*VS*conj(IS)
REG=((VSLL-VRLL)/(VRLL))*10
EFF=(real(SR)/real(SS))*100
disp=('(b)')
SR=304.8-j*228.6;
IR=conj(SR)/(3*conj(VR));
IS=IR;
VS=VR+Z*IR;
VSLL=sqrt(3)*abs(VS)
SS=3*VS*conj(IS)
REG=((VSLL-VRLL)/(VRLL))*100
EFF=(real(SR)/real(SS))*100

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RESULT
Thus the program for modeling of transmission line was executed by using
MATLAB and the output was verified with theoretical calculation.
The value of the voltage and power at the sending end, voltage regulation and efficiency
obtained from the MATLAB program are
Voltage
VS =
Power
SS =
Voltage regulation REG =
Efficiency
EFF =

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## FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE MATRIX USING MATLAB

AIM
To determine the bus admittance matrix for the given power system Network.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
FORMATION OF Y BUS MATRIX
Bus admittance matrix is often used in power system studies in most of power system
studies it is necessary to form Y-bus matrix of the system by considering certain power
system parameter depending upon the type of analysis.
For example in load flow analysis it is necessary to form Y-bus matrix without taking
into account the generator impedance and load impedance. In short circuit analysis the
generator transient reactance and transformer impedance taken in account, in addition to line
data. Y-bus may be computed by inspection method only if there is no natural coupling
between the lines. Shunt admittance are added to the diagonal elements corresponding to the
buses at which these are connected. The off diagonal elements are unaffected. The equivalent
circuit of tap changing transformer may be considered in forming[y-bus] matrix.
FORMULA USED
Yij=Yij for i=1 to n
Yij= -Yij= -1/Zij
Yij=Yji
Where Yii=yjj= Sum of admittance connected to bus

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EXERCISE
Form the Y bus matrix for the given data below
Line charging
Line Number Starting Bus Ending Bus Series Line Impedance admittance
0.02j
1
1
2
0.1+0.3j
0.0125j
2
2
3
0.15+0.5j
3

0.2+0.6j

PROGRAM
function ybus=ybus()
line datda=linedata3();
fb=linedata(:,1);
tb=linedata(:,2);
r=linedata(:,3);
x=linedata(:,4);
b=linedata(:,5);
z=r+1i*x;
y=1./z;
b=1i*b;
nbus=max(max(fb),max(tb));
nbranch=length(fb);
ybus=zeros(nbus,nbus);
for k=1:nbranch
ybus(fb(k),tb(k))=-y(k);
ybus(tb(k),fb(k))=ybus(fb(k),tb(k));
end
for m=1:nbus
for n=1:nbranch
if fb(n)==m||tb(n)==m
ybus(m,m)=ybus(m,m)+y(n)+b(n)/2;
end
end
end
fprintf(formation of ybus matrix Y=,ybus);
end
SUB PROGRAM FOR LINE DATA
function linedata=linedata3()
%frombus tobus r x b%
linedata=[1 2 0.1 0.3 0.02;
2 3 0.15 0.5 0.0125;
3 1 0.2 0.6 0.028;];

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0.028j

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT
Thus the bus admittance matrix of the given power system using inspection
method was found and verified by theoretical calculation.

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## FORMATION OF BUS IMPEDANCE MATRIX USING MATLAB

AIM
To determine the bus impedance matrix for the given power system Network.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
FORMATION OF Z BUS MATRIX
Z-bus matrix is an important matrix used in different kinds of power system study such as
short circuit study, load flow study etc.
In short circuit analysis the generator uses transformer impedance must be taken into
account. In quality analysis the two-short element are neglected by forming the z-bus matrix
which is used to compute the voltage distribution factor. This can be largely obtained by
reversing the y-bus formed by inspection method or by analytical method.
Taking inverse of the y-bus for large system in time consuming; Moreover modification in the
system requires whole process to be repeated to reflect the changes in the system. In such cases
is computed by z-bus building algorithm.
ALGORITHM
Step 1: Read the values such as number of lines, number of buses and line data, generator
data and transformer data.
Step 2: Initialize y-bus matrix y-bus[i] [j] =complex.(0.0,0.0)
Step 3: Compute y-bus matrix by considering only line data.
Step 4: Modifies the y-bus matrix by adding the transformer and the generator admittance to the
respective diagonal elements of y-bus matrix.
Step 5: Compute the z-bus matrix by inverting the modified y-bus matrix.
Step 6: Check the inversion by multiplying modified y-bus and z-bus matrices to check
whether the resulting matrix is unit matrix or not.
Step 7: Print the z-bus matrix.

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EXERCISE
Form the bus impedance matrix for the given data
Line charging
Line Number Starting Bus Ending Bus Series Line Impedance admittance
0.02j
1
1
2
0.1+0.3j
0.0125j
2
2
3
0.15+0.5j
3

0.028j

0.2+0.6j

PROGRAM
function[Ybus] = ybus(zdata)
nl=zdata(:,1); nr=zdata(:,2); R=zdata(:,3); X=zdata(:,4);
nbr=length(zdata(:,1)); nbus = max(max(nl), max(nr));
Z = R + j*X;

%branch impedance

y= ones(nbr,1)./Z;

Ybus=zeros(nbus,nbus);

for k = 1:nbr;

## if nl(k) > 0 & nr(k) > 0

Ybus(nl(k),nr(k)) = Ybus(nl(k),nr(k)) - y(k);
Ybus(nr(k),nl(k)) = Ybus(nl(k),nr(k));
end
end
for n = 1:nbus

## % formation of the diagonal elements

for k = 1:nbr
if nl(k) == n | nr(k) == n
Ybus(n,n) = Ybus(n,n) + y(k);
else, end
end
end
Zbus= inv(Y)
Ibus=[-j*1.1;-j*1.25;0;0]
Vbus=Zbus*Ibus
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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT
Thus the bus impedance matrix of the given power system using inspection method
was found and verified by theoretical calculation.

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## LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY GAUSS SEIDAL METHOD USING MATLAB

AIM
To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system network by Gauss Seidal
method.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
Load flow analysis is the study conducted to determine the steady state operating
condition of the given system under given conditions. A large number of numerical
algorithms have been developed and gauss seidal method is one of such algorithm.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
The performance equation of the power system may be written of
[I bus]=[Y bus][V bus]
Selecting one of the buses as the reference bus, we get (n-1) simultaneous equations.
Ii = Pi-jQi / Vi*
(i=1,2,3,..n)
Where,
n
Pi=Re [ Vi*Yik Vk.]
K=1
n
Qi= -Im [ Vi*Yik Vk].
k=1
The bus voltage can be written in form of
n
Vi=(1.0/Yii)[Ii- Yij Vj]
J=1
ji(i=1,2,n)& i slack bus
Substituting Ii in the expression for Vi, we get
n
new
o
o
Vi
=(1.0/Yii)[Pi-JQi / Vi * - Yij Vi ]
J=1

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)

(6)

The latest available voltages are used in the above expression,we get
Vi

new

=(1.0/Yii)[Pi-JQi / Vi * - YijVj
J=1

- Yij Vi ]

j=i+1

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The above equation is the required formula .this equation can be solved for voltages in
interactive manner. During each iteration, we compute all the bus voltage and check for
convergence is carried out by comparison with the voltages obtained at the end of previous
iteration. After the solutions is obtained. The stack bus real and reactive powers, the reactive
power generation at other generator buses and line flows can be calculated.
ALGORITHM
Step1:Read the data such as line data, specified power ,specified voltages, Q limits at the
generator buses and tolerance for convergences
Step2: Compute Y-bus matrix.
Step3: Initialize all the bus voltages.
Step4: Iter=1
Step5: Consider i=2, where i is the bus number.
Step6:check whether this is PV bus or PQ bus . if it is PQ bus goto step 8 otherwise go to
next step.
Step7: Compute Qi check for q limit violation. QGi=Qi+QLi.
7).a).If QGi>Qi max ,equate QGi = Qimax. Then convert it into PQ bus.
7).b).If QGi<Qi min, equate QGi = Qi min. Then convert it into PQ bus.
Step8: Calculate the new value of the bus voltage using gauss seidal formula.
i=1

## Vi=(1.0/Yii) [(Pi-j Qi)/vi0*- Yij Vj- YijVj ]

J=1

J=i+1

Adjust voltage magnitude of the bus to specify magnitude if Q limits are not violated.
Step9: If all buses are considered go to step 10 otherwise increments the bus no. i=i+1 and
Go to step6.
Step10: Check for convergence. If there is no convergence goes to step 11 otherwise go to
step12.
Step11: Update the bus voltage using the formula.
Vi

new

=Vi

old

+ (vi

new

-Vi

old

## ) (i=1,2,..n) i slackbus , is the acceleration factor=1.4

Step12: Calculate the slack bus power, Q at P-V buses real and reactive give flows real and
reactance line losses and print all the results including all the bus voltages and all the
bus angles.
Step13: Stop.

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FLOW CHART:

## FLOW CHART FOR GAUSS SEIDAL METHOD

PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.
Type and save the program in the editor Window.
Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.
View the results.

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PROGRAM
clc;
clear all;
y12=10-j*20;
y13=10-j*30;
y23=16-j*32;
v1=1.05+1i*0;
%code for PART-A
iter=0;
s2=-2.566-j*1.102;
s3=-1.386-j*0.452;
v2=1+j*0.0;
v3=1+j*0.0;
for i=1:10;
iter=iter+1;
v2=(conj(s2)/conj(v2)+y12*v1+y23*v3)/(y12+y23);
v3=(conj(s3)/conj(v3)+y13*v1+y23*v2)/(y13+y23);
i=i+1;
end
v2
v3
%code for PART-B
Pslack=conj(v1)*[v1*(y12+y13)-(y12*v2+y13*v3)]
%code for PART-C
I12=y12*(v1-v2)
I21=-I12
I13=y13*(v1-v3)
I31=-I13
I23=y23*(v2-v3)
I32=-I13
I23=y23*(v2-v3)
I32=-I23
s12=v1*conj(I12)
s21=v2*conj(I21)
s13=v1*conj(I13)
s31=v3*conj(I31)
s23=v2*conj(I23)
s32=v3*conj(I32)
sl12=s12+s21
sl13=s13+s31
sl23=s23+s32

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EXERCISE
The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation
at buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at
buses 2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100MVA base and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.
a). using the gauss-seidal method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load
buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.
b).find the slack bus real and reactive power.
c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write an
algorithm.
1

0.02 + j0.04
256.6MW
0

## Slack bus v1 = 1.05L

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

110.2Mvar

138.6 MW

45.2 Mvar

MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULTS
A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by Gauss
Seidal method and the results are verified with model calculation.

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Expt. No:

Date:

## LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY NEWTON RAPSHON METHOD USING MATLAB

AIM
To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system by Newton Raphson
method.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
The Newton Raphson method of load flow analysis is an iterative method which
approximates the set of non-linear simultaneous equations to a set of linear simultaneous
equations using Taylors series expansion and the terms are limited to first order
approximation. The load flow equations for Newton Raphson method are non-linear
equations in terms of real and imaginary part of bus voltages.

## where, ep = Real part of

Vp fp = Imaginary part of
Vp
Gpq, Bpq = Conductance and Susceptances of admittance Ypq respectively.

ALGORITHM
Step1: Input the total number of buses. Input the details of series line impendence and line
charging admittance to calculate the Y-bus matrix.
Step2: Assume all bus voltage as 1 per unit except slack bus.
Step3: Set the iteration count as k=0 and bus count as p=1.
Step4: Calculate the real and reactive power pp and qp using the formula
P=vpqYpq*cos(Qpq+p-q)
Qp=VpqYpa*sin(qpq+p-a)
Evalute pp*=psp-pp*
Step5: If the bus is generator (PV) bus, check the value of Qp*is within the limits.If it
violates
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the limits, then equate the violated limit as reactive power and treat it as PQ bus. If limit is
not violated then calculate,
|vp|^r=|vgp|^rspe-|vp|r
Qp*=qsp-qp*
Step6: Advance bus count by 1 and check if all the buses have been accounted if not go to step5.
Step7: Calculate the elements of Jacobean matrix.
Step8: Calculate new bus voltage increment pk and fpk
Step9: Calculate new bus voltage ep*h+ ep*
Fp^k+1=fpK+fpK
Step10: Advance iteration count by 1 and go to step3.
Step11: Evaluate bus voltage and power flows through the line .
EXERCISE
1. The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at
buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses
2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base
and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.
a) Using the Newton Raphson method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the
load buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.
b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.
c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write
an algorithm.
1

0.02 + j0.04
0

## Slack bus v1 = 1.05L

0.01+j0.03

138.6 MW

0.0125+j0.025

256.6MW

110.2Mvar

45.2 Mvar
Fig.1

PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.
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Type and save the program in the editor Window.
Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.
View the results.

PROGRAM
clear all;

clc;
n=input('no of buses');
n1=input('no of lines');
sb=[1 1 2];
eb=[2 3 3];
y=[inv(0.08+0.24i) inv(0.02+0.06i) inv(0.06+0.18i)];
ybus=zeros(n,n1);
for i=1:n1
k1=sb(i);
k2=eb(i);
ybus(k1,k1)=ybus(k1,k1)+y(i);
ybus(k2,k2)=ybus(k2,k2)+y(i);
ybus(k1,k2)=-y(i);
ybus(k2,k1)=ybus(k1,k2);
end
ybus
bcode=[1 2 3];
v=[1.06+0i 1+0i 1+0i];
sg=[0+0i 0.2+0i 0+0i];
sd=[0+0i 0+0i 0.6+0.25i];
qmin=0;
qmax=0.35;
e=real(v);
f=imag(v);
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g=real(ybus);
b=-imag(ybus);
pg=real(sg);
qg=imag(sg);
pd=real(sd);
qd=imag(sd);
con=10;
if(con>0.001)
for j=2:3
p(i)=0;
q(i)=0;
for k=1:3
p(j)=p(j)+(e(j)*(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k))+f(j)*(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k)));
q(j)=q(j)+(f(j)*(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k))-e(j)*(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k)));
end
end
for i=2:n
ps(i)=pg(i)-pd(i);
qs(i)=qg(i)-qd(i);
delp(i)=ps(i)-p(i)
delq(i)=qs(i)-0
end
for j=2:3
sumpe=0;
sumpf=0;
sumqe=0;
sumqf=0;
for k=1:3
if(k~=j)
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sumpe=sumpe+(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k));
sumpf=sumpf+(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k));
sumqe=sumqe-(f(k)*g(j,k)-e(k)*b(j,k));
sumqf=sumqf+(e(k)*g(j,k)+f(k)*b(j,k));
end
if(k~=1)&(k~=j)
delpe(j,k)=e(j)*g(j,k)-f(j)*b(j,k);
delpf(j,k)=e(j)*b(j,k)+f(j)*g(j,k);
delqe(j,k)=e(j)*b(j,k)+f(j)*g(j,k);
delqf(j,k)=e(j)*g(j,k)+f(j)*b(j,k);
end
end
delpe(j,j)=(2*e(j)*g(j,j))+sumpe;
delpf(j,j)=(2*f(j)*g(j,j))+sumpf;
delqe(j,j)=(2*e(j)*b(j,j))+sumqe;
delqf(j,j)=(2*f(j)*b(j,j))+sumqf;
end
for j=1:2
for k=1:2
delpem(j,k)=delpe(j+1,k+1);
delpfm(j,k)=delpf(j+1,k+1);
delqem(j,k)=delqe(j+1,k+1);
delqfm(j,k)=delqf(j+1,k+1);
end
delpm(j)=delp(j+1);
delqm(j)=delq(j+1);
end
jacob=[delpem delpfm ; delqem delqfm];
dels=[delpm delqm];
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con=max(dels);
c=jacob;
for j=2:3
e(j)=e(j)+c(j-1);
f(j)=f(j)+c(j-1);
end
end
p
q
delpm
delqm
jacob
t=inv(jacob)
r=[delpm delqm]
res=t*r

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RESULT
A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by Newton
Raphson method and the results are verified with model calculation

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Expt. No:

Date:

## LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY FAST DECOUPLED METHOD USING MATLAB

AIM
To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system by Fast Decoupled method.

## SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY
Due to the weak coupling between PV and q- half of the elements of jacobian matrix
are neglected further the assumptions made are
Cos ij = 1
Sin ij = 0
Qi << Bij
2
|V|
The simplified FDLF equations are
(P / |V|) = [B][ ]
(Q / |V|) = [B][
|V|]
One iteration implies one solution for [] to update [] and one solution for [P/|V|] to
update [|V|] and is termed as 1- and 1-V iteration. The convergence for the real and reactive
power is achieved when max [P] < P; max [Q]<=Q.
The main advantage of the decoupled load flow as compared to Newton Raphson method is
its reduced memory is storing Jacobian.
ALGORITHM
Step1: Input the total number of buses.
Step2: Input the Y-bus matrix of order n X n.
Step3: Assume all the bus voltages are 1 pu except slack bus.
Step4: Form susceptance matrix B and B.
Step5: Set the iteration count as K=0.
Step6: Set Vs=0; rv=0.
Step7: Calculate the real and reactive power Pi using the formula
r

Pi = VpqYpq*cos(Qpq + p - q)
r

## Step8: Evaluate Pi = Pispec P i .

r
Step9: Test for convergence if max ( Pi < P) then set rs = 1 and go to next step otherwise go
to step 2.
Step10: Check if rv = 1 then calculate the slack bus power and all line flows and print the result
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otherwise go to step 13.
r

## Step11: Set rv = 0 then calculate Si using (P / |V|) = [B][]

r+1

Step12: Calculate i

= i + i .

## Step13: Calculate Qi using Qispec Q i .

r

Step14: Test for convergence if max (Qi )<Q then set rv = 1 and do next step otherwise go to
step 17.
Step15: Check if rs=1 then go to step 19.
Step16: Otherwise advance the iteration count by 1 and go to step 8.
r

r

## Step18: Calculate |Vi| +1 = |Vi| + |Vi| and go to step 16.

Step19: Calculate slack bus power and all line flows and print the result.
EXERCISE
The Fig.1 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at
buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses
2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base
and the line charging charging susceptances are neglected.
a) Using the Fast decoupled method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses
2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.
b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.
c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software write
an algorithm.
2

0.02 + j0.04
256.6MW
0

## Slack bus v1 = 1.05L

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

110.2Mvar

138.6 MW

45.2 Mvar
Fig.1

The Fig.2 shows the single line diagram of a simple three bus power system with generation at
buses 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 p.u. The scheduled loads at buses
2 & 3 are marked on the diagram .line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base
and the line charging susceptances are neglected.
a) Using the Fast decoupled method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load
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buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to four decimal places.
b) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.
c) Determine the line flow and line losses, Using MATLAB simulation software
write an algorithm.

Z= 0.02 + j0.04
400MW
0

## Slack bus v1 = 1.05L

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

250Mvar

V3=1.04
Pgen= 2 p.u
PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.
Type and save the program in the editor Window.
Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.
View the results.
PROGRAM
clear all;

clc;
tic;
busdata=[1 1 0 0 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;
2 3 0.4 0.3 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;
3 3 0.2 0.15 0.5 0.4 1.04+j*0 0 0;
4 2 0.6 0.2 0 0 1.04+j*0 0 0;];
linedata=[1 2 0.04 0.06 0.03;
1 3 0.03 0.25 0.015;
2 3 0.05 0.15 0.02;
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3 4 0.06 0.10 0.01;
4 1 0.02 0.06 0.025;];
busno=busdata(:,1);
type=busdata(:,2);
pl=busdata(:,3);
ql=busdata(:,4);
pg=busdata(:,5);
qg=busdata(:,6);
abs_v=busdata(:,7);
qmax=busdata(:,9);
qmin=busdata(:,8);
is=find(type==1);
ipv=find(type==2);
ipq=find(type==3);
ip=find(type==2|type==3);
[nb,nn]=size(busdata(:,1));
[nl,nw]=size(linedata(:,1));
del=zeros(nb,1);
qq=zeros(nb,1);
sb=linedata(:,1);
eb=linedata(:,2);
abs_v(ipq)=1.00;
z=linedata(:,3)+j*linedata(:,4);
bl=j*linedata(:,5);
pg(is)=0.0;
ndel=length(ip);
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ybus=zeros(nb,nb);
y=ones(nl,1)./z;
for k=1:nl
l=sb(k);
m=eb(k);
ybus(l,m)=ybus(l,m)-y(k);
ybus(m,l)=ybus(l,m);
end
for l=1:nb
for m=1:nl
if sb(m)==1
ybus(l,l)=ybus(l,l)+y(m)+bl(l);
elseif eb(m)==1
ybus(l,l)=ybus(l,l)+y(m)+bl(l);
else,end
end
end
for k=1:nb
ybus(k,k)=ybus(k,k);
end
g=real(ybus);
b=imag(ybus);
j1=[b(nb-2:nb,nb-2:nb)];
j4=[b(nb-2:nb-1,nb-2:nb-1)];
J1=-j1;
J4=-j4;
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abs_ybus=abs(ybus);
ang_ybus=angle(ybus);
conv=10;
it=0;
p=zeros(nb,1);
q=zeros(nb,1);
while((it<=30))
it=it+1;
P=zeros(nb,1);
Q=zeros(nb,1);
for i=1:nb
for k=1:nb
P(i)=P(i)+(abs_v(i)*abs_v(k)*abs_ybus(i,k))*cos(ang_ybus(i,k)-del(i)+del(k));
Q(i)=Q(i)-(abs_v(i)*abs_v(k)*abs_ybus(i,k))*sin(ang_ybus(i,k)-del(i)+del(k));
end
end
ipv=find(type==2);
ipq=find(type==3);
for i=1:nb-1
delp(i)=pg(i)-pl(i)-P(i);
delp(4)=0.5-P(4);
end
delq=qg-ql-Q;
Delp=[delp(2:4)]./1.04;
Delq=[delq(2:3)]./1.04;
B1=inv(J1);
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B2=inv(J4);
s=B1*Delp';
t=B2*Delq;
abs_v(ipq)=abs_v(ipq)+t;
del(ip)=del(ip)+s;
del_deg=del*180/pi;
pgg=(p+pl);
qgg=(q+ql);
res=[abs_v del_deg pgg qgg pl ql];
end
disp('Result');
disp('res');
disp('abs_v del_deg pgg qgg pl ql');
disp(res);
disp('abs_v(ipq)');
disp(abs_v(ipq));
disp('del(ip)');
disp(del(ip));
toc;

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RESULT
A program has been developed using MATLAB for the given power system by fast
decoupled method and the results are verified with model calculation.
.

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Expt. No:

Date:

## TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-MACHINE

INFINITE BUS SYSTEM
AIM

To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability
analysis of Single-Machine-Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment are:
1. To study the stability behavior of one machine connected to a large power system
subjected to a severe disturbance (3-phase short circuit)
2. To understand the principle of equal-area criterion and apply the criterion to study
the stability of one machine connected to an infinite bus
3. To determine the critical clearing angle and critical clearing time with the help of
equal-area criterion
4. To do the stability analysis using numerical solution of the swing equation.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY
The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces to compensate for the
disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as stability. If the forces
tending to hold the machines in synchronism with one another are sufficient to overcome the
disturbing forces, the system is said to remain stable.
The stability studies which evaluate the impact of disturbances on the behavior of
synchronous machines of the power system are of two types transient stability and steady
state stability. The transient stability studies involve the determination of whether or not
synchronism is maintained after the machine has been subjected to a severe disturbance. This
may be a sudden application of large load, a loss of generation, a loss of large load, or a fault
(short circuit) on the system. In most disturbances, oscillations are such magnitude that
linearization is not permissible and nonlinear equations must be solved to determine the
stability of the system. On the other hand, the steady-state stability is concerned with the
system subjected to small disturbances wherein the stability analysis could be done using the
linearized version of nonlinear equations. In this experiment we are concerned with the
transient stability of power systems.
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A method known as the equal-area criterion can be used for a quick prediction of
stability of a one- machine system connected to an infinite bus. This method is based on the
graphical interpretation of energy stored in the rotating mass as an aid to determine if the
machine maintains its stability after a disturbance. The method is applicable to a onemachine system connected to an infinite bus or a two- machine system. Because it provides
physical insight to the dynamic behavior of the machine, the application of the method to
analyze a single-machine system is considered here.
Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is
subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the
disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.
Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission
loss equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed
and system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large
disturbance such as three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power
balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either acceleration or
deceleration. The system may come back to a steady state condition maintaining
synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may pull out of
synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the later case it is said
to be unstable.
Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state, normal operating
condition, the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and
generation, change in field voltage, change in mechanical toque etc., the nature of system
response to small disturbance depends on the operating conditions, the transmission system
strength, types of controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbance may be
of two forms,
(i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronizing torque.
(ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque.

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EXERCISE
A 60Hz synchronous generator having inertia constant H = 9.94 MJ/MVA and a direct axis
transient reactance Xd= 0.3 per unit is connected to an infinite bus through a purely resistive
circuit as shown in fig.1. Reactances are marked on the diagram on a common system base.
The generator is delivering real power of 0.6 p.u, 0.8 pf lagging and the infinite bus at a
voltage of 1 per unit. Assume the p.u damping power coefficient d=0.138. Consider a small
disturbance change in f=10 degree.(The breaker open and close quickly) which is equal to
0.1745 rad. Obtain the equation describing the motion of rotor angle and the generator
frequency. (a) A temporary three phase fault occurs at the sending end of the line at point F.
When the fault is cleared both the lines are in fact. Determine the critical angle and critical
fault clearing time. (b) verify the result with the MATLAB program.

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PROGRAM
E=1.35;
V=1.0;
H=9.94;
X=0.65;
Pm=0.6;
D=.138;
fo=60;
Pmax=E*V/X
do=asin(Pm/Pmax)
Ps=Pmax*cos(do)
wn=sqrt((pi*60)/(H*Ps))
z=D/2*sqrt((pi*60)/(H*Ps))
wd=wn*sqrt(1-z^2);
fa=wd/(2*pi)
tan=1/(z*wn)
th=acos(z)
Ddo=10*pi/180;
t=0:0.01:10;
Dd=Ddo/sqrt(1-z^2).*exp(-z*wn*t).*sin(wd*t+th);
d=(do+Dd)*180/pi;
Dw=-wn*Ddo/sqrt(1-z^2).*exp(-z*wn*t).*sin(wd*t+th);
f=fo+Dw/(2*pi);
subplot(211),plot(t,d),grid
xlabel('tsec'),ylabel('delta degree')
subplot(212),plot(t,f),grid
xlabel('tsec'),ylabel('frequency Hz')
subplot(111)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

Thus the stability analysis of single machine infinite bus system is verified using the
MATLAB program.

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Expt. No:

Date:

## TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS MULTI MACHINE INFINI TE BUS SYSTEM

AIM

To become familiar with various aspects of the transient stability analysis of Multi Machine-Infinite Bus (MMIB) system.
OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this experiment are:
To analyze the transient stability of multi machine systems by solving swing equations
by numerical integration.
To determine the stability of the given multi machine system for various fault clearing
times.
To determine the critical clearing time using swing curves.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7

THEORY
The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces to compensate for the
disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as stability. If the forces
tending to hold the machines in synchronism with one another are sufficient to overcome the
disturbing forces, the system is said to remain stable.
The stability studies which evaluate the impact of disturbances on the behavior of
synchronous machines of the power system are of two types transient stability and steady
state stability. The transient stability studies involve the determination of whether or not
synchronism is maintained after the machine has been subjected to a severe disturbance. This
may be a sudden application of large load, a loss of generation, a loss of large load, or a fault
(short circuit) on the system. In most disturbances, oscillations are such magnitude that
linearization is not permissible and nonlinear equations must be solved to determine the
stability of the system. On the other hand, the steady-state stability is concerned with the
system subjected to small disturbances wherein the stability analysis could be done using the
linearized version of nonlinear equations. In this experiment we are concerned with the
transient stability of power systems.
A method known as the equal-area criterion can be used for a quick prediction of
stability of a one- machine system connected to an infinite bus. This method is based on the
graphical interpretation of energy stored in the rotating mass as an aid to determine if the
machine maintains its stability after a disturbance. The method is applicable to a onemachine system connected to an infinite bus or a two- machine system. Because it provides
physical insight to the dynamic behavior of the machine, the application of the method to
analyze a single-machine system is considered here.

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Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is
subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the
disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.
Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is subjected
to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the disturbances are small
and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.
Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission loss
equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed and
system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large disturbance such as
three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power balance is upset and the
generating units rotors experience either acceleration or deceleration. The system may come
back to a steady state condition maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one
or more machines may pull out of synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable
and in the later case it is said to be unstable.
Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state, normal operating condition,
the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and generation,
change in field voltage, change in mechanical toque etc., the nature of system response to small
disturbance depends on the operating conditions, the transmission system strength, types of
controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbance may be of two forms,
(i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronizing torque.
(ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque.
FORMULA USED

0 = sin-1((Pe*X)/EER))

## Find out X from the equivalent circuit during fault condition.

Find out X from the equivalent circuit during post fault condition.

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PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M-file by selecting File-NewM-file.
Type and save the program.
Execute the
program.
View the results.
EXERCISE
1. A typical multi machine power system network with three generators is shown in Fig.1. The
load data and the voltage magnitude, generation schedule, and the reactive power limits for the
voltage controlled buses are given in the following tables. Bus 1 is the reference bus. The line
data on 100 MVA base are also tabulated. The generators transient reactance in p.u. and the
inertia constants in seconds expressed on a 100-MVA base are given in Table.

Fig.1

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Bus No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
0
0
100
90
160

0
0
0
70
30
110

## Line Data including Transformer Data

From Bus
1
1
1
2
3
4
5

To Bus
4
5
6
4
5
6
6

R (p.u.)
0.035
0.025
0.400
0.000
0.000
0.028
0.026

X (p.u.)
0.225
0.105
0.215
0.035
0.042
0.125
0.175

B/2 (p.u.)
0.0065
0,0045
0.0055
0.0000
0.0000
0.0035
0.0300

Generation Schedule
Bus
No.
1
2
3

Voltage
mag
1.06
1.04
1.03

Generation
(MW)
--150
100

Mvar Limits
Minimum Maximum
----0
140
0
90

Machine Data
Generator
1
2
3

Reactance Xd
0.20
0.15
0.25

Inertia constant H
20
4
5

For the multi machine system, determine the stability and critical clearing time for various
cases.
(i) A three-phase fault occurs on line [5 6] near bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.
(ii) A three-phase fault occurs on line [4 6] near bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.
(iii)A three-phase fault occurs on line [1 6] nea r bus 6 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.

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(iv) A three-phase fault occurs on line [5 6] near bus 5 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.
(v) A three-phase fault occurs on line [4 6] near bus 4 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.
(vi) A three-phase fault occurs on line [1 6] near bus 1 and is cleared by simultaneously
opening the breakers at both ends of the line.
PROGRAM
clear all;

clc;
format long
%step1 initialisation wiyh load flow &machince data
f=50;
tstep=0.01;
h=[12 9];
pgnetterm=[3.25 2.10];
qgnetterm=[0.6986 0.3110];
xg=[0.067 0.10];
%use of ; is to transpose without taking the conjugate of each element
v0=[1.0193+j*0.14753 1.012+j*0.12713];
%m is no of generators other than slack bus
m=2;
%step 2
v0conj=conj(v0);
ig0=conj((pgnetterm+j*qgnetterm)/v0);
edash=v0+j*(xg*ig0);
pg0=real(edash0*conj(ig0));
x1_r=angle(edash0);
%initialisation of state vector
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pg_r=pg0;
%pg_rplus1=pg0;
x2_r=[0 0];
x1dot_r=[0 0];
x2dot_r=[0 0];
x1dotrplus1=[0 0];
x2dotrplus1=[0 0];
%step 3
ybusdf=[5.7986-j*35.6301
0

-j*11.236

-0.0681+j*5.1661

0
0

ybuspf=[1.3932-j*13.8731
-0.2214+j*7.6289

-0.0681+j*5.1661

0.1362-j*6.2737];
-0.2214+j*7.6289

0.5+j*7.7898

-0.0901+j*6.0975

-0.0901+j*6.0975
0

0.1591-j*6.1168];

%step 4
%set values for initial time t(occurance of %fault)and
%tc is time of fault clearance
t=0;
tc=0.08;
tfinal=1.0;
r=1;
edash_r=edash0;
edash_rplus1=edash0;
while t<tfinal
%step5 compute generator powers using appropriate ybus
%the ybus choosen in the following step is set accordind to the current
%time
if t<=tc
ybus=ybuspf;
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end
i=ybus(2:m+1,:)*[1 edash_r];
pg_r=real(edash_r*conj(i));
%step6 compute x1dot_r and x2dot_r
x1dot_r=x2_r;
for k=1:m
x2dot_r(k,1)=(p1*f/h(k))*(pg0(k)-pg_r(k));
end
%step7 compute first state estimates for t=t(r+1)
x1_rplus1=x1_r+x1dot_r*tstep;
x2_rplus1=x2_r+x2dot_r*tstep;
%step8 compute first state estimates
edash_rplus1=abs(edash0)*(cos(x1_rplus1)+j*sin(x1_rplus1));
%step9 compute pg for t=t(r+1)
i=ybus(2:m)*[1 edash_rplus1];
pg_rplus1=real(edash_rplus1.conj(i));
%step10 compute state derivatives at t=t(r+1)
x1dot_rplus=[0 0];
x2dot_rplus=[0 0];
for k=1:m
x1dot_rplus1(k,1)=x2_rplus1(k,1);
x2dot_rplus1(k,1)=p1*f/h(k)*(pg0(k)-pg_rplus1(k));
end
%step11 compute average values of state derivaties
x1dotav_r=(x1dot_r+x1dot_rplus1)/2.0;
x2dotav_r=(x2dot_r+x12dot_rplus1)/2.0;
%step 12 compute final estimate for edash at t=t(r+1)
x1_rplus1=x1_r+x1dotav_r*tstep;
x2_rplus1=x2_r+x2dotav_r*tstep;
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%step 13 compute final estimate for edash at t=t(r+1)
edash_rplus1=abs(edash0)*(cos(x1_rplus1)+j*sin(x1_rplus1));
%step14 print state vector
x2_r=x2_rplus1;
x1_r=x1_rplus1;
edash_r=edash_rplus1;
%step15
time(r)=t;
for k=1:m
ang(r,k)=(x1_r(k)*180)/pi;
end
t=t+tstep;
r=r+1;
end
plot(time,ang)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No:

Date:

## LOAD FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE AND TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM

AIM

To obtain the frequency response and steady state frequency deviation of single and two
area power system using MATLAB.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
Active power control is one of the important control actions to be performed to be
normal operation of the system to match the system generation with the continuously changing
system load in order to maintain the constancy of system frequency to a fine tolerance level.
This is one of the foremost requirements in proving quality power supply. A change in system
load cases a change in the speed of all rotating masses (Turbine generator rotor systems) of
the system leading to change in system frequency. The speed change form synchronous speed
initiates the governor control (primary control) action result in the entire participating generator
turbine units taking up the change in load, stabilizing system frequency. Restoration of
frequency to nominal value requires secondary control action which adjusts the load - reference
set points of selected (regulating) generator turbine units. The primary objectives of automatic
generation control (AGC) are to regulate system frequency to the set nominal value and also to
regulate the net interchange of each area to the scheduled value by adjusting the outputs of the
regulating units. This function is referred to as load frequency control (LFC).

PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new Model by selecting File - New Model.
Pick up the blocks from the Simulink library browser and form a block
diagram. After forming the block diagram, save the block diagram.
Double click the scope and view the result.

EXERCISE 1
12. An isolated power station has the following
parameters Turbine time constant, T = 0.5sec
Governor Time constant, g = 0.2sec
Generator inertia constant, H = 5sec
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Governor speed regulation = R per unit
The load varies by 0.8 percent for a 1 percent change in frequency, i.e., D=0.8
(a) Use the Routh Hurwitz array to find the range of R for control system stability.
(b) Use MATLAB to obtain the root locus plot.
(c) The governor speed regulation is set to R = 0.05 per unit. The turbine rated output is 250MW at
nominal frequency of 60Hz. A sudden load change of 50 MW (PL = 0.2 per unit) occurs.
(i) Find the steady state frequency deviation in Hz.
(ii) Use MATLAB to obtain the time domain performance specifications and the frequency
deviation step response.
SIMULATION DIAGRAM FOR SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEM

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EXERCISE 2
A two area system connected by a tie line has the following parameters on a 1000MVA common
base.
Area
Speed Regulation
Inertia Constant
Base Power

1
R1=0.05
D1=0.6
H1=5
1000MVA

2
R2=0.0625
D2=0.9
H2=4
1000MVA

## Governor Time Constant

Turbine Time Constant

g1= 0.2sec
T1=0.5sec

g2= 0.3sec
T2=0.6sec

The units are operating in parallel at the nominal frequency of 60Hz. The synchronizing power
coefficient is computed from the initial operating condition and is given to be P s = 2 p.u. A load
change of 187.5 MW occurs in area1.
(a) Determine the new steady state frequency and the change in the tie-line flow.
(b) Construct the SIMULINK block diagram and obtain the frequency deviation response for the
condition in part (a).

## SIMULATION DIAGRAM FOR TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM

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MODEL GRAPH

Change in
power of
area1,
change in
power of
area2,
change in
tie line
power

Change in
frequency
,
Change in
line flow

time(sec)

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No:

Date:
ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS

AIM
To understand the fundamentals of economic dispatch and find the real power generation
and the total fuel cost for the given power system using classical method with and without line
losses using MATLAB.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 7.7
THEORY
Mathematical Model for Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units without Transmission Loss
Statement of Economic Dispatch Problem
In a power system, with negligible transmission loss and with N number of spinning
thermal generating units the total system load PD at a particular interval can be met by different
sets of generation schedules
Out of these NS set of generation schedules, the system operator has to choose the set of
schedules, which minimize the system operating cost, which is essentially the sum of the
production cost of all the generating units. This economic dispatch problem is mathematically
stated as an optimization problem.
Given: The number of available generating units N, their production cost functions, their
operating limits and the system load PD
To determine: The set of generation schedules,
(1)
Which minimize
e the total production cost
Min ;
(2)
And satisfies the power balance constraint
=
And the operating limits

(3)
(4)

The units p
roduction cost function is usually approximated by quadratic function
(5)
Where

are constants

## Necessary conditions for the existence of solution to ED problem

The ED problem given by the equations (1) to (4). By omitting the inequality constraints
(4) tentatively, the reduce ED problem (1), (2) and (3) may be restated as an unconstrained
optimization problem by augmenting the objective function (1) with the constraint multiplied by
LaGrange multiplier, to obtained the LaGrange function, L as
Min:
(6)
The necessary conditions for the existence of solution to (6) are given by
;
(7)
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## (8) The solution to ED problem can be obtained by

solving simultaneously the necessary
conditions (7) and (8) which state that the economic generation schedules not only satisfy the
system power balance equation (8) but also demand that the incremental cost rates of all the units
be equal be equal to which can be interpreted as incremental cost of r eceived power.
When the inequality constraints (4) are included in the ED problem the necessary condition (7)
gets modified as

(9)
Economic Schedule
(10) Incremental fuel cost
(11)

PROCEDURE
Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
Create a new M-file by selecting File-NewM-file.
Type and save the program.
Execute the program .
View the results.
EXERCISE
1. The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in \$/h are given by

The total load, PD is 800MW.Neglecting line losses and generator limits, find the optimal dispatch
and the total cost in \$/h by analytical method. Verify the result using MATLAB program.
2. The fuel cost functions for three thermal plants in \$/h are given by

## The total load, PD is 975 MW.

Generation Limits:
Find the optimal dispatch and the total cost in \$/h by analytical method. Verify the result using
MATLAB program.
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PROGRAM

alpha=[500,400,200];
beta=[5.3,5.5,5.8];
gama=[0.004,0.006,0.009];
pd=800;
delp=10;
lambda=input('enter the estimated value of lambda=');
fprintf('\n');
disp(['lambda p1 p2 p3 dp... grod delambda'])
iter=0;
while abs(delp)>=0.001
iter=iter+1;
p=(lambda-beta)/(2*gama);
delp=pd-sum(p);
j=sum(ones(length(gama))/(2*gama));
delambda=delp/j;
disp(['lambda,p(1),p(2),p(3);delp,j,delambda'])
lambda=lambda+delambda;
end
totalcost=sum(alpha+beta*p+gama*p^2)
axis([0 450 6.5 10.5])
p1=250:10:450;
p2=150:10:350;
p3=100:10:250;
ic1=5.3+0.008*p1;
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ic2=5.5+0.012*p2;
ic3=5.8+0.018*p3;
px=0:100:400;
plot(p1,ic1,p2,ic2,p3,ic3,px,lambda*ones(1,length(px)),'-m');
xlabel('p,mw')
ylabel('\$/mwh'),grid

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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MANUAL CALCULATION

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RESULT

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Expt. No :

Date:
FAULT ANALYSIS OF AC POWER SYSTEMS USING PSCAD

AIM
To become familiar with fault analysis of AC power system using PSCAD and obtain
the output response of the given power system when subjected to various faults at various
places in power system.

THEORY
Electromagnetic Transient including DC (EMTDC) is an implementation of the EMTP
type, initially designed for the solution of ac-dc power systems analysis. It includes models
of various physical components contained in functional modules. It is a related software
packages that provide the user with a very flexible power systems electromagnetic transient
simulation tool. EMTDC is the software, which actually performs the electromagnetic
transient analysis on the user defined power system. While Power Systems Computer Aided
Design (PSCAD) is the software that uses the graphical interface. The interface between
PSCAD and EMTDC is shown in Figure.

Fig.1
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Characteristics of Overvoltage in power system
Electromagnetic transient overvoltage is voltage stresses which directly effective to
equipment in power system and especially to insulation. It is severe to the system in case of
stored energy in the line such as trapped charge in capacitor. The overvoltage can be
classified into two groups; the first group is external overvoltage such as lightning. This
causes from natural events. The second group is internal overvoltage due to switching and
temporary overvoltage as show in table:
Table: Cases and shapes of overvoltage Standard v oltage shapes and standard withstand
tests

Fig.2
Switching Overvoltage in power system
Switching overvoltage is one of the internal over voltages which generate many
changes in the operating conditions of network. There are a great variety of events that
would initiate a switching surge in a power network, whenever a switch in an electric circuit
is opened or closed; this is true for transmission as well as distribution circuits. The
interruption by switching operations of a circuit having inductance and capacitance may
result in transient oscillations that can cause overvoltage on the systems. The switching
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operations of greatest relevance to insulation design can be classified as following:
Line energization
Line reenergization
Switching off of small capacitive
currents
Switching off of small inductive
currents Fault initiation
Fault clearing
Case study
Two Thevinen Impedance sources connected via one 100km transmission
line. System voltage is 230kV settable via source equivalents.
Simulates two substations connected via one transmission line.
Four fault positions for full fault control ahead and behind station
relays. Two breakers are independently timed controlled. (Default is
closed).
Independent breaker pole tripping is possible.
.
Main circuit

This case uses global substitutions. To change between 50Hz/60Hz. right-click on your
project name in the project tree. From the pop-up window select Global Constants. In this
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window, change the value of f to the desired frequency. Also make sure that you select the
appropriate system frequency in RTP/COMTRADE recorders
Plot circuit

Control circuit

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Model Graph

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RESULT
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Expt. No.:

Date:

## ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS USING

EMTP
AIM
(i) To study and understand the electromagnetic transient a phenomenon in power systems
caused due to switching and faults by using Electromagnetic Transients Program
(EMTP).
(ii) To become proficient in the usage of EMTP to address problems in the areas of
overvoltage protection and mitigation and insulation coordination of EHV systems.
OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this experiment are:
(i) To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a
non-ideal source with line represented by model.
(ii) To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a
non- ideal source and line represented by distributed parameters.
(iii)To study the transient over voltages due to faults for a SLG fault at far end of a line.
(iv) To study the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) associated with a breaker for a threephase fault.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB
THEORY
"Transients", a term we'll use for simplicity here, are actually "Transient Voltages".
More familiar terms may be "surges" or "spikes".
Basically, transients are momentary changes in voltage or current that occurs over a short
period of time. This interval is usually described as approximately 1/16 (one sixteenth) of a
voltage cycle (in the US, about 1/60th of a second) or about 1 milliseconds (milli = .0 0 1--one
thousandths...In laymen's terms, .0166 seconds......or really darned quick.).
Voltage transients normally last only about 50 microseconds (micro = .0 0 0 0 0 1--one
millionth) and current transients last typically 20 microseconds according to the ANSI
C62.41-1991 which is the standard for transients in facilities operating under 600 Volts.

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Common Internal Sources of Transient Activity
Photocopiers
PC Power Supplies
Laser Printers
Electronic
Ballasts
Welders
Power
Factor
Correction
Equipment Power Supplies
TemperatureControllers
Motor Controllers
Pumps Inverters
Compressors Generators
Variable Speed Motors
Standard Electric Motors

## Solution method for Electromagnetic Transients Analysis

Intentional and inadvertent switching operations in EHV systems initiate over
voltages, which might attain dangerous values resulting in destruction of apparatus. Accurate
computation of these over voltages is essential for proper sizing, coordination of insulation
of various equipment and specification of protective devices. Meaningful design of EHV
systems is dependent on modelling philosophy built into a computer program. The models of
equipments must be detailed enough to reproduce actual conditions successfully an
important aspect where a general purpose digital computer program scores over transient
network analysers.
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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

## The program employs a direct integration time-domain technique evolved by

Dommel. The essence of this method is discretization of differential equations associated
with network elements using trapezoidal rule of integration and solution of the resulting
difference equations for the unknown voltages. Any network which consists of
interconnections of resistances, inductances, capacitances, single and multiphase circuits,
distributed parameter lines, and certain other elements can be solved. To keep the
explanations simple, however, single phase network elements will be used, rather than the
more complex multiphase network elements.

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EE2402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LAB

Program:
clc;
clear all;
l=1.58e-3;
irms=7000;
c=0.0028e-6;
x1=2*3.14*50*1;
v1=irms*x1*1.414*1e-3;
slc=sqrt(l*c);
t1=0e-6:0.1e-6:10e-6
v2=v1*(1-cos(t1/slc))
plot(t1,v2,'r-')
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('voltage(v)');
title('etps');
k1=sqrt(3);
k2=1.5;
k3=1;
ary=k1*k2*k3*v1
rv=v1
mrv=v1*2
t=3.14*slc;
rrrv=mrv/t

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RESULT

10
STAFF SIGNATURE WITH DATE

MARKS

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