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14.

330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSOLIDATION
(Vertical Stress Increase)

CONSOLIDATION:
Volume change in saturated soils
caused by the expulsion of pore
water from loading.

SAND

Saturated Soils:
CLAY

SAND
DEPTH

causes u to increase immediately


Sands: Pore pressure increase
dissipates rapidly due to high
permeability.

after Figure 7.1a. Das FGE (2005).

Clays: Pore Pressure dissipates


slowly due to low permeability.
Revised 03/2013

Slide 1 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSOLIDATION
(Vertical Stress Increase)

At Time of Initial Loading (t = 0)

SAND

CLAY
Variation in Total, Pore water, and Effective Stresses
in Clay Layer
Figure 7.1b. Das FGE (2005)

SAND
DEPTH
after Figure 7.1a. Das FGE (2005).

Pore water takes initial change in


vertical loading (u) since
water is incompressible
Soil skeleton does not see initial
loading

Revised 03/2013

Slide 2 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSOLIDATION
(Vertical Stress Increase)

Between time t = 0 to t =

SAND

CLAY
Variation in Total, Pore water, and Effective Stresses
in Clay Layer
Figure 7.1c. Das FGE (2005)

SAND
DEPTH
after Figure 7.1a. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Pore water increase due to initial


loading dissipates
Soil skeleton takes loading as
pore pressure decreases
Slide 3 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSOLIDATION
(Vertical Stress Increase)

At time t =

SAND

CLAY
Variation in Total, Pore water, and Effective Stresses
in Clay Layer
Figure 7.1e. Das FGE (2005)

SAND
DEPTH
after Figure 7.1a. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Pore water increase due to initial


loading completely dissipated
(u = 0)
Soil skeleton has taken loading.
Effective stress increase now equals
vertical stress increase '
Slide 4 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSOLIDATION
(Vertical Stress Increase)

THE SPRING ANALOGY

SAND

CLAY

SAND
DEPTH
after Figure 7.1a. Das FGE (2005).

(a)
Initial
Loading

(b)
Dissipation
of Excess
Water
Water takes
Pressure
load
Water
dissipating

Revised 03/2013

Soil (i.e.
spring) has
Soil starts to
no load
t k l

(c)
Final
Loading
Water
dissipated
Soil has load
Slide 5 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

ONE DIMENSIONAL (1D) CONSOLIDATION TEST


D2435-11 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils
Using Incremental Loading

Consolidometer
Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.2. Das FGE (2005)

Slide 6 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

1D CONSOLIDATION TEST EQUIPMENT

ShearTrac II DSS Equipment


(Courtesy of Geocomp Corporation)

Figure E-1 USACE EM1110-1-1904.


Revised 03/2013

Slide 7 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

1D CONSOLIDATION TESTING
LOAD INCREMENT DATA
THREE STAGES
Stage I: Initial Compression
Primarily caused by preloading.
Stage II: Primary Consolidation
Excess pore water pressure
dissipation and corresponding
soil volume change.
Stage III: Secondary Consolidation
Occurs after excess pore
water pressure dissipation.
Due to plastic deformation/
readjustment of soil particles.
Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.4. Das FGE (2005).

Slide 8 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

VOID RATIO-PRESSURE PLOTS

Figure 7.5. Das FGE (2005)

Initial Void Ratio (eo):


Revised 03/2013

Vv H v A H v
eo

Vs H s A H s

Slide 9 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

VOID RATIO-PRESSURE PLOTS


@ End of Load 1

1 1

Figure 7.5. Das FGE (2005)

Change in Void
Ratio due to 1st
Loading (e1):
New Void Ratio
after 1st
Loading:
Revised 03/2013

H1
e1
Hs

e1 eo e1
Figure 7.6. Das FGE (2005)

Slide 10 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

VOID RATIO-PRESSURE PLOTS


@ End of Load 2

2 2

Figure 7.5. Das FGE (2005)

Change in Void
Ratio due to 2nd
Loading (e2):
New Void Ratio
after 2nd Loading:
Revised 03/2013

e1

H 2
Hs

H 2
e2 e1
Hs
Figure 7.6. Das FGE (2005)

Slide 11 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

VOID RATIO-PRESSURE PLOTS


Final e log plots consist of
results of numerous load & unload
increments

Two Definitions of Clays


based on Stress History:
Normally Consolidated (NC):
The present overburden pressure (a.k.a.
effective in-situ stress) is the most the soil
has ever seen.

Overconsolidated Clay (OC):


The present overburden pressure is less
than the soil has experienced in the past.
The maximum effective past pressure is
called the preconsolidation pressure (c)
or Maximum Past Pressure (vm)
Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.7. Das FGE (2005).

Slide 12 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM PAST PRESSURE


(c or vm)

Graphical Method
(Casagrande, 1936)

Figure 7.8. Das FGE (2005).


Revised 03/2013

1. Visually identify point of minimum


radius of curvature on e-log
curve (i.e. Point a).
2. Draw horizontal line from Point a
(i.e. Line ab).
3. Draw Line ac tangent to Point a.
4. Draw Line ad bisecting Angle bac.
5. Project the straight line portion of
gh on e-log curve to intersect
Line ad. This intersection (Point f)
is the maximum past pressure
(a.k.a. preconsolidation pressure).
Slide 13 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

OVERCONSOLIDAITON RATIO (OCR)


(c or vm)

Where:

c
OCR

c (a.k.a. vm) = Preconsolidation


Pressure (a.k.a
Maximum Past
Pressure).
= Present Effective Vertical Stress
General Guidelines:
NC Soils: 1 OCR 2
OC Soils : OCR > 2

Figure 7.8. Das FGE (2005).


Revised 03/2013

Possible Causes of OC Soils:


Preloading (thick sediments, glacial ice);
fluctuations of GWT, underdraining, light
ice/snow loads, desiccation above GWT,
secondary compression.

Slide 14 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE

NC and OC soils of low to medium sensitivity will experience disturbance due to


remolding. This changes the consolidation characteristics of the 1D consolidation tests.

NC Clays - Figure 7.9. Das FGE (2005)

OC Clays - Figure 7.10. Das FGE (2005)

Virgin Compression Curve Consolidation Curve Insitu (i.e. w/o disturbance)


Revised 03/2013

Sensitivity (St) St

qu ( undisturbed )
qu ( remolded )

Where qu = Unconfined Compressive Strength


Slide 15 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE


Reconstruction of Virgin Consolidation Curves (EM 1110-1-1904)

Figure 3-12. EM 1110-1-1904 Settlement Analysis.

Revised 03/2013

Slide 16 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE


Reconstruction of Virgin Consolidation Curves (EM 1110-1-1904)

Table 3-6. EM 1110-1-1904 Settlement Analysis.

Revised 03/2013

Slide 17 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE


Reconstruction of Virgin Consolidation Curves (EM 1110-1-1904)
Table 3-6. EM 1110-1-1904 Settlement Analysis.

Revised 03/2013

Slide 18 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


At End of Primary Consolidation =

Figure 7.11. Das FGE (2005)

V Vo V1 HA ( H S p ) A S p A
Where:
Revised 03/2013

V = Volume, Vo = Initial Volume, V1 = Final Volume, Sp = Primary Settlement

Slide 19 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


At End of Primary Consolidation =

V S p A Vvo Vv1 Vv
Where:
Vvo = Initial Void Volume, Vv1 = Final Void Volume

Vv eVs
Where:

e = Change in Void Ratio

Figure 7.11. Das FGE (2005).

Vo
AH
Vs

1 eo 1 eo
Where:

Revised 03/2013

e0 = Initial Void Ratio

Slide 20 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDAITON


At End of Primary Consolidation =

Therefore:

AH
V S p A eVs
e
1 eo
or

e
Sp H
1 eo
e

v
H 1 eo

Sp
Figure 7.11. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Where:
v = Vertical Strain

Slide 21 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Virgin Consolidation
Line

VOID RATIO

eo

NC Clay

Where:
Cc = Slope of Field Virgin
Consolidation Curve
= Compression Index

Cs
or

Cc

Cr

Cs (or Cr) = Slope of Rebound


Curve
= Swell Index
vm = Maximum Past Pressure
o = Initial Vertical Effective
Stress

~0.4eo

v (Log Scale)
Revised 03/2013

vm = o
Slide 22 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Virgin Consolidation
Line

VOID RATIO

eo

Settlement (Sp) using Void Ratio

o
Cc H

log
Sp
1 e0
o

Cs
or

Cc

Cr

ef

~0.4eo

v (Log Scale)
Revised 03/2013

NC Clay

vm
= o

Where:
Sp = Settlement
H = Height of Soil Layer
vm = Final Vertical Effective
Stress
= o - Current Vertical
Effective Stress
= Change in Vertical
Effective Stress
f = Final Vertical Effective
Stress
ef = Final Void Ratio

Slide 23 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Same Slope
as Cr

VOID RATIO

eo

Virgin
Consolidation
Lines

Cs
or

Cc

Cr

OC Clay
Where:
Cc = Slope of Field Virgin
Consolidation Curve
= Compression Index
Cs (or Cr) = Slope of
Rebound Curve
= Swell Index
vm = Maximum Past
Pressure

~0.4eo

v (Log Scale)

o vm

o = Initial Vertical Effective


Stress

or

Revised 03/2013

Slide 24 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Same Slope
as Cr
eo

OC Clay

VOID RATIO

Settlement (Sp) using Void Ratio

Sp
Cs
or

Cc

Cr

ef

~0.4eo

v (Log Scale)

o vm


C H
Cr H

log vm c log o
1 e0

o
o 1 e0
Where:
Sp = Settlement
H = Height of Soil Layer
= Change in Vertical
Effective Stress
o = Initial Vertical Effective
Stress
f = Final Vertical Effective
Stress
ef = Final Void Ratio

or

Revised 03/2013

Slide 25 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Compression Index (Cc) Estimates from Other Laboratory Tests
Soil

Cc Equation

Undisturbed Clays

Cc 0.009( LL 10)

Disturbed Clays

Cc 0.007( LL 10)

Organic Soils, Peat

Cc 0.0115Wn

Reference
Terzaghi & Peck (1967)

Cc 1.15(eo 0.35)

Clays

Cc 0.012Wn
Cc 0.01( LL 13)

Varved Clays

Cc (1 eo ) 0.1 0.006(Wn 25)

Uniform Silts

Cc 0.20

Revised 03/2013

EM 1110-1-1904

Slide 26 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Compression Index (Cc) Estimates from Other Laboratory Tests
Soil

Cc Equation

Clays

1 eo

Cc 0.141Gs1.2
Gs

Clays

LL
Cc 0.2343
G s
100

Reference
2.38

Rendon-Herrero (1983)
Nagaraj & Murty (1985)

Where:
Gs = Specific Gravity of Solids
LL = Liquid Limit (in %)
Wn = Natural Water Content
eo = Initial Void Ratio
Revised 03/2013

Slide 27 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM 1D PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION


Compression Index (Cc) Estimates from Other Laboratory Tests
Soil

Revised 03/2013

Cc Equation

Clays

1 eo

Cc 0.141Gs1.2
Gs

Clays

LL
Cc 0.2343
Gs

100

Reference
2.38

Rendon-Herrero (1983)
Nagaraj & Murty (1985)

Slide 28 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM VIRGIN


CONSOLIDATION CURVES
1.12

GIVEN:

1.1

OC CH layer

VOID RATIO (e)

1.08
1.06

o = 855 psf

1.04

vm = 1460 psf

1.02

= 1005 psf

eo = 1.1

0.98
0.96
500

600

700 800 900

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Height of CH
Layer = 10 ft

Vertical Effective Stress 'v (psf)


Revised 03/2013

Figure 1. Example of Virgin Consolidation Curves.

Slide 29 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM VIRGIN


CONSOLIDATION CURVES
1.12

e
Sp H
1 eo

eo
1.1

1.1

Cs

VOID RATIO (e)

1.08

e 1.11.045 0.055

1.076

1.06

ef
1.045

1.04

eo 1.1

Cc

0.055
S p (10 ft)

11.1
S p 0.262 ft

1.02
1

'

1
S p 3.14in 3 in
4

0.98
0.96
500

600

700 800 900

'o 1000

'vm

'f2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Vertical Effective Stress 'v (psf)


Revised 03/2013

Figure 1. Example of Virgin Consolidation Curves.

Slide 30 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM 1D TEST STRAIN RESULTS


SC
= 105 pcf
sat = 110 pcf

TOTAL STRESS
()
0
2000

Q = P = 144 kips

EFFECTIVE STRESS
(')
0
2000

PORE PRESSURE
(u)
0
2000

10

10 10

10 10

10 10

10

15 15

15 15

15 15

15

20 20

20 20

20 20

20

25 25

25 25

25 25

25

CL
sat = 105 pcf

15

20

SM
sat = 115 pcf

Depth from Existing Ground Surface (ft)

Depth from Existing Ground Surface (ft)

B = 6 ft SQ

MH
sat = 115 pcf

25
Revised 03/2013

2000

2000

2000

Slide 31 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM 1D TEST STRAIN RESULTS


15
CL Layer
Sample from 12 ft

VERTICAL STRAIN (%)

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
100
Revised 03/2013

200

400

600

800

1000

2000

Vertical Effective Stress 'v (psf)

4000

6000

Slide 32 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM 1D TEST STRAIN RESULTS


SC
= 105 pcf
sat = 110 pcf

TOTAL STRESS
()
0
2000

Q = P = 144 kips

EFFECTIVE STRESS
(')
0
2000

PORE PRESSURE
(u)
0
2000
0

0
' o

A
B

315

525

635

'f

315

60

525

2525 5

575
1455

CL Layer 1

10

CL
sat = 105 pcf

250

980

10 10

730

10 10

1250

10 10
435

1325

10

890
1185

15

CL Layer 2

1670

15 15

20

SM
sat = 115 pcf

625

15 15

1045

15 15

1240

810

2015

15

1205
1345

20 20

2360

20 20

1000

20 20

20

1360

Depth from Existing Ground Surface (ft)

Depth from Existing Ground Surface (ft)

B = 6 ft SQ

MH
sat = 115 pcf

25
Revised 03/2013

1250

2820

25 25

25 25

2000

2000

1570

25 25
0

25
2000

Slide 33 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM 1D TEST STRAIN RESULTS


15
CL Layer
Sample from 12 ft

CL Layer 1

S p1 H1 v1
S p1 (6 ft )(0.065)
S p1 0.39 ft
S p1 4.7in

VERTICAL STRAIN (%)

20
25
30

v1 = 6.5% = 0.065

35
40
45
50
100

Revised 03/2013

200

400

600

800

'o1

1000

'f1

2000

Vertical Effective Stress 'v (psf)


Slide 34 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

EXAMPLE: SETTLEMENT FROM 1D TEST STRAIN RESULTS


15

CL Layer 2

S p2 H 2 v2

S p2 0.14 ft
S p2 1.7in
Total Settlement

SPtotal S p1 S p2

VERTICAL STRAIN (%)

S p2 (6 ft)(0.024)

25
30
35

v2 = 2.4% = 0.024

40

SPtotal 6.4in

45

1
SPtotal 6 in
2

50

Revised 03/2013

CL Layer
Sample from 12 ft

20

'o2
100

200

400

600

800

1000

'f2

2000

Vertical Effective Stress 'v (psf)


Slide 35 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM SECONDARY CONSOLIDATION


e
C
log t2 log t1
Where:
C = Secondary Compression
Index
e = Change in Void Ratio
t = Time
Results of 1D Consolidation Test @
One Load Increment
Figure 7.15. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

Slide 36 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SETTLEMENT FROM SECONDARY CONSOLIDATION


t2
S s C H log
t1
C
C
1 ep
Where:
H = Height of Soil Layer
ep = Void Ratio @ End
of Primary Consolidation
t = Time
Results of 1D Consolidation Test @
One Load Increment
Figure 7.15. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

Slide 37 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


Theory of 1D Consolidation
(Terzaghi, 1925)
Assumptions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Clay Layer Undergoing


Consolidation

The clay-water system is homogenous.


Saturation is complete (S = 100%).
Compressibility of water is negligible.
Compressibility of soil grains is
negligible (but soil particles rearrange).
5. Flow of water is in one direction only.
6. Darcys Law is Valid.

Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).


Revised 03/2013

Slide 38 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION

Clay Layer Undergoing


Consolidation
Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

Flow of Water @ Point A


Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).
Slide 39 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


(Rate of Water Outflow)
(Rate of Water Inflow) =
(Rate of Volume Changes)
Mathematical Equation:

V
v z

dz
dxdy
v
dxdy
v

z
z
dt

or
v z
V
dxdydz
dt
z
Flow of Water @ Point A
Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).

Where:
V = Volume of Soil Element
vz = Velocity of flow in z direction

Revised 03/2013

Slide 40 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


v z
V
dxdydz
z
t

Using Darcys Law (v = ki)

v z ki k

h
k u

w z
z

Where u = excess pore pressure. From algebra:

k 2u

w z 2

1
V
dxdydz t

Rate of change in V = Rate of Change in Vv

V
V Vv Vs eVs Vs
e

Vs
e s
t
t
t
t
t
t
Flow of Water @ Point A
Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Where:
Vs = Volume of Solids
vv = Volume of Voids

Slide 41 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


From Previous Slide

V
e
V Vv Vs eVs Vs
e s
Vs

t
t
t
t
t
t
Assuming soil solids are incompressible

Vs
0
t
and

Vs

V
dxdydz

1 e o
1 eo

eo = Initial Void Ratio. Substituting:

V dxdydz e

1 e o t
t

Flow of Water @ Point A


Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Combining equations:

k 2u

w z 2

1 e
1 e o t
Slide 42 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


From Previous Slide

k 2u
1 e

w z 2 1 eo t

The change in void ratio is caused by


the increase in effective stress.
Assuming linear relationship between
the two:

e av av u

av = Coefficient of Compressibility.
Can be considered constant over
narrow pressure increases.
Combining equations:

k 2u
av u
u
m

v
w z 2
t
1 eo t
Flow of Water @ Point A
Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).

mv = Coefficient of Volume
Compressibility.

mv
Revised 03/2013

av
1 eo

Slide 43 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


From Previous Slide

k 2u
av u
u
m

v
w z 2
t
1 eo t
av = Coefficient of Compressibility.
mv = Coefficient of Volume Compressibility.

mv

av
1 eo

Rearranging Equations:

2u
u
cv 2
t
z
Flow of Water @ Point A
Figure 7.17b. Das FGE (2005).

Revised 03/2013

Where cv = Coefficient of Consolidation.

k
cv
wmv
Slide 44 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


Basic Differential Equation of 1D
Consolidation Theory

u
2u
cv 2
t
z
Can be solved with the following
boundary conditions:

z 0, u 0
z 2 H dr , u 0
t 0, u u0
The solution yields

Clay Layer Undergoing


Consolidation
Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

2uo Mz
u
sin

H dr
M
m 0

M 2Tv
e

Slide 45 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


From Previous Slide
m

2uo
Mz
u
sin

H dr
M
m 0

M 2Tv
e

Where:

2m 1

2
uo Initial excess pore water pressure

cv t
Tv 2 TIME FACTOR
H dr
Clay Layer Undergoing
Consolidation
Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

Slide 46 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION

Because consolidation progress by dissipation of


excess pore pressure, the degree of consolidation
(Uz) at a distance z at any time t is:

uo u z
uz
Uz
1
uo
uo

Clay Layer Undergoing


Consolidation
Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.18. Das FGE (2006).

Slide 47 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION

Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.18. Das FGE (2006).

Slide 48 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION

Average degree of consolidation (U) for the entire


depth of the clay layer at any time t is:

2 H dr
S
U t 1
Sp

2 H dr

u z dz
0
uo

Where:
U Average degree of Consolidation
St Settlement of layer at time t
S p Settlement of Layer from Primary Consolidation
Substituting U for u
m
2 M 2Tv
U 1
e
2
m 0 M

Clay Layer Undergoing


Consolidation
Figure 7.17a. Das FGE (2005).
Revised 03/2013

U can be approximated by the


following relationships:

For U 0% to 60%, Tv

U%

4 100
For U 60%, Tv 1.781 0.933 log(100 U %)

Slide 49 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF
CONSOLIDATION
Variation of Tv with U

Table 7.1 Das PGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

Slide 50 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


Difference between Average Degree of Consolidation and Midplane
Degree of Consolidation

Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.28. Das FGE (2006).

Slide 51 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION (cv)


Generally decreases as Liquid Limit (LL) increases.
Determined from 1D Consolidation Test Lab per Load Increment.

Logarithm of Time Method

Square Root of Time Method

(Casagrande and Fadum, 1940)

(Taylor, 1942)

Figure 7.19 Das FGE (2006).

Figure 7.20 Das FGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

Slide 52 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION (cv)


Logarithm of Time Method

1. Extend the straight line portion of primary


and secondary consolidations to interest at
Point A. Point A represents d100
(Deformation at 100% primary
consolidation).
2. The initial curved portion of the deformation
plot versus log t is approximated to be a
parabola on a natural scale. Select times t1
and t2 on the curved portion such that t2 =
4t1. Let the difference of the specimen
deformation between (t2 t1) be equal to x.

Figure 7.19. Das FGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

3. Draw a line horizontal to DE such that the


vertical distance BD is equal to x. The
deformation corresponding to the line DE is
d0 (Deformation at 0% primary
consolidation).

Slide 53 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION (cv)


Logarithm of Time Method

4. The ordinate of Point F on the consolidation


curve represents the deformation at 50%
primary consolidation (d50).
5. For 50% average degree of consolidation
(U = 50%), Tv = 0.197 (see Table 7.1, Das
FGE 2006).

T50 0.197

cv t50
2
H dr

or
2
0.197 H dr
cv
t50

Figure 7.19. Das FGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

Where:
Hdr = Average longest drain path
during consolidation.
Slide 54 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION (cv)


Square Root of Time Method

1. Draw a line AB trough the early portion


of the curve.
2. Draw a line AC such that OC = 1.15OB.
The time value for Point D (i.e. the
intersection of line AC and the data) is
the square root of time for t90 (i.e. the
time to 90% primary consolidation).
3. For 90% consolidation, Tv = 0.848 (see
Table 7.1, Das FGE 2006).

T90 0.848
Figure 7.20. Das FGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

cv t90
2
H dr

or
2
0.848H dr
cv
t90

Slide 55 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION (cv)


Example

SP FILL ( = 115 pcf)

5ft

SC ( = 115 pcf)

CL ( = 115 pcf)

SM ( = 115 pcf)

GIVEN: Soil Profile (NTS).


2 way drainage.
Revised 03/2013

3ft

4ft

6ft

REQUIRED: Determine the following:


a. The change in pore pressure in the CL layer
immediately after the application of the 3 ft
of SP Fill.
b. The degree of consolidation in the middle of
the clay layer when the excess pore
pressure (ue) is 170 psf.
c. How high would the water in a piezometer
located in the middle of the layer rise above
the GWT when ue = 170 psf?
d. If cv = 0.000004 ft/sec, how long would it
take to get to 25% average degree of
consolidation? To U = 50%? To U = 99%?
Slide 56 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

PRECOMPRESSION GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


PRECOMPRESSION: Loading an area prior to placement of the planned structural
loading to limit post-construction settlement. Also known as Surcharging.
Settlement caused by structural loading (Sp):

o
Cc H

log
Sp
1 e0
o

Settlement caused by structural loading and surcharging (Sp or Sp+f):

S p S p f

o f
Cc H
log

1 e0
o

Where:
f = Change in vertical stress due to Fill added.
Revised 03/2013

Slide 57 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

PRECOMPRESSION GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


Where:

p) = Change in vertical stress due to


structural load.
f) = Change in vertical stress due to
Fill added.

Figure 7.26. Das FGE (2006).


Revised 03/2013

Where:
Sp = Settlement due to structural load.
Sp+f = Settlement due to structural load
and Fill.
Slide 58 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

PRECOMPRESSION PLANNING
Mathematical Equations

S p Definition of average Degree of Consolidation U


U
S p
o ( p )
log

U
o ( p ) ( f )
log

( p )
log 1
o

U
( p ) ( f )
log 1

o
( p)

Substitution

Re-arranging (Eqn 7.56 Das FGE 2006)

Place in graphical form


for design use
(Figure 7.27 Das FGE 2006)

Revised 03/2013

Slide 59 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

PRECOMPRESSION
PLANNING
Where:

f) = Change in vertical stress


due to Fill added.
p) = Change in vertical stress
due to Structural Loading.
o = Initial vertical effective
stress.

Figure 7.27. Das FGE (2006).


Revised 03/2013

Slide 60 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

PRECOMPRESSION
PLANNING
STEPS:
1. Calculate primary consolidation
settlement from planned loading (Sp).
2. Calculate primary consolidation
settlement from planned loading plus
surcharge (Sp+f ).
3. Calculate average degree of
consolidation U. Note U = Sp/Sp+f.
Can also use Figure 7.27 or
Eqn 7.56 (Das FGE 2006).
1. Find Tv from calculated U. To find
time to when surcharge loading
should be removed (i.e. t2):

Revised 03/2013

2
Tv H dr
t2
cv

Figure 7.27. Das FGE (2006).


Slide 61 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


Difference between Average Degree of Consolidation and Midplane
Degree of Consolidation
Removal of Surcharge
may still cause net
settlement
(swelling near drainage
layers, settlement @
middle)
Conservative Approach:
Assume U is the midplane
degree of consolidation.
Figure 7.28. Das FGE (2006).
Revised 03/2013

Slide 62 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION


Midplane Degree
of Consolidation

Revised 03/2013

Figure 7.29. Das FGE (2006).

Slide 63 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SURCHARGING EXAMPLE
SP FILL ( = 115 pcf)

5ft

SC ( = 115 pcf)

CL ( = 115 pcf)

SM ( = 115 pcf)

3ft

4ft

6ft

REQUIRED: Determine the following:


a. If cv = 0.000004 ft/sec, how long would it
take to get to 99% average degree of
consolidation?
b. If a surcharge of 4 ft of fill was placed in
addition to the 3 ft of fill planned, when
would you be able to remove the
surcharge? Use the same value for cv
given in a.

GIVEN: Soil Profile (NTS).


2 way drainage.
Revised 03/2013

Slide 64 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


SAND DRAINS
rw = Sand Drain Radius
de = Effective Diameter

Plan View Triangular Spacing


Figure 10.38. Das PGE (2006)

Section View
Revised 03/2013

Figure 10.38. Das PGE (2006).

Reduction Drainage Path =


Reduction in Drainage Time
Slide 65 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


STEPS

SAND DRAINS

4
2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Place auger at drain location.


Screw auger to selected depth.
Rotate auger at selected depth to remove soil.
Inject sand while auger is extracted.
Complete sand drain to working platform level.

Sand Drain Installation: Auger Method

Figure 10.39. Das PGE (2006).

(Kirmani, 2004)
Revised 03/2013

Slide 66 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAINS (PVDS) (A.K.A. WICK DRAINS)

Conceptual Concept
Courtesy of www.americanwick.com

Courtesy of
www.americandrainagesystems.com

Figure 7.31. Das FGE (2006).


Revised 03/2013

Slide 67 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAINS (PVDS) (A.K.A. WICK DRAINS)

Courtesy of www.americandrainagesystems.com

Courtesy of www.nilex.com

Revised 03/2013

Courtesy of www.nilex.com

Slide 68 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


RADIAL CONSOLIDATION
Ur = Average Degree of Radial Consolidation

8Tr
U r 1 exp

Barron (1948)

n2
3n 2 1
ln( n )
m 2

4n 2
n 1
d
de = Effective Diameter
n e
rw = Sand Drain Radius
2rw
cvr t
Tr 2
de
cvr
Revised 03/2013

Plan View Sand Drain


Triangular Spacing
Figure 7.30. Das FGE (2006).

cvr = Coefficient of Radial Consolidation


Tr = Time Factor for Radial Consolidation

kh

e
(1 e ) w
o

kh = Coefficient of Horizontal Permeability


Tr = Time Factor for Radial Consolidation
eo = Initial Void Ratio
Slide 69 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF RADIAL CONSOLIDATION


Variation of Tr with U - Table 7.3 Das PGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

Slide 70 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

TIME RATE OF RADIAL CONSOLIDATION


Variation of Tr with U - Table 7.3 Das PGE (2006).

Revised 03/2013

Slide 71 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

GROUND MODIFICATION FOR CONSOLIDATION


AVERAGE DEGREE OF CONSOLIDATION DUE TO VERTICAL & RADIAL DRAINAGE

U v ,r 1 (1 U r )(1 U v )

Sand

Where:

Drain

Drainage

Clay

Uv,r = Average Degree of Consolidation


due to Vertical & Radial Drainage
Uv = Average Degree of Consolidation
due to Vertical Drainage

Sand

Ur = Average Degree of Consolidation


due to Radial Drainage

Vertical and Radial Drainage


Courtesy of www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov
Revised 03/2013

Slide 72 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

CONSOLIDATION MONITORING
SETTLEMENT PLATES
Settlement Rod
(Steel)

Fill Layer

Rod Protection
(Typically PVC Pipe)

Settlement
Plate Base
(Plywood or Steel)

Insitu Soil Layer


to be Monitored

General Concept
Revised 03/2013

Standard Plan Detail


(Courtesy of Iowa DOT)

Slide 73 of 74

14.330 SOIL MECHANICS


Consolidation

SURCHARGING INSTRUMENTATION EXAMPLE


Surcharge
Inclinometers

Settlement Platforms
Permanent Fill

Drainage
Blanket

Soft Clay
Vertical
Drain
Firm Soil
Piezometers
Revised 03/2013

Not to Scale
Courtesy of www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov

Slide 74 of 74