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{\rtf1 \ansi \deff0\deflang1033{\fonttbl{\f0\froman Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman

Dutch Text;}{\f2\froman SemiticaDict;}{\f3\froman Italian Text;}{\f4\froman Dan


ish Text;}{\f5\froman Swedish Text;}{\f6\froman Norwegian Text;}{\f7\froman Hebr
aicaII;}{\f8\froman GraecaII;}{\f9\froman TransRomanDict;}{\f10\froman SILDoulos
IPA;}{\f11\fnil Symbol;}}{\colortbl;\red255\green0\blue0;}\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs36 }\par
\pard\plain \qc \f0\fs36\lang1033 {\f0\fs96\b\caps Word}\par
\f0\fs96\b\caps\lang1033 Biblical\par
\f0\fs96\b\caps\lang1033 Commentary\par
\f0\fs96\b\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs32 Volume 33b}\par
\f0\fs32\b\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs72 Matthew 14 28}\par
\f0\fs72\b\lang1033 {\f0\fs72\caps Donald A. Hagner}\par
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs72\b\caps\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs36\lang1033 }\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb720 \f0\fs36\lang1033 {\f0\fs20\b\i
General Editors
}\par
\pard\plain \qc \f0\fs20\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs28\b\lang1033 David A. Hubbar
d\line Glenn W. Barker}{\plain\f0\fs28\super\lang1033 *{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs28\super * }{\f0\fs24 Deceased}}}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb180 \f0\fs28\b\lang1033 {\f0\fs20\i
Old Testament Editor
}\par
\pard\plain \qc \f0\fs20\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs28\b\lang1033 John D. W. Watt
s}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb180 \f0\fs28\b\lang1033 {\f0\fs20\i
New Testament Editor
}\par
\pard\plain \qc \f0\fs20\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs28\b\lang1033 Ralph P. Martin
}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb720 \sa720 \f0\fs28\b\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs36\caps\lang1033
Word Books, Publisher Dallas, Texas}\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs36\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Word Biblical Commentary
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew 14 28\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Copyright 1995 by Word, Incorporated\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 All rights reserved. No portion
of this book may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the
publisher.\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Library of Congress
Cataloging-in-Publication Data}\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs24\b\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Main entry u
nder title:}\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Word biblical commentary.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Includes bibliographies.\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 1. Bible Commentaries Collected work
s.\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 BS491.2.W67 220.7 7 81-71768\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 ISBN 0-8499-1096-X (v. 33B) AACR2\par
\pard\plain \ql \li360 \sb180 \sa720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 The author s own translatio
n of the Scripture text appears in italic type under the heading {\f0\fs24\i Tra
nslation}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs28\i To B}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb1440 \sa180 \f0\fs28\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs40\b\lang1033 Ta
ble of Contents}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \f0\fs40\b\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 }{
\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Editorial Preface}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Author s Preface}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Commentary Bibliogr
aphy}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 General Bibliograph
y}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\caps\l
ang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 Further Ministry and Confrontation with t

he Religious Authorities (14:1 16:20)}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The F
ate of John the Baptist (14:1 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Feeding of the Fi
ve Thousand (14:13 21)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Walking on the Water
(14:22 33)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Healing of the Sick:
A Summary Passage (14:34 36)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus Criticism of the
Pharisees (15:1 11)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Explanation of the Cr
iticism of the Pharisees (15:12 20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Faith of the Cana
anite Woman (15:21 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Healings on the Mount
ain (15:29 31)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Feeding of the Fo
ur Thousand (15:32 38)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Seeking of a Sign
(15:39 16:4)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Leaven of the Pha
risees and Sadducees (16:5 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Peter s Confession and
Commissioning (16:13 20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps The Turning Point: The Announcement of the Cross (16:21 17:27)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The F
irst Announcement of the Suffering and Death of the Messiah (16:21 23)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Path of Disciples
hip (16:24 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Transfiguration o
f Jesus (17:1 8)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Coming of Elijah
(17:9 13)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Healing of the Ep
ileptic Boy by Jesus after the Disciples Failure (17:14 20[21])}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Second Passion Pr
ediction (17:22 23)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Paying the Temple Tax
(17:24 27)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps The Fourth Discourse: Life in the Community of the Kingdom (18:1 35)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Great
ness in the Kingdom of Heaven (18:1 4)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Warning against Causi
ng Others or Allowing Oneself to Stumble (18:5 9)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Father s Concern Th
at No Disciple Perish (18:10 14)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Handling Matters of C
hurch Discipline (18:15 20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Necessity of Forg
iveness: The Parable of the Unforgiving Servant (18:21 35)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps On the Way to Jerusalem: Increasing Confrontation (19:1 20:34)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Begin
ning the Journey (19:1 2)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Question of Divor
ce (19:3 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus and the Little

Children (19:13 15)}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Rich Young Man (1
9:16 22)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Can the Rich Enter th
e Kingdom of Heaven? (19:23 26)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Rewards of the Di
sciples (19:27 30)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Parable of the Vi
neyard Workers (20:1 16)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Third Prediction
of Jesus Suffering and Death (20:17 19)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 A Request for Positio
ns of Honor (20:20 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps Two Blind Men Receive Their Sight (20:29 34)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 The Last
Days in Jerusalem (21:1 22:46)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The D
ramatic Entry into Jerusalem (21:1 11)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Son of David in t
he Temple (21:12 17)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Cursing of the Fi
g Tree (21:18 22)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Question about Je
sus Authority (21:23 27)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Parable of Two So
ns (21:28 32)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Parable of the Re
nted Vineyard (21:33 46)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Parable of the We
dding Banquet (22:1 14)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Tribute to Caesar? (2
2:15 22)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Whose Wife Will She B
e in the Resurrection? (22:23 33)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Which Is the Great Co
mmandment of the Law? (22:34 40)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 David s Greater Son (22
:41 46)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps Castigation of the Scribes and Pharisees (23:1 39)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The P
harisees Pride and the Disciples Humility (23:1 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps The Seven Woes against the Scribes and Pharisees (23:13 33)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Appen
dix to the Seventh Woe (23:34 36)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps The Lament over Jerusalem (23:37 39)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 The Fifth
Discourse: The Destruction of the Temple and the End of the World (24:1 25:46)}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The P
rophecy of the Destruction of the Temple and the Disciples Question (24:1 3)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Beginning of Birt
h Pangs (24:4 8)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Persecution and Procl
amation before the End (24:9 14)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Instructions to Flee
from Jerusalem (24:15 22)}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Claims of PseudoChrists and False Prophets (24:23 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Return of the Son
of Man (24:29 36)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Uncertainty concernin
g the Time of the Return of the Son of Man (24:37 44)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Faithful and Wick
ed Servants (24:45 51)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Parable of the Wi
se and Foolish Virgins (25:1 13)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Parable about Fulfill
ing Responsibility (25:14 30)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Last Judgment (25
:31 46)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps The Story of Jesus Death and Resurrection (26:1 28:20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 The P
lot to Kill Jesus Gains Momentum (26:1 5)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Anointing of Jesu
s (26:6 13)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Treachery of Juda
s (26:14 16)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Preparations for the
Passover (26:17 19)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Disclosure of the Bet
rayer (26:20 25)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Institution of the Eu
charist (26:26 30)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Prediction of the
Falling Away of the Disciples and the Denial of Peter (26:31 35)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus Struggle in Geth
semane (26:36 46)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus Taken into Cust
ody (26:47 56)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus before Caiaphas
and the Sanhedrin (26:57 68)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Peter s Denial of Jesus
(26:69 75)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\caps }{\f0\fs2
4\caps Jesus Is Handed over to Pilate (27:1 2)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs24\caps\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Judas
and the Blood Money (27:3 10)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Jesus Arraigned befor
e Pilate (27:11 14)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Decision for Bara
bbas and against Jesus (27:15 23)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Question of Guilt
in the Crucifixion of Jesus (27:24 26)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Mocking of Jesus
by the Roman Soldiers (27:27 31)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Crucifixion (27:3
2 37)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Mocking of the Crucif
ied One (27:38 44)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Death of Jesus (2
7:45 50)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Spectacular Events Fo
llowing the Death of Jesus (27:51 54)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Women at the Cros
s (27:55 56)}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Burial of Jesus (


27:57 61)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Posting of the Gu
ard at the Tomb (27:62 66)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Resurrection Narr
ative (28:1 20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Announcement of t
he Resurrection to the Women at the Tomb (28:1 7)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Appearance of the
Risen Jesus to the Women (28:8 10)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li720 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Jewish Authoritie
s Concoct a Story (28:11 15)}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The Appearance of Jesus to the Eleven in
Galilee and the Great Commission (28:16 20)}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb1440 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b Editorial Preface}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The l
aunching of the }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Word Biblical Commentary}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 brings to fulfillment an enterprise of several years planning. The
publishers and the members of the editorial board met in 1977 to explore the po
ssibility of a new commentary on the books of the Bible that would incorporate s
everal distinctive features. Prospective readers of these volumes are entitled t
o know what such features were intended to be; whether the aims of the commentar
y have been fully achieved time alone will tell.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 First, we have tried to cast a wide net
to include as contributors a number of scholars from around the world who not o
nly share our aims, but are in the main engaged in the ministry of teaching in u
niversity, college, and seminary. They represent a rich diversity of denominatio
nal allegiance. The broad stance of our contributors can rightly he called evang
elical, and this term is to be understood in its positive, historic sense of a c
ommitment to Scripture as divine revelation, and to the truth and power of the C
hristian gospel.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Then, the commentaries in our series ar
e all commissioned and written for the purpose of inclusion in the {\f0\fs24\i W
ord Biblical Commentary}{\f0\fs24 . Unlike several of our distinguished counterp
arts in the field of commentary writing, there are no translated works, original
ly written in a non-English language. Also, our commentators were asked to prepa
re their own rendering of the original biblical text and to use those languages
as the basis of their own comments and exegesis. What may be claimed as distinct
ive with this series is that it is based on the biblical languages, yet it seeks
to make the technical and scholarly approach to a theological understanding of
Scripture understandable by and useful to the fledgling student, the working ministe
r, and colleagues in the guild of professional scholars and teachers as well.}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Finally, a word must be said about the
format of the series. The layout, in clearly defined sections, has been consciou
sly devised to assist readers at different levels. Those wishing to learn about
the textual witnesses on which the translation is offered are invited to consult
the section headed {\f0\fs24\i Notes}{\f0\fs24 . If the readers concern is with
the state of modern scholarship on any given portion of Scripture, they should t
urn to the sections on }{\f0\fs24\i Bibliography}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\i For
m/Structure/Setting}{\f0\fs24 . For a clear exposition of the passage s meaning an
d its relevance to the ongoing biblical revelation, the }{\f0\fs24\i Comment}{\f
0\fs24 and concluding }{\f0\fs24\i Explanation}{\f0\fs24 are designed expressl
y to meet that need. There is therefore something for everyone who may pick up a
nd use these volumes.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 If these aims come anywhere near
realization, the intention of the editors will have been met, and the labor of
our team of contributors rewarded.\par
\pard\plain \qr \f0\fs24\lang1033 General Editors: {\f0\fs24\i David A. Hubbar
d}\par

\pard\plain \qr \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Glenn W. Barker{\f0\fs24\super *{\footnote \


pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i\super * }{\f0\fs24 Deceased}}}\par
\pard\plain \qr \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Old Testament: }{
\f0\fs24 John D. W. Watts}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 New Testament: }{\f0\
fs24 Ralph P. Martin}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb1440 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs40\b\lang1033 Author s Pr
eface}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Since
the publication of this second volume occurs nearly two full years after the fi
rst volume, a few fresh prefatory remarks are in order.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 In the preparation of this volume I hav
e severely missed the two major, multivolume Matthew commentaries that were my c
onstant companions and dialogue partners in the final stages of the preparation
of the first volume, namely that of Ulrich Luz ({\f0\fs24 chaps.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 chaps. }{\f0\fs24 chapter(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 1 7}{\f0\fs24 were available in English; }{\f0\fs24 chaps.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 chaps. }{\f0\fs24 chapter(s)}}}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8 17}{\f0\fs24 were available in German) and that of Davies and
Allison (}{\f0\fs24 chaps.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
chaps. }{\f0\fs24 chapter(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 18}{\f0\fs24 were availab
le in two volumes). On the other hand, for the passion narrative I have been gra
teful to have available the new, masterly two-volume commentary by R. E. Brown,
}{\f0\fs24\i The Death of the Messiah.}{\f0\fs24 These volumes have enriched my
study of Matthew in much the same way that Brown s comparable commentary on }{\f0
\fs24\i The Birth of the Messiah}{\f0\fs24 was an aid in the writing of the ear
ly chapters of the first volume.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Many of the persons who were thanked in
the preface to the first volume deserve thanks again here. Two new names, howev
er, deserve special mention in connection with the second volume: my doctoral st
udent, Steve Wilkinson, for superbly compiling the indexes that appear at the en
d of this volume, and also doctoral student Max Lee, for research help in the pa
ssion and resurrection narratives.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Thanks must also be given again specifi
cally to Professor Ralph P. Martin, Dr. Lynn Losie, and Ms. Melanie McQuere for
their editorial work. And again I express my admiration and thanks to the staff
of the word-processing office at Fuller Seminary, Michael Kennedy, Anne White, a
nd especially Susan Carlson Wood, who patiently and expertly put most of the pre
sent volume into its present shape.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Finally, again warm thanks are due to m
y wife, Beverly, to whom this commentary is dedicated. I am deeply grateful for
her unfailing love and support, not only during the completion of this project b
ut in all circumstances and at all times.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Well, yes, I should also like to offer
half-hearted thanks to my colleagues and friends at Fuller Seminary, who in cele
bration of the completion of the commentary prepared a mock Festschrift for me e
ntitled {\f0\fs24\i Did You Not Believe That I Would Complete It?}{\f0\fs24 in
which essays explored, among other imponderables, the problem of delay and immine
nce in the appearance of the second volume. To them and all other friendly skepti
cs I now say: O ye of little faith! }\par
\pard\plain \qr \sb120 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps Donald A. Hagner}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 July 1995, Fuller
Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb1440 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs40\b\lang1033 Commentar
y Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Albright, W.
F.,}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 and }{\f0\fs24 Mann, C. S.}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Matthew}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . AB. Garden Ci
ty, NY: Doubleday, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Allen, W. C.

}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel acco


rding to St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . 3rd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 ICC{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ICC }{\f0\
fs24 International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh/New York: Clark/Scribner s)}}}{\
f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
CBC{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 CBC }{\f0\fs24 Cambri
dge Bible Commentary}}}{\f0\fs24 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.}
\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Barclay, W.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Rev }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, editio
n(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 2 }{\f0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 . The Daily Study
Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Beare, F. W.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew: A Commentary}{\f0\fs24
. Oxford: Blackwell, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bengel, J. A
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Gnomon of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . 7th }{\f0\fs24
ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited
, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1857. 1:71 490.}\par
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 L vangile selon saint Matthieu}{\f0\fs24 . 3rd }{\f
0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24
edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 La Sainte Bible. Par
is: Letouzey et Ane}{\f0\fs24 , 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Blomberg, C.
L.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New American Commentary. Nashvil
le: Broadman, 1992.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bonnard, P.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 L Evangile selon saint Matthieu}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{
\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs2
4 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 CNT{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 CNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Commentaire du Nouveau Te
stament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Neuchatel: Delachaux & Niestl, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bruner, F. D
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Christbook: A Historical/Theological Commentary: M
atthew 1 12}{\f0\fs24 . Waco, TX: Word, 1987.}\par
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k: A Historical/Theological Commentary: Matthew 13 28}{\f0\fs24 . Dallas, TX: Word
, 1990.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Calvin, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Commentary on a Harmony of the Gospels}{\f0\fs24 . 3 }{\f
0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\
f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Reprint. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1956 57.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Carson, D. A
.}{\f0\fs24 Matthew. In }{\f0\fs24\i The Expositor s Bible Commentary}{\f0\fs24 , }
{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs
24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 F. E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zonder
van, 1985. 8:1 599.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dahl, N. A.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Matteus Evangeliet}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24 vol(
s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 vol
ume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Oslo: Univer
sitetsforlaget, 1973.}\par
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew: Readings, a New Biblical Commentary}{\f0\fs24 .


Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Bib
lical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1992.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Davies, W. D
.,}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\b Allison, D. C., Jr.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Cri
tical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to Saint Matthew}{\f0\fs
24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (1 7; 8 18). }{\f0\fs24 ICC{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ICC }{\f0\fs24 International Critical Co
mmentary (Edinburgh/New York: Clark/Scribner s)}}}{\f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: T. & T. C
lark, 1988, 1991.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Fenton, J. C
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Saint Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Pelican Commentaries. Baltim
ore: Penguin, 1964.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Filson, F. V
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Commentary on the Gospel according to St. Matthew}{\
f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BNTC{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
BNTC }{\f0\fs24 Black s New Testament Commentaries}}}{\f0\fs24 . London: A. & C. B
lack, 1960.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Fornberg, T.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Matteusevangeliet 1:1 13:52.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 KNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 KNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1
031 Kommentar till Nya Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 1A. Uppsala: EFS, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b France, R. T
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
TNTC{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TNTC }{\f0\fs24 Tynd
ale New Testament Commentaries}}}{\f0\fs24 1. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.}\pa
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\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gaechter, P.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matthus-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 Innsbruck: Ty
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B.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ur Matteusevangeliet}{\f0\fs24
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\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gnilka, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matthusevangelium}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24 vo
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olume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 HTKNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 HTKNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Neuen
Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Freiburg: Herder, 1986, 1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Green, H. B.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New Clarend
on Bible. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Grundmann, W
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium nach Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\
fs24 THKNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 THKNT }{\f0\fs2
4\lang1031 Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Berlin:
Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1968.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew: A Commentary on His Literary and Theological
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\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs2
4 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew 1 13}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 WBC{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WBC }{\f0\fs24 Word Biblical Commentary (D
allas, TX: Word)}}}{\f0\fs24 33a. Dallas: Word, 1993.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Harrington,
D. J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i Sac
Pag{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i SacPag }{\f0\fs24\i\
lang265 Sacra Pagina}}}{\f0\fs24 . Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1991.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Hendricksen,
W.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: Banner
of Truth, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Hill, D.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NCB{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NCB }{\f0\fs24 New Century Bible [Co
mmentary] (new ed.)}}}{\f0\fs24 . London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1972.}\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Klostermann,
E.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matthusevangelium}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\
fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 ed
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f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 HNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Handbuch zum Neuen Testament}
}}{\f0\fs24 . Tbingen: Mohr, 1927.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kvalbein, H.
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s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 vol
ume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Oslo: Nye Luther, 1989, 1990.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament: The Gospels
of Matthew, Mark and Luke}{\f0\fs24 . Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lagrange, M.
-J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 vangile selon Saint Matthieu}{\f0\fs24 . }{\
f0\fs24\i EBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i EBib }{\f
0\fs24\lang1036 Etudes bibliques}}}{\f0\fs24 . Paris: Gabalda, 1923.}\par
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{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 MatthusEvangelium}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SKK{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SKK }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttg
arter kleiner Kommentar}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i NT }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs
24 1. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1986.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium des Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . 4th }{\f
0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24
edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs
24 W. Schmauch. MeyerK. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967.}\par
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\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew 1 7: A Commentary}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Trans.{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Trans. }{\f0\fs24 translation/tr
ansitive}}}{\f0\fs24 W. C. Linss. Continental Commentaries. Minneapolis: Augsbu
rg, 1989.}\par
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s24 EKK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 EKK }{\f0\fs24\lan

g1031 Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Neuki


rchen-Vluyn: Benzinger & Neukirchener, 1990.}\par
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\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(
s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Bibel-Kommentar. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hnssler, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b McNeile, A. H.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i
The Gospel according to St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . London: Macmillan, 1915.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 Message 3. Wilmington, DE: Glazier, 1981.}\par
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C. G.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Synoptic Gospels}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Vol.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Vol. }{\f0\fs24 volume}}}{\
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fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 London: Macmillan, 1
927.}\par
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Pillar Commen
tary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NIBC{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NIBC }{\f0\fs24 New International Biblical C
ommentary}}}{\f0\fs24 . Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1991.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Patte, D.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to Matthew: A Structural Commentary o
n Matthew s Faith}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.}\par
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{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i An Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to St.
Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . London: Stock, 1909.}\par
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H.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 MNTC{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MNTC }{\f0\fs24 Moffatt NT C
ommentary}}}{\f0\fs24 . Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1928.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Sabourin, L.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to St Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\
fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0
\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Bombay: St Paul, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Sand, A.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium nach Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
RNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 RNT }{\f1\fs24\lang104
3 Regensburger Neues Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Regensburg: Pustet, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schlatter, A
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Der Evangelist Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\f
s24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edi
ted, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Stuttgart: Calwer, 1933.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schmid, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium nach Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs2
4 RNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 RNT }{\f1\fs24\lang1
043 Regensburger Neues Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Regensburg: Pustet, 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schnackenbur
g, R.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Matthusevangelium}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24
vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24
volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Die neue echter Bibel}{\f0\fs24 . Wrz
burg: Echter, 1985, 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schniewind,
J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium nach Matthaus}{\f0\fs24 . 8th
}{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\
fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i NTD{\footnote \pard\pl

ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i NTD }{\f1\fs24\lang1043 Das Neue Testament


Deutsch}}}{\f0\fs24 . Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1956.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schweizer, E
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Good News according to Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Atlanta
: John Knox, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Smith, R. H.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 ACNT{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ACNT }{\f0\fs24 Augsburg Commentary on the Ne
w Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 . Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Stendahl, K.
}{\f0\fs24
Matthew. In }{\f0\fs24\i Peake s Commentary on the Bible}{\f0\fs24 , }{\
f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24
edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 M. Black and H. H. Rowley. Rev }{\f0\fs
24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edit
ed, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 New York: Nelson, 1962. 769 98.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Strack, H. L
.,}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\b Billerbeck, P.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 K
ommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch}{\f0\fs24 . 4 }{\f0\fs24 vo
l(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 v
olume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 3rd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Munich: Be
ck, 1951 56.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Tasker, R. V
. G.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\
f0\fs24 TNTC{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TNTC }{\f0\fs
24 Tyndale New Testament Commentaries}}}{\f0\fs24 . London: Tyndale, 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Trilling, W.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel according to St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New Yor
k: Herder & Herder, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Viviano, B.
T.}{\f0\fs24
The Gospel according to Matthew. In }{\f0\fs24\i The Jerome Biblical
Commentary}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 R. E. Brown,
J. A. Fitzmyer, and R. E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. 63
0 74.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Weiss, B.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matthus-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 . 9th }{\f0\fs24
ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited,
edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1898.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Zahn, T.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1
031 Das Evangelium des Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{
\f0\fs24 Leipzig: Deichert, 1903.}\par
\pard\plain \qc \sb1440 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b General Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Abrahams, I.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Studies in Pharisaism and
the Gospels}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . 2 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vol(s).{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1917, 1924.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Albertz, M.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die synoptischen Streitgesprche}{\f0\fs24 . Berl
in: Trowitzsch, 1921.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Allison, D.
C., Jr.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The End of the Ages Has Come: An Early Interpret
ation of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortres
s, 1985.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Alsup, J. E.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Post-Resurrection Appearance Stories of the Gospel
Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . Stuttgart: Calwer, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Arens, E.}{\

f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 HLQON}{\f0\fs24\i -Sayings in the


Synoptic Tradition: A Historico-Critical Investigation}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 OB
O{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OBO }{\f0\fs24\lang265 O
rbis biblicus et orientalis}{\f0\fs24 (Freiburg [Sw]/Gttingen: Universittsverlag/
Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 10. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Aune, D. E.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterra
nean World}{\f0\fs24 . Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Baarlink, H.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Eschatologie der synoptischen Evangelien}{
\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BWANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 BWANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testamen
t}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart:Kolhammer)}}}{\f0\fs24 120. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1986
.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bacon, B. W.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Studies in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Holt, 1930.}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Balch, D. L.
,}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Social His
tory of the Matthean Community: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches}{\f0\fs24 . Minnea
polis: Fortress, 1991.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Baltensweile
r, H.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Verklrung Jesu}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
ATANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ATANT }{\f0\fs24\lan
g1031 Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments}}}{\f0\fs24 33.
Zrich: Zwingli, 1959.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Banks, R.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the Law in the Synoptic Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . }{
\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SNTSMS }{\
f0\fs24 Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 28. Camb
ridge: Cambridge University, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Barrett, C.
K.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Tradition}{\f0\fs24 .
London: }{\f0\fs24 SPCK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SP
CK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1
966.}\par
. {\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
Gospel Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Barth, G.}{\
f0\fs24 Matthew s Understanding of the Law. In }{\f0\fs24\i Tradition and Interpret
ation in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 G. Born
kamm }{\f0\fs24 et al.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 et
al. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 et alii}{\f0\fs24 , and others}}}{\f0\fs24 Philadelphi
a: Westminster, 1963. 58 164.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bauer, D. R.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Structure of Matthew s Gospel: A Study in Literary De
sign}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}{\
f0\fs24 Supplement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 31. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for t
he Study of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1988.}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bayer, H. F.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus Predictions of Vindication and Resurrection}{\f0\f
s24 . }{\f0\fs24 WUNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WUNT
}{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\f
s24 (Tbingen: Mohr)}}}{\f0\fs24 2.20. Tbingen: Mohr, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Beasley-Murr

ay, G. R.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the Kingdom of God}{\f0\fs24 . Grand


Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the
Last Days: The Interpretation of the Olivet Discourse}{\f0\fs24 . Peabody, MA:
Hendrickson, 1993.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Benoit, P.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Passion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ}{\f0\fs24 .
New York: Herder & Herder, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Berger, K.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Amen-Worte Jesu: Eine Untersuchung zum Probl
em der Legitimation in apokalyptischer Rede}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BZNW{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BZNW }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beihefte
zur }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}{\f0\
fs24\lang1031 [ZNW]}}}{\f0\fs24 39. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die
Gesetzesauslegung Jesu: Ihr historischer Hintergrund im Judentum und im Alten Te
stament: Teil I. Markus und Parallelen}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 WMANT{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WMANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wissenschaft
liche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Neukirchen: Neukirc
hener)}}}{\f0\fs24 40. NeukirchenVluyn: Neukirchener, 1972.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Betz, O.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus: Der Messias Israels}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 WUNT{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WUNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wisse
nschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Tbingen: Mohr)}}}{\f0
\fs24 42. Tbingen: Mohr, 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
and {\f0\fs24\b Grimm, W.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Wesen und Wirklichkeit der Wunder Jesu}{\f0\fs2
4 . Frankfurt: Lang, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Black, M.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i An Aramaic Approach to the Gospels and Acts}{\f0\fs24 . 3r
d }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0
\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Oxford: Clarendon, 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Blass, F., D
ebrunner, A.,}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\b Funk, R. W.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A
Greek Grammar of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . Chicago: University of Chicago Pr
ess, 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Blair, E. P.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Nashville: A
bingdon, 1960.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Blomberg, C.
L.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Interpreting the Parables}{\f0\fs24 . Downers Grove,
IL: InterVarsity, 1990.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bcher, O.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Christus Exorcista}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BWANT{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BWANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur
Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart:Kolhammer)}}}{\
f0\fs24 90. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1972.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Borgen, P.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Paul Preaches Circumcision and Pleases Men and Other Essa
ys on Christian Origins}{\f0\fs24 . Trondheim: Tapir, University of Trondheim, 1
983.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Boring, M. E
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Sayings of the Risen Jesus: Christian Prophecy in the
Synoptic Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for New Testament Studies Monog
raph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 46. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bornkamm, G.
}{\f0\fs24 The Authority to Bind and Loose in the Church in Matthew s Gospel. In }{\f0
fs24\i The Interpretation of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}

}}{\f0\fs24 G. Stanton. Philadelphia/London: }{\f0\fs24 SPCK{\footnote \pard\pl


ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation
of Christian Knowledge}}}{\f0\fs24 /Fortress, 1983. 85 97.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. End-Expectation and Church
in Matthew. In {\f0\fs24\i Tradition and Interpretation in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }
{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs
24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 G. Bornkamm }{\f0\fs24 et al.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 et al. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 et al
ii}{\f0\fs24 , and others}}}{\f0\fs24 Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963. 15 51.}\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bornkamm, G.
, Barth, G.,}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\b Held, H. J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Tra
dition and Interpretation in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963
.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Brandenburge
r, E.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Recht des Weltrichters: Untersuchung
zu Matthus 25, 31 46}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttgarter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (
Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echter/KBW)}}}{\f0\fs24 99. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwe
rk, 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bratcher, R.
G.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Translator s Guide to the Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs2
4 . New York: United Bible Societies, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Braun, H.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Qumran und das Neue Testament}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0
\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f
0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Tbingen: Mohr, 1966.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Broer, I.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Freiheit vom Gesetz und Radikalisierung des Geset
zes: Ein Beitrag zur Theologie des Evangelisten Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SB
S{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031
Stuttgarter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echter/KBW)}}}{\f0\fs24
98. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Brooks, S. H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew s Community: The Evidence of His Special Sayings
Material}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testame
nt}{\f0\fs24 Supplement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 16. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal
for the Study of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 198
7.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Brown, R. E.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i T
he Birth of the Messiah}{\f0\fs24 . Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i The Gospel ac
cording to John}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 AB. }{\f0\fs24
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i New Testament
Essays}{\f0\fs24 . Milwaukee: Bruce, 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i The Virginal
Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Paulist, 1973.
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
, {\f0\fs24\b K. P. Donfrie
d, J. A. Fitzmyer, and J. Reumann,}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 ed(s).{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed(s). }{\f0\fs24 editor(s), edited by; ed
ition}}}{\f0\fs24 Mary in the New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
, {\f0\fs24\b K. P. Donfrie
d,}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24\b J. Reumann,}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 ed(s).{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed(s). }{\f0\fs24 editor(s), edite

d by; edition}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Peter in the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . M


inneapolis: Augsburg, 1973.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Bultmann, R.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i History of the Synoptic Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0
\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 e
dited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Oxford: Blackwell, 1968.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Burger, C.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus als Davidssohn}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 FRLANT{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FRLANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Forsc
hungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments}{\f0\fs24 (Gtti
ngen: Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 98. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Burnett, F.
E.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Testament of Jesus-Sophia: A Redaction-Critical S
tudy of the Eschatological Discourse in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Washington, DC: Univ
ersity Press of America, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Butler, B. C
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Originality of St. Matthew: A Critique of the Two
Document Hypothesis}{\f0\fs24 . Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1951.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Caird, G. B.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Language and Imagery of the Bible}{\f0\fs24 . Phila
delphia: Westminster, 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Caragounis,
C. C.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Peter and the Rock}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BZNW{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BZNW }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beih
efte zur }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}
{\f0\fs24\lang1031 [ZNW]}}}{\f0\fs24 58. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Carlston, C.
E.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Parables of the Triple Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . Phi
ladelphia: Fortress, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Chilton, B.
D.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i God in Strength: Jesus Announcement of the Kingdom}{\f
0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTUMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
SNTUMS }{\f0\fs24 SNTU Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 B.1. Freistadt: Plchl, 1979
.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Cope, O. L.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew: A Scribe Trained for the Kingdom of Heaven}{\f0
\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 CBQMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C
BQMS }{\f0\fs24 Catholic Bible Quarterly Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 5. Washingt
on, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1976.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Crossan, J.
D.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i In Fragments: The Aphorisms of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . San
Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983.}\par
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. {\f0\fs24\i In Parables:
The Challenge of the Historical Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.}
\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Cullmann, O.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\
fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 ed
ited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dahl, N. A.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus the Christ: The Historical Origins of Christologic
al Doctrine}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 Ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 D. H. Juel.
Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dalman, G.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus-Jeshua: Studies in the Gospels}{\f0\fs24 . 1929. Ne
w York: Ktav, 1971.}\par
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. {\f0\fs24\i The Words of
Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Danby, H.}{\

f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Mishnah}{\f0\fs24 . Oxford: Oxford University, 1933.}\


par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Daube, D.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism}{\f0\fs24 . London:
Athlone, 1956.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Davies, W. D
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount}{\f0\fs24 . Cam
bridge: Cambridge University, 1966.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Davison, J.
E.}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24\i Anomia}{\f0\fs24 and the Question of an Antinomian Po
lemic in Matthew. }{\f0\fs24\i JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\f0\fs24 104 (1985
) 617 35.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Deutsch, C.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Hidden Wisdom and the Easy Yoke: Wisdom, Torah and Disci
pleship in Matthew 11.25 30}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of
the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 Supplement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 18. Sheffield: }{\f
0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0
\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}
}{\f0\fs24 , 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dibelius, M.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i From Tradition to Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Scribner
, 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Didier, M.,}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 L vang
ile selon Matthieu: Rdaction et thologie}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BETL{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Bibliotheca eph
emeridum theologicarum lovaniensium}{\f0\fs24 (Leuven/Gembloux: Leuven UP/Peete
rs)}}}{\f0\fs24 29.Gembloux: Duculot, 1972.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dobschtz, E.
von.}{\f0\fs24 Matthew as Rabbi and Catechist. In }{\f0\fs24\i The Interpretation
of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 G. Stanton.
Philadelphia/London: Fortress/}{\f0\fs24 SPCK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation of Christian Kno
wledge}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1983. 85 97.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dodd, C. H.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Parables of the Kingdom}{\f0\fs24 . London: Nisbet,
1935/New York: Scribners, 1936.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Donaldson, T
. L.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus on the Mountain: A Study in Matthean Theology
}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}{\f0\f
s24 Supplement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 8. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the St
udy of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1985.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Dupont, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Les Batitudes: I. Le problme litteraire; II. La bon
ne nouvelle; III. Les vangelistes}{\f0\fs24 . Paris: Gabalda, 1958, 1969, 1973.}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Edwards, J.
R.}{\f0\fs24
The Use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 PROSERCESQAI}{\f0\fs24 in the Gospe
l of Matthew. }{\f0\fs24\i JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\f0\fs24 106 (1987) 65 7
4.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Edwards, R.
A.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew s Story of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fort
ress, 1985.}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ellis, P. F.


}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew: His Mind and His Message}{\f0\fs24 . Collegevi
lle, MN: Liturgical, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Feldmeier, R
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Krisis des Gottessohnes}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0
\fs24 WUNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WUNT }{\f0\fs24
\lang1031 Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Tbinge
n: Mohr)}}}{\f0\fs24 2.21. Tbingen: Mohr, 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Fiedler, M.
J.}{\f0\fs24
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{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Theologische Versuche}{\f0\fs24 8 (1977) 63 75.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Fitzmyer, J.
A.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testamen
t}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLSBS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 SBLSBS }{\f0\fs24 SBL Sources for Biblical Study}}}{\f0\fs24 5. Missoula,
}{\f0\fs24 MT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MT }{\f0\fs
24 The Masoretic Text [of the Old Testament] (as published in BHS)}}}{\f0\fs24 :
Scholars, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i A Wandering A
ramean}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 SBLMS }{\f0\fs24 Society of Biblical Literature [SBL] Monograph Series
}}}{\f0\fs24 25. Missoula, }{\f0\fs24 MT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 MT }{\f0\fs24 The Masoretic Text [of the Old Testament] (as publ
ished in BHS)}}}{\f0\fs24 : Scholars, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ford, D.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Abomination of Desolation in Biblical Eschatology}{\f0\
fs24 . Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b France, R. T
.}{\f0\fs24 Jesus and the Old Testament. London: Tyndale, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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gelist and Teacher}{\f0\fs24 . Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Frankemlle, H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Amtskritik im Matthus-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 ? }{\f0
\fs24\i Bib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Bib }{\f0\fs
24\i\lang265 Biblica}}}{\f0\fs24 54 (1973) 247 62.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Jahw
ebund und Kirche Christi}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NTAbh{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NTAbh }{\f1\fs24\lang1043 Neutestamentliche Abhandlu
ngen}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 ns{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 ns }{\f0\fs24 new series}}}{\f0\fs24 10. Mnster: Aschendorff, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Freyne, S.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Galilee, Jesus and the Gospels: Literary Approaches and H
istorical Investigations}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Fuller, R. H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Interpreting the Miracles}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: We
stminster, 1963.}\par
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. {\f0\fs24\i The Mission a
nd Achievement of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBT }{\f0\fs24 Studies in Biblical Theology (London/Nap
erville, IL: SCM/Allenson)}}}{\f0\fs24 1.12. London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Move
ment}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gaechter, P.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die literarische Kunst im Matthusevangelium}{\f
0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SB
S }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttgarter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: E
chter/KBW)}}}{\f0\fs24 7. Stuttgart: }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Katholisches Bibelwerk
}{\f0\fs24 , 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gerhardsson,
B.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 ConBNT{\

footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ConBNT }{\f0\fs24 Coniectan


ea biblica, New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 15. Malm: Gleerup, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\lang1031 Gottes
Sohn als Diener Gottes: Agape und Himmelsherrschaft nach dem Matthusevangelium}{\
f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i ST{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i
ST }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Studia theologica}}}{\f0\fs24 27 (1973) 25 50.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033
.
{\f0\fs24\lang1031 An ihren Frchten sollt ihr sie erke
nnen : Die Legitimittsfrage in der matthischen Christologie}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i
EvT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i EvT }{\f0\fs24\lang1
031 Evangelische Theologie}}}{\f0\fs24 42 (1982) 113 26.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i Memory and Ma
nuscript}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Tr.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 Tr. }{\f0\fs24 translation, translator(s), translated by, transpose(s)
}}}{\f0\fs24 E. }{\f0\fs24 J. Sharpe. }{\f0\fs24 ASNU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ASNU }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Acta seminarii neotestament
ici upsaliensis}}}{\f0\fs24 22. Lund: Gleerup, 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i The Mighty Ac
ts of Jesus according to the Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Lund: Gleerup, 1979.}
\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i Tradition and
Transmission in Early Christianity}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 ConBNT{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ConBNT }{\f0\fs24 Coniectanea biblica, N
ew Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 20. Lund: Gleerup, 1964.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Giesen, H.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Christliches Handeln: Eine redaktionskritische U
ntersuchung zum dikaiosuvnh-Begriff im Matthus-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 Frankfurt am
Main: Lang, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Goulder, M.D
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Midrash and Lection in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . London: }{\
f0\fs24 SPCK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs
24 Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Grsser, E.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Problem der Parusieverzgerung in den synoptisc
hen Evangelien und in der Apostelgeschichte}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(
s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 BZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 BZNW }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beihefte zur }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitsc
hrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}{\f0\fs24\lang1031 [ZNW]}}}{\f0\fs24
22. Berlin: Tpelmann, 1966.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gray, S. W.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Least of My Brothers: Matthew 25:31 46: A History of I
nterpretation}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLDS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 SBLDS }{\f0\fs24 Society of Biblical Literature [SBL] Dissertat
ion Series}}}{\f0\fs24 114. Atlanta: Scholars, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Green, J. B.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Death of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 WUNT{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WUNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wissensch
aftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Tbingen: Mohr)}}}{\f0\fs2
4 2.33. Tbingen: Mohr, 1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Gundry, R. H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Use of the Old Testament in St. Matthew s Gospel}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 NovTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
NovTSup }{\f0\fs24 Supplement(s) to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\
f0\fs24 18. Leiden: Brill, 1967.}\par
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nuity. }{\f0\fs24\i HBT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i H
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edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24 et al.{\footno
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f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\f0\fs24
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aige. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
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) to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs24 34. Leiden: Brill, 1973
.}\par
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0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Titles of Jesus in Christology}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Wo
rld, 1969.}\par
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A.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Theme of Jewish Persecution of Christians in the
Gospel according to St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for New Testament
Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1967.}
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D. J.}{\f0\fs24 Matthean Studies Since Joachim Rohde. }{\f0\fs24\i HeyJ{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i HeyJ }{\f0\fs24\i Heythrop Journa
l}}}{\f0\fs24 16 (1975) 375 88.}\par
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{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Prophecy Interpreted}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 ConBNT{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ConBNT }{\f0\fs24 Coniectanea b
iblica, New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 1. Lund: Gleerup, 1966.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the Constraints of History}{\f0\fs24 . Phila
delphia: Westminster, 1982.}\par
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Amen}{\f0\fs24 . Zrich: Gotthelf, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Heil, J.P.}{
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Reading of Matthew 26 28}{\f0\fs24 . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.}\par
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{\f0\fs24 Matthew as Interpreter of the Miracle Stories. }{\f0\fs24\i In Traditio
n and Interpretation in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain
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3 {\f0\fs24 et al. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 et alii}{\f0\fs24 , and others}}}{\f0\fs
24 Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963. 165299.}\par
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par
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ic Leader and His Followers}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Crossroad, 1981.}\par


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g1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortres
s, 1981.}\par
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\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Hill, D.}{\f
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24\i IBS }{\f0\fs24\i Irish Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 1 (1979) 139 49.}\par
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on Matthean Christology. JSNT 6 (1980) 2 16.\par
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ament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University,
1972.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zur Theologie der Logienquelle}{\f0\fs
24 . Mnster: Aschendorf, 1972.}\par
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pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), ed
itor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Orientierung an Jesus: Zur Theologie der
Synoptiker.}{\f0\fs24 Freiburg: Herder, 1973.}\par
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L.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Backward into Light: The Passion and Resurrection of
Jesus according to Matthew and Mark}{\f0\fs24 . London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Mo
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J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commi
ssioning: An Exegesis of Matthew 28:16 20}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLDS{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBLDS }{\f0\fs24 Society of Biblical
Literature [SBL] Dissertation Series}}}{\f0\fs24 19. Missoula, }{\f0\fs24 MT{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MT }{\f0\fs24 The Masoretic
Text [of the Old Testament] (as published in BHS)}}}{\f0\fs24 Scholars, 1974.}\
par
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0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Gesetz in der synoptischen Tradition}{\f0\fs24
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Auseinandersetzung zwischen Kirche und Judent
um im Matthusevangelium}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs2
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\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur evangelischen Theologie}}}{\f0\fs24 33. Munich: Ka
iser, 1966.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Humphrey, H.
M.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Relationship of Structure and Christology in the
Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Fordham, 1977. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Iersel, B. M
. F. van.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Der Sohn in den synoptischen Jesusworte

n}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f


0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 NovTSup
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NovTSup }{\f0\fs24 Supple
ment(s) to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs24 3. Leiden: Brill,
1964.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Abba.}{\f0\fs24 Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprec
ht, 1966.}\par
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ic Words of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24
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the Time of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . 3rd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Lo
ndon: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }
{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i Jesus Promise
to the Nations}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 SBT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBT }{\f0\fs24 S
tudies in Biblical Theology (London/Naperville, IL: SCM/Allenson)}}}{\f0\fs24 1
.24. London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i New Testament
Theology: The Proclamation of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Macmillan, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Scribner, 1972. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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f Jesus<}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Johnson, M.D
.}{\f0\fs24 Reflections on a Wisdom Approach to Matthew s Christology. }{\f0\fs24\i
CBQ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i CBQ }{\f0\fs24\i Ca
tholic Biblical Quarterly}}}{\f0\fs24 36 (1974) 44 64.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Juel, D.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Messiah and Temple}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLDS{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBLDS }{\f0\fs24 Society of Biblical
Literature [SBL] Dissertation Series}}}{\f0\fs24 31. Missoula, }{\f0\fs24 MT{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MT }{\f0\fs24 The Masoretic
Text [of the Old Testament] (as published in BHS)}}}{\f0\fs24 : Scholars, 1977.}
\par
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gesis}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Jlicher, A.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lan
g1031 Die Gleichnisreden Jesu}{\f0\fs24 . 2 }{\f0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 2
nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f
0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Tbingen: Mohr, 1911.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ksemann, E.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i New Testament Questions of Today}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 P
hiladelphia: Fortress, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kertelge, K.
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 De
r Tod Jesu}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 QD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 QD }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Quaestioned disputatae}}}{\f0\fs24 74. Freibur
g: Herder, 1976.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kilpatrick,
G. D.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Origins of the Gospel according to St. Matthew

}{\f0\fs24 . Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kingsbury, J
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Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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fs24 . Proclamation Commentaries. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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ory}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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cture, Christology, Kingdom}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i The Parables
of Jesus in Matthew 13}{\f0\fs24 . Richmond: John Knox, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. The Title Kyrios in Matthew s
Gospel. {\f0\fs24\i JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i J
BL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\f0\fs24 94 (1975) 246 55.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. The Title Son of God in Matt
hew s Gospel. {\f0\fs24\i BTB{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\i BTB }{\f0\fs24\i Biblical Theology Bulletin}}}{\f0\fs24 5 (1975) 3 31.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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tthew s Gospel. {\f0\fs24\i JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\f0\fs24 95 (1976) 591 60
2.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Klauck, H.-J
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Allegorie und Allegorese in synoptischen Glei
chnistexten}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Mnster: Aschendorff}{\f0\fs24 , 1978.
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kratz, R.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Auferweckung als Befreiung: Eine Studie zur Passi
ons- und Auferstehungstheologie des Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBS{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttgarter
Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echter/KBW)}}}{\f0\fs24 65. Stuttg
art: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1973.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kretzer, A.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Herrschaft der Himmel und die Shne des Reich
es}{\f0\fs24 . SBM 10. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kruijf, T. d
e.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Der Sohn des lebendigen Gottes}{\f0\fs24 . }
{\f0\fs24 AnBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 AnBib }{\f
3\fs24\lang1040 Analecta biblica}{\f0\fs24 (Rome: PBI)}}}{\f0\fs24 14. Rome: B
iblical Institute, 1962.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kmmel, W. G.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Promise and Fulfilment}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBT{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBT }{\f0\fs24 Studies in Biblic
al Theology (London/Naperville, IL: SCM/Allenson)}}}{\f0\fs24 23. London: }{\f0
\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 S
tudent Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Knzel, G.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zum Gemeindeverstndnis des Matthus-Evangeliu
ms.}{\f0\fs24 Stuttgart: Calwer, 1978.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kunzi, M.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Naherwartungslogion Markus}{\f0\fs24 9, 1 }{
\f0\fs24 par.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 par. }{\f0\f
s24 parallel or paragraph}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 BGBE{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BGBE }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur Geschichte der
biblischen Exegese}}}{\f0\fs24 21. Tbingen: Mohr, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Kynes, W. L.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Christology of Solidarity: Jesus as the Representativ
e of His People in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Lanham, MD: University Press of America,
1991.}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ladd, G. E.}


{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Presence of the Future}{\f0\fs24 . Grand Rapids: Eer
dmans, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lange, J.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Erscheinen des Auferstandenen im Evangelium n
ach Matths.}{\f0\fs24 Wrzburg: Echter, 1973.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
, {\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), ed
itor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matths-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 . Wege de
r Forschung 525. Darmstadt: }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellscha
ft}{\f0\fs24 , 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lee, M. Y.-H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Jesus und die jdische Autoritt}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f
0\fs24 FB{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FB }{\f0\fs24\la
ng1031 Forschung zur Bibel}}}{\f0\fs24 56. Wzburg: Echter, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lentzen-Deis
, F.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Taufe Jesu nach den Synoptikern}{\f0\f
s24 . }{\f0\fs24 FTS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FTS }
{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Frankfurter Theologische Studien}}}{\f0\fs24 4. Frankfurt: K
necht, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ln-Dufour, X.
}{\f0\fs24 tudes d angile. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Levine, A. J
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Social and Ethnic Dimensions of Matthean Salvation
History: Go nowhere among the Gentiles
(Matt 10:5b)}{\f0\fs24 . Lewiston, NY: Me
llen, 1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lindars, B.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i New Testament Apologetic}{\f0\fs24 . London: }{\f0\fs24
SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student
Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Linnemann, E
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zur Passionsgeschichte}{\f0\fs24 . }{
\f0\fs24 FRLANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FRLANT }{\
f0\fs24\lang1031 Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Test
aments}{\f0\fs24 (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 102. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht, 1970.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ljungman, H.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Gesetz erflen}{\f0\fs24 . Lund: Gleerup, 19
54.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lohse, E.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i History of the Suffering and Death of Jesus Christ}{\f0\fs
24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Loos, H. van
der.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Miracles of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NovTS
up{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NovTSup }{\f0\fs24 Supp
lement(s) to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs24 8. Leiden: Bril
l, 1965.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Lhrmann, D.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Redaktion der Logienquelle}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0
\fs24 WMANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WMANT }{\f0\fs
24\lang1031 Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs
24 (Neukirchen: Neukirchener)}}}{\f0\fs24 33. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener,
1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Luz, U.}{\f0
\fs24 The Disciples in the Gospel according to Matthew. In }{\f0\fs24\i The Inter
pretation of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 G.
Stanton. Philadelphia/London: Fortress/}{\f0\fs24 SPCK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation of Chri
stian Knowledge}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1983. 98 128.}\par

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. {\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die E
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ift fr Theologie und Kirche}}}{\f0\fs24 75 (1978) 398 435.}\par
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undergeschichten von}{\f0\fs24 Mt 8 9. In }{\f0\fs24\i Tradition and Interpretatio
n in the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume wri
tten in honor of}}}{\f0\fs24 E. E. Ellis, }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0
\fs24 G. F. Hawthorne and O. Betz. Grand Rapids/Tbingen: Eerdmans/Mohr, 1987. 14
9 65.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Malina, B. J
.}{\f0\fs24 , and }{\f0\fs24\b Neyrey, J. H.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Calling Jes
us Names: The Social Value of Labels in Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Sonoma, CA: Polebrid
ge, 1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Manson, T. W
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Sayings of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, editi
on(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24 ,
1949.}\par
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essiah}{\f0\fs24 . Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1953.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
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of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . 2nd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Cambridge:
Cambridge University, 1935.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Marcus, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Mystery of the Kingdom of God}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
SBLDS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBLDS }{\f0\fs24 Soc
iety of Biblical Literature [SBL] Dissertation Series}}}{\f0\fs24 90. Atlanta:
Scholars, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Marguerat, D
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Le Jugement dans l vangile de Matthieu}{\f0\fs24 .
Geneva: ditions Labor et Fides, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Martin, R. P
.}{\f0\fs24 St. Matthew s Gospel in Recent Study. }{\f0\fs24\i ExpTim{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Ti
mes}}}{\f0\fs24 80 (1968 69) 132 36.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Massaux, E.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew in the Chri
stian Literature before Saint Irenaeus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Tr.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Tr. }{\f0\fs24 translation, translator(s
), translated by, transpose(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 N. J. Belval and S. Hecht. }{\f0\fs2
4 Ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Ed. }{\f0\fs24 edite
d, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 A. J. Bellinzoni. 2 vols. New Gospel Studies
5.1 2. Leuven/Macon, GA: Peters/ Mercer, 1990, 1992.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Matera, F.J.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Passion Narratives and Gospel Theologies}{\f0\fs24 . Ne
w York: Paulist, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b McConnell, R
. S.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Law and Prophecy in Matthew s Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . Base
l: Reinhardt, 1969.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b McGuckin, J.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Transfiguration of Christ in Scripture and Traditio
n}{\f0\fs24 . Lewiston, NY Mellen, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Meier, J.P.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Law and History in Matthew s Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
AnBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 AnBib }{\f3\fs24\la

ng1040 Analecta biblica}{\f0\fs24 (Rome: PBI)}}}{\f0\fs24 71. Rome: Biblical I


nstitute, 1976.}\par
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. {\f0\fs24\i The Vision of
Matthew: Christ, Church and Morality in the First Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . New York:
Paulist, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Merklein, H.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Jesu Botschaft von der Gottesherrschaft}{\f0\f
s24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBS }
{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttgarter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echt
er/KBW)}}}{\f0\fs24 11. Stuttgart: }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Katholisches Bibelwerk}{
\f0\fs24 , 1983.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Metzger, B.
M.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testment}{\f0\f
s24 . New York: United Bible Societies, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Meyer, B. F.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i T
he Aims of Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Movement}}}{\f0\fs24
, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Minear, P. S
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Commands of Christ}{\f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: St. Andrew,
1972.}\par
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. {\f0\fs24\i Matthew: The
Teacher s Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . New York: Pilgrim, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moffatt, J.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament}{
\f0\fs24 . 3rd }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 New York: Scribner s, 1
922.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Mohrlang, R.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew and Paul: A Comparison of Ethical Perspectives}
{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\
fs24 48. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1984.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Montefiore,
C. G.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Rabbinic Literature and Gospel Teachings}{\f0\fs24
. London: Macmillan, 1930.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moo, D. J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Old Testament in the Gospel Passion Narratives}{\f0\f
s24 . Sheffield: Almond, 1983.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moore, A. L.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Parousia in the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs2
4 NovTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NovTSup }{\f0\fs
24 Supplement(s) to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs24 13. Leid
en: Brill, 1966.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moore, G. F.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era}{\f
0\fs24 . 3 }{\f0\fs24 vol(s).{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 Cambridge, MA: Harvard University,
1955 58.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moore, S. D.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Literary Criticism and the Gospels: The Theoretical Cha
llenge}{\f0\fs24 . New Haven: Yale, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Moule, C. F.
D.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Essays in New Testament Interpretation}{\f0\fs24 . C
ambridge: Cambridge University, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033
. {\f0\fs24\i The Phenomeno
n of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SBT }{\f0\fs24 Studies in Biblical Theology (London/Nape
rville, IL: SCM/Allenson)}}}{\f0\fs24 2.1. London: }{\f0\fs24 SCM{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SCM }{\f0\fs24 Student Christian Moveme

nt}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Neirynck, F.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Minor Agreements of Matthew and Luke against Mark}{
\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
BETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium}{\f0
\fs24 (Leuven/Gembloux: Leuven UP/Peeters)}}}{\f0\fs24 37. Louvain: Louvain Un
iversity, 1974. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Nepper-Chris
tensen, P.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Matthausevangelium: Ein judenchr
istliches Evangelium?}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Aarhus: Universitetsforlage
t}{\f0\fs24 , 1954.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Newman, B. M
.}{\f0\fs24 , and }{\f0\fs24\b Stine, P. C.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Translator s
Handbook on the Gospel of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . New York: United Bible Societies,
1988.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Nissen, A.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Gott und der Nchste im antiken Judentum}{\f0\fs24
. WUNT 15. Tbingen: Mohr, 1974.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Nolan, B.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Royal Son of God: The Christology of Mt 1 2}{\f0\fs24 .
}{\f0\fs24 OBO{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OBO }{\f0\f
s24\lang265 Orbis biblicus et orientalis}{\f0\fs24 (Freiburg [Sw]/Gttingen: Univ
ersittsverlag/Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 23. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979
.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ogawa, A.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 L histoire de Jsus chez Matthieu: La signification d
e l histoire pour la thologie matthenne}{\f0\fs24 . Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1979.}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Orton, D. E.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Understanding Scribe and the Apocalyptic Ideal}{\f0
\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24
Supplement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 25. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study
of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Overman, J.
A.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Matthew and Formative Judaism: A Study
of the Social World of the Matthean Community}{\f0\fs24 . Minneapolis: Fortress,
1990.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Percy, R.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Botschaft Jesu}{\f0\fs24 . Lund: Gleerup, 195
3.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Pesch, R.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Jesu ureigene Taten?}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 QD{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 QD }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Quaesti
oned disputatae}}}{\f0\fs24 52. Freiburg: Herder, 1970.}\par
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rwartungen: Tradition und Redaktion}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i in Mk 13}{\f0\fs24 .
Dsseldorf: Patmos, 1968.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Piper, J.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Love Your Enemies. 4}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for New Tes
tament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 38. Cambridge: Cambridge University
, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Piper, R. A.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Wisdom in the Q-Tradition: The Aphoristic Teaching of J
esus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
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{\f0\fs24 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1989.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Polag, A.}{\

f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Christologie der Logienquelle}{\f0\fs24 . }{\


f0\fs24 WMANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WMANT }{\f0\
fs24\lang1031 Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}{\f0\
fs24 (Neukirchen: Neukirchener)}}}{\f0\fs24 45. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener
, 1979. Fragmenta Q. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Przybylski,
B.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Righteousness in Matthew and His World of Thought}{\f
0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs2
4 41. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1980. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Reumann, J.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Righteousness in the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelp
hia: Fortress, 1982.}\par
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the Lord}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Riches, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus and the Transformation of Judaism}{\f0\fs24 . New Y
ork: Seabury, 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Ridderbos, H
.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew s Witness to Jesus Christ}{\f0\fs24 . New York:
Association Press, 1958.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Riesenfeld,
H.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel Tradition and Its Beginnings}{\f0\fs24 . L
ondon: Mowbray, 1961.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Riesner, R.}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus als Lehrer}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 WUNT{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 WUNT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wissenschaft
liche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 (Tbingen: Mohr)}}}{\f0\fs24
2.7. Tbingen: Mohr, 1981.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Rigaux, B.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Testimony of St. Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Chicago: Francis
can Herald, 1968.}\par
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f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The First Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . Macon, GA: Mercer, 1992.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Robertson, A
. T.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Hi
storical Research}{\f0\fs24 . 4th }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Ne
w York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1923.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Roloff, J.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Kerygma und der irdische Jesus}{\f0\fs24 . Gt
tingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970.}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Die Erfllungszitate des Matthus-Evangeliums}{\f
0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 BWANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
BWANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament}
{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart:Kolhammer)}}}{\f0\fs24 88. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1969.}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Sand, A.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Gesetz und die Propheten: Untersuchungen zur T
heologie des Evangeliums nach Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Biblische U
ntersuchungen}{\f0\fs24 11. Regensburg: Pustet, 1974.}\par
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Matthus-Evangelium}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Ertrge der Forschung}{\f0\fs24
275. Darmstadt: }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft}{\f0\fs2
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en, Weise, und Schriftkundige in der Gemeinde des Matthusevangeliums}{\f0\fs24 . I
n }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Kirche im Werden}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnot

e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s),


editor}}}{\f0\fs24 J. Hainz. Munich: Schningh, 1976. 167 85.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schaberg, J.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit: The Triadic Ph
rase in Matthew 28:19b}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SBLDS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
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Dissertation Series}}}{\f0\fs24 19. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Schenk, W.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Die Sprache des Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . Gttingen: Vanden
hoeck & Ruprecht, 1987.}\par
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{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 St
udien zum Matthusevangelium}{\f0\fs24 . Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1988.
}\par
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.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Kirche des Matthus}{\f0\fs24 . Gtersloh: Be
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24 . }{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\
i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 Sup
plement Series}}}{\f0\fs24 15. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of
the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1987.}\par
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{\f0\fs24\i A cause}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 de l vangile: tudes sur les Syn
optiques et les Actes}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
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ten in honor of}}}{\f0\fs24 J. Dupont, }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
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ng1031 Die Kirche des Anfangs}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \q
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ume written in honor of}}}{\f0\fs24 H. Schrmann. Freiburg: Herder, 1978.}\par
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L.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das geschundene Volk und die}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
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s24 In }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Mitarbeiter der Schpfung: Bibel und Arbeitswelt}{\f
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In }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Beitrge zur Theologie des Neuen Testaments}{\f0\fs24 , }
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thieu et leurs sources}{\f0\fs24 . Leiden: Brill, 1973.}\par
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33 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge}
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}{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1958
.}\par
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2. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972.}\par
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of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
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lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SPCK }{\f0\fs24 Society for the Propagation of Christian Know
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24\lang1031 Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testament
s}{\f0\fs24 (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 82. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupr
echt, 1962.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Stuhlmacher,
P.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Jesus von Nazareth Christus des Glaubens}{\f0
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pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), ed
itor}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Gospel and the Gospels}{\f0\fs24 . Grand Rapi
ds: Eerdmans, 1991.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Wisdom, Christology and Law in Matthew s Gospel}{\f0\fs24
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0\fs24
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fs24\i ZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i ZNW }{\f0\fs2
4\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\f0\fs24 59 (1
968) 36 72.}\par
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\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Historical Evidence for the Virgin Birth}{\f0\fs24 .
Oxford: Clarendon, 1920.}\par
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R.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Barren Temple and the Withered Tree}{\f0\fs24 . }
{\f0\fs24\i JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSNT
Sup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 Supplemen
t Series}}}{\f0\fs24 1. Sheffield: }{\f0\fs24\i JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old
Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\f0\fs24 , 1980.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Theissen, G.
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition}{\
f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.}\par
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G.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Matthew s Advice to a Divided Community: Mt. 17,22 18,35
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}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Mlanges bibliques}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 FS{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs
24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\f0\fs24 B. Rigaux, }{\f0\fs24 ed.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s),
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ited, edition(s), editor}}}{\f0\fs24 Leipzig: St. Benno, 1975. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Turner, N.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i A Grammar of New Testament Greek: }{\f0\fs24 Vol.{\footno
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4\i 3. Syntax}{\f0\fs24 . Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1963.}\par
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}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Rejection of the Humble Messianic King: A Study of
the Composition of Matthew 11 12}{\f0\fs24 . Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1986.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Vgtle, A.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Das Evangelium und die Evangelien}{\f0\fs24 . Dssel
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24 . }{\f0\fs24 FRLANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FRL
ANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neu
en Testaments}{\f0\fs24 (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 91. Gttingen: Vanden
hoeck & Ruprecht, 1967.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Walter, N.}{
\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zum Kirchenverstndnis des Matthus. }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24\lang1031 Theologische Versuche}{\f0\fs24 12 (1981) 25 46.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Weder, H.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Gleichnisse Jesu als Metaphern}{\f0\fs24 . }{
\f0\fs24 FRLANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 FRLANT }{\
f0\fs24\lang1031 Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Test
aments}{\f0\fs24 (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 120. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht, 1984.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Weiser, A.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die Knechtsgleichnisse der synoptischen Evangeli
en}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 SANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 SANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}}}{\f0\fs24
10. Munich: Ksel, 1971.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Westcott, B.
W.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i An Introduction to the Study of the Gospels}{\f0\fs2
4 . London: Macmillan, 1875.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Westerholm,
S.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Jesus and Scribal Authority}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 Co
nBNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 ConBNT }{\f0\fs24 Con
iectanea biblica, New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 10. Lund: Gleerup, 1978.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b White, R. E.
O.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Mind of Matthew}{\f0\fs24 . Philadelphia: Westmi
nster, 1979.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Wilkins, M. J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i
The Concept of Disciple in Matthew s Gospel}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 NovTSup{\footn

ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NovTSup }{\f0\fs24 Supplement(s)


to }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\f0\fs24 59. Leiden: Brill, 1988.
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Wink, W.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\
fs24 SNTSMS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 SNTSMS }{\f0\f
s24 Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\f0\fs24 7. Cambridge
: Cambridge University, }{\f0\fs24 1968.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Wrede, W.}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i The Messianic Secret}{\f0\fs24 . Cambridge, MA: Clarke, 19
71.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Zeller, D.}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Die weisheitlichen Mahnsprche. bei den Synoptiker
n}{\f0\fs24 . Wrzburg: Echter, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Zumstein, J.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i\l
ang265 La condition du croyant dans l vangile selon Matthieu}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24
OBO{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OBO }{\f0\fs24\lang26
5 Orbis biblicus et orientalis}{\f0\fs24 (Freiburg [Sw]/Gttingen: Universittsverl
ag/Vandenhoeck)}}}{\f0\fs24 16. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1977.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb1440 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs48\b\i Further Ministry and Con
frontation with the Religious Authorities (14:1 16:20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs48\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs40 The Fate of John the Bapt
ist (14:1 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Aus, R.}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Water into Wine and the Beheading of
John the Baptist: Early Jewish-Christian Interpretation of Esther 1 in John 2:1 11
and Mark 6:17 29.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 BJS{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 BJS }{\f0\fs24 Brown Judaic Studi
es}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 150. Atlanta: Scholars, 1988. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\
lang1033 Cope, O. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Death of John the Baptist in t
he Gospel of Matthew. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 CBQ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i CBQ }{\f0\fs24\i Catholic Biblical Quarterly}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 38 (1976) 515 19. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Derrett, J. D.
M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Herod s Oath and the Baptist s Head. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\
lang1033 BZ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i BZ }{\f0\fs2
4\i\lang1031 Biblische Zeitschrift}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 9 (1965) 49 59, 233 4
6. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Gnilka, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1036 Das Martyrium Johannes des Tufers.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
In }{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Orientierung an Jesus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS }{
\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 J. Schmid, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 P. Hoffmann. Freiburg: Herder, 1973. 78 92. }{\plain\f0\fs22
\b\lang1033 Hoehner, H. W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
Herod Antipas.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SNTSMS{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SNTSMS }{\f0\fs24 Society for N
ew Testament Studies Monograph Series}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 17. Cambridge:
Cambridge }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 UP{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22 UP }{\f0\fs24 University Press}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1972.
112 22, 149 65. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Meier, J. P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Jo
hn the Baptist in Matthew s Gospel. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Li
terature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 99 (1980) 383 405. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang103
3 Potterie, I. de la.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang265 Mors Joh
annis Baptistae.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 VD{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i VD }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Verbum
domini}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 44 (1966) 142 51. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 R
iesner, R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Johannes der Tufer

auf Machrus.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 BK{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i BK }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Bibel und Kir
che}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 39 (1984) 176. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Schen
k, W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Gefangenschaft und Tod
des Tufers.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
NTS 29 (1983) 453 83. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1
033 Schtz, R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 Johannes der
Tufer.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ATANT{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ATANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Abhandlungen zur
Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 50. Zrich:
Zwingli, 1967. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Trilling, W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Tufertradition bei Matthus.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang103
3 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 BZ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22\i BZ }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Biblische Zeitschrift}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 3 (1959) 271 89.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of
the fame of Jesus, }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
and he said to his servants: This one is}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f0\fs24
D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vg}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 and a few other witnes
ses begin the sentence with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvti}{\f0\fs24 , thus forming a
question: Is not this John the Baptist? (But }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvti}{\f0\fs24
expects a negative answer, which is strange in light of the following verse.)}}
}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 John the Baptist.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. }{\f
0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vg}{\f0\fs24\supe
r mss}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\}n ejgw; ajpekefavlisa}{\f0\fs24 , who
m I beheaded (from }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:16}{\f0\fs24 ), anticipating the narrative t
hat follows.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 He has been raised from the dead, and
because of this these powers are working in him. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
3}{\f0\fs24 For Herod}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 sa mae
insert }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , then. Despite Matthew s favoring of }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , the shorter text is supported by a diversity
of text types; the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 was probably added to a
lert the reader that }{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3 12}{\f0\fs24 are a fla
shback. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 34 35.}}}{\f0\fs24 had seized John, bo
und [him],}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. The critical text has }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him, in brackets because it is omitted by the important }{\f
0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * and }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 , as well as other witnesses. The pronou
n is in any event required in English (unlike }{\f0\fs24 Gr.}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\f0
\fs24 and put him in prison because of Herodias the wife of Philip,}{\plain\f0\
fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\supe
r e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 omit }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 filivppou}{\f0\fs24 , of Philip (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 shorte
r text of }{\f0\fs24 Luke 3:19}{\f0\fs24 ), perhaps to harmonize with the eviden
ce reflected in Jos., }{\f0\fs24\i Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.4 136 37}{\f0\fs
24 . }{\f0\fs24 Cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 35.}}}{\f0\fs24 h
is brother. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 4}{\f0\fs24 For John kept saying to
him, It is not lawful for you to have her. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 5}{\f0\
fs24 And although he wanted to have him killed, he was afraid of the crowd becau
se they regarded him as a prophet.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 6}{\f0\fs24 When
the birthday of Herod arrived,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. A variant reading, wh

en the birthday was celebrated, is found in some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 :


}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesivoi" de; ajgomevnoi"}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\
fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 ); }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesiw`n de; ajgomevnwn}{\f0\fs24
(W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 ); and
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesiw`n de; genomevnwn}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 K}{\f0\fs24 N }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\f0\fs24 the
daughter of Herodias danced among the guests,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f0
\fs24 Lit.}{\f0\fs24
in the middle/midst. }}}{\f0\fs24 and she pleased Herod, }{\
plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 7}{\f0\fs24 for which reason he swore with an oath
to give to her whatever she asked. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 8}{\f0\fs24 A
nd she, put forward by her mother, said: Give me here upon a platter}{\plain\f0\f
s24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super
h }{\f0\fs24 h. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejpi; pivnaki
}{\f0\fs24 , upon a platter. }}}{\f0\fs24 the head of John the Baptist. }{\plain\f0
\fs24\super\lang1033 9}{\f0\fs24 And the king, having become distressed}{\plain\
f0\fs24\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\s
uper i }{\f0\fs24 i. A number of }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lan
g1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 ] W Z}{\f0\fs24\supe
r vid}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 s
y}{\f0\fs24 co) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejluphvqh oJ basileuv"}{\f0\fs24 . }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 dia; dev}{\f0\fs24 : the king was distressed. But on account of
, thereby relieving the ambiguity of the syntax as it stands in the critical text
, where }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dia; tou;" o\{rkou" kai; tou;" sunanakeimevnou"}{\f0
\fs24 , on account of his oaths and the dinner guests, could be linked with }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 luphqeiv}{\f0\fs24 , being grieved, rather than with }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 ejkevleusen}{\f0\fs24 , he commanded. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 35 36.
}}}{\f0\fs24 because of the oaths he had sworn and those reclining at the meal
with him, commanded it to be given to her. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 10}{\
f0\fs24 And he sent and beheaded John in the prison. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 11}{\f0\fs24 And John s}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 j{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super j }{\f0\fs24 j. }{\f0\fs24 Lit.}{\f0\fs2
4 his. }}}{\f0\fs24 head was brought upon a platter, and it was given to the girl
, and she brought it to her mother. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 12}{\f0\fs24
And when his disciples came, they took the body,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
k{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super k }{\f0\fs24 k. }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ptw`ma}{\f0\fs24 , body (in agreement with }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:24
}{\f0\fs24 ). Some witnesses (W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 sa bo}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs2
4 ) have the more common synonym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sw`ma}{\f0\fs24 . The forme
r is to be preferred on the basis of superior textual evidence. See }{\f0\fs24\i
TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}}}{\f0\fs24 and they buried it,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 l{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super l }{\f0\fs2
4 l. The critical }{\f0\fs24 Gr.}{\f0\fs24 text reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujto
v}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 n}{\f0\fs24 ], it, reflecting the divided witnes
ses. The neuter, although strongly attested, is expected because of }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 ptw`ma}{\f0\fs24 and thus might be a correction of scribes; }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , on the other hand, is found in }{\f7\fs32\lang1037
a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs2
4\super mss}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}}}{\f0\fs24 and
they went and reported everything}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 m{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super m }{\f0\fs24 m. Everything is the i
mplied object of the verb, although it does not appear in the }{\f0\fs24 Gr.}{\f
0\fs24 text.}}}{\f0\fs24 to Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\p

lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vg{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 v


g }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as published in Weber s edition)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\sup
er\lang1033 mss}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 and a few other witnesses begin the se
ntence with }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvti}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , thus form
ing a question: Is not this John the Baptist? (But }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvti
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 expects a negative answer, which is strange in light
of the following verse.)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vg{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as published in
Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\}n ej
gw; ajpekefavlisa}{\f0\fs24 , whom I beheaded (from }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:16}{\f0\fs24
), anticipating the narrative that follows.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\fs24\lang1
032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\f
s24 sa mae insert }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , then. Despite Matthew s fav
oring of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , the shorter text is supported by
a diversity of text types; the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 was probably
added to alert the reader that }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3 12}{\f0\fs24
are a flashback. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentar
y on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 34 35.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. The critical text has {\f8\fs
24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him, in brackets because it is omitted by the impo
rtant }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 * and }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 , as well as other witnesses. The p
ronoun is in any event required in English (unlike }{\f0\fs24 Gr.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Gr. }{\f0\fs24 Greek}}}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 filivppou}{\
f0\fs24 , of Philip (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 shorter text of
}{\f0\fs24 Luke 3:19}{\f0\fs24 ), perhaps to harmonize with the evidence reflec
ted in Jos., }{\f0\fs24\i Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.4 136 37}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f
0\fs24 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 35.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. A variant reading, when the bi
rthday was celebrated, is found in some {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesivoi" de; ajgomevnoi"}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0
\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 ); }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesiw`n de; ajgomevnwn}{\f0\fs2
4 (W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24
); and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesiw`n de; genomevnwn}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniz
a}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 K{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 K }{\f0\fs24 Kethib (the written consonantal Hebrew text of OT)}}}{\f0\fs24 N
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f0\fs24 Lit.{\footnote \par


d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
in
the middle/midst. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejpi; pivnaki}{\f0\fs24 , upon a platte
r. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. A number of {\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 ma
nuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C
}{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published i
n BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 ]
W Z}{\f0\fs24\super vid}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 la
t{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy
}{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24 co) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejluphvqh oJ basile
uv"}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dia; dev}{\f0\fs24 : the king was distressed.
But on account of , thereby relieving the ambiguity of the syntax as it stands i
n the critical text, where }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dia; tou;" o\{rkou" kai; tou;" su
nanakeimevnou"}{\f0\fs24 , on account of his oaths and the dinner guests, could be
linked with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 luphqeiv}{\f0\fs24 , being grieved, rather than w
ith }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkevleusen}{\f0\fs24 , he commanded. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCG
NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M.
Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs
24 , 35 36.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 j. {\f0\fs24 Lit.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
hi
s. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 k. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ptw`ma}{\f
0\fs24 , body (in agreement with }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:24}{\f0\fs24 ). Some witnesses
(W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\
fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\su
per h}{\f0\fs24 sa bo}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 ) have the more common syno
nym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sw`ma}{\f0\fs24 . The former is to be preferred on the b
asis of superior textual evidence. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A
Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 l. The critical {\f0\fs24 Gr.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Gr. }{\f0\fs24 Greek}}}{\f0\
fs24 text reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtov}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 n}{\
f0\fs24 ], it, reflecting the divided witnesses. The neuter, although strongly att
ested, is expected because of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ptw`ma}{\f0\fs24 and thus mig
ht be a correction of scribes; }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , on the ot
her hand, is found in }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f
0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textua
l Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 m. Everything is the implied object of the verb, alt
hough it does not appear in the {\f0\fs24 Gr.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Gr. }{\f0\fs24 Greek}}}{\f0\fs24 text.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p

ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. Matthew is now con
tent to follow the order of Mark, as he will do for the most part in the remaind
er of the Gospel. Omitting the sending out of the twelve (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 Mark 6:7 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), which was presented earlier (}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 10:5 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), Matthew follows the rejection
of Jesus at Nazareth with the fearful and incorrect estimate of Jesus from Hero
d. This in turn leads, as in Mark, to the retrospective account of the death of
John the Baptist, thus rounding out the story of John.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew depends upon Mark ({\f0\fs24
Mark 6:14 24}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
Luke 9:7 9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 3:19 20}{\f0\fs24 , but Luke lacks the narrative
concerning John s death). For Matthew s first two verses, the following differences
from Mark should be noted. First, Matthew s opening words, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn
ejkeivnw/ tw`/ kairw`/}{\f0\fs24 , at that time, are his own transition to the pr
esent pericope. Matthew (with Luke) substitutes }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tetraavrch"}
{\f0\fs24 , tetrarch, for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 basileuv"}{\f0\fs24 , king (but }
{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 where Ma
tthew uses }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 basileuv"}{\f0\fs24 ), perhaps to distinguish him
clearly from Herod the Great, who figured so largely in chap. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0
\fs24 , and Herod Agrippa I (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 Acts 12}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew alone has Herod speak }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 toi
`" paisi;n aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , to his servants, the declarative sentence }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 ou|tov" ejstin Iwavnnh" oJ baptisthv"}{\f0\fs24 , This one is John the
Baptist. Other changes in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 2}{\f0\fs24 are onl
y minor rephrasing of Mark. Matthew omits entirely, however, the material that f
ollows in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:15 16}{\f0\fs24 , with its alternative evaluation of J
ohn as Elijah or one of the prophets (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 16:14}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:28}{\f0\fs24 ) and Herod s reas
sertion that it was John, risen from the dead. In the remainder of the pericope
(}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs
24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3 12}{\f0\fs24 ), Matthew follows Mark closely
but abridges the narrative quite frequently (by more than one third). Beyond th
is common practice of Matthew, the following can be noted: whereas according to
Mark it was Herodias who wanted to kill John (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:19}{\f0\fs24 ),
Matthew s rewriting }{\f0\fs24 makes Herod the one who wanted to do so (this confl
icts with }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:20}{\f0\fs24 ); whereas Mark writes that Herod was af
raid of John, knowing he was a righteous and holy man (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejfobe
i`to to;n Iwavnnhn, eijdw;" aujto;n a[ndra divkaion kai; a\{gion}{\f0\fs24 ), Mat
thew writes that }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejfobhvqh to;n o[clon o\{ti wJ" profhvthn a
ujto; ei'con}{\f0\fs24 , he was afraid of the crowd because they regarded him as
a prophet (v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\fs24 ). The result of these changes is a much mor
e negative view of Herod than in the Markan account (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\f0\fs24 too the omission of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:20b}{\f0\fs24 ) as well
as an emphasis on the motif of the suffering of the prophets (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 13:57}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 23:30 31}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 37}{\f0\fs24 ). Among further omiss
ions for the sake of brevity, Matthew lacks the note that the daughter of Herod
pleased Herod s guests too (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; toi`" sunanakemevnoi"}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:22}{\f0\fs24 ) and the offer of Herod to give the girl }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 e\{w" hJmivsou" th`" basileiva" mou}{\f0\fs24 , up to as much a
s half my kingdom (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:23}{\f0\fs24 ). Finally to be noted is Matth
ew s substitution of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; e[qayan aujtov;}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f8\fs

24\lang1032 n}{\f0\fs24 ], and they buried him (it), for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
kai; e[qhkan aujto ejn mnhmeivw/}{\f0\fs24 , and they placed it in a tomb (}{\f0\f
s24 Mark 6:29}{\f0\fs24 ), and the concluding words, unique to Matthew, that bri
dge also to the opening of the next pericope: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ejlqovnte
" ajphvggeilan tw`/ Ihsou`}{\f0\fs24 , and they went and reported everything to Je
sus (v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:30}{\f0\fs24 , which, however, is hardly here misunderstood by Ma
tthew [contra Fenton]).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The pericope as defined here has two main parts
, which, because they are closely associated, are treated together as one perico
pe. The first concerns Herod s reaction to the reports concerning Jesus; the secon
d is a flashback describing the murder of John the Baptist. The pericope may be
outlined as follows: (1) Herod hears (v. {\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 ) and reacts to (
v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 ) the report concerning Jesus; (2) the fate of John th
e Baptist: (a) his arrest, provocation, and imprisonment (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 3 5}{\f0\fs24 ), (b) the dance of Herodias daughter and the promise of
Herod (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }
{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6 7}{\f0\fs24 ), (c) the request of Her
odias (v. }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 ), (d) the fulfillment of the request (}{\f0\fs
24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(
s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9 11}{\f0\fs24 ), and (e) the action of John s disciples
(v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ). There is very little syntactic parallelism in the
pericope, which consists of a straightforward, economical narrative prose style
.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\b\
lang1033 1 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f8\fs24\i\lang1032 ejn ejkeivnw/ t
w`/ kairw`/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , at that time, is Matthew s own transitional p
hrase here and has no chronological significance. This pericope is the only plac
e in Matthew where Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great and tetrarch (}{\plain\
f8\fs24\lang1032 tetraavrch"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , ruler of part [originall
y, a fourth] of a territory) of Galilee (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 3:1}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 ), is mentioned. When Herod heard of the }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1
032 ajkohvn}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , fame (the same word is used in the same sen
se in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:24}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), of Jesus, his u
neasy conscience made him fearful that John the Baptist had come back from the d
ead: }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou|tov" ejstin Iwavnnh" oJ baptisthv"}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 , this one is John the Baptist. Such a conclusion points both to the
awe in which John was held by him and also to the commonness of the belief that
holy servants of God, such as prophets (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 5}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 ), could return to the earth after their death and would do so in co
nnection with the approach of the end of the age. That others entertained the sa
me ideas concerning John the Baptist is indicated by }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1
6:14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Thus }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aiJ dunavmei" ejn
ergou`sin ejn aujtw`/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , these powers are working in him,
points not only to the invasion of the present age by the world beyond but has e
schatological intimations as well. (For }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aiJ dunavmei"}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , the powers, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13:54}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; for the idea of powers working in persons, }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs2
4\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 Gal 3:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .) In answering the question of the source
of Jesus power (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs2

4\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13:54}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\


f0\fs24\lang1033 56}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), Herod thus gives his own explana
tion, one caused very much by his own guilty conscience.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 3 4}{\f0\fs24 W
e are now given the background to Herod s fears about John the Baptist in a narrat
ive that, returning to an earlier time, provides an account of John s death by the
hand of Herod. Earlier in his Gospel, Matthew had been content merely to mentio
n John s arrest (}{\f0\fs24 4:12}{\f0\fs24 ). Herod had seized John, bound him, an
d put him in prison (the fortress of Machaerus, according to Jos., }{\f0\fs24\i
Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.1 109 15}{\f0\fs24 ) for his apparently public oppo
sition to Herod s marriage to Herodias, Herod s niece but more importantly his broth
er Philip s wife. There is some uncertainty about this Philip, since the Philip we
know as Herod s brother from the Gospels (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that
is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the tetrarch of }{\f0\fs24 Luke 3:1}{\f0\fs24 ) was apparently
married not to Herodias but to Salome her daughter (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\f0\fs24 Jos., }{\f0\fs24\i Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.4 136}{\f0\
fs24 ). The Philip mentioned in our pericope was probably a half brother of Anti
pas and is referred to as Herod by Josephus; the mother of this Herod-Philip was
Mariamne II. However this problem is to be solved, John opposed Herod s marriage
to his brother s wife, not simply on the grounds of the impropriety of divorce and
remarriage (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 19:9}{\f0\
fs24 ) but on the basis of the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 prohibition reflecte
d in }{\f0\fs24 Lev 18:16}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 20:21}{\f0\fs24 (in the cas
e of a childless widow, such a levirate marriage was obligatory; see }{\f0\fs24 De
ut 25:5}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mat
t 22:24}{\f0\fs24 ). This lies behind John s strong statement: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
oujk e[xestivn soi e[cein aujthvn}{\f0\fs24 , it is not lawful for you to have h
er. The imperfect tense of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[legen}{\f0\fs24 implies repetit
ion: he kept saying. Herod would not tolerate John s condemnation and so had him arr
ested. (Josephus, on the other hand, states that John was arrested for sedition
[}{\f0\fs24\i Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.2 118 19}{\f0\fs24 ]. Any form of oppo
sition from an apocalyptic preacher could easily have been regarded as seditious
.)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 5}{\f0\fs24 A
ccording to Matthew, Herod wanted to silence John permanently by killing him (}{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 qevlwn}{\f0\fs24 is a concessive participle, thus although wan
ting to ) but was afraid of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n o[clon}{\f0\fs24 , the crowd, b
ecause they held John to be a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 profhvthn}{\f0\fs24 , prophet (f
or Markan differences, see above }{\f0\fs24\i Form/Structure/Setting}{\f0\fs24 B
; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0
\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 exactly the same fear concerning
Jesus, but pertaining to his arrest, in }{\f0\fs24 21:46}{\f0\fs24 ). In }{\f0\
fs24 21:21}{\f0\fs24 Matthew again notes that John was widely held to be a prop
het (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 11:9}{\f0\fs24 ).
John had made a great impact on the populace as a prophet or spokesman for God (}{
\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs2
4\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3:5 6}{\f0\fs24 ), and alth
ough he had been arrested, he had apparently not been forgotten; and this Herod
knew.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 6 7}{\f0\fs24 At a great b
anquet celebrating Herod s birthday, the daughter of Herodias (Salome, though not
named here or in the Markan parallel; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs
24 Jos., }{\f0\fs24\i Ant.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18.5.4 136}{\f0\fs24 ) danced a

nd so delighted Herod that before everyone he rather boastfully and recklessly p


romised to give the girl whatever she requested. Though perhaps unusual, it is n
ot improbable that a girl probably not much older than twelve (note the diminuti
ve form of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 koravsion}{\f0\fs24 in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }
{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
little girl ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 5:42}{\f0\fs24 ) would dance before guests on a specia
l occasion, though she was a princess. The Semitism }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 meq j o\
{rkou wJmolovghsen}{\f0\fs24 , he swore with an oath, indicates the strength and s
eriousness of the promise and thus Herod s sense of obligation. The opening constr
uction of the verse, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesivoi" de; genomevnoi"}{\f0\fs24 , w
hen the birthday celebration arrived, is very unusual. Matthew apparently borrowe
d }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genesivoi"}{\f0\fs24 from Mark and then added the concord
ant participle of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 givnesqai}{\f0\fs24 on the model of Matth
ew s favorite, the genitive absolute (giving the appearance of a }{\f0\fs24 Lat.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Lat. }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0
\fs24 ablative absolute [Wellhausen, cited by McNeile]).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 8}{\f0\fs24 T
he girl followed her mother s prompting (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 probibasqei`sa}{\f0\f
s24 , put forward, the only occurrence of the word in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\f
s24 ) in making the astonishing request }{\f0\fs24 for John s head on a platter. T
hat the request could be made and granted at a banquet underlines the degradatio
n of the royal court. Herodias is described in the Markan account as wanting the
death of John (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:19}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 9 11}{\f0\fs24
The king (the title was probably used for Herod as ruler but was not strictly true
) regretted having made the foolish promise: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 luphqeiv"}{\f0\
fs24 , having become distressed. The following accusative phrase governed by }{\f8
\fs24\lang1032 diav}{\f0\fs24 , because of, can be taken either with the preceding
participle, thus giving the grounds for Herod s grief, or with the following verb
, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkevleusen}{\f0\fs24 , he commanded, giving the grounds for
the command. The difference is slight. It was because he had made the oaths (}{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" o\{rkou"}{\f0\fs24 , plural, is perhaps to be understood a
s one oath; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 BDF{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BDF }{\f0\fs24 F. Blass, A. Debru
nner, and R. W. Funk, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek Grammar of the New Testament}{\f0\fs2
4 (University of Chicago/University of Cambridge, 1961)}}}{\f0\fs24 142; }{\f0\
fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the singular in v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs2
4 ) before those reclining at the meal with him (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" sunanak
eimevnou"}{\f0\fs24 ) that he felt obligated, almost against his will (}{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 with }{\f0\fs24
Mark 6:20}{\f0\fs24 ), to carry out the request. He sent (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pevm
ya"}{\f0\fs24 ) soldiers to do his dirty work; the singular verb }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 ajpekefavlisen to;n Iwavnnhn ejn th`/ fulakh`/}{\f0\fs24 , he beheaded John in
the prison, places the responsibility upon his shoulders. When the head was broug
ht to the girl, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[negken th`/ mhtri; aujth`"}{\f0\fs24 , she
brought it to her mother, Herodias, the real instigator of John s murder.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 12}{\f0\fs24 The discipl
es of John (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his ) took the body and buried
it (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 27:57 61}{\f0\fs24 ,
for Jesus; }{\f0\fs24 Acts 8:2}{\f0\fs24 , for Stephen). Having fulfilled this d
uty to their master, they reported his death to Jesus (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajphv
ggeilan tw`/ Ihsou`}{\f0\fs24 ). This last piece of information, found only in Ma
tthew, again points to the close ties between Jesus and John (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo

otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0


\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3:11 16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 11:7 19}{\f0\f
s24 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:32}{\f0\fs24 ). John s disciples
know that because of their association Jesus must immediately hear about John s de
ath (for previous contact between John s disciples and Jesus, see }{\f0\fs24 9:14}
{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 11:2}{\f0\fs24 ; we have no way of knowing what John s resp
onse was to the report of }{\f0\fs24 11:4 6}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Although John the Bap
tist came in the eschatological role of Elijah, they did to him whatever they ple
ased (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 17:12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). As John was reg
arded as a prophet, he suffered the fate of the prophets (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i c
onfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 this important theme in }{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23:31 35}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Described by Jesus as
greater than any other born of woman (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11:11}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 ), he was murdered through a bizarre sequence of events, part of t
he entertainment of the evening, by the whim and caprice of the wicked. A horrendo
us crime of this kind is self-indicting. Yet God no more prevents this outrageou
s deed than he will the death of Jesus, or later of Stephen and the thousands of
martyrs who have followed in his footsteps. John s murder is a foreshadowing of t
he murder of Jesus, and Matthew s narrative is designed to indicate a number of pa
rallels. So also the Son of Man will suffer at their hands (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 17:12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Death, the temporary end of physical life,
is not the worst enemy of humanity. Alienation from God is. And thus those who
murdered John are far more pitiable than is John himself. In this instance, to b
e dead is more blessed than to be alive ; for the one murdered truly lives, while tho
se who murdered him are in reality the dead. As Jesus was soon to follow in John s
path, so are his disciples also to be prepared for death (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
10:21 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 24:9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Feeding of the Five T
housand (14:13 21)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bammel, E.}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033
The Feeding of the Multitude. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Jes
us and the Politics of His Day}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edi
ted, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. Bammel and C. F. D. Moule
. Cambridge: Cambridge }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 UP{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 UP }{\f0\fs24 University Press}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 , 1984. 211 40. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Buse, I.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Gospel Accounts of the Feeding of the Multitudes. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
ExpTim{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs2
4\i The Expository Times}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 74 (1963) 167 70. }{\plain\f0
\fs22\b\lang1033 Cangh, J. M. van.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\
lang1036 La multiplication des pains et l eucharistie}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 LD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
2 LD }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Lectio divina}{\f0\fs24 (Paris: Cerf)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 86. Paris: Cerf, 1975. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Cerfaux, L.}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 La section des pains.}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 Recueil Lucien Cerfaux}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 . Gembloux: Duculot, 1954. 1:471 86. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Clavie
r, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 La multiplication des p
ains dans le ministre de Jsus.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
SE{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SE }{\f0\fs24\i Studia
Evangelica}{\f0\fs24 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ( = TU 73 [1959], 87 [1964], 88 [1964], 1
02 [1968], 103 [1968], 112 [1973]}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 1 [= }{\plain\f0\f

s22\lang1033 TU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 TU }{\f0\f


s24\lang1031 TU Texte und Untersuchungen}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 73] (1959)
441 57. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Cousins, P. E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Fe
eding of the Five Thousand. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 EvQ{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i EvQ }{\f0\fs24\i The Evangelical Quarterly}}}
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 39 (1967) 152 54. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Farrer, A.
M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Loaves and Thousands. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JT
S{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JTS }{\f0\fs24\i Journ
al of Theological Studies}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 4 (1953) 1 14. }{\plain\f0\f
s22\b\lang1033 Fowler, R. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang10
33 Loaves and Fishes: The Function of the Feeding Stories in the Gospel of Mark.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SBLDS{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SBLDS }{\f0\fs24 Society of Biblical Literature
[SBL] Dissertation Series}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 54. Chico, CA: Scholars,
1981. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Grant, R. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 The Problem of Miraculous Feedings in the Greco-Roman World
.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Berkeley: University of California, 1982. }{\plain\f
0\fs22\b\lang1033 Hebert, A. G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 History in the Feeding
of the Five Thousand. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SE{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SE }{\f0\fs24\i Studia Evangelica}{\f0\fs24 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6 ( = TU 73 [1959], 87 [1964], 88 [1964], 102 [1968], 103 [1968], 112 [1973]
}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 2 [= }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 TU{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 TU }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 TU Texte und Untersu
chungen}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 87] (1964) 65 72. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033
Heising, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Die Botschaft
der Brotvermehrung.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SBS{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SBS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Stuttg
arter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echter/KBW)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 15. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1966.
. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031
Exegesis und Theologie der alt- und neutestamentlichen Speisewunder.}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZTK{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZTK }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr Theologie und Kirc
he}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 86 (1964) 80 96. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Iersel
, B. van.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die wunderbare Spei
sung und das Abendmahl in der synoptischen Tradition.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 7
(1964 65) 167 94. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Knackstedt, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang103
3 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die beiden Brotvermehrungen im Evangelien.}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033
NTS 10 (1964) 309 35. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Krtner, H. J.}{\p
lain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Das Fischmotiv im Speisungswunde
r.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die
neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 75 (1984) 24 35. }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Masuda, S.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Good News of the M
iracle of the Bread. NTS 28 (1982) 191 219. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Neugebauer,
F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die wunderbare Speisung}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (Mark 6.30 44 parr) }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 und Jesu Id
entitt.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 KD{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i KD }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Kerygma und Dogma}
}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 32 (1986) 254 77. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Patsch,
H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Abendmahlsterminologie aus
serhalb der Einsetzungsberichte.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lan
g1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24
\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 62 (1971) 210 31. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Potterie, I. de la.}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Le sens primitif de la multiplicatio
n des pains.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 Jsus aux ori
gines de la christologie}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, e

dition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. Dupont. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10


33 BETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 BETL }{\f0\fs24\la
ng265 Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium}{\f0\fs24 (Leuven/Gemb
loux: Leuven UP/Peeters)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 40. Gembloux: Duculot, 1975
. 303 29. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Repo, E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1031 Fnf Brote und zwei Fische.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 In }{\plain\f
0\fs22\i\lang1031 Probleme der Forschung}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f
0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 A. Fuchs. }{\plain
\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 SNTU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i
SNTU }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 A3. Vienna: Herold, 1978. 99 113. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang103
3 Richardson, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Feeding of the Five Thousand. }{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Int{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22
\i Int }{\f0\fs24\i Interpretation}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 9 (1955) 144 49. }{
\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Schenke, L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22
\i\lang1031 Die wunderbare Brotvermehrung.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Wrzburg: Ech
ter, 1983.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And when Jesus heard this, he went away
from there in a boat}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 and a few other witnesses omit }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn ploivw/}{\f0\fs24 , in a boat. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
privately to a deserted place. And when the crowds heard this, they followed h
im from the cities by foot. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\i
\lang1033 And when he disembarked,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. A few witnesses
(a b ff}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24
) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejxelqwvn}{\f0\fs24 , having disembarked or having come
out. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 he saw a huge crowd, and he was moved with co
mpassion for them, and he healed their sick.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 15}{\f0\fs24 But
when it was evening, his disciples came to him and said: This is a deserted place
, and the day}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hJ w\{ra}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 the hour. See }{\f0\fs24 BAGD}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs2
4 s.v.}}}{\f0\fs24 is already gone. Send the crowds away}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\
lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\f
s24 d. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 Z }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super hmg}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24
bo add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou\\n}{\f0\fs24 , therefore. }}}{\f0\fs24 so that they
may return to their villages}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps
mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super hmg}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 ) read
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvklw/}{\f0\fs24 , surrounding (area), for }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 kwvma"}{\f0\fs24 , villages, through the influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24
Mark 6:36}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\f0\fs24 and buy food for themselves. }{\plain\f0\fs24
\super\lang1033 16}{\f0\fs24 But Jesus}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. A number of
}{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 Z}{\f0\fs24\super vid}{\f0\fs24 e k }{\f0\
fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}
{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, with the result that the definite article functions as a pronou
n. On the other hand, many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 include }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{

\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs2


4\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 mae) so t
hat the critical text places the name in the text but encloses it in brackets.}}
}{\f0\fs24 said to them: There is no need for them to go away. You give them som
ething to eat. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 17}{\f0\fs24 But they said to him:
We have nothing here except five loaves and two fish. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 18}{\f0\fs24 And he said: Bring them here to me. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1
033 19}{\f0\fs24 And having commanded}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f0\fs24 B}
{\f0\fs24 * reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 keleuvsate}{\f0\fs24 , [you] command (them)
. }}}{\f0\fs24 the crowds to recline on the grass, he took the five loaves and th
e two fish, looked up into the sky and blessed God, and when he had broken the l
oaves into pieces, he gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to t
he crowds. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 20}{\f0\fs24 And everyone ate and was
full, and they took up twelve baskets full of leftover fragments. }{\plain\f0\f
s24\super\lang1033 21}{\f0\fs24 And those who ate numbered about}{\plain\f0\fs24
\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h
}{\f0\fs24 h. A few witnesses (W }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs
24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJseiv}{\f0\fs24 , about. }}
}{\f0\fs24 five thousand, not counting the women and children.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}
{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 s,c}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 and a few other wit
nesses omit }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn ploivw/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , in a
boat. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. A few witnesses (a b ff{\f0\f
s24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 ejxelqwvn}{\f0\fs24 , having disembarked or having come out. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 hJ w\{ra}{
\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 the hour. See }{\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i
A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literatu
re}{\f0\fs24 , ET, ed. W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingric
h and F. W. Danker (University of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 s.v.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 s.v. }{\f0\fs24\lang265 sub
verbo}{\f0\fs24 , under the word}}}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C
}{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 Z }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }
{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super hmg}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs
24 bo add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou\\n}{\f0\fs24 , therefore. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. Some {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 s
y }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super hmg}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0
\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvklw/}{\f0\fs24 , surrounding (area), for }{\f8
\fs24\lang1032 kwvma"}{\f0\fs24 , villages, through the influence of the parallel
in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:36}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. A number of {\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 ma

nuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par


}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 Z}{\f0\fs24\super vid
}{\f0\fs24 e k }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo) omit }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, with the result that the definite article fu
nctions as a pronoun. On the other hand, many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\
f0\fs24 include }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\pa
r
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{
\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex
Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}}}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0
\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat
}{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs
24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 mae) so that the critical text places the name in the tex
t but encloses it in brackets.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 *
reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 keleuvsate}{\f0\fs24 , [you] command (them). }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. A few witnesses (W {\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syri
ac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJseiv}{\f0\f
s24 , about. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
The narrative now turns to the recounting of two dramatic nature miracles, the mul
tiplying of the loaves and fish and Jesus walking on the water. These have the ef
fect of sharpening further the question concerning the power and identity of Jes
us. The feeding of the five thousand, furthermore, has unmistakable messianic im
plications.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. In this pericope, which is the only miracle of
Jesus found in all four Gospels ({\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 John 6:1 15}{\f0\fs24 ), Matthew is dependent on Mark (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:
32 44}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:
10b 17}{\f0\fs24 ). Again Matthew s clear tendency is to abbreviate Mark s account but
not by quite as much as elsewhere. Matthew s opening words, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a
jkouvsa" de; oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , and when Jesus heard this, are his own transiti
on from the preceding pericope (on the problem thereby caused, see }{\f0\fs24\i
Comment}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew (so too Luke) omits Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; e
i\\don aujtou;" uJpavgonta"}{\f0\fs24 , and they saw them departing (}{\f0\fs24 Ma
rk 6:33}{\f0\fs24 ), and Mark s note, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; proh`lqon aujtouv"}
{\f0\fs24 , they arrived before them (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:33}{\f0\fs24 ), since Matt
hew reports only the movement of Jesus. Matthew omits Mark s hyperbolic }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 pasw`n}{\f0\fs24 , all, before the cities (v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{
\f0\fs24 Mark 6:33}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew (so too Luke) does not include Mark s becau
se they were like sheep not having a shepherd (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:34}{\f0\fs24 ),
which he has used already in another context (}{\f0\fs24 9:36}{\f0\fs24 ). He al
so omits the immediately following words, and he began to teach them many things (

}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:34}{\f0\fs24 ), adding instead the reference to healing: }{\f8


\fs24\lang1032 kai; ejqeravpeusen tou;" ajrrwvstou" aujtw`n}{\f0\fs24 , and he he
aled their sick (v. }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:11}{\f0\fs24 ). There follow some very slight chang
es, from which we note only the omission of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" kuvklw/ aj
grouv"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
the surrounding fields (hamlets),
of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:36}{\f0\fs24 and the substitution of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 b
rwvmata}{\f0\fs24 , food, for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tiv favgwsin}{\f0\fs24 , somethin
g they might eat (v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:36}{\f0\fs24 ).
In v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 Matthew inserts }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj creivan e
[cousin ajpelqei`n}{\f0\fs24 , there is no need for them to go away. Matthew (so t
oo Luke) further omits Mark s reference to the disciples extraordinary question whe
ther they should buy 200 denarii (a denarius was a day s wages) worth of bread (}{
\f0\fs24 Mark 6:37}{\f0\fs24 ) as well as Jesus response, How many loaves do you h
ave? Go see (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:37}{\f0\fs24 ), thus necessitating the addition of
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk e[comen w|de eij mhv}{\f0\fs24 , we have nothing here e
xcept (v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:13}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew further adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ d
e; ei\\pen: fevretev moi w|de aujtouv"}{\f0\fs24 , and he said, Bring them here to
me (v. }{\f0\fs24 18}{\f0\fs24 ), thus underlining the sovereign authority of Jes
us. Matthew (so too Luke) omits the detailed information concerning the crowd si
tting in companies,
groups of hundreds and fifties, as well as the note that the gras
as green (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:39 40}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 By contrast, however, Matthew and Luke
follow Mark very closely in the description of Jesus actions at this point, omitt
ing only Mark s {\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" a[rtou"}{\f0\fs24 , the loaves (}{\f0\fs24
Mark 6:41}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew and Luke also appear uninterested in the fish, om
itting Mark s reference to Jesus dividing of the fish for everyone (}{\f0\fs24 Mark
6:41}{\f0\fs24 ), as well as the notice that the leftover fragments included th
e fish (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:43}{\f0\fs24 ). The focus on the bread, and omission o
f reference to the fish, may be related to a eucharistic understanding of the pa
ssage wherein the latter had no place (see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on
}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs2
4 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18 19}{\f0\fs24 ). Finally, Matthew adds }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 to; perisseu`on}{\f0\fs24 , the abundance left over (v. }{\f0\fs24 2
0}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:14
}{\f0\fs24 ), and the concluding notice that the number five thousand was }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 cwri;" cwri;" gunaikw`n kai; paidivwn}{\f0\fs24 , without women and
children (v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ). The numerous minor agreements between Ma
tthew and Luke against Mark in this pericope are remarkable. They are very proba
bly to be explained through the influence of oral tradition (thus rightly Luz) a
nd do not constitute an insuperable obstacle to the two-source hypothesis and Ma
rkan priority, as sometimes claimed. Note especially, for example, the nearly ve
rbatim agreement in the description of the actions of Jesus (v. }{\f0\fs24 19b}{
\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:41}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:16}{\f0\fs24 ), pr
obably influenced by the eucharistic tradition.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. As a gift miracle narrative (thus Thei
ssen, {\f0\fs24\i Miracle Stories}{\f0\fs24 , 104), the form of the story is a l
ittle unusual. In particular, there is surprisingly neither a comment on the rea
ction of the people nor a christological conclusion drawn by the evangelist. The
remarkable story is thus left to make its own statement. The following outline
of the pericope may be suggested: (1) the setting, consisting of (a) Jesus withdr
awal (v. }{\f0\fs24 13a}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) the following of the crowd (v. }{\f0
\fs24 13b}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) compassionate healings (v. }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 );
(3) the problem (v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) Jesus incredible suggestion (
v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 ); (5) the scanty resources (v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs

24 ); and (6) the solution, consisting of (a) the miracle itself (}{\f0\fs24 vv{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18 19}{\f0\fs24 ), (b) the abundance (v. }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\f
s24 ), and (c) the number fed (v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ). There is only a sma
ll amount of parallel structure in the pericope: }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}
{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , v. }{\f0\fs24 13a}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs2
4 13b}{\f0\fs24 (participles of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvein}{\f0\fs24 , hear ; m
ain verbs; the datives }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn ploivw/}{\f0\fs24 , in a boat, }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 pezh`/}{\f0\fs24 , on foot ; and the statements about }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 oJ tovpo"}{\f0\fs24 , the place, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hJ w\{ra}{\f0\fs24
, the hour [v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ]). }{\f0\fs24\i V{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 19
}{\f0\fs24 is noteworthy in this respect for the two main verbs }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 eujlovghsen}{\f0\fs24 , he blessed, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[dwken}{\f0\fs24
, he gave, together with the aorist participles subordinated to them.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. This pericope finds a close parallel
and possible doublet in the feeding of the four thousand in {\f0\fs24 15:32 39}{\
f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:1 10}{\f
0\fs24 ). See the discussion of the problem there (}{\f0\fs24\i Form/Structure/S
etting}{\f0\fs24 D). Both feeding pericopes are alluded to in }{\f0\fs24 16:5 12}{
\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:14 21}{
\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 E. The question of the historicity of this miracle
has proved problematic for many modern scholars. The healing miracles of Jesus
constitute far less of a problem because of the well-known phenomenon of psychos
omatic healings. Those such as the present one and the walking on the water in t
he next pericope ({\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22 33}{\f0\fs24 ), however, in
volve direct contravention of natural law. If the world view of the interpreter
does not allow this possibility, implausible naturalistic explanations will be s
ought: }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g
. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , Jesu
s was able to get those who had food in the crowd to share it with their neighbo
rs, or Jesus walked the beach or on stones just below the surface of the water.
Such explanations are far from the intention of the evangelists and out of line
with the Gospel narratives.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 But are such nature miracles to be auto
matically excluded as impossibilities? If, as the Bible claims, God works in his
tory and uniquely and supremely in Jesus Christ, may not such events have actual
ly happened? If we do not allow the transcendent within history, the Bible sudde
nly becomes a very different collection {\f0\fs24 of writings, a book of parable
s concerning human existence rather than the account of salvation worked out in
the historical process.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 The historicity of miracles that transcend the law
s of nature cannot be established here. It is an assumption of the present comme
ntary that the miracles recorded by Matthew were historical events. With the eva
ngelist, we are driven to the question of who this Jesus is ({\f0\fs24 cf.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\f
s24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 16:13 15}{\f0\fs2
4 ), for this issue is at the bottom a christological one.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew s }{\plain\f8\fs24
\lang1032 ajkouvsa}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , when he heard, ties this passage to
the end of the preceding one about the death of John the Baptist. (In Mark the p
receding passage [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 6:30 31}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
] records not the death of John but the return of the apostles from their missio

nary journey; thus Jesus going off privately in a boat is not a response to the n
ews of John s death, as it is in Matthew.) That is, in Matthew when Jesus heard of
the death of John, he went off by himself for a while. The effect of this, howe
ver, is to ignore the fact that the story of John s death was a flashback and so t
o throw the entire sequence of narratives that follow back to that earlier time.
Perhaps Matthew regarded John s death as having occurred only a few days earlier
(thus McNeile). The suggestion that, given the parenthetical nature of }{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\
f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 3 12}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 , the object of }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvsa}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 , having heard, is Herod s evaluation of John in v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (Carson, Morris, Blomberg) ignores the plac
ement of }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvsa}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 immediatel
y following the reference to the report of John s death to Jesus (v. }{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). This verse is a counterpart to }{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , which refers to Jesus respon
se to John s imprisonment using the same participle, }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajk
ouvsa}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , having heard, and main verb, }{\plain\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 ajnecwvrhsen}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , he went away. Presumably Jesus had g
one }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij e[rhmon tovpon kat`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ,
privately to a deserted place, in order to pray, the death of John perhaps turnin
g his mind to his own approaching passion (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs2
4 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 ). There is no indication at all that Jesus is attempting to fle
e from Herod Antipas (or, indeed, that Jesus was now newly threatened by the lat
ter), despite the assumption of many commentators (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 too on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
14:22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The crowds (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ o[cl
oi}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), however, followed him as always (}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 4:25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:1}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 19:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 20:29}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). They came }{\plain\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ajpo tw`n povlewn}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , from the cities, probably Ca
pernaum and others along the lake, }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 pezh`}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 , by foot, following the shoreline with their eyes on Jesus boat.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 14}{\f0\fs24 When Jesus
got out of the boat at a deserted place along the shore, he was confronted with
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 polu;n o[clon}{\f0\fs24 , a large crowd, and he was moved with
compassion (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejsplagcnivsqh}{\f0\fs24 ; used in the same sense
in }{\f0\fs24 9:36}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:32}{\f0\fs24 ). In a summary way,
Matthew notes (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:1
1}{\f0\fs24 ) that }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejqeravpeusen tou ajrrwvstou aujtw`n}{\f0
\fs24 , he healed their sick (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a[rrwsto}{\f0\fs24 is used in M
atthew only here; for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qerapeuvein}{\f0\fs24 in miracle summ
aries, see }{\f0\fs24 4:23 24}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9
:35}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:30}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\
fs24 19:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:14}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 15}{\f0\fs24
The disciples (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ maqhtaiv}{\f0\fs24 ), who have not yet be
en mentioned in the pericope but who, like the crowds, must have walked to the s
pot, articulate the problem posed by the large crowd and the end of the day. }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 hJ w\{ra}{\f0\fs24 , which usually means the hour, here is to be
understood as the day (see }{\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek-English Lexicon of
the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature}{\f0\fs24 , ET, ed. W. F

. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker (Univers


ity of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f0\fs24 , 896a). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hJ w\{ra h[dh pla
in parh`lqen}{\f0\fs24 , the day is already gone, is thus the equivalent of }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 ojyiva" de; genomevnh}{\f0\fs24 , when it was evening, the words wit
h which this verse begins. The disciples propose that Jesus dismiss the crowds s
o that they can go to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta kwvma}{\f0\fs24 , the villages, }{\f0
\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24
\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , probably nearby communities,
in order to acquire food }{\f0\fs24 (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 brwvmata}{\f0\fs24 ; t
he only occurrence of the word in Matthew) for themselves. Under the circumstanc
es this clearly seemed the best thing to do.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 16 17}{\f0\fs24
Jesus response to this suggestion must have seemed incomprehensible to the disci
ples. The crowd didn t need to go away, because the disciples could give them some
thing to eat: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dovte aujtoi`" uJmei`" fagei`n}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f
0\fs24\i You}{\f0\fs24 give them (food) to eat (emphasis from the unnecessary pr
onoun). In Matthew s account they express their incredulity in the simple words we
have nothing here except five loaves and two fish. At this point the story bears
some intentional similarity to the comment of Elisha in the miraculous provision
of food from twenty loaves of barley and the response of the man from Baal-shal
ishah (}{\f0\fs24 2 Kgs 4:42 44}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 6:9}{\f0\fs24 , but what are those among so many? ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 18 19}{\f0\fs24 The miracl
e of the multiplication of the loaves and fish is not described indeed, it is not
even mentioned as such but only first discovered by the reader through its resul
ts, mentioned in v. }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 . Confronted with the problem, Jesus
first asks for the five loaves and two fish to be brought to him and commands t
he crowds to sit down (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnakliqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , to recline, a
s at a meal indeed, as at a banquet) on the grass. He then takes the bread, looks
up to heaven, and in rabbinic fashion blesses God for the gift of food. (The tra
ditional prayer was: Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who
bringest forth bread from the earth ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs2
4 masculine}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ber.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ber. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Berakot}}}{\f0\fs24
8:7; }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b.
}{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poetic line), or before a tracta
te indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ber.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ber. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 B
erakot}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 35a}{\f0\fs24 ; 46a.) Then he breaks the bread (a
nd fish) and gives it to his disciples, who in turn give it to the crowds. The s
equence of verbs or participles, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\
f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 lambavnein}{\f0\fs24 , take, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 euj
logei`n}{\f0\fs24 , bless, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kla`n}{\f0\fs24 , break, }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 didovnai}{\f0\fs24 , give, is the same as in the account of the Last Suppe
r (}{\f0\fs24 26:26 27}{\f0\fs24 ), suggesting an inevitable association of the tw
o stories (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the similarity with
the description of the ordinary meal in }{\f0\fs24 Acts 27:35}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ajnablevya eij" to;n oujranovn}{\f0\fs24 , having looked up into
the sky, lacking in }{\f0\fs24 26:26}{\f0\fs24 , reflects a common practice in co
nnection with prayer (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 M
ark 7:34}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 John 11:41}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:1}{\f0\fs24
; for }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{
\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 background, }{\f0\fs24 Ps 123:1}{\f0\fs24 ).
}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 20}{\f0\fs24


The statement of the miracle is really found in this verse in the observation th
at }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[fagon pavnte" kai; ejcortavsqhsan}{\f0\fs24 , everyone a
te and was full. The last verb, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 cortavzein}{\f0\fs24 , has th
e nuance of being completely satisfied ; it has already been used with clearly esch
atological associations in }{\f0\fs24 5:6}{\f0\fs24 . The miracle in this sense
anticipates the messianic age in which the hungry are to be fed (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{
\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 1:53}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 6:21}
{\f0\fs24 ). Messianic blessing also appears to be intended in the overabundance
of food. Thus the leftover fragments filled }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dwvdeka kofivno
u"}{\f0\fs24 , twelve baskets. This word for basket, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kovfino"}{\
f0\fs24 , considered typical for the Jews (}{\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek-En
glish Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature}{\f0\fs2
4 , ET, ed. W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W.
Danker (University of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f0\fs24 , 447), is used in the }{\f0\f
s24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New T
estament}}}{\f0\fs24 only in reference to the leftovers collected in the feedin
g of the five thousand (}{\f0\fs24 16:9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:43}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Joh
n 6:13}{\f0\fs24 ). A different word for basket, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 spuriv"}{\f0\
fs24 , a term used also among the Greeks, is used in reference to the collection
of the fragments left over from the feeding of the four thousand (}{\f0\fs24 15
:37}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 16:10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:8}{\f0\fs24 , }{\
f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 ). The fact that twelve baskets are referred to in this peric
ope probably symbolizes the twelve tribes of Israel (contra Luz), }{\f0\fs24 i.e
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang26
5 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , a portrayal of messianic fulfillment
brought to the Jews. The number of baskets in the two feedings is made important
by }{\f0\fs24 16:9 10}{\f0\fs24 . This alone encourages the intepreter to think o
f the significance of the numbers; it does not suggest, however, that every numb
er in the passage (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0
\fs24 , five loaves, two fishes, five thousand men) has symbolic significance. T
his miracle recalls God s miraculous, abundant provision of manna, bread, }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 a[rto"}{\f0\fs24 in the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the
OT}}}{\f0\fs24 , in the wilderness (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Exod 16:13 35}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Num 11:7 9}{\f0\fs24 ,
}{\f0\fs24 31 32}{\f0\fs24 ). The eschatological connotation of the manna miracle
is evident in &2ApocBar; 29:8 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 Rev 2:17}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 21}{\f0\fs24 The number
of those who were miraculously fed is reckoned as about [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJse
iv}{\f0\fs24 ] five thousand. Matthew alone among the four evangelists notes that
this was a count of the men and did not include the women and children who were
fed. No attempt is made, however, to give a total count of those who were fed.}
\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The miracle of the fe
eding of the five thousand is much more than just the supernatural provision for
the physical hunger of a large crowd on a specific occasion. There is no need t
o deny the historicity of the miracle simply because we have never witnessed a m
iraculous multiplication of food. At the same time, however, the literal, histor
ical miracle of Jesus on this occasion is full of ongoing and important signific
ance for Matthew s community and for us. Indeed, the miracle is a deed filled with
symbolism at more than one level, which is why Matthew (following Mark) takes t

he trouble to tell the very similar story of the feeding of the four thousand (s
ee }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 15:32 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The primary symbolism is that
of messianic provision, which both points to the reality of present fulfillment
and foreshadows the blessings of the eschaton (the Fourth Gospel develops this
idea, relating the feeding miracle also to the eucharist; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 John 6}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). This provision takes place in the wildern
ess, just as manna was provided in the wilderness. It is a kind of messianic ban
quet in which the people recline at table (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs2
4 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:11}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 ). Jesus is the messianic provider, the Christ a point left implici
t by Matthew in this passage. The hungry are filled now as they will also be fil
led in the future. The miracle typifies the full and complete blessing of humani
ty in the meeting of human need and the experience of ultimate well-being, unive
rsal shalom. The feeding of the multitude is thus the harbinger of good news for
Matthew s church and for Christians of every era. At another level and in specifi
c contrast to the feeding of the four thousand (which, as will be seen, points t
o the Gentiles), the symbolism of the twelve baskets suggests the special signif
icance of this miracle for Israel. Messianic fulfillment means (and especially f
or Matthew!) that Jesus will provide for Israel before considering the Gentiles.
And the feeding of the five thousand is an indication to the Jews that the Mess
iah is in their midst, offering to them as in the miracle of manna in the wilderne
ss the reality of salvation, the fulfillment of the promises.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Walking on the Water (14:
22 33)}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Achtemei
er, P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Person and Deed: Jesus and the Storm-Tossed Sea.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Int{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs22\i Int }{\f0\fs24\i Interpretation}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 16 (1962) 16
9 76. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Berg, W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\f
s22\i\lang1031 Die Rezeption alttestamentlicher Motive im Neuen Testament darges
tellt an den Seewandelerzhlungen}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Freiburg: Hochschule,
1979. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Braumann, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1031 Der sinkende Petrus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs2
2\i\lang1033 TZ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TZ }{\f0
\fs24\i\lang1031 Theologische Zeitschrift}{\f0\fs24 (ThZ)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 22 (1966) 403 14. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Carlisle, C. R.}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 Jesus Walking on the Water: A Note on Matthew 14:22 }{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 33. NTS 31 (1985) 151 55. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Denis, A. M.}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 La marche de Jsus sur les eaux}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 De Jsus aux vangiles}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 I. de la Potterie. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 BETL{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 BETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Bibliotheca ephemeridum
theologicarum lovaniensium}{\f0\fs24 (Leuven/Gembloux: Leuven UP/Peeters)}}}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 35. Gembloux: Duculot, 1967. 233 47. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\la
ng1033 Derrett, J. D. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Why and How Jesus Walked on th
e Sea. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 23 (1981) 330 48. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Heil, J. P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Jesus Walking on the Sea}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 AnBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs22 AnBib }{\f3\fs24\lang1040 Analecta biblica}{\f0\fs24 (Rome: PBI)}}
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 87. Rome: Biblical Institute, 1981. }{\plain\f0\fs22\
b\lang1033 Hill, D. F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Walking on the Water. }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ExpTim{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
2\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Times}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 99 (198

8) 267 69. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Kratz, R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain


\f0\fs22\lang1036 Der Seewandel des Petrus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0
\fs22\i\lang1033 BibLeb{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i
BibLeb }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Bibel und Leben}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 15 (1974)
86 101. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lvestam, E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1031 Wunder und Symbolhandlung: Eine Studie ber Matthus 14.28 31}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 KD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i KD }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Kerygma und Dogma}}}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 8 (1962) 124 35. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Ritt, H.}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Der Seewandel Jesu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
(Mark 6.45 52 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 par.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs22 par. }{\f0\fs24 parallel or paragraph}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 ). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 BZ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs22\i BZ }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Biblische Zeitschrift}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 23 (1979) 71 84. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Smit-Sibinga, J.}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 Matthew 14,22 33: Text and Composition. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
New Testament Textual Criticism}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang
1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 B. M. Metzger, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 J. E. Epp and G. D. Fee. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981. 15 33.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 22}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 And immediately}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
eujqevw"}{\f0\fs24 , immediately, is omitted in }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 * (ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f0\f
s24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 , an accidental omission according to the com
mittee. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 he
instructed the disciples}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}
{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 K P }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his,
after disciples, probably from the influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:
45}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang10
33 to get into the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. A few }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0
\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 S}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}
{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 33 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 mae) omit the d
efinite article }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tov}{\f0\fs24 , the, thus producing a boat. }}}{\
plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 boat and to go before him}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d.
}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him. }}}{\
plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 to the other side while he dismissed the crowds. }{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And after he had dismis
sed the crowds, he went up to the mountain privately in order to pray. And when
evening came, he was there alone. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 24}{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 But the boat was already}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f0\fs24
D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c,p}{\f0\f
s24 co omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[dh}{\f0\fs24 , already. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lan
g1033 a long distance}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 stadivou
" pollouv"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
many stadia. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Q}{\f0\fs24 has, in addition to a different word order, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 st
adivou" iJkanouv"}{\f0\fs24 , with approximately the same meaning; many }{\f0\fs
24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs

24 W 084 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs


24\super h}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 ) refer to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mev
son th" qalavssh"}{\f0\fs24 , the middle of the lake (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 Mark 6:47}{\f0\fs24 ). Since harmonization with Mark (and not }{\f0\fs2
4 John 6:19}{\f0\fs24 ) is probable, the committee concludes that the text of }{
\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 best accounts
for the other readings. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 37.}}}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\i\lang1033 from the land, being tossed about by the waves, for the wind was c
ontrary. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And in th
e fourth watch of the night, he came to them, walking across the lake. }{\plain\
f0\fs24\super\lang1033 26}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But when his disciples saw
him walking on the sea, they were terrified, saying: It is a ghost. And they cried
out in fear. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 27}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But
immediately [Jesus]}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 084 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs
24 sa bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus. Other witnesses (}
{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24
0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 )
place }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , to them, before }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
oJ Ihsouv"}{\f0\fs24 . Although the shorter reading may be original, it is also
possible that the name dropped out through homoioteleuton (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 O
I oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 ] with A}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 U}{\f0\fs24 TOIC). The committee
thus places the name in brackets. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 37.}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 spoke to them, saying: Be of good courage. It is I! Do no
t be afraid. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 28}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And Pe
ter answered him and said: Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the w
ater. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 29}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And he said: C
ome. And Peter got out of the boat and walked on the water, and he came}{\plain\f
0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\su
per h }{\f0\fs24 h. Some witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs
24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 073 0
119 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 ) omi
t }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , and, and have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlqei`n}
{\f0\fs24 , to come, a scribal softening of the completed action implied by }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 h\\lqen}{\f0\fs24 , he came. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 has both }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlqei}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 h\\lqen}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 to Jesus. }{\plain\f0\fs24\
super\lang1033 30}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But seeing the [strong]}{\plain\f0\
fs24\super\lang1033 I{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\supe
r I }{\f0\fs24 i. Some important witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 * 073 33 sa bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ijsc
urovn}{\f0\fs24 , strong, which may have been added to heighten the cause of Peter s
fear (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 the addition of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sfovdra}{\f
0\fs24 in W). A majority of the committee, however, regarded the word as necess
ary to explain Peter s increased fear. Thus the word is enclosed in brackets. See
}{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 38.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 wind, he was af
raid, and when he began to sink, he cried out, saying: Lord, save me. }{\plain\f0\
fs24\super\lang1033 31}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And Jesus immediately stretche
d out his hand and took hold of him, and he said to him: You of little faith, why
did you doubt? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 32}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And
when they got into the boat, the wind stopped. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
33}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And those who were in the boat worshiped him, sayi
ng: Truly you are the Son of God. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 eujqevw"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , immediately, is omit
ted in }{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par

}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 * }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \


ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 * (ff}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) }{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy
}{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 s,c}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
, an accidental omission according to the committee. See }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang10
33 TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs2
4 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , 36.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. Some {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 K P }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as
published in Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs
24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his, after disciples, probably fro
m the influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:45}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs
24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\f
s24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}
}{\f0\fs24 , 36.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. A few {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscri
pt(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 S}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 33 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24
mae) omit the definite article }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tov}{\f0\fs24 , the, thus pro
ducing a boat. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c,p}{\f0\fs24
co omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[dh}{\f0\fs24 , already. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 stadivou"
pollouv"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
many stadia. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Q}{\f0\fs24 has, in addition to a different word order, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 st
adivou" iJkanouv"}{\f0\fs24 , with approximately the same meaning; many }{\f0\fs
24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\
f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C
}{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\
f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex
Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W 084 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24
\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}
{\f0\fs24 ) refer to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mevson th" qalavssh"}{\f0\fs24 , the mid
dle of the lake (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:
47}{\f0\fs24 ). Since harmonization with Mark (and not }{\f0\fs24 John 6:19}{\f0
\fs24 ) is probable, the committee concludes that the text of }{\f0\fs24 B{\foot

note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}


{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 best accounts for the ot
her readings. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on
the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 37.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 084 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\f
s24\super c}{\f0\fs24 sa bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus
. Other witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publis
hed in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\f
s24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 ) place }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtoi`"}{
\f0\fs24 , to them, before }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsouv"}{\f0\fs24 . Although the
shorter reading may be original, it is also possible that the name dropped out t
hrough homoioteleuton (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 OI
oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 ] with A}{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 U}{\f0\fs24 TOIC). The committee thus places the name in brackets. S
ee }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TC
GNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New
Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 37.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. Some witnesses ({\f7\fs32\lan
g1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Co
dex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published
in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24
W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}}}{\f0\fs24 073 0119 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\su
per 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai
v}{\f0\fs24 , and, and have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlqei`n}{\f0\fs24 , to come, a scri
bal softening of the completed action implied by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h\\lqen}{\f
0\fs24 , he came. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 has both }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlqei}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 h\\lqen}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. Some important witnesses ({\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 * 073 33 sa bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ijscurovn}{\f0\fs24 , strong, which may have been added to heighten the cause of
Peter s fear (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the addition of }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 sfovdra}{\f0\fs24 in W). A majority of the committee, however, re
garded the word as necessary to explain Peter s increased fear. Thus the word is e
nclosed in brackets. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commen
tary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 38.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
As in both Mark and John, this miracle occurs immediately after the feeding of t
he five thousand. The effect of these successive narratives is powerful. The que
stion of the identity of this Jesus, which has been before the readers previousl

y (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f


0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 7:28 29}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 11:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13:54 56}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), espec
ially in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:27}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , and which was
left implicit in the preceding narrative, again cries out for an answer that is
now unequivocally given in v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 33}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 . This conclusion can be said to serve also as a fitting one to the miracle
of the feeding (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 the association of the passages in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 6
:52}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Green (141) appropriately describes the pericope
as an epiphany of Jesus to the disciples, in the same category as the Transfigur
ation (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 17:1 8}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. In {\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22 27}{\f0\f
s24 and }{\f0\fs24 32 33}{\f0\fs24 , Matthew is dependent on }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:45 5
2}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 6:16 2
1}{\f0\fs24 ). Beginning with this passage down through }{\f0\fs24 16:12}{\f0\fs
24 there are no Lukan parallels. }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28 31}{\f0\fs
24 , on the other hand, are unique to Matthew and are drawn from his own special
source. Matthew again abridges Mark, but not to the same extent as usual. The c
hanges to be noted are the following: in v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 Matthew omi
ts Mark s problematic }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pro;" bhqsai>davn}{\f0\fs24 , to Bethsaid
a (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:45}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 John 6:17}{\f0\fs24 : to Capernaum ), and Mark s (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:45}{\
f0\fs24 ) }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtov}{\f0\fs24 , he (himself), before the verb dism
issed ; in v. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 he adds a favorite phrase, }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 kat` ijdivan}{\f0\fs24 , privately, in describing Jesus going up the mountain;
in v. }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 he replaces Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn mevsw`/
th`" qalavssh"}{\f0\fs24 , in the middle of the lake (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:47}{\f0\fs
24 ), with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h]dh stadivou" pollou;" ajpo; th`" gh`"}{\f0\fs24
, already many stadia from the land (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 John 6:19}{\f0\fs24 : twenty five or thirty stadia ), and omits Mark s }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ijdw;n aujtouv"}{\f0\fs24 , and seeing them, }{\f0\fs24 i.
e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang2
65 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , presumably from the land (}{\f0\fs24
Mark 6:48}{\f0\fs24 ); in v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 he omits Mark s enigmatic }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; h[qelen parelqei`n aujtouv}{\f0\fs24 , and he was ready t
o pass them by (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:48}{\f0\fs24 ), which does not fit his portraya
l of Jesus. In v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 he adds the word }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
maqhtaiv}{\f0\fs24 , disciples, as well as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpo; tou` fovbou}{
\f0\fs24 , out of fear, to stress the mental state of the disciples. At the very e
nd of the pericope (v. }{\f0\fs24 33}{\f0\fs24 ), he substitutes the remarkable
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosekuvnhsan aujtw`/ levgonte": ajlhqw`" qeou` uiJo;" ei\\}
{\f0\fs24 , they worshiped him, saying: Truly you are the Son of God,
for Mark s much
weaker they were exceedingly astonished (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:51}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew
furthermore omits Mark s closing sentence, For they did not understand concerning
the loaves, but their heart was hardened (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:52}{\f0\fs24 ). By co
ntrast the disciples in Matthew know the identity of Jesus and without hesitatio
n confess him to be the Son of God. In this passage Matthew has thus more often
altered Mark deliberately rather than merely for the sake of abridgement. The ea
rlier pericope describing Jesus stilling of the storm at sea (}{\f0\fs24 8:23 27}{\
f0\fs24 ) is parallel in many respects to the present pericope (see }{\f0\fs24\i
Form/Structure/Setting}{\f0\fs24 D on that pericope).}\par

\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. Although the narrative of the events


themselves constitutes the primary matter in this pericope, the words spoken by
Jesus ({\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{
\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24
), Peter (v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\fs24 ), and the disciples (v. }{\f0\fs24 33}{\f
0\fs24 ) assume a special importance. The passage can be outlined in the followi
ng way: (1) the departure of the disciples and the dismissal of the crowd (}{\f0
\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 ver
se(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22 23a}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) Jesus prays alone on the mou
ntain (v. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) the strong wind on the sea (v. }{\f0\fs
24 24}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) the appearance of Jesus and the fear of the disciples (}{
\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24
verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 25 26}{\f0\fs24 ); (5) the self-revelation of Jes
us and announcement of comfort (v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 ); (6) Peter s request
and his walking on the water (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28 29}{\f0\fs24 )
; (7) Peter s wavering and his cry for help (v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\fs24 ); (8) the
saving and rebuke of Peter (v. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24 ); (9) the end of the wi
nd (v. }{\f0\fs24 32}{\f0\fs24 ); and (10) the disciples confession of faith (v.
}{\f0\fs24 33}{\f0\fs24 ). (5) occurs }{\f0\fs24 exactly at the center of the dou
ble story (Gerhardsson, }{\f0\fs24\i Mighty Acts}{\f0\fs24 , 57). It is clear fro
m the structure of the pericope (as well as from comparison with Mark) that }{\f
0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 ve
rse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28 31}{\f0\fs24 are a curious parenthetical intrus
ion into the main story. In form, the narrative is thus similar to the miracles
of healing: }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the express
ion of the need of the disciples (and Peter), (Peter s request for help), the mira
cle of the calm sea, and the response of the disciples. It is at the same time,
however, an epiphany story. Although there are some correspondences in the struc
ture of the text (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\
fs24 , It is a ghost
It is I
if it is you [}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 26 28}{\f0\fs2
4 ]; Lord, save me
You of little faith, why did you doubt [}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 30 31}{\f0\fs24 ]), there is practically no syntactic parallelism to be no
ted.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. On the problem of the historicity of this peric
ope, see {\f0\fs24\i Form/Structure/Setting}{\f0\fs24 E for the preceding perico
pe (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0
\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 13 21}{\f0\fs24 ). For (unpersuasive) Helle
nistic parallels as well as the Buddhist story (}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Jataka}{\f0\
fs24 190) of a disciple who walked on water or sank depending on whether he foc
used on the Buddha, see Luz.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang103
2 eujqevw"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , immediately, joins this passage closely with
the preceding one, as also in Mark. Jesus apparently orders the disciples to re
turn by boat without him (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" to; pevran}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 , to the other side, presumably to Capernaum on the west shore of the
lake [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ] but left vague in
Matthew), not simply in order to dismiss the crowds properly but that he might l
inger in prayer according to his original intention (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). It is at least possible that the disciples were sen

t away in order to keep them from possible involvement in designs for a messiani
c revolt (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 John 6:15}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Perhaps Ma
tthew s omission of he was ready to pass them by (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 6:4
8}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) indicates the assumption of Jesus deliberate plan to
teach the disciples through his mastery of the sea. (Matthew seems oblivious to
Mark s apparently theophanic language [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Exod. 33:22}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 ].) Since there is no evidence of imminent danger from Herod, a
return to the western shore of the lake is not at all impossible (}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0
\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 John 6:17}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The boat with disciples in it sug
gests the church, as also in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 23}{\f0\fs24 Jesus went
up }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" to; o[ro"}{\f0\fs24 , into the mountain (}{\f0\fs24 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 5:1}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:29}{\f
0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:1}{\f0\fs24 ), one of the hills along the northeast or ea
st shore of the sea of Galilee. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kat` ijdivan}{\f0\fs24 , priv
ately, picks up again the same phrase used in v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\
fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17:1}{\f0\fs24 ), and the poi
nt is further strengthened by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 movno" h\\n ejkei`}{\f0\fs24 ,
he was there alone. Moses typology hardly seems to be intended here (contra Davie
s-Allison), the reference to the mountain being merely borrowed from Mark. The s
olitude of Jesus is the important motif for Matthew at this point. The other ref
erences to Jesus praying (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 proseuvcesqai}{\f0\fs24 ) in Matth
ew are in }{\f0\fs24 26:36}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 42}{
\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 44}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:28}{\f0\fs24 ), all in connection with his own imminent suf
fering and death. In the present instance, the same thoughts may be presumed to
be in Jesus mind, prompted perhaps by the report of John the Baptist s death (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the initial departure of Jesus into the
wilderness privately in v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 following the report referr
ed to in v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ). The time reference }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oj
yiva" de; genomevnh"}{\f0\fs24 , when it was evening, given the }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 eujqevw}{\f0\fs24 , immediately, of v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 , may mean simply
a time somewhat later in the evening than that referred to by the same phrase i
n v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too
the reference to the fourth watch of the night in v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 ). B
ut the phrase may simply be a relic of the separate transmission of the story in
oral tradition.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 24}{\f0\fs24
The boat, which had left some time earlier, was already many stadia (}{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 stadivou"}{\f0\fs24 , the only occurrence of the word in Matthew) from th
e land. A stadion was an ancient measure of distance equal to 185 meters (see }{
\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\f
s24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Othe
r Early Christian Literature}{\f0\fs24 , ET, ed. W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich;
2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker (University of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f
0\fs24 , 764); hence, the boat was perhaps a mile or two from shore. The discipl
es had to fight a contrary (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejnantivo"}{\f0\fs24 ; the only
occurrence of the word in Matthew) wind, and the boat was harassed (}{\f8\fs24\lan

g1032 basanizovmenon}{\f0\fs24 ) by the waves (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl


ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:24}{\f0\fs24 ), so that it is not strange that they ha
d been able to row only a relatively short distance.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 25 26}{\f0\fs24
The Romans divided the night (between 6 }{\f0\fs24\scaps p.m.}{\f0\fs24 and 6
}{\f0\fs24\scaps a.m.}{\f0\fs24 ) into four watches. The fourth watch (}{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 fulakh`/}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the
same use of the word in }{\f0\fs24 24:43}{\f0\fs24 ) was accordingly between 3 }
{\f0\fs24\scaps a.m.}{\f0\fs24 and 6 }{\f0\fs24\scaps a.m.}{\f0\fs24 , and thus
the disciples had been fighting the storm for a large part of the night. Althou
gh the disciples were undoubtedly exhausted, cold, and wet, Matthew s narrative fo
cuses on one supreme element, their fear. They were already afraid for their liv
es, but the specter of someone walking on the water among the waves in the darknes
s must have been absolutely terrifying (the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 peripatei`
n}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejpiv}{\f0\fs24 occur in both v. }{\f0\fs2
4 25}{\f0\fs24 and v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 , once with the accusative, }{\f0
\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24
\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , across, and once with the geni
tive, upon ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 28}{\f0\fs
24 ). It is thus perfectly understandable that the disciples }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ejtaravcqhsan}{\f0\fs24 , were terrified (the word is used again in Matthew only
in }{\f0\fs24 2:3}{\f0\fs24 , but in a different sense), concluded they were see
ing some kind of ghost (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 favntasma}{\f0\fs24 ; in the }{\f0\fs2
4 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Tes
tament}}}{\f0\fs24 only here and in the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:49}{\f0\f
s24 ), and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpo; tou` fovbou e[kraxan}{\f0\fs24 , cried out i
n fear (as Matthew alone notes). Given the popular belief that the sea was the ho
me of evil spirits (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Rev
13:1}{\f0\fs24 ), they undoubtedly thought the ghost meant to do them ill. In }{\
f0\fs24 Luke 24:37}{\f0\fs24 , the risen Jesus appears to the disciples, who are
filled with fear and conclude they are seeing a spirit (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pneu`
ma}{\f0\fs24 ; but D: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 favntasma}{\f0\fs24 ; as in our text;
for a similar word, see }{\f0\fs24 Wis 18:17}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0
\fs24 symbolism concerning the mastery of God over the sea and specifically his
walking upon it (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\
fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 Ps 77:16}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Job
9:8}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 38:16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\f0\fs24 wisdom in }{\f0\fs24 Sir 24:5}{\f0\fs24 ), while significant in retro
spect, could hardly have occurred to the disciples at the time, although for the
evangelist and his readers it must have been suggestive.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 27}{\f0\fs24 Jesus immed
iately (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eujquv"}{\f0\fs24 ) acts to calm the great fear of t
he disciples by identifying himself: Be of good courage [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qars
ei`te}{\f0\fs24 , used elsewhere in Matthew only in }{\f0\fs24 9:2}{\f0\fs24 , }
{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ]. It is I! Do not be afraid (for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 fobe
i`sqai}{\f0\fs24 used similarly in exceptional situations, see }{\f0\fs24 17:7}
{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 28:5}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 ejgwv eijmi}{\f0\fs24 , It is I, probably had a deeper meaning to Matthew a
nd his readers than the simple self-identification of Jesus that it is to the di
sciples. In a theophany-like context such as this, the words allude to the defin
ition of the name Yahweh (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgwv eijmi}{\f0\fs24 = }{\f0\fs2
4\caps I Am}{\f0\fs24 ) given in the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of th

e OT}}}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f0\fs24 Exod 3:14}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \


pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c
ompare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Matt 22:32}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 John 8:58}{\f0\
fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 14:62}{\f0\fs24 ) and }{\f0\fs24 Isa 43:10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{
\f0\fs24 51:12}{\f0\fs24 . God is present uniquely in Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 28 29}{\f0\fs24
The section now inserted by Matthew (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28 31}{\f
0\fs24 ) focuses on Peter, who is of exceptional importance to the evangelist (}
{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 16:16 19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:24 27}{\f0\fs24 in this section of the Gos
pel). The passage is marked by Matthean vocabulary, and thus Matthew may have co
mposed the passage, or at least has left his impress on the material if it deriv
es from oral tradition (thus Schweizer, Davies-Allison). Similarities reflecting
possible dependence on the story of the stilling of the storm may also be kept
in mind. Peter is here paradoxically a model both of faith and of lack of faith.
The story is also a demonstration of the saving power of the Lord. If we take t
he narrative as historical, it is difficult to know what lay behind Peter s }{\f0\
fs24 request. It may be that Peter wanted to participate with Jesus in this mira
cle as he had in the preceding one. Perhaps it was no more than impulsiveness or
the desire to do something excitingly dangerous to have a once-in-a-lifetime expe
rience which appealed to him. The impossible would be possible through the power o
f Jesus. Thus Peter s request is based upon faith in Jesus and not upon an uncerta
inty about whether the apparition really was Jesus (this reality is assumed in t
he protasis of the condition). He did get out of the boat and did walk toward Je
sus: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 periepavthsen ejpi; ta; u[data}{\f0\fs24 , he walked on
the water (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 ; the substitution of }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 u[data}{\f0\fs24 [the plural here, as in }{\f0\fs24 8:32}{\f0\fs24
] is probably a Semitism; water, for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qavlassa}{\f0\fs24 , sea, m
ay reflect simply the short distance he walked). For }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24
and Jewish background, see Lvestam.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 30}{\f0\fs24
Peter s lack of faith is caused by a failure of concentration: he is distracted by
the fierce wind. His mind became more affected by the circumstances than by fai
th in the power of Jesus, and once again he became filled with fear (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confe
r,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 a similar sad turn in his life in }{\f0\fs24
26:69 75}{\f0\fs24 ). He began then to sink (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 katapontivzesqai}
{\f0\fs24 ) and cried out in desperation: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie, sw`sovn me
}{\f0\fs24 , Lord, save me. Almost exactly the same cry is made by the disciples i
n the storm-tossed boat in }{\f0\fs24 8:25}{\f0\fs24 . There is undeniably a par
adigmatic character to this cry for salvation. In the moment of most dire human
need, there is but one cry, just as there is but one source of salvation.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 31}{\f0\fs24
Jesus responds to this desperate cry immediately (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eujqevw"}{\f
0\fs24 ), stretching out his hand (as in }{\f0\fs24 8:3}{\f0\fs24 ) to save Pete
r. Jesus then addresses Peter as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojligovpiste}{\f0\fs24 , you
of little faith (see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 6:30}{\f0
\fs24 for this word in Matthew), just as he did the disciples in the boat accor
ding to }{\f0\fs24 8:26}{\f0\fs24 , and asks }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" tiv ejdivs
tasa"}{\f0\fs24 , Why did you doubt? (the only other use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 di
stavzein}{\f0\fs24 in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 is in }{\f0\fs24 28:17}{
\f0\fs24 ; it means to be of a divided mind ). Here the object of the doubt is whet

her it was possible indeed to walk on the water and hence indirectly expresses a
doubt concerning the power of Jesus. Peter was nevertheless saved. The underlyi
ng message here is as much for the disciples and for Matthew s church as it is for
Peter himself.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 32}{\f0\fs24 A sometimes
unnoticed aspect of the story is the miraculous cessation of the powerful wind.
This makes the story quite similar to that of the stilling of the storm in }{\f
0\fs24 8:23 27}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkovpasen oJ a[nemo"}{\f0\fs24 , th
e wind stopped, not apparently in response to a command of Jesus (as in }{\f0\fs2
4 8:26}{\f0\fs24 ) but simply in response to his presence in the boat.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 33}{\f0\fs24
Matthew s own ending to the pericope makes a most remarkable contrast to the endin
g of the similar story in }{\f0\fs24 8:23 27}{\f0\fs24 . There the men marvel and as
k the question, What sort of person is this that the winds and the sea obey him? H
ere the disciples worshiped him (for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 proskunei`n}{\f0\fs24 , wo
rship, applied to Jesus, see }{\f0\fs24 2:2}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 ,
}{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:18}{\f0\fs24 ;
}{\f0\fs24 15:25}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 28:9}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs2
4 ) and conclude with the confession }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajlhqw`" qeo`" uiJo;" e
i\\}{\f0\fs24 , Truly you are the Son of God. (Modified by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qeo
u`}{\f0\fs24 [emphatic in position], }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uiJov"}{\f0\fs24 is d
efinite despite the lack of the definite article: in the context the translation
a Son of God is absurd.) For Son of God, see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on
}{\f0\fs24 4:3}{\f0\fs24 . As the one who walks upon the water and calms the st
orm, Jesus embodies the very presence of God (see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\
fs24 on v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 ). Here Son of God is probably understood by t
he disciples as the unique messenger of God, God s messianic agent, and not, as th
e later church will make explicit, the actual incarnation of God. This conclusio
n has an inevitability about it, given the preceding two narratives. It strangel
y anticipates the answer given to the direct question of Jesus in }{\f0\fs24 16:
16}{\f0\fs24 , which gives the impression of being the first time the question h
as received this answer. Yet Matthew s Christology builds throughout the narrative
of the words }{\f0\fs24 and deeds of Jesus that begins in chap. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\
f0\fs24 . The present passage and verse are a climactic point in the narrative t
hus far (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf
. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 15:39}{\f
0\fs24 ; Matt }{\f0\fs24 27:54}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 16:16}{\f0\fs24 is yet a
higher climax and a turning point of the whole Gospel.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Jesus has power over
the sea: he walks upon the deep as God alone does, and the sea respects his wish
es. If the Israelites regarded the sea as the domain of evil powers (see }{\plai
n\f0\fs24\i\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 8:23 27}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), then the terrifying experience of a st
orm at sea in the dead of night becomes even more symbolic of the human experien
ce of evil (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Ps 69:15 16}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The fear
of the disciples is like the fear of all who are threatened by insecurity in th
e face of the unknown. But when Jesus appears to those in extreme need, it is as
one who has sovereign power, not only over the forces of nature but over evil i
tself. Thus his words, Be of good courage. It is I! Do not be afraid, are not empt
y or meaningless. Fear is unwarranted where Jesus is present. If in circumstance
s of personal need one responds in faith and, like Peter, steps out into the unk
nown but begins to submerge again through doubt under the all-too-real presence
of evil, then at the cry, Lord, save me, Jesus is immediately there to deliver the
believer (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Ps 18:16 17}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Then will
come the gentle rebuke: You of little faith, why did you doubt? In the experience

of the Christian, Jesus is God with us (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1:23}{\plain\f0


\fs24\lang1033 ), the ever-present source of deliverance (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i c
onfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
28:20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). (For a similar meditation upon God s deliverance
employing the symbol of the water and storm, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Pss
69:1 3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13 15}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 107:23 32}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .) In some s
uch way as this, the miracle of this pericope was meant to be understood by and
find practical application in Matthew s church. The Jesus who multiplied the loave
s and fish and who appeared to the disciples walking on the water and who saved
Peter from sinking, this same Jesus is the Lord of the church who has brought sa
lvation and who stands similarly prepared to save his people, even when they may
doubt, from the evils that beset them. This Jesus who rules over nature and eve
n the realm of evil is rightly worshiped as truly the Son of God. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Healing of the Sick: A Su
mmary Passage (14:34 36)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 34}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 And when they had crossed over, they came to the shore at Gennes
aret.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. According to }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24\super *}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 Gennhsavr}{\f0\fs24 , Gennesar (}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\f
s24 : }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Gennhsaravt}{\f0\fs24 , Gennesarat ); according to (}{\f0
\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\su
per 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Gennhsarevq}{\f0
\fs24 , Gennesareth ; the spelling }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Gennhsarevt}{\f0\fs24 , Genne
saret, however, is found in }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 (N) W }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 G}{\f0\fs24 0119 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f
0\fs24\super\lang1033 35}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And the people of that plac
e recognized him and sent word into the whole of that region. And they brought t
o him all who were not well, }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 36}{\plain\f0\fs24\
i\lang1033 and they were pleading with him that they might only touch the hem o
f his garment. And as many as touched it were made whole.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a. According to }{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }
{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 *}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy}
{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 s,c,p}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f8\fs24
\lang1032 Gennhsavr}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Gennesar (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Beza
e or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 : }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Gennhsaravt}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Gennesarat );
according to (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\
f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
) }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f8\
fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 Theodotion}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR
}{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang10
32 Gennhsarevq}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Gennesareth ; the spelling }{\plain\f8\fs
24\lang1032 Gennhsarevt}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Gennesaret, however, is found i
n }{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\f
s32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql

\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang


1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (N) W }{\plain
\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 0119 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 f
}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
As in Mark and John, the two preceding miracle narratives are followed in Matthe
w by a summary of healings done by Jesus. These two narratives are similarly pre
ceded by a summary of Jesus healings (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). These formu
laic summaries are of particular importance in Matthew (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:
24 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:16 17}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:35}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; see Gerhards
son, }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Mighty Acts}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , 20 37), re
minding the readers continually of the reality of the good news of Jesus proclama
tion. Jesus heals again, although this is not his primary calling or his supreme
work.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew is closely dependent on Mark
({\f0\fs24 Mark 6:53 56}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 John 6:22 25}{\f0\fs24 ) but as usual abbreviates his source. In v. }{
\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 Matthew omits Mark s note }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; proswrmi
vsqhsan}{\f0\fs24 , and they came into the harbor (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:53}{\f0\fs24
), and in v. }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 , Mark s succeeding words, and when they got o
ut of the boat, immediately (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:54}{\f0\fs24 ). On the other hand,
in v. }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 Matthew adds the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ a
[ndre" tou` tovpou ejkeivnou}{\f0\fs24 , the people of that place, to identify the
subject of the verbs and alone refers to the people of the region bringing }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 pavnta}{\f0\fs24 , all, their sick folk. Matthew also smooths Mark s
rough syntax (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:55b}{\f0\fs24 ). He further omits }{\f0\fs24 Ma
rk 6:56a}{\f0\fs24 , and wherever he came into villages or cities or into the fie
lds, they laid their sick in the marketplaces, thus restricting the summary of he
alings to Gennesaret.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The straightforward narrative form of the peric
ope is dictated by the close dependence on Mark. The content can be outlined as
follows: (1) arrival in Gennesaret (v. {\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the recogni
tion of Jesus and the bringing of the sick (v. }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 ); and (3
) healings even by the touching of Jesus garment (v. }{\f0\fs24 36}{\f0\fs24 ). L
ittle structural parallelism is evident.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 34}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The verb }{\plain\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 diapera`n}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , cross over, is used elsewhere in M
atthew only in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , where it
also refers to crossing the lake from the east shore to the west. In }{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 5:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (the only other occurrence of
Gennesaret in the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 besi
des the Markan parallel to the present passage [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 6
:53}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ]), the sea itself is called the lake [}{\plain\f8\f
s24\lang1032 livmnhn}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ] of Gennesaret. Gennesaret, or Gen
nesar, is either a village or a region (or both) that lies on the shore just a c
ouple of miles southwest of Capernaum. No threat to the life of Jesus is implied
.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 35}{\f0\fs24 Given Genne

saret s proximity to Capernaum, it was to be expected that people there would reco
gnize Jesus (and his disciples). They sent word (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpevsteila
n}{\f0\fs24 , sent, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , sent
the message) of Jesus presence there to the whole of the surrounding region (a ge
neral rather than specific reference) in order that others too might be helped,
but perhaps too because it was good for business. Hearing the report, people bro
ught all (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pavnta"}{\f0\fs24 ) their needy. For the expressio
n }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kakw`" e[conta"}{\f0\fs24 , being sick, see too the summarie
s of }{\f0\fs24 4:24}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:16}{\f0\fs24 as well as }{\f0\fs2
4 9:12}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 36}{\f0\fs24
Although no mention is made of the size of the crowds who came, this verse sugge
sts the numbers were very large. Jesus probably healed in his normal way, }{\f0\
fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\
i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , directly. But there were appa
rently so many people in need of healing that they pressed around him and begged
(}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 parekavloun}{\f0\fs24 ; for the same use of the verb, }{\f
0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:5}{\f0\fs24 ) to touch th
e hem of his garment (for this, see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\f
s24 9:20}{\f0\fs24 ). Such is the power of Jesus that all who touched him on thi
s occasion were instantly cured of their maladies. The word for made whole, }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 dieswvqhsan}{\f0\fs24 , occurs }{\f0\fs24 in Matthew only here (wh
ere it carries no further meaning than the similar meaning of }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 sw/vzein}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
9:21 22}{\f0\fs24 ); in itself, however, it hints at the salvation ultimately to be
accomplished by the Savior (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 1:21}{\f0\fs24 ). The christological significance of the pericope is left i
mplicit in Matthew (as in Mark).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Jesus again engages i
n a healing ministry as part of his proclamation of the dawning of the kingdom o
f God. The healings and their inclusiveness ( all ) point to and foreshadow the bles
sings of the eschatological order in its final realization in the future. Jesus
is central to the experience of, and even the possibility of, these healings. Hi
s power is so overwhelming that simply to touch his garment is to experience imm
ediate healing. The same presence and power of Jesus are available to the church
in ways that transcend temporary, ad hoc healings of this kind. The salvation e
xperienced by the church goes beyond what was experienced at Gennesaret; the hea
lings at Gennesaret are at best only anticipations of the eschatological wholene
ss of the church to be experienced by every believer.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Jesus Criticism of the Pha
risees (15:1 11)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Baumgarten, A. I.}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Korban}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 and the Pharisaic Paradosis. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JANESCU{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JANESCU }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of the
Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
16 (1984) 5 17. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Berger, K.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Gesetzesauslegung Jesu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . 1:
272 77, 461 507. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Booth, R. P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Jesus and the Laws of Purity}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang103
3 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JSNTSup{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22\i JSNTSup }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament}
{\f0\fs24 Supplement Series}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 13. Sheffield: }{\plain
\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i

JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old Testament}{\f0\fs24 Biblica
l Studies}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1986. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Broer,
I.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Freiheit vom Gesetz und
Radikalisierung des Gesetzes}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 SBS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SBS }{\f0\fs24\lang
1031 Stuttgarter Bibelstudien}{\f0\fs24 (Stuttgart/Wurzburg: Echter/KBW)}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 99. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1980}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\b\lang1033 . Carlston, C. E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Things That Defile (
Mark 7,14) and the Law in Matthew and Mark. NTS 15 (1968 69) 75 96. }{\plain\f0\fs22\
b\lang1033 Daube, D.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Responsibilities of Master and Dis
ciples in the Gospels. NTS 19 (1972 73) 1 15. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Derrett, J.
D. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f8\fs22\i\lang1032 KORBAN, O ESTIN DWRO
N}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . NTS 16 (1970) 364 68. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Fitz
myer, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Aramaic Qorban Inscription from Jebel Hall
et et-Turi and Mk 7:11/Mt 15:5. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Lite
rature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 78 (1959) 60 65. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Hbn
er, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Gesetz 176 82. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Ksemann
, E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Matthus 15,1 14. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Exeget
ische Versuche und Besinnungen}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Gttingen: Vandenhoeck &
Ruprecht, 1960. 1:237 42. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Krmer, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Eine Anmerkung zum Verstndnis von Mt 15,6a.}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 WD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i WD }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Wort und Dienst}}}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 16 (1981) 67 70. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Kmmel, W. G.}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 ussere und innere Reinheit des Mensche
n bei Jesus.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Das Wort un
d die Wrter}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0
\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 G. Friedrich, }{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22
ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 H. Balz a
nd S. Schulz. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1973. 35 46. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lamb
recht, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Jesus and the Law: An Investigation of Mark 7
:1 23. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs22\i ETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses}}}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 53 (1977) 24 82. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lhrmann, D.}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 womit er alle Speisen fr rein erklrte
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (Mk 7.19). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 WD{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i WD }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Wort und Di
enst}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 16 (1981) 71 92. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Merk
el, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Markus 7.15: }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Jesus
wort ber die innere Verunreinigung.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\l
ang1033 ZRGG{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZRGG }{\f0\
fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr Religions- und Geistesgeschichte}}}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 20 (1968) 340 63. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Paschen, W.}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Rein und Unrein}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang103
3 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs22 SANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}}}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033 24. Munich: Ksel, 1970. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Risnen, H.}
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Jesus and the Food Laws: Reflections on Mark 7.15. JSNT
16 (1982) 79 100. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Schoeps, H. J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Jsus et la loi juive.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\p
lain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 RHPR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
22\i RHPR }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Revue d histoire et de philosophic religieuses}}}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 33 (1953) 1 20.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \sa180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs2
4\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Then Pharisees}{\plain\f0\fs24\sup
er\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f

0\fs24 a. }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{


\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ}{\f0\fs24 , the, the definite article going
with Pharisees, probably through influence of the Markan parallel (}{\f0\fs24 Mark
7:1}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 and scribes}{\plain\f0\fs24\supe
r\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0
\fs24 b. Many witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0119
}{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,h}{\f0
\fs24 mae bo}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 ) have the order scribes and Pharisee
s, probably because of its frequency in Matthew.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 fr
om Jerusalem came to Jesus, saying: }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 2}{\plain\f0
\fs24\i\lang1033
Why do your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? F
or they do not wash their hands whenever }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 they eat br
ead. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 3}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And he answere
d and said to them: And why do you yourselves transgress the commandment of God b
ecause of your tradition? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 4}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\la
ng1033 For God said:}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. Some witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lan
g1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 *}{\f0\fs24\super ,2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}
{\f0\fs24 W 0106 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 f}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy
}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejneteivlato levgwn}{\f0
\fs24 , commanded, saying, probably a scribal expansion (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejntolhvn}{\f0\fs24 , commandment, in v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs
24 ). See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 38.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Honor
your}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. Translating }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovn}{\f0\fs24
, }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
the, as your. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{
\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 K}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f
0\fs24 N W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 sou`}{\f0\fs24 , your, to produce exact correspondence with the }{\f0\fs24 L
XX}{\f0\fs24 text of }{\f0\fs24 Exod 20:12}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Deut 5:16}
{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 too the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:10}{
\f0\fs24 . See also next }{\f0\fs24\i Note}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1
033 father and your }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. Translating }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 thvn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
the, as your. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss}{\f0\fs24 (N W it }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 sou`}{\f0\fs24 , your, thus conforming the text exactly to that of t
he }{\f0\fs24 LXX}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 Deut 5:16}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 cf.}{
\f0\fs24 the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:10}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\l
ang1033 mother, and, Let the one who speaks evil of father or mother most certain
ly be put to death. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 5}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
But you say: Whenever one says to one s father or mother: Whatever you would have be
nefited from me is}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujdevn ejstin}{\f0\fs24 , is nothing, at th
e end of the verse, resulting in the meaning the gift you would have gained from
me is nothing. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 now }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. Now
is added to the translation for clarity.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 a gift,
}{\p
lain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 6}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 one need not at all su
pport one s parents. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. The critical text reads }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 to;n patevra aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his father. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}
{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 Q}{\f0\fs24 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 vg
}{\f0\fs24\super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) add
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h] th;n mhtevra aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , or his mother, and others
slight variants thereof. The phrase could have been added to bring about agreem

ent with }{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 5}{\f0\fs24 and the parallel in }{


\f0\fs24 Mark 7:12}{\f0\fs24 , or it could have accidentally dropped because of
the similar ending }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his (or deliberately om
itted for stylistic reasons). The committee omits the phrase based on the weight
of }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TC
GNT}{\f0\fs24 , 38. Parents is used in the translation to reflect the inclusivenes
s of }{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 5}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1
033 And you cancel out the word}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super i }{\f0\fs24 i. }{\f7\fs32\lang103
7 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 *}{\f0\fs24\super ,2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 084 }{\f0\fs2
4\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n novmon}{\f0\fs
24 , the law ; }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0
\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs2
4\super h}{\f0\fs24 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n ejntolhvn}{\f0\fs24 , the comm
andment. The latter appears to be a harmonization with v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24
. While }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n lovgon}{\f0\fs24 , the word, could be caused by }
{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:13}{\f0\fs24 , the committee preferred the weight of }{\f7\fs32
\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 . S
ee }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 of God becau
se of your tradition. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 7}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang10
33 Hypocrites, Isaiah prophesied rightly concerning you, saying:}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li1800 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 8}{\f0\fs24 This people}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 j{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super j }{\f0\fs24 j. A number of }{\f0\fs24\
scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 [}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\s
uper 1}{\f0\fs24 ] }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0
\fs24 ) harmonize the citation with the }{\f0\fs24 LXX}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f0\fs24
Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 by adding }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejggivzei moi oJ lao;" ou\\to
" tw`/ stovmati aujtw`n kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , the people is near to me with their mout
h and. }}}{\f0\fs24 honors me with their lips,}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li2160 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 but their heart is distant f
rom me.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li1800 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 9}{\f0\fs24 And vainly they worship me}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi-360 \li2160 \sa180 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 teaching doctrines wh
ich are human commandments. \par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 10}{\f0\fs24 And
when he had called the crowd together, he said to them: Hear and understand. }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 11}{\f0\fs24 It is not}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 k{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super k }{\f0\fs24 k.
D adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pa`n}{\f0\fs24 , everything, thus softening the readin
g to not everything. }}}{\f0\fs24 what goes into the mouth that defiles a person,
but it is what comes out of the mouth this is what defiles a person. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Lenin
grad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensi
s}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W 0119 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Re
ceptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 add }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 , the, the definite article going with Pharisees, probably through inf
luence of the Markan parallel (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:1}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. Many witnesses ({\f0\fs24 C{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geni

za}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs


24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang51
3 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W 0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,h}{\f0\fs24 mae bo}{\f
0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 ) have the order scribes and Pharisees, probably becaus
e of its frequency in Matthew.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. Some witnesses ({\f7\fs32\lan
g1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 *}{\f0\fs24\super ,2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningr
ad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}
{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 f
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 f }{\f0\fs24 feminine}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy
}{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejne
teivlato levgwn}{\f0\fs24 , commanded, saying, probably a scribal expansion (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejntolhvn}{\f0\fs24
, commandment, in v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ). See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f
0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 38.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. Translating {\f8\fs24\lang103
2 tovn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
the, as your. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps
mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 m
anuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 K{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 K }{\f0\fs24 Kethi
b (the written consonantal Hebrew text of OT)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT
(as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B1
9a}}}{\f0\fs24 N W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\su
per 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 sou`}{\f0\fs24 , your, to produce exact correspondence with the }{\f0\fs24
LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Se
ptuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 text of }{\f0\fs24 Exod 20:12
}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Deut 5:16}{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\f0\fs24 too the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:10}{\f0\fs24 . See also nex
t }{\f0\fs24\i Note}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. Translating {\f8\fs24\lang103
2 thvn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
the, as your. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps
mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 m
anuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (N W it }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c,p}{\f0\fs24 ) a
dd }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sou`}{\f0\fs24 , your, thus conforming the text exactly to
that of the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\
fs24 Deut 5:16}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the pa
rallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:10}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par

}{\f0\fs24 * adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujdevn ejstin}{\f0\fs24 , is nothing, at th


e end of the verse, resulting in the meaning the gift you would have gained from
me is nothing. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. Now is added to the translation
for clarity.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. The critical text reads {\f8\
fs24\lang1032 to;n patevra aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his father. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 ma
nuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (a
s published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}
}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\su
per 1}{\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 vg{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as published in Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs24\
super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 h] th;n mhtevra aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , or his mother, and others slight varian
ts thereof. The phrase could have been added to bring about agreement with }{\f0
\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 ver
se(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 5}{\f0\fs24 and the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7
:12}{\f0\fs24 , or it could have accidentally dropped because of the similar end
ing }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his (or deliberately omitted for styli
stic reasons). The committee omits the phrase based on the weight of }{\f7\fs32\
lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0
\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the G
reek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 38. Parents is used in the translation to reflect
the inclusiveness of }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 5}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 *}{\f0\fs24\super ,2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 084 }{\
f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n novmon}{
\f0\fs24 , the law ; }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang
513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f
0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs2
4 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n ejntolhvn}
{\f0\fs24 , the commandment. The latter appears to be a harmonization with v. }{\f
0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 . While }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n lovgon}{\f0\fs24 , the word, c
ould be caused by }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:13}{\f0\fs24 , the committee preferred the w
eight of }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\
fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuter
onom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual C
ommentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 j. A number of {\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 ma

nuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10


33 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 [}{\f0\fs24\i f}{
\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 ] }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24
\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) harmonize the citation with the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek t
ranslation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 by adding }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejggivzei moi oJ lao;" ou\\to" tw`/ stovmati aujtw`n kaiv}{\f
0\fs24 , the people is near to me with their mouth and. }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 k. D adds {\f8\fs24\lang1032 pa`n}{\f0\fs24 , every
thing, thus softening the reading to not everything. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
Matthew follows Mark in alternating passages revealing the power and identity of
Jesus with confrontations with those who refuse Jesus and his message. In the p
resent instance, religious authorities come to Galilee from Jerusalem and initia
te contact with Jesus. This passage and the closely related following one (}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v. }{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) are of key importance in Matth
ew because the Pharisees represent established }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Judaism
for his readers. Although Matthew, as will be seen, softens the radical teachin
g of Jesus found in Mark, he does not do away with it altogether.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. For this pericope Matthew dep
ends again on Mark ({\f0\fs24 Mark 7:1 15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 com
pare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:37 41}{\f0\fs24 for a partial parallel). Two
major changes should be noted to begin with: (1) Matthew omits }{\f0\fs24 Mark
7:2 4}{\f0\fs24 , with its detailed description of the ritual cleansings of the Ph
arisees this background being unnecessary for his Jewish-Christian readers and (2) M
atthew displaces Mark s quotation of }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 by putting it
after Jesus illustration of the way in which the Pharisees violate the commandme
nt of God (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 v
v }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3 6}{\f0\fs24 ) rather than having J
esus begin with the quotation, as in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:6}{\f0\fs24 . Most intere
sting from a theological point of view is Matthew s conservative rewriting of Mark s
statement, changing there is nothing [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujdevn}{\f0\fs24 ] ou
tside of a person which entering is able to [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\} duvnatai}{\
f0\fs24 ] defile that person (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:15}{\f0\fs24 ) to it is not what g
oes into the mouth which defiles a person (v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew s
avoidance of nothing and is able to (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 t
he same omission in v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ) makes the passage more acceptab
le to Jewish Christians who no doubt continued to observe the dietary laws (}{\f
0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too especially the omission in v. }{\f
0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 of the editorial comment in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:19b}{\f0\fs24
that thus he declared all foods clean ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Among smaller changes, the following are
to be noted: Matthew s own opening words }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 tovte prosevrcontai
tw` Ihsou`}{\f0\fs22 , then they came to Jesus ; his omission of }{\f8\fs22\lang1032
tinev"}{\f0\fs22 , some, before scribes (v. }{\f0\fs22 1}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:1}{\f0\fs22 ); his substituti
on of the stronger }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 parabaivnousin}{\f0\fs22 , transgress (v. }
{\f0\fs22 2}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 same verb
in v. }{\f0\fs22 3}{\f0\fs22 , replacing }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ajfevnte"}{\f0\fs22

, forsaking, in }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:8}{\f0\fs22 ), for }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ouj peri


patou`sin}{\f0\fs22
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 katav}{\f0\fs22 , not walk
according to (
}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:5}{\f0\fs22 ); his substitution of }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 dia; th
;n paravdosin uJmw`n}{\f0\fs22 , because of your tradition (v. }{\f0\fs22 3}{\f0\f
s22 ), for }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kratei`te th;n paravdosin tw`n ajnqrwvpwn}{\f0\fs
22 , you hold the tradition of human beings (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:8}{\f0\fs22 ); the
omission of }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:9}{\f0\fs22 : and he said to them: You are good at [
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kalw`"}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs22 well ] rejectin
g the commandment of God, in order that you might establish your tradition, perha
ps because it is repetitive (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }{
\f0\fs22 3}{\f0\fs22 ) but also perhaps because it (}{\f0\fs22 esp.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs22
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kalw`"}{\f0\fs22 ) is susceptible to misunderstanding; the
substitution of }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 qeov"}{\f0\fs22 , God (v. }{\f0\fs22 4}{\f0\f
s22 ), for }{\f8\fs22\i\lang1032 Mwu>sh`"}{\f0\fs22 , Moses (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:10}
{\f0\fs22 ), to emphasize the gravity of the commandment in contrast to human tr
adition; the omission (v. }{\f0\fs22 5}{\f0\fs22 ) of the technical term }{\f8\f
s22\lang1032 korba`n}{\f0\fs22 ( Corban ) in }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:11}{\f0\fs22 , proba
bly simply because it is an unnecessary encumbrance of the text; the heightening
of Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 oujkevti ajfivete aujtovn}{\f0\fs22 , no longer perm
it him (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:12}{\f0\fs22 ), to an emphatic countercommand }{\f8\fs2
2\lang1032 ouj mh; timhvsei}{\f0\fs22 , one need not support (v. }{\f0\fs22 6}{\f0
\fs22 ); the omission of which you hand on; and you do many similar things (}{\f0\
fs22 Mark 7:13b}{\f0\fs22 ) in v. }{\f0\fs22 6}{\f0\fs22 , of }{\f8\fs22\lang103
2 wJ" gevgraptai}{\f0\fs22 , as it is written, in v. }{\f0\fs22 7}{\f0\fs22 (}{\f
0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:6b}{\f0\fs22 ), of }
{\f8\fs22\lang1032 pavlin}{\f0\fs22 , again, in reference to calling the crowd tog
ether in v. }{\f0\fs22 10}{\f0\fs22 (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs
22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:14}{\f0\fs22 ), and of }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 pavnte"}{\f0\fs
22 , all, in the same verse; finally, }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 eij" to; stovma}{\f0\fs2
2 , into the mouth, and }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejk tou` stovmato"}{\f0\fs22 , out of t
he mouth, replace }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 eij" aujtovn}{\f0\fs22 , into him, and }{\f8\
fs22\lang1032 ejk tou` ajnqrwvpou}{\f0\fs22 , out of the person (v. }{\f0\fs22 11}
{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:15}{\f0\fs22 ). Many of the changes noted here and
other less significant ones not noted are mainly abbreviations, but a few are s
tylistic, and several appear to be theologically motivated.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C. This controversy pericope,
which contains two }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 citations, is carefully structu
red by Matthew. The passage can be outlined as follows: (1) the coming of the Ph
arisees and scribes (v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 ), further subdivided into (a) th
e question and implied charge (v. }{\f0\fs24 2a}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) the grounds
of the charge (}{\f0\fs24 2b}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) Jesus counter question and implied
charge, on the model of rabbinic controversies (v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ), fur
ther subdivided into (a) the teaching of scripture (v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 )
and (b) the practice of the Pharisees (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 5 6}{\f0
\fs24 ); (3) the prophecy of Isaiah (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 7 9}{\f0\f
s24 ); and (4) a revolutionary general principle (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 10 11}{\f0\fs24 ). In typical controversy narrative form, the }{\f0\fs24 ques
tion of the Pharisees is answered in turn by a parallel question of Jesus, and e
ach question is backed up with supporting argumentation. The following structura
l features are notable. The structure of v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 , containing
an implied charge of the Pharisees in the form of a question followed by the gro

unds of the former introduced by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for, is para


lleled exactly in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3 6}{\f0\fs24 in the respons
e of Jesus (where, however, the grounds take considerably more space [}{\f0\fs24
vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)
}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 6}{\f0\fs24 ]). A further structural observation is tha
t v. }{\f0\fs24 6b}{\f0\fs24 forms an inclusio with v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ,
both making the same point in the same way, though with v. }{\f0\fs24 6b}{\f0\f
s24 using somewhat different vocabulary: }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 parabaivnete}{\f0\fs24 , transgress (v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{
\f0\fs24 ), with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hjkurwvsate}{\f0\fs24 , cancel out (v. }{\f0\
fs24 6b}{\f0\fs24 ), and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n ejntolh;n tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24
, the commandment of God (v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ), with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 t
o;n lovgon tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24 , the word of God (v. }{\f0\fs24 6b}{\f0\fs24 ). M
atthew s placement of the quotation from }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 after the
argument of Jesus has the effect of reinforcing the point. Finally we may note
the nearly exact parallelism in the two main clauses of v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs
24 , broken only by the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou`to}{\f0\fs24 , this, in the second
clause, producing a rhetorical emphasis on what comes out of a person. }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. {\f0\fs24\i V{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24
finds a parallel in }{\f0\fs24\i Gos. Thom.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Gos. Thom. }{\f0\fs24\i Gospel of Thomas}}}{\f0\fs24 14,
which is probably dependent on }{\f0\fs24 Matt 15:11}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{
\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 mouth rather than person as in Mark).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 1 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew s abbreviation of M
ark has the effect of making it the purpose of the Pharisees and scribes to come
to Jesus, who had acquired a reputation as an interpreter of the law, in order
to test him on the issue of obedience to the law (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265
id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , as understood by the Ph
arisees). This was possibly a formal or semiformal delegation of leading Pharisa
ic authorities and scripture scholars sent from Jerusalem in order to gain more
information about Jesus views on the subject (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\f
s24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 3:22}{\p
lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 John 1:19}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 ; crowds from Jerusalem had followed Jesus from the beginning [}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 4:25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ]). Of the seven times in which scri
bes and Pharisees are linked in Matthew, this is the only occurrence of the orde
r Pharisees and scribes (for }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 grammatei`"}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 , scribes, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 2:4}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), probably bec
ause of dependence on Mark (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 7:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 ), as well as a desire to emphasize that the view represented here is that of
the Pharisees. }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n paravdosin tw`n presbutevrwn}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , the tradition of the elders, is a technical term that refer
s to the oral tradition of the Pharisees (Jos., }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Ant.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13.10.6 297}{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculine}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f2\fs24
\i\lang513 <Abot{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513
<Abot }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Pirqe <Abot_}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 1:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\
fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Gal. 1:14}{\

plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), which was an interpretation of the written laws of the


Torah, meant at the same time to be a hedge around them. For the Pharisees }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 measure of righteousness a
nd thus of loyalty to the Torah was obedience to this sacred tradition (}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{
\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poetic line), or before a tractate
indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f2\fs24\i\lan
g513 Sukk.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Sukk.
}{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sukka}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 20a). The particular insta
nce of violation the Pharisees focus upon is that of eating with unwashed hands
(}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 11:38}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The reference to e
ating bread (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 a[rton}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), which wa
s the staple of the everyday meal, is a synecdoche for eating food. In view here
is not physical cleanliness but ritual purity. There is no }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old
Testament}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 commandment concerning the ceremonial was
hing of hands before the eating of ordinary meals. The Pharisees, however, had a
s their main project the reapplication of the ritual purity required of priests
in connection with their temple duties to the table conduct of the ordinary fami
ly at home. The Pharisees in this instance had taken the commandment to priests
concerning the washing of hands (and feet) before performing their temple duties
(}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Exod 30:17 21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; for hand-washing
as a protection against ritual impurity, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Lev 15:11}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) and had applied it to all Jews in the blessing preceding the
eating of meals (see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculine}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\pl
ain\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ber.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24
\i\lang513 Ber. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Berakot}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:2 4; }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 y.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\i y. }{\f0\fs24 Jerusalem Talmud}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f2\fs24\i
\lang513 Sabb.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Sab
b. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sabbat}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1.3d; }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 Mark 7:3 4}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). This reapplied rule of ritual purity ha
d perhaps already been }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 widely adopted by the general p
opulace (contra Booth; see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 ). The accusation against Jesus disciples is also of necessity an accusati
on against the master of the disciples, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\
f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Jesus himself (}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 12:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; Daube).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 3}{\f0\fs24 R
ather than defending the conduct of his disciples by answering the Pharisees (an
answer, however, }{\f0\fs24\i is}{\f0\fs24 given in v. }{\f0\fs24 20b}{\f0\fs2
4 ), Jesus turns to the offensive by asking the Pharisees a similar question but
one that refers to a much more serious infringement: Why do }{\f0\fs24\i you}{\f
0\fs24 [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJmei`"}{\f0\fs24 is emphatic] transgress the comm
andment of God [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n ejntolh;n tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24 ] becaus
e of your tradition [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paravdosin}{\f0\fs24 ]? The very heart o

f Pharisaism, the tradition of the elders (= your tradition ; contra Luz) that was
supposed to protect against the violation of the Torah, had in fact become respo
nsible for (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diav}{\f0\fs24 , because of ) the grievous transgre
ssion of God s command. This accusation proves to be more devastating than that of
the Pharisees against Jesus disciples (v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 4}{\f0\fs24 That the cha
rge contained in the preceding rhetorical question was not an empty one is now s
hown through the evidence (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for ) provided in }
{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24
verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4 6}{\f0\fs24 . The direct citation of the Torah
is set forth as the standard of righteousness. Matthew portrays the fifth comma
ndment as being spoken by God himself: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ ga;r qeo;" ei\\pen
}{\f0\fs24 , For God said. Not merely human tradition is at stake here (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i conf
er,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs
24 , }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 9b}{\f0\fs24 ). The commandment is cite
d in verbatim agreement with the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT
}}}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f0\fs24 Exod 20:12}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Deut 5:16}{\f0\
fs24 , except for the omission of the pronoun }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sou`}{\f0\fs24
, your (one occurs after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 patevra}{\f0\fs24 , father, in the for
mer passage; two occur in the latter). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tivma}{\f0\fs24 , hono
r, means to look after and hence to support one s parents financially and not simpl
y to revere them (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Tim
5:3}{\f0\fs24 ). The commandment is quoted again in }{\f0\fs24 Matt 19:19}{\f0\
fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Eph 6:2}{\f0\fs2
4 ). To the commandment itself is added the further, related commandment regardi
ng speaking evil (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kakalogw`n}{\f0\fs24 ) against one s parents.
In effect, denial of support to one s parents was the same as speaking evil agains
t them. The }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f
0\fs24 Exod 21:17}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
0\fs24 Lev 20:9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Ezek 22:7a}{\f0\fs24 ) is cited nearly ve
rbatim. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qanavtw`/ teleutavtw}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{
\f0\fs24
with death let that one die, is a Semitism (reflecting the Hebrew infini
tive absolute) that brings special emphasis to the supreme penalty. The teaching
of the written Torah is unmistakable and emphatic: parents are to be cared for
and, indeed, with proper respect.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 5 6}{\f0\fs24 B
y contrast with what God says, however, the Pharisees (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJmei
`" dev}{\f0\fs24 , but }{\f0\fs24\i you}{\f0\fs24 , is emphatic) promoted a practi
ce (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgete}{\f0\fs24 , you say ) that violated the spirit and
letter of the fifth commandment. If one designated by a formal vow one s material
wealth as a gift (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dw`ron}{\f0\fs24 , used here in a technical
sense; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the transliterated Hebrew }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 korba`n}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 brq\par
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 qorban}{\f0\fs24 ], (temple)-gift or offering, in }
{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:11}{\f0\fs24 , translated }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dw`ron}{\f0\fs24
in both Matthew and the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\
fs24 ), }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.
e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , for the support
of the temple ritual, one was discharged from responsibility to one s parents, in
deed as Matthew makes explicit with the double negative }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj mh

v}{\f0\fs24 , not at all or in no wise (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0


\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujkevti ajfivete}{\f0\fs24 , you do not permit ) the mone
y was no longer available for the support of parents. The tradition of v. }{\f0\
fs24 6a}{\f0\fs24 is the exact opposite of the biblical commandment (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i conf
er,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 ). This vow to giv
e one s wealth to the temple was regarded as sacred and one that once made could n
ot be altered (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Deut 23:
21 23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Num. 30:3 5}{\f0\fs24 ). For the sacredness of a vow ta
king precedence over even a biblical precept, see t }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ned.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ned. }{\f2\fs24\la
ng513 Nedarim}}}{\f0\fs24 1.6.4. At an apparently later time the rabbis did all
ow for the reversal of a Corban vow in order to uphold the commandment to honor
one s parents (see }{\f0\fs24 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculine}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ned.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Ned. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Nedari
m}}}{\f0\fs24 9:1). Thus }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\} eja;n ejx ejmou` wjfelhqh`/"}{
\f0\fs24 , whatever you would have benefited from me, the parents right to expect p
rovision from a son, was }{\f0\fs24 invalidated or nullified; in this way the pa
rents were robbed of their rightful privilege (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Prov 28:24}{\f0\fs24 ). The clear commandment of Torah w
as transgressed. And so Jesus concludes }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hjkurwvsate to;n lov
gon tou` qeou` dia; th;n paravdosin uJmw`n}{\f0\fs24 , you cancel out the word of
God because of your tradition (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v.
}{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ). See Fitzmyer for nonbiblical parallels to the Corban v
ow.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 7 9}{\f0\fs24 Matthew adjo
ins the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }
{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 citation (}{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 )
at this point, following the preceding argument, in order to seal the case again
st the Pharisees. At bottom, the issue is one of hypocrisy, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id e
st}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 the pretense of obeying the will of God whil
e in fact transgressing it. Hypocrisy, the art of seeming to be what one is not,
is a particularly important subject in Matthew (see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0
\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 6:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{
\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 chap. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lan
g513 passim}{\f0\fs24 , where }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJpokritaiv}{\f0\fs24 , hypocri
tes, is also applied repeatedly to the scribes and Pharisees). Isaiah had already
talked about such hypocrisy in words that fit the pattern of the present situat
ion so well that they amount to a prophecy, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , t
hat is}}}{\f0\fs24 , in the sense of typological correspondence between Isaiah s d
ay and the time of Jesus. (This perspective accords well with Matthew s understand
ing of the fulfillment of the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 in the events concern
ing and surrounding Jesus.) The citation of }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 is a
lmost verbatim from the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\f
s24 , with only very minor changes in the first and last lines (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265
id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8a}{
\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 9b}{\f0\fs24 ). The contrast between the lips or mouth

and the heart in v. }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 is found also in }{\f0\fs24 Ps 78:36 3


7}{\f0\fs24 . It is the last line in particular, however, that is so amazingly a
ppropriate to the Pharisees: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 didavskonte" didaskaliva" ejnta
vlmata ajnqrwvpwn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 teaching doctrines, th
e commandments of human beings. Jesus accusation is precisely that the Pharisees h
ave supplanted the commandment of God with human commandments (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the allusion to human commandments drawn from }{\f0\f
s24 Isa 29:13}{\f0\fs24 in a similar connection in }{\f0\fs24 Col 2:22}{\f0\fs2
4 ; }{\f0\fs24 Titus 1:14}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew elsewhere provides other examples
of their practice (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 chap. }{\f0\fs
24 23}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 10 11}{\f0\fs24
Jesus calls the crowd together in order to make an important indeed revolutionary p
ronouncement that goes far beyond the issue of washed or unwashed hands by addre
ssing the whole issue of ritual purity. The importance of the principle is empha
sized through the opening exhortation }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvete kai; sunivet
e}{\f0\fs24 , hear and understand (a formula used in Matthew only here; the combin
ation of the two verbs, however, is found also in }{\f0\fs24 13:23}{\f0\fs24 ; }
{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 13:13 15}{\f0\fs24 ). Alth
ough Matthew has downplayed the radicality of the Markan account in the first ha
lf of the statement of v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 , especially in his omission o
f }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:19b}{\f0\fs24 (see above }{\f0\fs24\i Form/Structure/Settin
g}{\f0\fs24 B), the latter half of the statement in Matthew still contains the c
ore of a revolutionary understanding of the law (see the interpretation in }{\f0
\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 ver
se(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18 20}{\f0\fs24 ). The statement what goes into the m
outh does not defile a person taken on its own terms can even here be understood
to challenge the dietary restrictions of }{\f0\fs24 Lev 11}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ), although that
is far from Matthew s purpose (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }
{\f0\fs24 20b}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew s use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 stovmato"}{\f0\fs2
4 , mouth (where Mark has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnqrwvpou}{\f0\fs24 , person, or the
personal pronoun }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him ), is more in keeping
with the explanation given in v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 but may also have been
prompted by its use in }{\f0\fs24 12:34}{\f0\fs24 . The stress of v. }{\f0\fs24
11}{\f0\fs24 , at least as it stands in Matthew, however, is not on the first h
alf but on the second half (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the em
phatic }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou`to}{\f0\fs24 , this ) of the statement (}{\f0\fs24 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 ). The Pharisees, w
ho might have been wary of the way in which the first half of the statement is e
xpressed, even according to Matthew, would not have disagreed with the point of
the second half (as explained in v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 ). Defilement here r
efers to being made ritually unclean or impure (the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 koi
noi`}{\f0\fs24 , defiles, occurs in Matthew only here and in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 18}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Acts 10:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 11:8}{\f0\fs24
, which refer exactly to becoming unclean }{\f0\fs24 through what goes into one s
mouth; see too }{\f0\fs24 Acts 21:28}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Macc 1:47}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 62}{\f0\fs24 ). On

the importance of what comes out of the mouth, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24
, that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , one s speech, see }{\f0\fs24 Eph 4:29}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\f
s24 Jas 3:6}{\f0\fs24 . Matthew here is thus hardly to be understood as overthro
wing the law, not even the ritual law (rightly Luz, Davies-Allison; contra Meier
).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The error of the Phar
isees and their scribes as revealed here can only be called a tragic irony. Thos
e who were in principle the most deeply committed to the practice of the righteo
usness of the Torah, whose very tradition was invented to realize that righteous
ness, are shown here to oppose and invalidate a commandment of God through that
tradition. In chap. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Jesus
will return to criticism of the Pharisees. It would be a sad mistake, however,
to let these passages dominate our assessment of the Pharisees and of Judaism ge
nerally. (See further }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 in chap. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on this su
bject.) Although the criticism of the Pharisees in Matthew goes back to the Jesu
s of history, it is beyond question that the degree of the harshness against the
m is to some extent heightened by the evangelist who, in addition to writing a h
istorical narrative, is also addressing his Jewish-Christian community in their
own debate with the synagogue, the contemporary manifestation of Pharisaic Judai
sm. Matthew, as we have seen, probably minimizes the implicit revolutionary sign
ificance of v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11a}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 because h
e is writing to Jewish Christians (Mark, on the other hand, writing to gentile C
hristians, maximizes the point and makes it quite explicit with the editorial co
mment: Thus he declared all foods clean [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:19}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 ]). Even so, Matthew has not totally suppressed the radical
truth that Jesus words open the door to a new evaluation of the dietary restricti
ons, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 , to the commands of the written Torah itself. For Matthew, Jesus alon
e is the true interpreter and upholder of the ultimate meaning of the Torah. It
should be no surprise that it took some time for the implicit teaching of Jesus
to be fully understood and implemented in the early church, especially by Jewish
Christians. Thus we see Peter struggling with the issue in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 Acts 10:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Yet even Jewish Christians such as P
eter (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Acts 10:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) and Paul,
himself a former Pharisee, learn eventually that the distinctions of ritual puri
ty have been done away with in Christ (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Rom 14:14}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). M
atthew s conservative Jewish-Christian church may well have continued to observe t
he dietary laws as a matter of custom and to support their claim vis--vis the syn
agogue that they were the fulfillment of Judaism, but they would surely have bee
n aware that their Christian counterparts in gentile communities and perhaps eve
n other Jewish-Christian congregations had done away with such observances.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Explanation of the Critic
ism of the Pharisees (15:12 20)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 See }{\plain\f0\fs22\
i\cf1\lang1033 Bibliography}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 for 15:1 11.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 12}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Then the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. Ma
ny witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0106 }{\f0\fs24\
i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. }}}{
\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 disciples came and said to him: Do you know that when

the Pharisees heard the statement, they were scandalized? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\


lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And he answered and said: Every plant whic
h my heavenly Father has not planted will be pulled up. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\l
ang1033 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Let them}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. D ha
s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" tuflouv"}{\f0\fs24 , the blind. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\la
ng1033 be: they are blind guides [of the blind];}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }
{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 0237 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tuf
lw`n}{\f0\fs24 , of the blind, and the word is thus placed in brackets in the crit
ical text. The shorter reading is not simply preferred over the others, despite
the weight of }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 and D, since the longer reading more easil
y explains the various variant readings. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}
}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 but if a blind person leads a blind person,}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24
\super 13}{\f0\fs24 mae have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJdhgw`n sfalhvsetai kaiv}{\f0
\fs24 , for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eja;n oJdhgh`/}{\f0\fs24 , if he leads, resulting
in the reading If a blind person causes a blind one of the leaders to slip, also
both will fall into the pit. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 both will fall into a
pit. }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 15}{\f0\fs24 Pete
r answered and said to him: Explain [this]}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f7\fs3
2\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24
sa bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tauvthn}{\f0\fs24 , this. Yet the word could have b
een deliberately omitted by scribes since the intended parable or analogy is not tha
t which immediately precedes. Thus the word is placed in the text, but in bracke
ts. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}}}{\f0\fs24 analogy to us. }{\plain\f
0\fs24\super\lang1033 16}{\f0\fs24 But he}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f0\fs2
4 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 0119 }
{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 insert }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , J
esus. }}}{\f0\fs24 said: Are you yourselves even yet also without understanding? }
{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 17}{\f0\fs24 Are you not}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs2
4 g. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0119 }{\f0\fs24\i
f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\
super h}{\f0\fs24 bo read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou[pw}{\f0\fs24 , not yet, for }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ouj}{\f0\fs24 , not. }}}{\f0\fs24 aware that everything that goes
into the mouth goes into the stomach and passes into the latrine? }{\plain\f0\fs
24\super\lang1033 18}{\f0\fs24 But the things that come out of the mouth come fr
om the heart, and they are the things that defile the person. }{\plain\f0\fs24\s
uper\lang1033 19}{\f0\fs24 For from the heart}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. }{\f7
\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * W bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejxevrc
etai, kajkei`na koinoi` to;n a[nqrwpon. ejk ga;r th`" kardiva"}{\f0\fs24 , they c
ome out, and they are the things that defile the person. For from the heart
This
is a clear example of omission due to homoioteleuton (}{\f8\fs24\i\lang1032 kar
diva"}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\i\lang1032 kardiva"}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\f0\fs24 come evi
l deliberations, murders, adulteries, acts of fornication, robberies, lies, blas
phemies. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 20}{\f0\fs24 These are the things that
defile the person, but eating with unwashed hands does not defile the person. }\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.

Many witnesses (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l


ang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L
}{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Cod
ex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W 0106 }{\plain\f
0\fs24\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 L
atin}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 ) add }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , his. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. D has {\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;
" tuflouv"}{\f0\fs24 , the blind. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 C
odex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 0237 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tuflw
`n}{\f0\fs24 , of the blind, and the word is thus placed in brackets in the critic
al text. The shorter reading is not simply preferred over the others, despite th
e weight of }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 and D, since the longer reading more ea
sily explains the various variant readings. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\
fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 mae have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJd
hgw`n sfalhvsetai kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eja;n oJdhgh`/}{\f0\f
s24 , if he leads, resulting in the reading If a blind person causes a blind one of
the leaders to slip, also both will fall into the pit. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\f
s24 sa bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tauvthn}{\f0\fs24 , this. Yet the word could h
ave been deliberately omitted by scribes since the intended parable or analogy is no
t that which immediately precedes. Thus the word is placed in the text, but in b
rackets. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the
Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 39.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24
Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningra
densis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 0119 }{\
f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syr
iac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 insert }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 ,
Jesus. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C
}{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in
BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W
0119 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs
24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 bo read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou[pw}{\f0\

fs24 , not yet, for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj}{\f0\fs24 , not. }\par


\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 * W bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejxevrc
etai, kajkei`na koinoi` to;n a[nqrwpon. ejk ga;r th`" kardiva"}{\f0\fs24 , they c
ome out, and they are the things that defile the person. For from the heart
This
is a clear example of omission due to homoioteleuton (}{\f8\fs24\i\lang1032 kar
diva"}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\i\lang1032 kardiva"}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. This passage exten
ds the preceding pericope through further criticism of the Pharisees but most im
portantly through an explanation of the path-breaking statement of v. }{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 11}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Teaching rather than controversy i
s the focus of the passage. The viewpoint of the Pharisees does not reflect the
will of the Father but reflects instead an unfortunate blindness. Here again the
full and harsh criticism of chap. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 is anticipated.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Just as in the preceding pass
age, Matthew follows Mark ({\f0\fs24 7:17 23}{\f0\fs24 ; Luke has only the parable
of the blind leading the blind [}{\f0\fs24 6:39}{\f0\fs24 ]). The significant a
lterations to be noted are the following. Matthew inserts }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 12 14}{\f0\fs24 , the analogies of the plant and the blind leaders, t
he former probably from his own source, the latter probably from }{\f0\fs24 Q{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Q }{\f0\fs24 Qumran , Qere }{\f2\
fs24\lang513 Qere}{\f0\fs24 (To be read. Masoretic suggested pronunciation for vo
calized Hebrew text of the OT), or Quelle ( Sayings source for the Gospels)}}}{\f0\
fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 6:39}{\f0\f
s24 ). Matthew omits, just as previously in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 , Mark s ph
raseology Nothing [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pa`n}{\f0\fs24 ] outside entering into a p
erson is able [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 duvnatai}{\f0\fs24 ] to defile (}{\f0\fs24 Mar
k 7:18}{\f0\fs24 ), probably again because it is too radical for his Jewish-Chri
stian readers. Matthew preserves Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pa`n}{\f0\fs24 , everyt
hing, but applies it to the fact that all food is digested and passes out of the
body. Similarly, Matthew will }{\f0\fs24 have nothing of Mark s editorializing for
his gentile readers, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaqarivzwn pavnta ta; brwvmata}{\f0\fs
24 , declaring all foods clean (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:19}{\f0\fs24 ), which he omits.
Then at the very end of the pericope Matthew adds the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
to; de; ajnivptoi" cersi;n fagei`n ouj koinoi` to;n a[nqrwpon}{\f0\fs24 , but eat
ing with unwashed hands does not defile the person (v. }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 ),
to conclude formally the controversy with the Pharisees in good rabbinic fashio
n. Attention is thus taken away from the issue of unclean food and directed to t
he original question (v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 ) of eating with unwashed hands.
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Among th
e less significant changes, the following may also be noted. Matthew adds }{\f8\
fs22\lang1032 ajkmhvn}{\f0\fs22 , even yet, in v. }{\f0\fs22 16}{\f0\fs22 , thus s
harpening the criticism of the disciples. In }{\f0\fs22 vv{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22
17}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 18}{\f0\fs22 Matthew again (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }{\f0\fs22 11}{\f0\fs22 ) substitutes }{\f8\fs22\lang103
2 stovma}{\f0\fs22 , mouth, for Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 a[nqrwpo"}{\f0\fs22 , pers
on (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:18}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 20}{\f0\fs22 ). In v. }{\f0\fs22
18}{\f0\fs22 Matthew adds }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejk th`" kardiva" ejxevrcetai}{\f
0\fs22 , come from the heart (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }{\
f0\fs22 19}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 12:34}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:20 21}{\f0\f

s22 ). Matthew, in v. }{\f0\fs22 19}{\f0\fs22 , abbreviates Mark s list of vices (


}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:21 22}{\f0\fs22 ) from thirteen to seven (the number reflecting
representative completeness). In this list Matthew substitutes the adjective }{\
f8\fs22\lang1032 ponhroiv}{\f0\fs22 ( evil ) for Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kakoiv}{\
f0\fs22 ( evil ), modifying }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 dialogismoiv}{\f0\fs22 , deliberatio
ns, and includes, as the sixth item, one item not found in Mark, }{\f8\fs22\lang1
032 yeudomarturivai}{\f0\fs22 , lies (the word occurs again in the }{\f0\fs22 NT{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament
}}}{\f0\fs22 only in }{\f0\fs22 Matt 26:59}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22\i Did.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22\i Did. }{\f0\fs24 Didache}}}{\f0\fs22 5.1). Matthew omits six ite
ms from Mark s list simply to abbreviate, as is the case too with the omission (in
v. }{\f0\fs22 20}{\f0\fs22 ) of }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 pavnta}{\f0\fs22 , all (}{\f0
\fs22 Mark 7:23}{\f0\fs22 ), and }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ta; ponhra; e[swqen ejkpore
uvetai}{\f0\fs22 , the evil things proceed from within. Matthew thus abbreviates,
as usual, but also changes his Markan source for theological reasons.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C. As in }{\f0\fs24 13:36}{\f
0\fs24 , the disciples, represented by Peter, seek and are given an explanation
of the enigmatic saying of v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 , called here, in the broa
dest sense, a parable (v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ). Before that, the Pharisees ar
e characterized through two different analogies. The passage may be outlined as
follows: (1) the disciples question concerning the Pharisees (v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\
f0\fs24 ); (2) Jesus answer through the analogies of (a) the plant not planted by
the Father (v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) the blind leading the blind (v
. }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) the request for an explanation (v. }{\f0\fs24 1
5}{\f0\fs24 ); and (4) the explanation of the earlier statement (v. }{\f0\fs24 1
1}{\f0\fs24 ) by means of a description of (a) what goes in the mouth of a perso
n (v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ) and of (b) what comes out of a person (}{\f0\fs2
4 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s
)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18 19}{\f0\fs24 ) and (c) a concluding statement (v. }{\
f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 ). An interesting syntactical parallelism is evident in the
clause of v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 beginning with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; ei
jsporeuovmenon}{\f0\fs24 , what goes into, and the initial clause of v. }{\f0\fs24
18}{\f0\fs24 , beginning }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; de; ejkporeuovmena}{\f0\fs24 ,
but the things that come out, each having two parallel prepositional phrases. A f
urther structural feature is the function of v. }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 as the
inclusio of v. }{\f0\fs24 18b}{\f0\fs24 , so that the list of seven vices occurs
between the two statements that those are the things that defile a person. Fina
lly v. }{\f0\fs24 20b}{\f0\fs24 is itself a kind of inclusio with v. }{\f0\fs24
2}{\f0\fs24 , thus rounding out the pericope by bringing it back to its startin
g point.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. {\f0\fs24\i Gos. Thom.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Gos. Thom. }{\f0\fs24\i Gospel of Thomas}}}{\f0\
fs24 40 contains the same logion as in v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 but probably
is dependent on Matthew (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too }{\f
0\fs24 Ign.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Ign. }{\f0\fs2
4 Ignatius, }{\f0\fs24\i Letter to the Trallians}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Trall
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Trall. }{\f0\fs24 Igna
tius, }{\f0\fs24\i Letter to the Trallians}}}{\f0\fs24 11.1 and }{\f0\fs24\i Po
l.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Pol. }{\f0\fs24 Ignat
ius, Letter to the Polycarp}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i Phil.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Phil. }{\f0\fs24 Ignatius, Letter to the Phi
ladelphians}}}{\f0\fs24 3.1). }{\f0\fs24\i Did.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Did. }{\f0\fs24 Didache}}}{\f0\fs24 5.1 appears to quo
te part of the vice list of v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:21 22}{\f0\fs24 ) in the Matthean order a
nd hence is probably dependent on Matthew.}\par

\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew s familiar }{\plai
n\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , then, introduces the passage a
nd the question of the disciples. That the disciples were disturbed that the Pha
risees }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejskandalivsqhsan}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , wer
e scandalized (see }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11:6}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), by the preceding
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 exchange (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1 11}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) indicates tha
t they too held the Pharisees in high regard. If the popularly recognized author
ities on the righteousness of the law found Jesus teaching objectionable, was not
this something to be pondered? }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n lovgon}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
the w
ord, is here to be understood more broadly as the matter or the statement, }{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e.
}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , pre
sumably that of v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Did J
esus know that he had offended the Pharisees, and if so, did it not matter to hi
m?}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 13}{\f0\fs24
Jesus two-part answer was undoubtedly a surprise to the disciples because of its
strong, unreserved rejection of the Pharisees. First Jesus implies that the Phar
isees are not }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejfuvteusen}{\f0\fs24 , planted, by God, and thu
s God will pull them out of the ground (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkrizwqhvsetai}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 li
t. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 will be uprooted, a divine passive), a veiled
metaphor for destruction (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24 13:29}{\f0\fs24 , the only other occurrence of the verb in Matthew). }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 futeiva}{\f0\fs24 , plant, occurs only here in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}
{\f0\fs24 ; for the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 futeuvein}{\f0\fs24 , plant, see }{\f
0\fs24 21:33}{\f0\fs24 , where the householder who plants a vineyard is God (}{\
f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Isa 60:21}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f
0\fs24\i Pss. Sol.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Pss.
Sol. }{\f0\fs24 Psalms of Solomon}}}{\f0\fs24 14:3 4). The expression }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 oJ path;r}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ oujravnio"}{\f0\fs24 , heave
nly Father, is a favorite of Matthew s (see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{
\f0\fs24 5:48}{\f0\fs24 ). Only here and in }{\f0\fs24 18:35}{\f0\fs24 is this
specific phrase modified not by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJmw`n}{\f0\fs24 , your, but b
y }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mou`}{\f0\fs24 , my (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 7:21}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:32 33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24
11:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:50}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 16:17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f
0\fs24 18:10}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\
f0\fs24 20:23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 25:34}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26:29}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 42}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 53}{\f0\fs24
). This points to the special relationship between Jesus and God that enables Je
sus to speak with incomparable authority and thus to exclude the viewpoint of th
e Pharisees so absolutely.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 14}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a[fete aujtouv"}{\f0\fs24 , let them be, is apparently Jesus re
sponse to the concern of the disciples reflected in their initial question. That
the Pharisees were offended by Jesus comment should not worry the disciples. For
the Pharisees are but }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tufloi;}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 oJdhgoi; tuflw`n}{\f0\fs24 , blind guides of the blind (the same description, bli

nd guides, is used of the Pharisees in }{\f0\fs24 23:16}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 24


}{\f0\fs24 ; for the Jew as a guide to the blind, see }{\f0\fs24 Rom 2:19}{\f0\fs2
4 ). Those who follow the lead of the Pharisees are themselves described as the b
lind. The absurdity of the situation of the Pharisees and their disciples is set
forth in the proverbial image of a blind person leading another blind person, bo
th of them falling into a pit (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 Luke 6:39}{\f0\fs24 ). It would be hard to find a more vivid image of lo
stness, hopelessness, and futility.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 15 16}{\f0\fs24 Peter, dou
btless as the spokesmen of the other disciples, asks for an explanation of }{\f8
\fs24\lang1032 th;n parabolh;n}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tauvthn}{\f0\fs24
], }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }
{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 [this] parable, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24
, that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , what so upset the Pharisees. The textually uncertain }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 tauvthn}{\f0\fs24 , this, would seem to refer to the analogy just
given in v. }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 , or possibly v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 .
But the explanation shows clearly that v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 is in mind (w
ith Davies-Allison, contra Schweizer). In Mark the request for interpretation of
the parable comes immediately after the saying about what does and what does not
defile (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:17}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 parabolhv}{\f0\fs2
4 (}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 masal}{\f0\fs24 ; see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24
on }{\f0\fs24 13:3}{\f0\fs24 ) is used here in the broad sense of proverb, riddl
e, or wisdom saying, suitable to the content of v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 . }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 fravson}{\f0\fs24 , explain, is used only here in the }{\f0\fs24
NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testa
ment}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the different w
ord in }{\f0\fs24 13:36}{\f0\fs24 ). The response of Jesus involves a mild rebuk
e of the disciples (unusual in Matthew) contained in }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; uJ
mei`"}{\f0\fs24 , you yourselves also, and in }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkmhvn}{\f0\fs2
4 , even now (the only }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 occurrence of the word). The d
isciples had already been initiated into the secrets of the kingdom (}{\f0\fs24
13:11}{\f0\fs24 ) expressed through parables and had affirmed that they had unde
rstood all these things (}{\f0\fs24 13:51}{\f0\fs24 ). Yet despite the fundamental
importance of understanding (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
0\fs24 13:23}{\f0\fs24 ), they were unable to understand what Jesus was saying (
}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\f
s24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the same failure in connection wit
h the teaching of the Pharisees in }{\f0\fs24 16:9 12}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 17}{\f0\fs24
What is ingested by humans (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; eijsporeuovmenon eij" to; st
ovma}{\f0\fs24 , what goes into the mouth ) passes through the dietary tract (}{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 th;n koilivan}{\f0\fs24 ) and into the }{\f0\fs24 latrine (}{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 ajfedrw`na}{\f0\fs24 ). Food is accordingly of little consequence to t
he spiritual state of a person. It would be possible from this verse to conclude
that such defilement as may occur in eating certain foods is only temporary, ex
cept for the clear statement in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 that what is eaten do
es not defile a person. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 18 19}{\f0\fs24
By direct contrast, the things that come out of the mouth (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta
; de; ejkporeuovmena ejk tou` stovmato"}{\f0\fs24 ), }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0
\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the words one speaks, do defile a person (}{\f0\fs
24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,

}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Jas 3:1 11}{\f0\fs24 ). The words come


}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejk th`" kardiva"}{\f0\fs24 , from the heart, and thus have t
o do with the very nature of a person (see }{\f0\fs24 12:34 35}{\f0\fs24 ). And fro
m the heart comes a veritable stream of wickedness. Matthew provides only a repre
sentative list of seven items (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 Mar
k s thirteen), with one item, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yeudomarturivai}{\f0\fs24 , lies,
not from Mark s list, probably thought by Matthew to be particularly appropriate t
o things from the heart uttered by the mouth. It also brings to four the number
of the second table of the ten commandments that are represented (in addition to
murder, adultery, and stealing, which Matthew reorders to agree with the }{\f0\
fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old
Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 order, both in the }{\f0\fs24 MT{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MT }{\f0\fs24 The Masoretic Text [of the Old Testa
ment] (as published in BHS)}}}{\f0\fs24 and in the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek tr
anslation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 ). But if this was a concern of Matthew s, why did
he omit Mark s covetousness, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24
, the tenth commandment?}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 20}{\f0\fs24 The thought
of v. }{\f0\fs24 18b}{\f0\fs24 is now repeated for emphasis. }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 tau`ta}{\f0\fs24 , those things, are what truly make a person unclean (}{\f0\fs
24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou`to}{\f0\fs24 , this
[v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 ]). Matthew s added final words in v. }{\f0\fs24 20b}{
\f0\fs24 recall in a somewhat anticlimactic manner the initial accusation of th
e Pharisees and scribes in v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 , and at the same time dive
rt the reader s attention from the possible implications of Jesus words for the die
tary law itself. Thus in Matthew s portrayal (in striking contrast to Mark s), Jesus
criticizes only the tradition of the Pharisees and makes no radical reformation
of the written Torah itself. What does not defile is eating with unwashed hands
. For Matthew, Jesus and Jesus alone is the true interpreter of the law.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Above all others the
Pharisees were respected and admired for their serious pursuit of righteousness
(}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23:2 3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Perhaps this is exactly
why Jesus criticized them so harshly. The source of their perspective was not Go
d; they were themselves but blind guides of blind disciples. As had been pointed
out in the preceding passage, they sadly allowed human teachings to cancel out
the very commandments of God. They so valued the items of minor significance and
a ritualistic formalism that they neglected emphasizing what truly makes a pers
on unclean (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23:23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The passage
thus stands as a warning to all those who concern themselves with the intensive
pursuit of righteousness and who in so doing elevate human tradition and formali
sm to a level equal with or even higher than scripture itself. The true problem
of sin is not to be found in a failure to perform correctly some external minuti
ae of human making; sin is an interior matter that concerns the evil thought, wo
rds, and deeds that come from the heart. Moral righteousness is thus far more im
portant than ritual purity. The fundamental problem of humanity is more basic th
an the Pharisees dreamed. The Pharisees simply failed to address sin as a radica
l human problem. The overcoming of sin, however, was essential to the purpose an
d work of Jesus (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1:21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 26:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par

\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Faith of the Canaanit


e Woman (15:21 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Burkill, T. A.}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Historical Development of the Story of the Syrophoenici
an Woman. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 9 (1967) 161 77. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Dermience, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 La pericope de la Cananenne}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 (Mt 15,21 28). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ephemerides theologicae lova
nienses}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 58 (1982) 25 49. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 H
arrisville, R. A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Woman of Canaan: A Chapter in the
History of Exegesis. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Int{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i Int }{\f0\fs24\i Interpretation}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 20 (1960) 274 87. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lgasse, S.}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 L pisode de la Cananenne d aprs}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 Mt 15,21 28. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 BLE{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i BLE }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Bulletin de littrature ecclsiastiqu
e}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 73 (1972) 21 40. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Neyrey,
J. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Decision Making in the Early Church: The Case of
the Canaanite Woman. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ScEs{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ScEs }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Science et esprit}}}{\p
lain\f0\fs22\lang1033 33 (1981) 373 78. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Ringe, S. H.}
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 A Gentile Woman s Story. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Fe
minist Interpretation of the Bible}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24
edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 L. M. Russell. Philadelp
hia: Westminster, 1985. 65 72. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Russell, E. A.}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033 The Canaanite Woman and the Gospels (Mt 15,21 28; }{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\f
s24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Mark 7,24 30). In }{\p
lain\f0\fs22\i\lang265 Studia Biblica 1978}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{
\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. A. Livingston
e. Sheffield: }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old Testam
ent}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1979. 2:263 300. }{\p
lain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Schwarz, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f8\fs22\la
ng1032 SUROFOINIKISSA}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f2\fs22\lang513 XANANAIA}
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (Markus 7.26/Matthus 15.22). NTS 30 (1984) 626 28. }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Theissen, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1031 Lokal- und Sozialkolorit in der Geschichte von der syrophnikischen Frau}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (Mk 7,24 30). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr
die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 75 (1984) 202 25 [
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ET{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
22 ET }{\f0\fs24 English translation}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 in }{\plain\f0\
fs22\i\lang1033 The Gospels in Context}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Minneapolis: F
ortress, 1991. 61 80]. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Woschitz, K. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Erzhlter Glaube: Die Geschichte vom starken G
lauben als Geschichte Gottes mit Juden und Heiden}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (Mt
15,21 28 par). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZKT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZKT }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr katholische Theologi
e}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 107 (1985) 319 32.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 21}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 And Jesus came away from there and went into the regions of Tyre
and Sidon. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And loo
k, a Canaanite woman from those regions came and was crying out,}{\plain\f0\fs24

\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a


}{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * Z }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 have the aorist }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 e[kraxen}{\f0\fs24 , cried out, instead of the }{\f0\fs24 impf.}{\
f0\fs24 tense of the same verb; other witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W 0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 ) have the synonym }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 ejkrauvgasen}{\f0\fs24 , cried out. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (
}{\f0\fs24 K}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G D}{\f0\f
s24 0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\
fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtw`/}{\f0\fs24 , to him, while
}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojpivsw aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , afte
r him, modeled on }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o[pisqen hJmw`n}{\f0\fs24 , after us, in v. }
{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 saying: Have mercy on me,
Lord, Son of David. My daughter suffers severely from being possessed by a demon
. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But he did not an
swer her with so much as}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. }{\f0\fs24 Lit.}{\f0\fs24
did not answer a word. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 a word. And his disciples ca
me to him and were asking him as follows:}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 levgonte"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
saying. }}}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 Send her away because she keeps hounding}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs2
4 d. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kravzei o[pisqen hJmw`n}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f
0\fs24 she keeps crying out after us. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 us. }{\plain\f
0\fs24\super\lang1033 24}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And he answered and said: I w
as sent to no one except to the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\f
s24 adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tau`ta}{\f0\fs24 , these. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang10
33 lost sheep of the house of Israel. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 25}{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But she came and began to worship}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24
f. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosekuvnei}{\f0\fs24 , taken as an inceptive }{\f0\fs24
impf.}{\f0\fs24 , began to worship. Some witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W
0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 mae bo), however, have the aorist }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 prosekuvnhsen}{\f0\fs24 , worshiped. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 him, saying
: Lord, help me. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 26}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But
he answered and said: It is not right}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f0\fs24 D}
{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 have the stronger }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk e[xestin}{\f0\fs24 , it is not permitted. See }{\f0\fs24\i T
CGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 40.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 to take the bread of the chil
dren and to throw it to the dogs. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 27}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 But she said: True, Lord, but}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
for. }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\f
s24 omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , probably by influence from the Ma
rkan parallel (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:28}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 e
ven the dogs do eat the crumbs that fall from the table of their masters. }{\plai
n\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 28}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Then Jesus}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super i
}{\f0\fs24 i. A few witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\
f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`"}{
\f0\fs24 , perhaps through influence of the preceding narrative (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 24}{\
f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 answered and
said to her: O woman, your faith is indeed}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 j{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super j }{\f0\fs24 j. Indeed is a

dded to the translation to bring out the emphasis on }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 megavlh


}{\f0\fs24 , great, apparent from the }{\f0\fs24 Gr.}{\f0\fs24 word order.}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 great. Be it to you as you want. And her daughter was hea
led from that very hour.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs3
2\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 * Z }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\supe
r\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 have the aorist }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang103
2 e[kraxen}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , cried out, instead of the }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 impf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 impf. }{\f0\
fs24 imperfect}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 tense of the same verb; other witness
es (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 L
eningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningrad
ensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W 0119 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textu
s Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) have the synonym }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang10
32 ejkrauvgasen}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , cried out. Some }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\
lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\
f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 K{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 K }{\f0\fs24 Kethib (the wr
itten consonantal Hebrew text of OT)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24
Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningra
densis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032
G D}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 0119 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0
\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) add }
{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtw`/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , to him, while }{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f
0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 has }{\plain
\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojpivsw aujtou`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , after him, modeled on
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 o[pisqen hJmw`n}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , after us, in
v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f0\fs24 Lit.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 di
d not answer a word. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgonte"}
{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 saying. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 kravzei o[
pisqen hJmw`n}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
she keeps crying out after
us. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tau`ta}{\f0\fs24 , these. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosekuvne
i}{\f0\fs24 , taken as an inceptive }{\f0\fs24 impf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 impf. }{\f0\fs24 imperfect}}}{\f0\fs24 , began to wors
hip. Some witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footno

te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of M


T (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B
19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W 0119 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 mae bo), however, have th
e aorist }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosekuvnhsen}{\f0\fs24 , worshiped. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 have the stronger }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk e[xestin}{\f0\fs24 , it is not permitted. See }{\f0\fs24\i
TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24
B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f
0\fs24 , 40.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\
fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit
. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 for. }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 s
y{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{
\f0\fs24\super s,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 omit }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , probably by influence from the Markan parallel (}{\f
0\fs24 Mark 7:28}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. A few witnesses ({\f0\fs24 D{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae o
r Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\s
uper mss}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , perhaps thro
ugh influence of the preceding narrative (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , tha
t is}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24
24}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 j. Indeed is added to the translation to bring out t
he emphasis on {\f8\fs24\lang1032 megavlh}{\f0\fs24 , great, apparent from the }{\
f0\fs24 Gr.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Gr. }{\f0\fs24
Greek}}}{\f0\fs24 word order.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
The narrative returns to the miraculous deeds of Jesus, in this instance to a he
aling from a distance. Yet the focus here is not on the healing but on the genti
le woman who makes the request. This raises the whole question of the relation b
etween the ministry of Jesus and the Gentiles, a question that has already been
raised in the Gospel (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:10 12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , and
especially }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:5 6}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 in the send
ing out of the twelve to extend Jesus message and ministry). The remarkable persi
stence of the woman in this pericope, despite her open admission of the priority
of Israel in the saving purposes of God, wins out in the end, and her faith is
praised by Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Although Matthew is dependent on Mark for the s
tory ({\f0\fs24 Mark 7:24 30}{\f0\fs24 ; the narrative is lacking in Luke), he has
reworked it and has added important new material. The insertion of }{\f0\fs24 v
v{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23 24}{\f0\fs24 gives Matthew s pericope its special charact
er. There, after his initial silence to the woman s request and after her persever
ance, which annoys the disciples to the extent that they ask Jesus to send the w
oman away, Jesus announces in a very strong statement that his mission is direct
ed only to the house of Israel (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 10:6}{\f0\fs24 , in nearly verbatim agreement). But the remarkable woma

n is not discouraged by this implicit rejection and effectively presses her case
. The other major change Matthew makes of his Markan source is in introducing di
rect discourse almost at the beginning (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that
is}}}{\f0\fs24 , from v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ), whereas Mark begins direct d
iscourse only in v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 . Thus Matthew recasts the earlier M
arkan material (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:25 26}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Among ot
her changes Matthew makes, the following are the most interesting and significan
t. Matthew s transitional words are, as usual, his own (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c
ompare}}}{\f0\fs22 his favorite vocabulary, }{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0
\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejxelqwvn, ajnecwvrhsen}{\
f0\fs22 ). Matthew adds }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kai; Sidw`no"}{\f0\fs22 , and Sidon, t
o Mark s simple }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Tuvrou}{\f0\fs22 , Tyre (the two names occur in
Matthew only together; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22
11:21 22}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew omits }{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:24b}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 2
5a}{\f0\fs22 , which refers to Jesus going into a house, his desire for anonymit
y, the impossibility of keeping his presence a secret, and the woman hearing abo
ut him. Matthew goes directly to the woman s request for help in the words }{\f8\f
s22\lang1032 ejlevhsovn me, kuvrie uiJo;" Dauivd}{\f0\fs22 , Have mercy on me, Lo
rd, Son of David (v. }{\f0\fs22 22}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew then alters Mark s third-pe
rson statement that the woman s daughter had a }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 pneu`ma ajkavqa
rton}{\f0\fs22 , unclean spirit (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:25}{\f0\fs22 ), to the direct s
tatement }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 hJ qugavthr mou kakw`" diamonivzetai}{\f0\fs22 , my
daughter suffers severely from being possessed by a demon (v. }{\f0\fs22 22}{\f0\
fs22 ). Matthew furthermore describes the woman as }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Cananaiva
ajpo; tw`n oJrivwn ejkeivnwn}{\f0\fs22 , a Canaanite from those regions (v. }{\f0
\fs22 22}{\f0\fs22 ), in contrast to Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 `Ellhniv", Surofoi
nivkissa tw`/ gevnei}{\f0\fs22 , a Greek, Syrophoenician by race (}{\f0\fs22 Mark
7:26}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew replaces Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 prosevpesen pro;" to
u;" povda" aujtou`}{\f0\fs22 , fell at his feet (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:25}{\f0\fs22 ),
with the stronger }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 prosekuvnei aujtw`/}{\f0\fs22 , began to w
orship him (v. }{\f0\fs22 25}{\f0\fs22 ). Mark s third-person request that the demo
n might be cast out of the woman s daughter (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:26}{\f0\fs22 ) is r
eplaced in Matthew with the direct }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kuvrie, bohvqei moi}{\f0\
fs22 , Lord, help me (v. }{\f0\fs22 25}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew omits Mark s }{\f8\fs22\
lang1032 a[fe" prw`ton cortasqh`nai ta; tevkna}{\f0\fs22 , allow the children to
be fed first (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:21}{\f0\fs22 ). Although theologically this fits
Matthew s perspective, it takes the edge off the story of the woman s amazing faith.
Matthew replaces Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 paidivwn}{\f0\fs22 , children, with the
more appropriate }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kurivwn}{\f0\fs22 , masters (v. }{\f0\fs22 2
7}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew s climactic }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 w\\ guvnai megavlh sou hJ p
ivsti": genhqhvtw soi wJ" qevlei"}{\f0\fs22 , O }{\f0\fs22 woman, your faith is i
ndeed great. Be it to you as you desire (v. }{\f0\fs22 28}{\f0\fs22 ), replaces M
ark s on account of this word, go; the demon has departed from your daughter (}{\f0\
fs22 Mark 7:29}{\f0\fs22 ). Finally Matthew abbreviates Mark s closing sentence co
nsiderably by avoiding the mention of the woman returning home and finding her d
aughter well (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:30}{\f0\fs22 ), instead simply noting that in th
at hour the girl was healed, without specific reference to the exorcism of the d
emon (v. }{\f0\fs22 28}{\f0\fs22 ; this last verse is very much patterned after
}{\f0\fs22 8:13}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew thus again abbreviates Mark in this pericop
e but more importantly reformulates the story so as to put great emphasis on the
exclusivity of Jesus mission to the Jews and yet at the same time to recognize t
he reality of the faith of a Gentile.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C. Matthew s narrative consists
of dialogue from almost the very beginning. In the exchanges, which are quite b
rief, the woman speaks three times (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\

fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\f


s24 , }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 ), Jesus three times (}{
\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24
verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\
fs24 28}{\f0\fs24 ), and the disciples once (v. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 ). This
gives the narrative a sense of motion leading to the final statements in v. }{\f
0\fs24 28}{\f0\fs24 . Thus the healing miracle becomes primarily a framework and
vehicle for the teaching with its climactic apothegm preceding the short notice
that the girl was healed, as the following outline indicates: (1) transition to
present pericope (v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the woman s request (v. }{\f0
\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) Jesus initial silence (v. }{\f0\fs24 23a}{\f0\fs24 ); (
4) the disciples plea (v. }{\f0\fs24 23b}{\f0\fs24 ); (5) the statement concernin
g Jesus mission (v. }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 ); (6) the woman s persistence (v. }{\f
0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 ); (7) the objection of Jesus (v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 );
(8) the woman s retort (v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 ); (9) acclamation of the woma
n s faith (v. }{\f0\fs24 28a}{\f0\fs24 ); and (10) granting of the woman s request (
v. }{\f0\fs24 28b}{\f0\fs24 ). The most notable structural features are in the a
lternating definite articles (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ dev}{\f0\fs24 / }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 hJ dev}{\f0\fs24 ) functioning as pronouns in the description of the d
ialogue (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf
. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 23 27}{\f0\fs24 ) and the fourfold use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokrivne
sqai}{\f0\fs24 in Jesus response (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 28}{\f0\fs24
). Within this structure, the plea of the apostles (v. }{\f0\fs24 23b}{\f0\fs24
) is parenthetical. In the content of the dialogue, the two appeals of the woman
are parallel (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlevhsovn me}{\f0\fs24 , have mercy on me [v.
}{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ], and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 bohvqei moi}{\f0\fs24 , help m
e [v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 ]), and it is worth noting that each of the three t
imes the woman speaks she addresses Jesus as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie}{\f0\fs2
4 , Lord (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }
{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew s literary artistry is again at work in the
construction of this pericope.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. The similarity between this story and that of t
he centurion s request ({\f0\fs24 8:5 13}{\f0\fs24 ) deserves special notice. In bot
h cases a Gentile asks for the healing of a valued child respectively, a servant (
if this is a son, the similarity is even more striking) and a daughter, both of
whom lie in beds of torment. In both cases the strangeness of a Gentile s coming t
o Jesus is apparent. And especially if }{\f0\fs24 8:7}{\f0\fs24 is taken as a q
uestion, both demonstrate a striking perseverance. Both are ultimately praised h
ighly for their faith (}{\f0\fs24 8:10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:28}{\f0\fs24 ).
Finally and most remarkable of all are the nearly verbatim parallel final notic
es about the granting of the respective healings.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew s transition has J
esus leaving there (with Mark, deliberately vague). Gennesaret was the last place
mentioned (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:34}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), but there
is no necessity to hold that the events of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:1 20}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 also occurred there. He went away, or possibly withdrew (}{\
plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnecwvrhsen}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , a favorite Matthe
an word; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 2:12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), into an area where he may hav
e been less known, namely Tyre and Sidon. This could refer to the actual gentile
towns along the Syrophoenecian coast (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \

pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c


ompare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11:21 22}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 ; but also }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 3:8}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 ) or to the larger territories known by those names extending }{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 far to the east of the towns, in which case the population could sti
ll have been largely Jewish. It is possible, but by no means necessary, to concl
ude from the Greek text (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnecwvrhsen eij"}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 , taken as to come up to the borders of ) that Jesus did not enter th
ese territories and that the woman came onto Jewish soil to make her request (}{
\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpo; tw`n oJrivwn ejkeivnwn ejxelqou`sa}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 , she, coming out of those boundaries, in v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 2
2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:31}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 22}{\f0\fs24
Matthew s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ijdouv}{\f0\fs24 , look, calls attention to the remark
able occurrence of a gentile woman approaching Jesus with a request. Matthew des
cribes her simply as a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Cananaiva}{\f0\fs24 , Canaanite (the on
ly occurrence of the word in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 ), from those region
s. The term Canaanite has inevitable }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 associations with
the pagan inhabitants of Palestine displaced by the Jews and thus contrasts the
woman all the more with the people of God (the term is also used for non-Jews i
n the rabbinic literature; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculi
ne}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Qidd.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513 Qidd. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Qiddusin}}}{\f0\fs24 1:3; }{\f0\
fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{\f0\fs24\
i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poetic line), or before a tractate indicate
s Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sot\}{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513 Sot\} }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sot\\a}}}{\f2\
fs24\lang513 35a). As Marks description of her as a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Egghniv"}
{\f2\fs24\lang513 , Greek,
suggests, she was Hellenized to some extent, and almost c
ertainly the conversation between her and Jesus would have been held in Greek. Y
et, as emerges from the terminology used in her initial request as well as from
her perspective in v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , she was apparently acquai
nted with Judaism to some extent. Thus her opening words are properly Jewish: }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlevhsovn me, kuvrie uiJo;" Dauivd}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , have mer
cy on me, Lord, Son of David ( }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513
the same cry of the blind men in }{\f0\fs24 9:27}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 2
0:30 31}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ). The title
Son of David
(see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f2\fs
24\lang513 on }{\f0\fs24 9:27}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ) is a Jewish title for the Mess
iah ( }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513
}{\f0\fs24 1:1}{\f2\fs2
4\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:23}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:9}{\f2\fs24\lang513
; }{\f0\fs24 22:42}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ). For }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie}{\f2\fs24
\lang513 ,
Lord, which the woman uses three times in succession in appeals for heali
ng ( }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f
0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513
}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f2\fs24\l
ang513
}{\f0\fs24 25}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ), see }{
\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f2\fs24\lang513 on }{\f0\fs24 8:2}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ( }{
\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs2
4\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513
}{\f0\fs24 8:6}{\f2\fs24\lang
513 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:15}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 20:30 31}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , }{
\f0\fs24 33}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ). The verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlevhson}{\f2\fs2

4\lang513 is commonly used with these appellations (see the same references). T
he verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[krazen}{\f2\fs24\lang513 in the imperfect tense,
wa
s crying out,
suggests the woman had to work hard to get the attention of Jesus, w
ho was probably protected by his disciples ( }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\
f2\fs24\lang513 v. }{\f0\fs24 23b}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ). Although her cry is for m
ercy on herself (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , me ), her request actuall
y concerns her daughter who suffered severely (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kakw`"}{\f2\f
s24\lang513 , a word used often by Matthew for those who suffer; }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265
exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513 , }{\f0\fs24 4:24}{\f2
\fs24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 17:15}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ) because she was demon possesse
d (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 daimonivzetai}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ; see }{\f0\fs24 4:24}{\f2\f
s24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:32}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:22}{\f2\fs24\lang5
13 ). See }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f2\fs24\lang513 on }{\f0\fs24 4:24}{\f2\fs24
\lang513 regarding demon possession.}\par
\pard\plain \f2\fs24\lang513 {\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 23}{\f0\
fs24\lang1033 Jesus at first ignores the woman s request altogether, speaking not
a word (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 lovgon}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) to her. The justificati
on for this surprising lack of response will be given in the following verse. Th
e silence of Jesus, however, did not dissuade her, and she apparently continued
crying out, much to the annoyance of the disciples (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{ti kr
avzei o[pisqen hJmw`n}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 , because she keeps crying out after us ).
They repeatedly asked Jesus (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 hjrwvtwn}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ,
imperfect tense, were asking ) to send her away (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpovluson aujth
vn}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), perhaps implying that Jesus should heal her (}{\f0\fs24
\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:13}{
\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpovluson}{\f0\fs24\lang1033
could be taken to mean set free [thus Lgasse]). But Jesus does not heed their reque
st.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 24}{\f0\fs24
Indeed he announces again the purpose of his mission. These words appear to be s
poken to the disciples, who may have expected Jesus to grant her request. They p
rovide a justification for sending the woman away without healing her daughter.
They confirm the limits he set upon their mission in }{\f0\fs24 10:5 6}{\f0\fs24 .
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk ajpestavlhn}{\f0\fs24 , I was not sent, refers to being
sent by God. As God did not send him to the Gentiles but to the Jews, so also he
had restricted the disciples mission to the Jews. The expression }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 ta; provbata ta; ajpolwlovta oi[kou I srahvl}{\f0\fs24 , the lost sheep of th
e house of Israel, is found verbatim in }{\f0\fs24 10:6}{\f0\fs24 (see }{\f0\fs2
4\i Comment}{\f0\fs24 there; }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0
\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9:36}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 18:12}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Je
r 50:6}{\f0\fs24 ). Jesus mission to Israel is a matter of God s faithfulness to Is
rael (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }
{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Rom. 15:8}{\f0\fs
24 ), a point that must have been extremely important to Matthew and his readers
in their argument against the synagogue. The apparent absoluteness of Jesus stat
ement here is conditioned immediately in this very pericope by his healing of th
e Canaanite s daughter and will be further altered as the Gospel proceeds (}{\f0\f
s24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i c
onfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 21:43}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 2
4:14}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 28:19}{\f0\fs24 ). But if Jesus was perhaps about to
send the woman away without answering her request, her renewed approach, record
ed in the next verse, persuaded him otherwise.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 25}{\f0\fs24
The remarkable persistence of the woman continues even after the rebuff containe
d in the exclusivism of the preceding statement. She is convinced that he is the
Jewish Messiah and that he can heal her daughter. She thus began to worship (}{\f

8\fs24\lang1032 prosekuvnei}{\f0\fs24 , imperfect tense) him, a verb used with r


eference to Jesus in }{\f0\fs24 8:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:18}{\f0\fs24 (see
especially for parallels to the present story); }{\f0\fs24 14:33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\
f0\fs24 20:20}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs
24 28:9}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ). Driven by a mother s love for her c
hild, she again made her plea: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie, bohvqei}{\f0\fs24 [t
he only occurrence of this verb in Matthew] }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 moi}{\f0\fs24 , L
ord, help me, a re-expression of the request in v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 but i
n more idiomatic Greek (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
Ps 109:26}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 26 27}{\f0\fs24 In the rem
arkable exchange that follows, the Jewish view of the salvation-historical prima
cy of Israel is assumed by Jesus and accepted without challenge by the woman. }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n a[rton tw`n tevknwn}{\f0\fs24 , the bread of the children,
here is a symbol of the messianic fulfillment (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 14:15}{\f0\fs24 ; see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comments}{\f
0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 4:3}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 6:11}{\f0\fs24 ) promised to
and now in some way being made actual to Israel (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 the symbolism of the feeding of the five thousand in }{\f0\fs24
14:15 21}{\f0\fs24 ). The children here are those who belong to the household and th
us those whose right it is to receive bread (the children are equal to those who
belong to the kingdom, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ uiJoi; th`" basileiva"}{\f0\fs24
, }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{
\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
the sons of the kingdom ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:12}{\f0\fs24 ). It is wrong (}{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 oujk e[stin kalovn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 it is not good ) to
throw to dogs what belongs to the children. The Jews universally assumed that es
chatological fulfillment belonged to Israel in an exclusive sense. Many also exp
ected that the overflow of the abundant eschatological blessing of God would be
made available to righteous Gentiles (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}
}{\f0\fs24 , by keeping the Noachic laws [}{\f0\fs24 Gen 9:1 17}{\f0\fs24 ]). The
woman seems to know of this widespread idea and thus that as a Gentile, though s
he had no right to the eschatological banquet itself, she might well be allowed
to enjoy something of the overflow, here described in the image of the crumbs (}{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n yicivwn}{\f0\fs24 , a word occurring in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testamen
t}}}{\f0\fs24 only here and in the Markan parallel) that fall from the table (}
{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 16:21}{\f0\fs24 ) t
o the house dogs (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kunarivoi"}{\f0\fs24 , again in the }{\f0\fs
24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Te
stament}}}{\f0\fs24 only in these verses and in the Markan parallel). This word
, used first by Jesus and then by the woman, recalls that Gentiles were sometime
s likened to the unclean dogs that roamed the streets (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 7:6}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kurivwn}{\f
0\fs24 , masters, suggests the superiority of Israel as the people of God over the
Gentiles. The disarming response of the woman, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 naiv, kuvrie
}{\f0\fs24 , true, Lord, reflects an acceptance of her position, but also a consta
ncy of faith that impresses Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 28}{\f0\fs24
The words of Jesus, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 megavlh sou hJ pivsti"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0
\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24

literally}}}{\f0\fs24
great is your faith, spoken here to a gentile woman, recal
l the compliment paid to the gentile centurion in the parallel story in chap. }{
\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
8:10}{\f0\fs24 , where a deliberate contrast with Israel is made). They also rec
all, by contrast, Jesus rebuke of Peter s little faith in }{\f0\fs24 14:31}{\f0\fs2
4 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 16:8}{\f0\fs24 ), n
ot to mention the unbelief of the Jews (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24
, for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 13:58}{\f0\fs24 ). The address, }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 w\\gguJnai}{\f0\fs24 , O woman, reveals the degree to which Jesus was
moved by this gentile woman s faith. The reward of faith with the granting of a re
quest for healing is an }{\f0\fs24 important theme in Matthew (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:22}{\f0\fs
24 , }{\f0\fs24 29}{\f0\fs24 ; see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs
24 21:22}{\f0\fs24 ). Jesus thus finally responds to the woman s faith with the go
od news }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 genhqhvtw soi wJ" qevlei"}{\f0\fs24 , be it to you as
you want (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 a similar formula in }{\
f0\fs24 8:13}{\f0\fs24 ). The short notice at the end of the pericope that her d
aughter was healed (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ijavqh}{\f0\fs24 ) from that hour is exact
ly paralleled in the conclusion to the story of the healing of the centurion s son
(}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0
\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:13}{\f0\fs24 , with
the only differences being }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ pai`" aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his
son, and the use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn}{\f0\fs24 with the dative rather tha
n }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpov}{\f0\fs24 with the genitive, in that hour for from tha
t hour ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9:22}{\f0\fs24
and }{\f0\fs24 17:18}{\f0\fs24 , both with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpov}{\f0\fs24
and the genitive). The exorcism itself is not described. Matthew, like Mark, let
s the conclusion of the story have its own impact and records neither the joy of
the woman nor any christological conclusion that might well be drawn from the s
tory.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The eventual answerin
g of the request of the Canaanite woman, as with the healing of the centurion s so
n (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:5 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), are exceptions in
the ministry of Jesus that are at the same time anticipations of the ultimate go
al of the mission of the Christ, which is to bring blessing to humankind univers
ally. The gentile mission will become increasingly clear later in Matthew (}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 24:14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 28:19}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), but it is especially import
ant for the evangelist to stress the faithfulness of God initially to Israel, wh
ich is her salvation-historical right (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c
ompare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Rom 1:16}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 ). Jesus strictly limited his own mission, as he did that of his
disciples, to Israel; but the time of the blessing of the Gentiles was indicated
by Jesus explicitly and is foreshadowed here and there in the narratives. What
becomes clear again from the present passage is a basic principle: that it is ul
timately receptive faith and not physical Jewishness that determines the blessin
g of God. Paul maximized this truth as the apostle to the Gentiles. The latter c
an receive the privilege of the Jews through faith (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 esp.{\

footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}


}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Rom 4}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Gal 3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Accordingly,
the privilege of the Jews is no longer unique but is to be enjoyed by all who re
spond in faith (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 21:43}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Healings on the Mountain
(15:29 31)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Gerhardsson, B.}{\p
lain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Mighty Acts.}{\plain\f0\fs22\
lang1033 28. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Ryan, T. J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
M
atthew 15.29 31: An Overlooked Summary. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Horizons}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033 5 (1978) 31 42.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 29}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And passing on from there, Jesus came b
eside the Sea of Galilee, and having gone up on the mountain, he sat down there.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 30}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And large}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 polloiv}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{
\f0\fs24
many. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 crowds came to him, having with them
those who were lame, blind, deformed, mute,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. The or
der of the preceding four groups varies considerably in the textual evidence. Se
e apparatus in Nestle-Aland. The last word, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs2
4 , can mean either deaf or mute, or perhaps both.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 and
many others. And they laid them at his}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. Many witnes
ses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 K}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 P}{\f0\fs24 W }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) have }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 tou` I hsou`}{\f0\fs24 , hence, the feet of Jesus. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\
i\lang1033 feet, and he healed them,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. }{\f0\fs24 D}
{\f0\fs24 it sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24
add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pavnta"}{\f0\fs24 , all. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 }{
\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 31}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 with the result tha
t the crowd}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. Many witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c,p,h}{\f0\fs24 mae) have the }{\f0\fs24 pl.}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" o[clou"}{\f0\fs24 , the crowds, in keeping with v.
}{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 marveled, seeing the }{\
plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 mute speaking,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f0\fs24
B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 F}{\f0\fs24 and a few other witnesses have }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvonta"}{\f0\fs24 , hearing ; others (N O }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
S}{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvonta" kai; lalou`nta"}{\f0\fs24 , hea
ring and speaking. These alterations are caused by the ambiguity of }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs24 . See above, Note }{\f0\fs24\i\super b}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\
plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the deformed whole,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. A few
witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kull
ou;" uJgiei`"}{\f0\fs24 , the deformed whole, perhaps because it was thought to be
redundant in light of the next clause concerning the lame walking, or because t
here are no other references to the healing of the deformed in the Gospels. On t

he other hand, more probably the phrase was added to make the list of those cure
d more nearly parallel with the four categories of need mentioned in v. }{\f0\fs
24 30}{\f0\fs24 . The broad character of witnesses containing the words favors t
heir retention in the text. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 40.}}}{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 and the lame walking and the blind seeing. And they glorified t
he God of Israel.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 polloiv}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs2
4 literally}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
many. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. The order of the preceding fo
ur groups varies considerably in the textual evidence. See apparatus in Nestle-A
land. The last word, {\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs24 , can mean either deaf o
r mute, or perhaps both.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. Many witnesses ({\f0\fs24 C{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geni
za}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 K{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 K }{\f0\fs24 Kethib (the written consonantal Hebrew text of OT)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 P{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 P }{\f0\fs24
Pesher (commentary)}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0
\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` I hsou`}{\f0\fs24 , hen
ce, the feet of Jesus. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 it sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\
fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pavnta"}{\f0\fs24 , all. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. Many witnesses ({\f0\fs24 B{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanu
s}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513
Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{
\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c,p,h}{\f0\fs24 mae) hav
e the }{\f0\fs24 pl.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 pl. }
{\f0\fs24 plate or plural}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou;" o[clou"}{\f0\fs
24 , the crowds, in keeping with v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 F}{\f0\fs24 and a few other witnesses have }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 ajkouvonta"}{\f0\fs24 , hearing ; others (N O }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 S}{\f0\fs24 h
ave }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvonta" kai; lalou`nta"}{\f0\fs24 , hearing and speak
ing. These alterations are caused by the ambiguity of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"
}{\f0\fs24 . See above, Note }{\f0\fs24\i\super b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. The order of the preceding four
groups varies considerably in the textual evidence. See apparatus in Nestle-Alan
d. The last word, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs24 , can mean either deaf or m
ute, or perhaps both.}}}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. A few witnesses ({\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24
Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24 bo) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kullou;" u
Jgiei`"}{\f0\fs24 , the deformed whole, perhaps because it was thought to be redun

dant in light of the next clause concerning the lame walking, or because there a
re no other references to the healing of the deformed in the Gospels. On the oth
er hand, more probably the phrase was added to make the list of those cured more
nearly parallel with the four categories of need mentioned in v. }{\f0\fs24 30}
{\f0\fs24 . The broad character of witnesses containing the words favors their r
etention in the text. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Comme
ntary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 40.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. As in the similar
sequence in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:13 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Jesus he
als large numbers of people of a variety of maladies prior to the miraculous fee
ding of the multitude. This miracle summary is the last of a series (}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 4:23 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:16 17}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:35 36}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:13 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 34 36}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), except for the brief note in }{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 19:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , presented in this section of Matt
hew and represents a climax in Jesus Galilean ministry (note especially the concl
uding reference in v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 31}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 to
the people glorifying the God of Israel). With the multitude in place, the narra
tive setting for the miracle of the feeding of the four thousand (}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs
24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 32 39}{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 ) is established.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew s miracle summary passage stan
ds here in place of the story of a specific healing of a deaf mute in {\f0\fs24
Mark 7:31 37}{\f0\fs24 (lacking in Luke). Some similarities suggest that Matthew s
summary is to some extent based on, or at least prompted by, the Markan story. T
hus, although Matthew avoids the difficulties of Mark s geographical notice, both
evangelists at the beginning make reference to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n qavlassa
n th`" Galilaiva"}{\f0\fs24 , the Sea of Galilee (v. }{\f0\fs24 29}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\
f0\fs24 Mark 7:31}{\f0\fs24 ); both refer to the bringing of the needy to Jesus,
and Matthew s reference to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs24 , deaf (or mute ) cor
responds to Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfovn}{\f0\fs24 (v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:32}{\f0\fs24 ); both refer to healing (v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{
\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:33 37}{\f0\fs24 ); both refer to the amazement of the
people (v. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:37}{\f0\fs24 ); and, fin
ally, both conclude with a statement of response from the crowd (}{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 ejdovxasan to;n qeo;n I srahvl}{\f0\fs24 , they glorified the God of Israel [v
. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24 ]; he has done all things well [}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:37}{\f
0\fs24 ]). Yet among all these similarities the actual wording of Matthew is tot
ally different from that of Mark. Beyond these agreements, furthermore, are a nu
mber of important differences in addition to the basic point that Mark describes
a specific incident while Matthew generalizes concerning Jesus healings, referri
ng to four basic types of malady. Matthew s healings occur on a mountain beside the
Sea of Galilee, Mark s apparently in the region of the Decapolis. While in Matthew
the sick are placed at the feet of the seated Jesus }{\f0\fs24 (v. }{\f0\fs24 3
0}{\f0\fs24 ), in Mark those who bring the deaf mute beseech Jesus to lay his ha
nd on him (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:32}{\f0\fs24 ). Furthermore, while Mark goes into c
onsiderable detail concerning the technique used by Jesus on this particular occ
asion, Matthew simply records that he healed them (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejqeravpeus
en aujtouv"}{\f0\fs24 ), }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24
the sick. Furthermore, Matthew lacks the messianic secret motif of }{\f0\fs24 M
ark 7:36}{\f0\fs24 . Thus this pericope is really Matthew s own formulation, sugge
sted by Mark s narrative more than drawn from it or even based upon it. In Matthew

, more than in Mark, this pericope serves as a transition between the preaching
narrative and the feeding of the multitude (thus on the pattern of }{\f0\fs24 14
:13 14}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The pericope may be simply outlined as follows:
(1) Jesus goes up on the mountain (v. {\f0\fs24 29}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the sick ar
e brought to him (v. }{\f0\fs24 30a}{\f0\fs24 b); (3) he heals them (v. }{\f0\fs2
4 30c}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) they are visibly restored to health (v. }{\f0\fs24 31a}{\
f0\fs24 ); and (5) the people respond (v. }{\f0\fs24 31b}{\f0\fs24 ). Structural
ly, the most interesting feature is the list of four maladies in v. }{\f0\fs24 3
0}{\f0\fs24 and the corresponding list of those healed in v. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0
\fs24 . The latter is partly in chiastic relation with the former, except for th
e last two items, which occur in the wrong order (the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 cwlouv
"}{\f0\fs24 , lame, should be last, and the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tuflouv"}{\f0\fs24
, blind, next to last for a perfect chiasm). It is a wonder that among the severa
l textual variants pertaining to this material, none appears to be concerned to
produce the exact chiasm. Two other items hinder perfect parallelism: the lack o
f a corresponding element in v. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24 to match }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 kai; eJtevrou" pollouv"}{\f0\fs24 , and many others (v. }{\f0\fs24 30}{\f0\f
s24 ), and the use of the adjective }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJgiei`"}{\f0\fs24 , whol
e, to modify }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kullouv"}{\f0\fs24 , the deformed, instead of a pa
rticiple as in the other three cases (v. }{\f0\fs24 31}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24\i
V{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 29}{\f0\fs24 reveals parallelism in the use of particip
les (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 metabav"}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnabav"}{\f0\
fs24 ) with the respective finite verbs.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\b\
lang1033 29}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 According to Matthew, Jesus moves from the
Syrophoenician coast (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkei`qen}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 , from there ) to the Sea of Galilee and a mountain (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 to
; o[ro"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\f
s24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a hillside along the shore of the lake
(}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 parav}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , alongside ), although
which shore is not specified (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:31}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 , where the reference to the Decapolis necessitates the eastern shore). M
atthew gives no indication that the crowds were composed of Gentiles. Jesus went
up on the mountain and sat there (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkavqhto ejkei`}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), very much as though he intended to teach (}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\
fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 5:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) rather than to heal (teaching indeed may
generally have preceded healing, and the fact that the crowd was with Jesus for
three days suggests the same). This setting serves in turn the narrative of the
feeding of the four thousand (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 32 38}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 John 6:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). For the significance of }{\plain\f8\fs24
\lang1032 o[ro"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , mountain, in Matthew, see }{\plain\f0\f
s24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
5:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Donaldson (followed by Davies-Allison; denied by
Luz) has argued that the complex of ideas in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:29 39}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24
, for example}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , eschatological gathering of the peop
le, healing, and the messianic banquet, point to the mountain as symbolic of Mou

nt Zion and Zion eschatology (}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Jesus on the Mountain}


{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , 130 31). These ideas }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 are}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 in close conjunction here and make Donaldson s conclusion
possible, though not quite necessary.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 30}{\f0\fs24
As usual, the crowds flock to Jesus for healing. Here they bring those in need o
f healing, and they put them at the feet of Jesus in a gesture of obeisance and
expectation. Of the four specific categories of need mentioned, only the }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 kullouv"}{\f0\fs24 , the deformed, are not mentioned again in Matthew
in healing contexts (nowhere else in the Gospels is there mention of the healin
g of the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kollouv"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 although the healin
g of the withered hand [}{\f0\fs24 12:10 14}{\f0\fs24 ] could be included in this
category; the only other occurrence of the word in Matthew is in }{\f0\fs24 18:8
}{\f0\fs24 ). The three remaining words all occur in }{\f0\fs24 11:5}{\f0\fs24 ,
and there are specific stories of the healing of the mute (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kw
fov"}{\f0\fs24 ) in }{\f0\fs24 9:32 33}{\f0\fs24 and of the healing of the blind (}
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tufloiv}{\f0\fs24 ) in }{\f0\fs24 9:27 31}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs2
4 20:29 34}{\f0\fs24 . Both of these last two words occur in }{\f0\fs24 12:22}{\f0
\fs24 (a man who was blind and deaf), while in the summary of }{\f0\fs24 21:14}
{\f0\fs24 the blind and the lame are mentioned together. The representative cha
racter of the list is made clear by the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; eJtevrou"
pollouv"}{\f0\fs24 , and many others. The healings are described only in the brie
f, direct statement at the end of the verse: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ejqeravpeu
sen aujtouv"}{\f0\fs24 , and he healed them (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\
f0\fs24 similar brevity and directness in other summaries: }{\f0\fs24 4:24}{\f0
\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 14:1
4}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 19:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:14}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 31}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 w\{ste}{\f0\fs24 , so that, introduces the result: the crowd marveled (fo
r }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qaumavzein}{\f0\fs24 , marvel, }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 comp
are}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:33}{\f0\fs24 ). What t
hey saw is described using the same four specific categories mentioned in the pr
eceding verse, though not in the same order (note the similarity with }{\f0\fs24
11:5}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kwfouv"}{\f0\fs24 , which can mean either
deaf or mute, occurs here with the participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 lalou`nta"}{\
f0\fs24 , speaking, and thus is understood in the latter sense (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:37}{\f0\fs24 ). Seeing the evidenc
e for these healings before their very eyes, the people responded by praising th
e God of Israel. This expression underlines God s faithfulness to his people and t
hus inevitably implies the fulfillment of prophecy (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 com
pare}}}{\f0\fs24 the correspondence with }{\f0\fs24 Isa 35:5 6}{\f0\fs24 , where
three of the four maladies are specifically mentioned; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:18 19}{\f0\fs24 ), though this is not m
entioned. It is particularly appropriate for Jews to glorify God in this way (fo
r }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 doxavzein}{\f0\fs24 , glorify, in this sense in Matthew, see
too }{\f0\fs24 5:16}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9:8
}{\f0\fs24 ). The familiar }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 phrase }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 to;n qeo;n Israhvl}{\f0\fs24 , the God of Israel (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Pss 41:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 72:18}{\f0\fs24 ; }{
\f0\fs24 106:48}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 1 Kgs 1:48}{\f0\fs24 ), occurs again in t
he }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\
fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 only in }{\f0\fs24 Luke 1:68}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f

0\fs24 Acts 13:17}{\f0\fs24 . Contrary to many commentators (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\fo


otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exe
mpli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , Gundry, Carson, France) it can
not be insisted that this language must come from Gentiles (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\f
s24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Isa 29:19}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Pss 41:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 72:18}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10
6:48}{\f0\fs24 ). The idea that the healings of this pericope were performed for
Gentiles makes }{\f0\fs24 15:24}{\f0\fs24 and the narrative of the Canaanite w
oman absurd. Had the evangelist intended Gentiles, he would have made that clear
. There can be no doubt that praising the God of Israel is appropriate in the mo
uths of Jews (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 5:16}{\f0
\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 6:9}{\f0\fs24 ). The implicit Christology involved whereby Je
sus is the channel of such blessing to God s people, however, is also inescapably
clear to the readers of the narrative in the larger context of the Gospel.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Jes
us healing ministry continues, although as but part of the larger purpose of his
ministry. The miracles point to the reality of Jesus proclamation of the kingdom
and of his identity as messianic king (note the resemblance to }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 11:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 in response to John the Baptist s question
). It is the God of Israel who is at work in the miracles of Jesus. Matthew s emph
asis on fulfillment elsewhere is exactly in keeping with this assessment. That t
his was particularly meaningful to Matthew s Jewish-Christian church in its defens
e against the counterarguments of the synagogue is obvious. If it is the God of
Israel who is at work in the ministry of Jesus, then God s faithfulness to his peo
ple is confirmed in the same way that the limitation of Jesus mission to Israel c
onfirms it. Matthew s Jewish-Christian church }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 never ceas
ed giving thanks to the God of Israel, who was the God of Jesus and of the churc
h.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Feeding of the Four T
housand (15:32 38)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Donaldso
n, T. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Jesus on the Moun
tain}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . 122 35.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 See also {\f0\fs22\i\cf1 Bibliography}{\f0\fs22 f
or 14:13 21.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 32}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 And Jesus, when he had called his}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. A
few }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`
}{\f0\fs24 , his. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 disciples together, said: I feel co
mpassion for the crowd, because it is already}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. }{\f0
\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[dh}{\f0\fs24 , already. }}}{\plain\f
0\fs24\i\lang1033 three days that they have remained with me and they do not ha
ve anything to eat. And I do not want to dismiss them when they are hungry, lest
they should give out on the road. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0
\fs24 * omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvpote ejkluqw`sin ejn th`/ oJdw`/}{\f0\fs24
, lest they should give out on the road, probably through homoioteleuton (}{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 qevlw}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJdw`/}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 33}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
And the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. Many witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24

}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24


sy}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\
i\lang1033 disciples said to him: Where in this wilderness will we get an adequa
te supply of loaves so that such a crowd can be filled? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 34}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And Jesus said to them: How many loaves do
you have? And they said: Seven and a few small fish. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang103
3 35}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And after he had ordered}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\
lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\f
s24 e. A number of }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{
\f0\fs24 ) have the synonym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkevleuse}{\f0\fs24 , commanded,
for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paraggeivla"}{\f0\fs24 , thus conforming the text more t
o the narrative of the feeding of the five thousand (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the crowd to recline
upon the ground, }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 36}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
he took}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. The witnesses in the preceding note have th
e participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 labwvn}{\f0\fs24 , taking, conforming the word ex
actly to the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs
24 too the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lan
g1033 the seven loaves and the fish, and}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. Many }{\f
0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 L}{\f0\fs24\super *}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\f
s24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , and, probably by
influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\
i\lang1033 having given thanks, he broke the bread and was giving}{\plain\f0\fs
24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super
h }{\f0\fs24 h. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 T
R}{\f0\fs24 ) have the aorist }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[dwken}{\f0\fs24 , he gave, ins
tead of the }{\f0\fs24 impf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejdivdou}{\f0\fs24 ,
he was giving (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\
f0\fs24\i\lang1033 it to the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super i }{\f0\fs24 i. }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24
add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his, in agreement with the parallel in
}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 disciples, and th
e disciples were giving it to the crowds.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 j{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super j }{\f0\fs24 j. }{\f0\fs2
4 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f
0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 mae have the }{\f0\fs24 sing.}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`/ o[clw/}{\f0\fs24 , the crowd, again as in the parallel
in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 37}{\plain\
f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And all ate and were filled, and of the abundance of fragmen
ts they took up seven baskets full. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 38}{\plain\f
0\fs24\i\lang1033 And the number of those who ate was four thousand}{\plain\f0\
fs24\super\lang1033 k{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\supe
r k }{\f0\fs24 k. }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJseiv}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJ"}
{\f0\fs24 , about, through the influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:9}{\
f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 men, not counting women and children.}{\
plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 l{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24\super l }{\f0\fs24 l. The important witnesses }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0
\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 sa bo reverse the order, thus reading }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 paidivwn kai; gunaikw`n}{\f0\fs24 , children and women. Although this is the ha
rder reading (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.}{\f0\fs24 unlike the usual order and thus }{\f0\f

s24 perhaps original), the textual evidence in favor of the accepted reading is
of a wider variety. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 40 41.}}}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
A few }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (
}{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs3
2\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 ) omit }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , his. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 o
mits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[dh}{\f0\fs24 , already. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 * omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mhvpote ejkluqw`sin ejn th`/ oJdw`/}{
\f0\fs24 , lest they should give out on the road, probably through homoioteleuton
(}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 qevlw}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJdw`/}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. Many witnesses ({\f0\fs24 C{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geni
za}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of
MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 ,
B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\s
uper 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. A number of {\f0\fs24\scaps m
ss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 ma
nuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (a
s published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}
}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\
fs24 ) have the synonym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkevleuse}{\f0\fs24 , commanded, for
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paraggeivla"}{\f0\fs24 , thus conforming the text more to th
e narrative of the feeding of the five thousand (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. The witnesses in the precedin
g note have the participle {\f8\fs24\lang1032 labwvn}{\f0\fs24 , taking, conformin
g the word exactly to the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 (but }{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f
0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Cod
es of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\f
s24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24\super *}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syr
iac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , and

, probably by influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publi
shed in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\
fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs2
4 ) have the aorist }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[dwken}{\f0\fs24 , he gave, instead of th
e }{\f0\fs24 impf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 impf. }
{\f0\fs24 imperfect}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejdivdou}{\f0\fs24 , he was
giving (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24
).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. {\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24
Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningra
densis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}
}}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his, in agreement with th
e parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 j. {\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24
Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs
24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\supe
r h}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 mae have the }{\f0\fs24 sing.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sing. }{\f0\fs24 singular}}
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`/ o[clw/}{\f0\fs24 , the crowd, again as in the
parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 k. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 (}{
\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang10
37 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJseiv}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJ"}
{\f0\fs24 , about, through the influence of the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:9}{\
f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 l. The important witnesses {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs
24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 sa bo reverse the order, thus reading }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paidivwn kai; gunaikw`n}{\f0\fs24 , children and women. Althoug
h this is the harder reading (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\
fs24 unlike the usual order and thus }{\f0\fs24 perhaps original), the textual
evidence in favor of the accepted reading is of a wider variety. See }{\f0\fs24\
i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24
B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\
f0\fs24 , 40 41.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p

ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
The healing ministry of Jesus is here followed again, as in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 14:14 21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , by the miraculous feeding of a multitude
. This is the last narrative concerning Jesus miraculous deeds before the decisiv
e confession by Peter that Jesus is the Christ and the radically new turn taken
by Jesus in the announcement of his suffering and death (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 16:13 21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Quite probably the pericope, although for
Matthew it is a feeding of Jews, also contains symbolism that anticipates the ul
timate blessing of the Gentiles something also in view in the reality of the cross
. The passage is thus a climax to the first main part of the Gospel as well as a
preparation for the final and climactic part of the story of Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew is again dependent on Mark f
or this pericope ({\f0\fs24 Mark 8:1 10}{\f0\fs24 ; it is lacking in Luke). Matthe
w follows the wording of Mark rather closely. Beyond small changes and rewriting
, the following more significant differences are to be noted. To begin with, Mat
thew omits Mark s opening words, which seem to suggest a new setting, one later th
an the preceding narrative: In those days again there was a great crowd, and they
did not have anything to eat (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:1}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew appends t
he present narrative directly to the preceding healings narrative, which provide
s the setting. Matthew alters the indirect statement of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:3}{\f0
\fs24 (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejavn}{\f0\fs24 , if
) concerning the dismissal of the
crowd to the direct statement }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj qevlw, mhvpote}{\f0\fs24
, I do not want to
, lest (v. }{\f0\fs24 32}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew omits Mark s note an
d some of them had come from afar (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:3}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 32}{\f0\fs24 ) in characteristic a
bbreviation of his source. Similarly, Matthew omits Mark s separate notice about t
he fish (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i
.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 all of }{\f0\fs
24 Mark 8:7}{\f0\fs24 ) and places the reference to fish earlier in the disciple
s response to Jesus question, on the model of the feeding of the five thousand (}{
\f0\fs24 Mark 8:5}{\f0\fs24 ; v. }{\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs
24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:17}{\f0\fs24 ), as well as in Jesus blessi
ng of the bread (v. }{\f0\fs24 36}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 ). As in the narrative of the feeding
of the five thousand (}{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 ), Matthew abbreviates Mark by
omitting the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paratiqevnai}{\f0\fs24 , distribute, which o
ccurs here twice (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:6}{\f0\fs24 ). In v. }{\f0\fs24 37}{\f0\fs24
Matthew adds two words to heighten the impact of the narrative: }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 pavnte"}{\f0\fs24 , all, ate (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:42}{\f0\fs24 ) and the seven bask
ets of fragments were }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 plhvrei"}{\f0\fs24 , full (}{\f0\fs24 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 ). This emphasis con
tinues in the last verse of Matthew s narrative, where }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ de;
ejsqivonte"}{\f0\fs24 , those who ate, is added as well as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a[
ndre" cwri;" gunaikw`n kai; paidivwn}{\f0\fs24 , men, without women and children,
after the reference to the number four thousand (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 the same wording in }{\f0\fs24 14:21}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew thus has
abbreviated Mark, though not as much as usual because Mark s narrative is already
terse; Matthew has also intensified the report of the miracle by slight modifica
tions.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The structure of this pericope, espe
cially after the opening verse, is very similar to that of the narrative of the
feeding of the five thousand (see {\f0\fs24\i Form/Structure/Setting}{\f0\fs24

for }{\f0\fs24 14:13 21}{\f0\fs24 ). Here again there is no concluding reference t


o the crowd s reaction, nor is a christological point drawn. The story stands by i
tself. The pericope may be outlined as follows: (1) Jesus compassion upon the hun
gry people (v. }{\f0\fs24 32}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the problem (v. }{\f0\fs24 33}{\f0
\fs24 ); (3) the scanty resources (v. }{\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 ); and (4) the sol
ution, consisting of (a) the miracle (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 35 37a}{\
f0\fs24 ), (b) the abundance }{\f0\fs24 (v. }{\f0\fs24 37b}{\f0\fs24 ), and (}{\
f0\fs24 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c }{\f0\fs24 com
mon or correction by a later hand }{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 first corrector
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 second corrector}}}{\f0\fs24 ) the number fed (v.
}{\f0\fs24 38}{\f0\fs24 ). No striking syntactic parallelism is evident in the p
ericope, which consists of straightforward narrative.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. Why do Mark and Matthew have
two such remarkably similar stories of the miraculous feedings of multitudes (wi
th the present pericope and its Markan parallel, {\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare
}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:13 21}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:32 44}{\f0\fs24 )
, and what is the relationship between the two stories? It is clear that both Ma
rk and Matthew regard the accounts as describing separate events. Both evangelis
ts indeed deliberately compare and contrast the two feedings at a later point (}
{\f0\fs24 16:5 12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 Mark 8:14 21}{\f0\fs24 ), and there, as in the respective narratives themselv
es, the specific details of the two stories are kept carefully distinct.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Thus in
particular we may note in the feeding of the five thousand the consistent refere
nce to: the lateness of the hour; five loaves and two fish (}{\f8\fs22\lang1032
ijcquva"}{\f0\fs22 ); the crowd lying on the grass (}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 covrto"}
{\f0\fs22 ), and twelve baskets (}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kofivnou"}{\f0\fs22 ) of re
mainders. By contrast, in the feeding of the four thousand note the consistent r
eference to: the third day; seven loaves and a few fish (}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ijc
quvdia}{\f0\fs22 , diminutive, little fish [but also }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ijcquva"}
{\f0\fs22 in v. }{\f0\fs22 36}{\f0\fs22 ]); the crowd lying on the ground (}{\f
8\fs22\lang1032 gh`n}{\f0\fs22 ); and seven baskets (}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 spurivd
a"}{\f0\fs22 ) of remainders. A few of these are deliberately emphasized in }{\f
0\fs22 16:9 10}{\f0\fs22 (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs2
2 Mark 8:19 20}{\f0\fs22 ). There are further differences to be noted as well, esp
ecially toward the beginning of the pericopes. In the narrative of the feeding o
f the five thousand, it is the disciples who take the initiative and approach Je
sus concerning the need of the people, suggesting that Jesus dismiss the crowds
so they can obtain food. Then Jesus says you give them something to eat (}{\f0\fs2
2 14:15}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mar
k 6:37}{\f0\fs22 ). In the narrative of the feeding of the four thousand, it is
Jesus who takes the initiative (so too in the question of Jesus in }{\f0\fs22 Jo
hn 6:5}{\f0\fs22 ), noting that the crowds have nothing to eat and that he does
not want to send them on the road with such hunger.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 The differences betwee
n the two narratives noted thus far are important. They underline the fact that
both Mark and Matthew believed the stories described two separate events (so esp
ecially }{\f0\fs24 16:9 10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:19 20}{\f0\fs24 ). On the o
ther hand, the remarkable similarities between the stories point to the possibil
ity, or perhaps probability, that the narratives describe what was originally on
e miraculous feeding.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The similarities to be noted are the fol
lowing. First, the larger framework of the two narratives is quite parallel: eac
h occurs after an extensive healing ministry (}{\f0\fs22 14:14}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0
\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i

confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 . }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:11}{\f0\fs22 ]; }{\f


0\fs22 15:29 31}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0\fs22 Mark 7:31 37}{\f0\fs22 ]); each is followed b
y a boat trip (}{\f0\fs22 14:22 33}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0\fs22 Mark 6:45 51}{\f0\fs22 ];
}{\f0\fs22 15:39}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:10}{\f0\fs22 ]). Within the narra
tives themselves are the following similarities: both occur in a deserted area (
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 e[rhmo"}{\f0\fs22 : }{\f0\fs22 14:15}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0\fs22
Mark 6:35}{\f0\fs22 ]; }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejrhmiva}{\f0\fs22 : }{\f0\fs22 15:33
}{\f0\fs22 [}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:4}{\f0\fs22 ]); both employ }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 h
[dh}{\f0\fs22 , already, though the first relates to the hour, the second to the t
hird day; both take up the question of the dismissal of the crowd; in both Jesus
asks concerning the resources (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 6:38}{\f0\fs22 , repeated verbat
im in the second narrative, }{\f0\fs22 Matt 15:34}{\f0\fs22 ); in both the disci
ples report what is available. What follows in both narratives is the particular
ly striking common succession, in nearly verbatim language, of the command to re
cline, taking the food, giving thanks for it, breaking it, giving it to the disc
iples and thereby then to the crowd, the reference to all eating and being fille
d, the taking up of the leftover fragments, and finally the report of the number
who had eaten.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 It can hardly be denied that
even if the feedings of the four and five thousand were actually different event
s, the second narrative is patterned after the first and there has been crossove
r or reciprocal influence in the language used to }{\f0\fs24 describe them. But
these similarities may equally well point to the conclusion that we have here va
riant versions describing what was originally but one event. What inclines one t
o this conclusion more than anything else is the extreme improbability that afte
r experiencing the feeding of the five thousand and now being confronted with an
almost identical situation with seven loaves of bread and a few small fish in t
heir baskets, the disciples should ask, Where are we to get bread enough in the d
esert to feed so great a crowd? (v. }{\f0\fs24 33}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:4
}{\f0\fs24 ]; }{\f0\fs24\scaps rsv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24\scaps rsv }{\f0\fs24 Revised Standard Version (NT 1946, OT 1952, Apoc 1
957)}}}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 But if these two narratives were origin
ally variant versions of the same miraculous feeding of a multitude, why does Ma
rk, and Matthew following Mark (but note that Luke and John include only the sto
ry of the feeding of the five thousand), include both and deliberately insist on
their independence ({\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , in
}{\f0\fs24 16:9 10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:19 20}{\f0\fs24 )? Mark had availab
le to him two very similar stories that were different, however, in important sp
ecific details some of which had probably already assumed symbolic importance (see
below). Rather than choosing only one account and omitting the other, Mark incl
uded both, thereby preserving the important symbolic meaning in each, the one fe
eding representing the provision for the Jews, the other for the nations. If, as
Mark may imply (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Ma
rk 8:1}{\f0\fs24 , which makes somewhat of a break with the preceding narrative)
, the feeding of the four thousand took place in the region of the Decapolis (}{
\f0\fs24 Mark 7:31}{\f0\fs24 ), this may also suggest gentile associations, even
though there is little hint from Mark (even less from Matthew) that the four th
ousand were anything other than Jews. Note too how the Gentiles are considered e
arlier in the chapter, explicitly in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 21 28}{\f0
\fs24 and perhaps implicitly in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24
, }{\f0\fs24 17 20}{\f0\fs24 , with their critique of the ceremonial law that div
ides Jew and Gentile. It may furthermore have been thought desirable to preserve
the accounts of the two feeding miracles to match the two of Moses (}{\f0\fs24
Exod 16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Num 11}{\f0\fs24 ) and Elijah (}{\f0\fs24 2 Kgs 4
:1 7}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 38 44}{\f0\fs24 ), who are soon to be mentioned in }{\f0

\fs24 17:1 8}{\f0\fs24 , although they are eclipsed in importance by Jesus.}\par


\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 Although it is of course not impossible that there
were two similar, miraculous feedings, the data surveyed above seem more consis
tent with the hypothesis of one original event that came to be transmitted in tw
o different versions, each with its own symbolism.\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\b\
lang1033 32}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The presence of the crowd with Jesus for al
ready three days (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[dh hJmevrai trei`"}{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 ; a parenthetical nominative, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 BDF{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BDF }{\f0\fs24 F. Blass, A. Debrunn
er, and R. W. Funk, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek Grammar of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24
(University of Chicago/University of Cambridge, 1961)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 144) presupposes the setting of the previous pericope (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v
v{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 29 30}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 ). Jesus calls together his disciples (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 proskalesavmeno
"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 20:25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) and announces }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032
splagcnivzomai ejpi; to;n o[clon}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , I feel compassion fo
r the crowd (similarly, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:36}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ;
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 20:34}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), because they had nothing to eat. In keeping
with this compassion, Matthew has Jesus assert }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpolu`
sai aujtou;" nhvstei" ouj qevlw}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , I do not want to dismi
ss them when they are hungry [the adjective }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 nh`sti"}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , hungry, occurs in the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 NT{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 only here and in the Markan parallel (}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 Mark 8:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 )], lest they should give out (}{\plain\
f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkluqw`sin}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , in the Gospels only here
and }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Thus in this
pericope the suggestion of the disciples in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:15}{\p
lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 seems to be anticipated and answered before it is made. F
urthermore, here Jesus is the one who initially feels concern for the people and
thus will not send them away. The fear that the people might faint on the road
is unique to this pericope.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 33}{\f0\fs24
Matthew s abbreviation of Mark in the narrative of the feeding of the five thousan
d results in the omission of the question or the equivalent of the question that
is asked here (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:
37}{\f0\fs24 , which, however, is implied in the disciples remark in }{\f0\fs24 1
4:17}{\f0\fs24 ). The disciples question virtually precludes any knowledge of a p
revious miraculous feeding, such as that of the five thousand in chap. }{\f0\fs2
4 14}{\f0\fs24 . They apparently know of no way that this multitude (}{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 o[clon tosou`ton}{\f0\fs24 , such a crowd ) could be fed short of dismissi
ng them to make their way home. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 cortavsai}{\f0\fs24 , to feed
or to be filled, is the same verb found in }{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 and in v. }
{\f0\fs24 37}{\f0\fs24 in the report that all were filled.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 34}{\f0\fs24
The opening words, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgei aujtoi`"}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 povsou" a[rtou" e[cete}{\f0\fs24 , said to them: How many loaves do you have

? agree verbatim with }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:38}{\f0\fs24 in the narrative concerning


the five thousand (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark
8:5}{\f0\fs24 ). The answer of the disciples, according to Matthew, is at once
similar and dissimilar to the answer of the disciples in the feeding of the five
thousand. By the addition of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojlivga ijcquvdia}{\f0\fs24 , a
few small fish (lacking in Mark at this point [}{\f0\fs24 8:6}{\f0\fs24 ] but dr
awn from }{\f0\fs24 8:7}{\f0\fs24 ), the answer becomes similar to that in }{\f0
\fs24 14:17}{\f0\fs24 . At the same time, the difference is also clear. Here it
is }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eJpta; kai; ojlivga ijcquvdia}{\f0\fs24 , seven (loaves) a
nd a few small fish, whereas in the feeding of the five thousand it is }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 pevnte a[rtou" kai; duvo ijcquva"}{\f0\fs24 , five loaves and two fish (
}{\f0\fs24 14:17}{\f0\fs24 ). On the number seven in the seven loaves, see }{\f0\fs2
4\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on v. }{\f0\fs24 37}{\f0\fs24 . The difference in the n
umber of loaves is specifically noted in }{\f0\fs24 16:9 10}{\f0\fs24 , where, how
ever, the number of fish is not mentioned. The use of the diminutive }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ijcquvdia}{\f0\fs24 , small fish, used only here and in the Markan parall
el, would be more important except that the ordinary word }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ij
cquva"}{\f0\fs24 , fish, is used in v. }{\f0\fs24 36}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 35 36}{\f0\fs24 The statem
ent of v. }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 agrees with that of }{\f0\fs24 14:19a}{\f0\fs
24 , although the vocabulary differs: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paraggeivla"}{\f0\fs24
is used for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 keleuvsa"}{\f0\fs24 (both meaning having comma
nded ); }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnapesei`n}{\f0\fs24 is used for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ajnakliqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 (both meaning to recline ); and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gh`n}
{\f0\fs24 , ground, is used for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 covrtou}{\f0\fs24 , grass. After
this, however, the vocabulary agrees closely, reflecting as it does the church s
liturgical language used in celebrating the eucharist. Thus the four verbal form
s, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[laben}{\f0\fs24 , he took (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 labwvn}{\f0\fs24 , having taken [}{\f0\fs24 14
:19}{\f0\fs24 ]), the seven loaves and the fish, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eujcaristhv
sa"}{\f0\fs24 , having given thanks (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eujlovghsen}{\f0\fs24 , he blessed [}{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs2
4 ]), }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[klasen}{\f0\fs24 , he broke (them) (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 klavsa"}{\f0\fs24 , having broken
[them] [}{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 ]), and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejdivdou}{\f0\fs2
4 , he began to give (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[dwken}{\f0\fs24 , he gave [}{\f0\fs24 14
:19}{\f0\fs24 ]), it to the disciples, all correspond closely to the same verbs
used in the institution of the Lord s Supper in }{\f0\fs24 26:26}{\f0\fs24 . If th
ere are gentile associations in the symbolism of seven loaves and the seven bask
ets of fragments left over (see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on v. }{\f0\fs
24 37}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 16:9 10
}{\f0\fs24 ), the allusions to the eucharist, with its universal implications, t
ake on special meaning. Only one element of }{\f0\fs24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 not foun
d here, namely the looking up into the sky, is also not found in }{\f0\fs24 26:26}
{\f0\fs24 . The close correspondence among v. }{\f0\fs24 36}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs
24 14:19}{\f0\fs24 , and }{\f0\fs24 26:26}{\f0\fs24 is striking. Matthew s }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 ijcquva"}{\f0\fs24 , fish, is lacking in the Markan account at this
point and fails to preserve the distinction between the fish of the narrative of t
he feeding of the five thousand and the little fish (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ijcquvdia
}{\f0\fs24 ) of the present narrative (v. }{\f0\fs24 34}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 M
ark 8:7}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 37}{\f0\fs24
This verse repeats }{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 verbatim except for a very slight
change in word order in the middle of the verse and the key words at the end of
the verse, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eJpta; spurivda"}{\f0\fs24 , seven baskets (}{\f0\

fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i


confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dwvdeka kofivnou"}{\
f0\fs24 , twelve baskets, in }{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 ). The importance of this
difference is clear from the notice taken of it in }{\f0\fs24 16:9 10}{\f0\fs24 .
The type of basket referred to here was a more flexible basket than the baskets
(probably wicker) referred to in the narrative of the feeding of the five thou s
and (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:20}{\f0\fs24 ).
That there were seven loaves and seven baskets full of remaining fragments in }
{\f0\fs24 this feeding of the multitude cannot be accidental. The number seven p
oints to fullness and perfection, or, somewhat less plausibly, to the seventy gent
ile nations. Much less likely is Lohmeyer s suggestion that the number refers to t
he seven deacons of }{\f0\fs24 Acts 6:1 6}{\f0\fs24 , who after all were Hellenist
ic Jews and not Gentiles. If it is taken in conjunction with the twelve baskets
full of remainders in the feeding of the five thousand, which almost certainly p
oints to the twelve tribes of Israel (or the twelve disciples), }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265
id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the Jews, then the sevens even though tho
se who actually had been fed were Jews may well symbolize the meeting of the needs
of the Gentiles, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the f
ullness of messianic provision for the entire world. All (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pavn
te"}{\f0\fs24 ) ate and were satisfied (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejcortavsqhsan}{\f0\fs
24 ), together with the abundance (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; perisseu`on}{\f0\fs24
) reflected in the seven baskets of remainders, has here as in }{\f0\fs24 14:20
}{\f0\fs24 eschatological overtones (see }{\f0\fs24\i Comment}{\f0\fs24 there)
that are consistent with this interpretation.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 38}{\f0\fs24 This statem
ent is merely a verbatim repetition of }{\f0\fs24 14:21}{\f0\fs24 , the only cha
nges being obviously the number itself, the omission here of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
wJseiv}{\f0\fs24 , about, the transposition of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a[ndre"}{\f0\f
s24 , men, and the number }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tetrakiscivlioi}{\f0\fs24 , four thou
sand. The number is regarded as approximate, despite the omission of }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 wJseiv}{\f0\fs24 , about. If we are correct in thinking that the feeding o
f the five thousand is associated with the Jews (twelve baskets of fragments) an
d that the present feeding suggests provision for the Gentiles (seven loaves and
seven baskets of fragments), then the smaller number of four thousand in refere
nce to the Gentiles may subtly point to Israel s priority in the reception of the
abundance of eschatological blessing.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 At first glance this
miracle involving the feeding of the four thousand seems to be merely a less imp
ressive repetition of the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand. Both stor
ies are clearly stories of messianic provision foreshadowing the blessings of th
e eschaton, and this one, especially in retrospect, intimates the extension of m
essianic blessing even to the Gentiles. The fulfillment brought by Jesus is fina
lly to involve the feeding of the hungry of the nations. The universalism implic
it here is important to the evangelist s understanding of the meaning and signific
ance of Jesus messianic mission. Theologically, this feeding, like that of the fi
ve thousand, is closely related to the feeding symbolized in the eucharist, whic
h also points in its own way to the experience of eschatological blessing. The f
eeding of the four thousand points to the blessing of the Gentiles, who, togethe
r with Israel, will also be the recipients of eschatological blessing through th
e provision of Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Seeking of a Sign (15
:39 16:4)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Edwards, R. A.}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 The Sign of Jonah}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SBT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\

lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SBT }{\f0\fs24 Studies in Biblical Theology (London/Napervill


e, IL: SCM/Allenson)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 2.18. London: }{\plain\f0\fs22\
lang1033 SCM{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SCM }{\f0\fs2
4 Student Christian Movement}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1971. }{\plain\f0\fs22
\b\lang1033 Hirunima, T.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Matthew 16,2b 3. In }{\plain\f0\f
s22\i\lang1033 New Testament Textual Criticism}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS
}{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 B. M. Metzger, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}
}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. J. Epp and G. D. Fee. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981. 35 4
5. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Mrz, C.-P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Lk 12,54b 56 par
Mt 16,2b.3 und die Akoluthie der Redequelle. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 SNTU{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i SNTU }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031
Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 11 (1
986) 83 96.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And when he had dismissed the crowd, he
got into the boat, and he came to the region of Magadan.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\l
ang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs
24 a. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Magdalav}{\f
0\fs24 , Magdala (}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{
\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ), or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Magdalavn}{\f0\fs24 , Magdal
an (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 N W 33 mae bo), both of which mean in }{\f0\fs24 Aram
.}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 Heb.}{\f0\fs24
Tower, rather than }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Magadavn}{\f0\fs24 , Magadan (thus }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 ). The variants may
have in mind the town of Migdal on the west coast of the Sea (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 8:2}{\f0\fs24 , Magdalene, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.}{\f0\fs24 , fro
m Migdal). Magadan is a name not known elsewhere (the same is true of }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 Dalmanouqav}{\f0\fs24 , Dalmanutha, from the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark
8:10}{\f0\fs24 ). It is the harder reading and contained in the best }{\f0\fs24\s
caps mss}}}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 16:1}{\f0\fs24 An
d the Pharisees and Sadducees came to him, and to test}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lan
g1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24
b. The translation to test takes the participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 peiravzonte"}
{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 testing, as indicating purpose.}}}{\f0\fs24
him they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lan
g1033 2}{\f0\fs24 But he, answering, said to them: [When evening has come, you sa
y: It will be fair weather, for the sky is red. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 3}
{\f0\fs24 And early in the morning: It will be stormy today, for the sky}{\plain\
f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\s
uper c }{\f0\fs24 c. In place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujranov}{\f0\fs24 s sky, }{\
f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajhvr}{\f0\fs24 , air. }}}{\f0\fs24
is dark and red. How, on the one hand, do you know how to discern the face of th
e sky, but, on the other, you are not able to discern}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24
d. To discern is added in the translation. A few }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 a
dd }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dokimavzein}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 G}{\f0\fs24 N) or }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 dokimavsai}{\f0\fs24 (W), to test, or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gnw`na
i}{\f0\fs24 (1012 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 ), to know, or for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
duvnasqe}{\f0\fs24 , able, substitute }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sunivete}{\f0\fs24 (}{
\f0\fs24\i S}{\f0\fs24 700), understand, or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dokimavzete}{\f0\
fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 ), test, by influence of the Lukan parallel (}{\f0\f
s24 Luke 12:56}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\f0\fs24 the signs of the times?]}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e
}{\f0\fs24 e. The long passage in brackets (}{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24

2 3}{\f0\fs24 ) is omitted by important witnesses (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par


}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 X }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs24
sa mae bo}{\f0\fs24\super pt}{\f0\fs24 ). It may have been inserted from }{\f0\
fs24 Luke 12:54 56}{\f0\fs24 (although the wording is very different) or from som
e other source; contrariwise, if original, it may have been deliberately omitted
by copyists in regions where a red morning sky does not indicate a storm, as, f
or example, in Egypt. It might, on the other hand, have been omitted because it
is not found in the Markan parallel or in the otherwise identical pericope in }{
\f0\fs24 12:38 39}{\f0\fs24 . The passage is accordingly retained by the }{\f0\fs2
4 UBSGNT}{\f0\fs24 committee, but in brackets to indicate the uncertainty of th
e text. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 41.}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\plain\f0\fs24\sup
er\lang1033 4}{\f0\fs24 An evil and adulterous}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f
0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; moicaliv"}{\f0\fs24 , and ad
ulterous. }}}{\f0\fs24 generation seeks a sign, and no sign will be given to it e
xcept the sign of Jonah. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{
\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg}{
\f0\fs24\super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 mae bo) add }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 tou` profhvtou}{\f0\fs24 , the prophet, through the influence of the earlier
parallel in }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\f0\fs24 And he left them and went
away.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
Many }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ha
ve }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Magdalav}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Magdala (}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f
0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex L
eningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang
1032 Q}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\s
uper\lang1033 1,13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 h}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), or }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Magdalavn}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 , Magdalan (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 N W 33 mae bo), both of which mean in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Aram.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Aram. }{\f0\fs24 Aramaic}}}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 and }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Heb.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Heb. }{\f0\fs24 Hebrew}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 Tower, rather than }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Magadavn}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
, Magadan (thus }{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 * }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 B{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 ). The variants may have in mind the town of Migdal on the west coast of the S
ea (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 8:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Magdalene, }{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e.
}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , fr
om Migdal). Magadan is a name not known elsewhere (the same is true of }{\plain\
f8\fs24\lang1032 Dalmanouqav}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Dalmanutha, from the paral
lel in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). It is the

harder reading and contained in the best }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\foo


tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. The translation to test takes t
he participle {\f8\fs24\lang1032 peiravzonte"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0
\fs24 testing, as indicating purpose.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. In place of {\f8\fs24\lang103
2 oujranov}{\f0\fs24 s sky, }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 reads }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajhvr}{\f0\fs24 , air. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. To discern is added in the tran
slation. A few {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
dokimavzein}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 G{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 G }{\f0\fs24 Greek translation: as published in }{\f0\fs24\i Septuag
inta}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 LXX}{\f0\fs24 ed. A. Rahlfs, 1935. In Daniel, G inc
ludes both OG and Th, as published in J. Ziegler s ed., 1954.}}}{\f0\fs24 N) or }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dokimavsai}{\f0\fs24 (W), to test, or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gnw`
nai}{\f0\fs24 (1012 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 ), to know, or for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
duvnasqe}{\f0\fs24 , able, substitute }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sunivete}{\f0\fs24 (}{\
f0\fs24\i S{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i S }{\f0\fs24
Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24 700), understand, or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dokimavzete}{\f0\fs2
4 (}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\f
s24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leni
ngradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 ), test, by influence of the Lukan paralle
l (}{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:56}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. The long passage in brackets
({\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs2
4 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2 3}{\f0\fs24 ) is omitted by important witness
es (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\
lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 X }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s,c}{\f0\fs2
4 sa mae bo}{\f0\fs24\super pt}{\f0\fs24 ). It may have been inserted from }{\f
0\fs24 Luke 12:54 56}{\f0\fs24 (although the wording is very different) or from s
ome other source; contrariwise, if original, it may have been deliberately omitt
ed by copyists in regions where a red morning sky does not indicate a storm, as,
for example, in Egypt. It might, on the other hand, have been omitted because i
t is not found in the Markan parallel or in the otherwise identical pericope in
}{\f0\fs24 12:38 39}{\f0\fs24 . The passage is accordingly retained by the }{\f0\f
s24 UBSGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 UBSGNT }{\f0\fs
24 United Bible Societies }{\f0\fs24\i Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 committe
e, but in brackets to indicate the uncertainty of the text. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCG
NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M.
Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs
24 , 41.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; moicaliv"}{\f0\fs24 , and adulte
rous. }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
(}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24
The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f
}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg

{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulga


te (as published in Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs24\super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\
f0\fs24 mae bo) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` profhvtou}{\f0\fs24 , the prophet, t
hrough the influence of the earlier parallel in }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\fs24 .}\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
There is a certain irony in the sequence of the narrative, which has this reques
t for a sign follow the healings and the feeding of the four thousand in }{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:30 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . The signs of the times fill J
esus messianic ministry, yet the religious leadership of Israel, represented in t
he Pharisees and Sadducees, is unwilling to accept available evidence. It is dou
btful, however, that they would have found any sign convincing since Jesus did n
ot fit their preconceptions and furthermore criticized their teaching (}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }
{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 the following
pericope, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 5 12}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Apart from the textually questionabl
e material in {\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2b 3}{\f0\fs24 (bracketed in the
translation), this pericope is found in almost identical form in }{\f0\fs24 12:3
8 39}{\f0\fs24 , where, however, it is the scribes and Pharisees who ask to see a
sign. Indeed, }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2a}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 4}
{\f0\fs24 (except the last four words) agree verbatim with }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f
0\fs24 , which, however, adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` profhvtou}{\f0\fs24 , the
prophet, after Jonah.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 The present pericope, like the former one, is draw
n from {\f0\fs24 Mark 8:11 13}{\f0\fs24 . Lukan parallel material is found in thre
e different places (with v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:16}{\f0\fs24 ; with }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 2 3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24 Luke 12:54 56}{\f0\fs24 , where the thought is the same but the examples and l
anguage differ; with v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:29}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 The differences between this pericope a
nd its Markan source are minimal (if we disregard {\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\f
s24 2b 3}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; Saddoukai`oi}{\f0\fs24
, and Sadducees (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the addition of }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 tine;" tw`n grammatevwn}{\f0\fs24 , some of the scribes, in }{\f
0\fs24 12:38}{\f0\fs24 ), in v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 , as well as rewriting Ma
rk s slightly awkward sentence. The preposition }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejk}{\f0\fs24
, from (with }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:16}{\f0\fs24 , against Mark), replaces }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ajpov}{\f0\fs24 , from (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:11}{\f0\fs24 ), in the phrase a
sign from heaven. In v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\f0\fs24 Matthew omits Mark s note concernin
g the human emotions of Jesus, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ajnastenavxa" twJ/ pneuv
mati aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , and sighing deeply in his spirit (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:12}{\
f0\fs24 ). In v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 he adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; moical
iv"}{\f0\fs24 , and adulterous (as also in }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\fs24 ), in descri
bing }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 geneav}{\f0\fs24 , generation. He again (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\

footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\


f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\fs24 ) omits Mark s }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 ajmh;n levgw uJmi`n}{\f0\fs24 , truly I say to you (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:12
}{\f0\fs24 ), and rephrases the content of the following saying, adding the refe
rence to the one sign that will be given, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; shmei`on Iwna`}
{\f0\fs24 , the sign of Jonah (the same addition is made in }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:29}
{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
the sign of Jonah the p
rophet [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` profhvtou}{\f0\fs24 ] in }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\f
s24 ). Matthew s final note, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; katalipw;n aujtou;" ajph`lqe
n}{\f0\fs24 , and he left them and went away, is close to the content of }{\f0\fs2
4 Mark 8:13}{\f0\fs24 , where, however, there is also reference to getting a boa
t and crossing to the other side, omitted by Matthew (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 As for the bracketed material in {\f0\f
s24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse
(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2b 3}{\f0\fs24 , it appears that we have a version of
something that may have been in }{\f0\fs24 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Q }{\f0\fs24 Qumran , Qere }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Qere}{\f0\fs24 (To
be read. Masoretic suggested pronunciation for vocalized Hebrew text of the OT), o
r Quelle ( Sayings source for the Gospels)}}}{\f0\fs24 or different versions of }{
\f0\fs24 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Q }{\f0\fs24 Qum
ran , Qere }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Qere}{\f0\fs24 (To be read. Masoretic suggested pronunc
iation for vocalized Hebrew text of the OT), or Quelle ( Sayings source for the Gos
pels)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luk
e 12:54 56}{\f0\fs24 ). The Lukan parallel is quite the same in concept, with the
cloud in the west and the wind from the south being meteorological observations
corresponding to the red and red-gloomy sky in Matthew. In the sentence of the a
pplication (v. }{\f0\fs24 3b}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:56}{\f0\fs24 ), Luke
begins with the addition }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJpokritaiv}{\f0\fs24 , hypocrites,
refers to discerning the face }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`" gh`"}{\f0\fs24 , of the ea
rth, as well as that of the sky, has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oi[date dokimavzein}{\f0
\fs24 , you know how to test, for Matthew s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ginwvskete diakrivne
in}{\f0\fs24 , you know how to discern, and finally has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n k
airo;n de; tou`ton}{\f0\fs24 , but this age, for Matthew s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; d
e; shmei`a tw`n kairw`n}{\f0\fs24 , but the signs of the times. }{\f0\fs24\i Gos.
Thom.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Gos. Thom. }{\f0\f
s24\i Gospel of Thomas}}}{\f0\fs24 91 contains a close parallel to the statemen
t of v. }{\f0\fs24 3b}{\f0\fs24 . The version of the logion of Jesus given in v.
}{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 is quoted by Justin Martyr in }{\f0\fs24\i Dialogue}{\f
0\fs24 107.1, but in dependence on Matthew.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. This controversy pericope continues an exchange
between Jesus and his enemies, consisting basically of a request and a response
, including a rebuke. It may be outlined as follows (1) transition ({\f0\fs24 15
:39}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the request of the Jewish leaders (v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs2
4 ); (3) the response of Jesus, consisting of (a) an acknowledgement of their ab
ility to read the sky concerning future weather (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 2 3a}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) a faulting of them for their inability to read signs of
a more important kind (v. }{\f0\fs24 3b}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) rebuke and refusal (v.
}{\f0\fs24 4a}{\f0\fs24 b); and (5) transition (v. }{\f0\fs24 4c}{\f0\fs24 ). Th
e little parallelism in the passage is found in the response of Jesus in }{\f0\f
s24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse
(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2 3}{\f0\fs24 . In }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
2 3a}{\f0\fs24 each weather prediction is followed by a supporting clause }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 purravzei ga;r oJ oujranov"}{\f0\fs24 , the sky is red, though in the
second instance, the participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 stugnavzwn}{\f0\fs24 , being

dark, precedes }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ oujranov"}{\f0\fs24 , the sky. In v. }{\f0\f


s24 3b}{\f0\fs24 , furthermore, the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me;n}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 de;}{\f0\fs24 , on the one hand but on the other, clauses are syntactical
ly parallel, although the infinitive }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diakrivnein}{\f0\fs24 ,
to discern, or its counterpart is lacking. The object of the first, }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 to; me;n provswpon tou` oujranou`}{\f0\fs24 , the face of the sky, correspo
nds to the object of the second, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; de; shmei`a tw`n kairw`
n}{\f0\fs24 , the signs of the times. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The dismissing of the cr
owd (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:15}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 ), which perhaps occurred with a formal blessing, is followed by a boa
t trip (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10
33 the boat trip following }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 the feeding of the five th
ousand [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:22}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 32}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ]), which brings Jesus (but apparently
not his disciples according to }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 ; contrast }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 )
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" ta; o\{ria Magadavn}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , to
the region of Magadan. The name Magadan is unknown in ancient literature outside
this occurrence, as is its location (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 the textual variants mentioned in the }{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Notes}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Mark s }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang
1032 Dalmanouqav}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Dalmanutha, in the parallel (}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) is similarly unknown. From
Matthew alone it is unclear whether the healings of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 1
5:29 31}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 and the feeding of the four thousand occurred on
the western or the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. In Mark, on the other h
and, the healings occur on the eastern shore in the region of the Decapolis (}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 7:31}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), although the settin
g for the feeding of the four thousand is different in time and perhaps place to
o. Matthew s substitution of Magadan for Mark s Dalmanutha may have helped his reade
rs, but it does not help us. If it was on the west side of the lake, then the oth
er side of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 would again b
e the east side of the lake.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 16:1}{\f0\fs24 Matthew s g
rouping together of the Pharisees and Sadducees (the single definite article }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ}{\f0\fs24 , the, links them together) happens again in Matthe
w only in }{\f0\fs24 3:7}{\f0\fs24 . It is particularly problematic when the two
very different groups are linked in connection with their teaching (as in }{\f0
\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 ver
se(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24
12}{\f0\fs24 ). The Sadducees have not been referred to by Matthew since }{\f0\
fs24 3:7}{\f0\fs24 . Although members of both groups sat together on the Sanhedr
in, serving as the leadership for Israel, they were opposed to each other, diffe
ring quite extensively, especially in their doctrine (see discussion in next per
icope). It is not unusual, however, for traditional enemies to unite against wha
t is perceived to be potentially threatening to the status and welfare of each g
roup. In this instance, Jesus teaching overturned that of the Pharisees, and the
clear messianic intimations of his ministry could well have suggested the danger
of a popular revolt to the Sadducees. That their request for a sign was not an
innocent one, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , in order
to have the ministry of Jesus validated for them, is made clear by the participl

e }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 peiravzonte"}{\f0\fs24 , testing (him). Their minds were alr


eady made up concerning Jesus, and now they merely tried to entrap him by findin
g something that could be used against him (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 peiravzein}{\f0\fs24 again in }{\f0\fs24 19:3}{\f
0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 22:18}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 35}{\f0\fs24 ). The request for
a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 shmei`on ejk tou` oujranou`}{\f0\fs24 , a sign from heaven
, is for a display of power for its own sake and one that would present proof tha
t was irrefutable (Luz: a cosmic sign ). Heaven here is a circumlocution for God; hen
ce, the request is for a sign from God. But when Jesus has been performing a hos
t of signs of the kingdom and the response is unbelief, this is exactly the kind
of request he will deny. Had he produced some extraordinary sign, his enemies w
ould doubtless have accused him of sorcery. For further comment pertinent to thi
s verse, see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 12:39}{\f0\fs24 .}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 2 3}{\f0\fs24 T
he response of Jesus to this request begins with a criticism of these leaders fo
r their inability to interpret the signs he has been doing. He alludes perhaps t
o a popular weather proverb concerning signs in the sky that could be interprete
d to predict the weather that would follow (see }{\f0\fs24\i Notes}{\f0\fs24 on
the textual problem of vv }{\f0\fs24 2b 3}{\f0\fs24 ). The words }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 eujdiva}{\f0\fs24 , fair weather, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 purravzei}{\f0\fs24
, is red, occur in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 only here. Although, on the on
e hand, the Pharisees and Sadducees could thus }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; me;n prov
swpon tou` oujranou`}{\f0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diakrivnein}{\f0\fs24 , disce
rn the face of the sky (perhaps here is a deliberate play on the word heaven/sky as
it occurs in the request, v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 ), from the signs that were
available, they were, on the other hand, unable (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj duvnas
qe}{\f0\fs24 , you are not able ) similarly to discern }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; de;
shmei`a tw`n kairw`n}{\f0\fs24 , the signs of the times, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\
f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the signs in the ministry of Jesus marking the d
awning of the messianic age (the expression is used in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f
0\fs24 only here; for a similar use of the plural }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kairoiv}{
\f0\fs24 , times, }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Acts 3:
20}{\f0\fs24 ; for the singular in an eschatological sense, }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:29}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 13:3
0}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:34}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 24:34}{\f0\fs24 ). How cou
ld such a situation be?}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 4}{\f0\fs24 For this ver
se, see the }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on the nearly verbatim }{\f0\fs2
4 12:39}{\f0\fs24 . Here the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` profhvtou}{\f0\fs24
, the prophet, are lacking after the name Jonah, as is the further explanation giv
en in }{\f0\fs24 12:40}{\f0\fs24 . The sign of Jonah needs no explanation here,
since it has been defined in }{\f0\fs24 12:40}{\f0\fs24 . Here, as there, it is
the sign of Jesus resurrection from the dead (see further }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}
{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 12:40}{\f0\fs24 ). That is the one spectacular and over
whelming sign to be given to that generation. The final four words of the perico
pe, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; katalipw;n aujtou;" ajph`lqen}{\f0\fs24 , and he lef
t them and went away, serve as an abrupt ending of the conversation and a transit
ion, together with the opening words of v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\fs24 , to the next
pericope (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:13}{\f
0\fs24 , where the reference to going to the other side is included).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 See the }{\plain\f0\f

s24\i\lang1033 Explanation}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 for }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang10


33 12:38 42}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Given the new material of }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24
verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 2b 3}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 , the following may be added. It is surprising that in a wide variety
of different fields of knowledge human beings can be so knowledgeable and perce
ptive, yet in the realm of the knowledge of God exist in such darkness. The expl
anation of the latter sad state is not to be found in a lack of intellectual abi
lity no more for the Pharisees and Sadducees than for today. The evidence is there
, examinable and understandable for those who are open to it and who welcome it.
The issue in the knowledge of God is not intellect but receptivity. The signs of
the times, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 , as narrated in the gospel of the ministry of Jesus, are there
to be received and affirmed by faith. That is the key point. Again the further r
equest for a sign under these circumstances only reveals an adamant refusal to r
eceive the truth. To those in this unfortunate frame of mind the truth is that n
o sign will suffice.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Leaven of the Pharise
es and Sadducees (16:5 12)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Mitton, C. L.}{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1033 Leaven. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ExpTim{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Times}}
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 84 (1973) 339 43. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Negoitta,
A.,}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 and }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Daniel, C.}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 L nigme du levain.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 9 (1967) 306 14.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 5}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And when the disciples}{\plain\f0\fs24\s
uper\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{
\f0\fs24 a. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f
0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 ,
his disciples, a natural but unnecessary addition.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
came to the other side of the lake,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. Of the lake, is a
dded to the translation for clarity.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 they had forg
otten to bring bread. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 6}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang10
33 And Jesus said to them: Be on your watch}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 oJra`te}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
look. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24
\i\lang1033 and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. }{\plain\f0
\fs24\super\lang1033 7}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24
d. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s}{\f0\fs24 have }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , then. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 they were
considering this}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. This is added to the translation for
clarity.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 among themselves, saying: We did not brin
g bread. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 8}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Jesus knew
their thoughts}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. Their thoughts is added to the transla
tion for clarity.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 and said: O you of little faith,
why are you thinking among yourselves that you have}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g.
Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0

\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{


\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 sa) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlavbete}{\f0\fs24 , took, a
reading that can be explained by the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk ejlavbomen}{\f0\fs
24 , we did not take, in v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 . It is less likely that }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 ejlavbete}{\f0\fs24 , took, would have been altered to }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 e[cete}{\f0\fs24 , have, despite its occurrence in the Markan parallel (}{\
f0\fs24 Mark 8:17}{\f0\fs24 ). Moreover, the }{\f0\fs24 MS}{\f0\fs24 evidence i
n favor of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[cete}{\f0\fs24 is much superior. See }{\f0\fs2
4\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 42.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 no bread? }{\plain\f0\fs
24\super\lang1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Do you not yet comprehend? Do you
not remember the five loaves of the five thousand and how many baskets }{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 you took up? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 11}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 How is it that you do not understand that I did not speak to you
concerning bread? But beware}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps
mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) put the infinitive }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 prosevcein}{\f0\fs24 , to beware, immediately after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei
\\pon uJmi`n}{\f0\fs24 , I said to you, thus making the last clause of the verse a
part of the question rather than a new command (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24\scaps kjv}{\f0\fs24 : concerning bread that ye should beware of the leaven
of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? ). In favor of the critical text as it stan
ds are }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p}{\f0\fs24 co.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 o
f the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 12}{
\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Then they understood that he did not say to beware of
the leaven in bread}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super i }{\f0\fs24 i. A few }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0
\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 [33] ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c
}{\f0\fs24 ) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n Farisaivwn kai; Saddoukaivwn}{\f0\fs2
4 , of the Pharisees and Sadducees, in place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n a[vrtwn}{
\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 of the loaves, probably through the influenc
e of the phrase the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees in }{\f0\fs24 vv}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 . Some other witnesses (
}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs2
4\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super s}{\f0\fs24 ) have no modifi
er whatsoever, resulting in not to beware of leaven, but of the teaching of the P
harisees and Sadducees. The modifier in bread could be an expansion; on the other h
and, if original, it may well have been deleted as superfluous. The }{\f0\fs24 U
BSGNT}{\f0\fs24 committee favors inclusion of the modifier }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
tw`n a[rtwn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
of the loaves, based on the imp
ortant witnesses }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\
super 1}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 co; Origen. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT
}{\f0\fs24 , 42.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 but of the teaching of the Pharis
ees and Sadducees.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
Some }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513
Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W }{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Lat

in}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\plai


n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 ) add }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , his disciples
, a natural but unnecessary addition.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. Of the lake, is added to the tr
anslation for clarity.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJra`te}{\
f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 look. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s}{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 , then. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. This is added to the translatio
n for clarity.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. Their thoughts is added to the
translation for clarity.\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publi
shed in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\
fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\
fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24 sa) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlavbete}{\f0\fs24 , took,
a reading that can be explained by the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk ejlavbomen}{\f0\
fs24 , we did not take, in v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 . It is less likely that }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ejlavbete}{\f0\fs24 , took, would have been altered to }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 e[cete}{\f0\fs24 , have, despite its occurrence in the Markan parallel (}
{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:17}{\f0\fs24 ). Moreover, the }{\f0\fs24 MS{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 MS }{\f0\fs24 Monograph Series or Manuscript}
}}{\f0\fs24 evidence in favor of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[cete}{\f0\fs24 is much
superior. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the
Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 42.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs2
4 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f
0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 ) put
the infinitive }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosevcein}{\f0\fs24 , to beware, immediately
after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei\\pon uJmi`n}{\f0\fs24 , I said to you, thus making th
e last clause of the verse a part of the question rather than a new command (}{\
f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\scaps kjv}{\f0\fs24 : conce
rning bread that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadd
ucees? ). In favor of the critical text as it stands are }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs
24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningra
d Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{
\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f
0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1

033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super p}{\f0\fs24 co.}\par


\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. A few {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
(}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\la
ng1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 [33] ff}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\
f0\fs24 ) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n Farisaivwn kai; Saddoukaivwn}{\f0\fs24 ,
of the Pharisees and Sadducees, in place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n a[vrtwn}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 li
t. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
of the loaves, probably through the influence
of the phrase the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 . Some other witnesses (}{
\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Co
dex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super s}{\f0\fs24
) have no modifier whatsoever, resulting in not to beware of leaven, but of the
teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. The modifier in bread could be an expansio
n; on the other hand, if original, it may well have been deleted as superfluous.
The }{\f0\fs24 UBSGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 UBS
GNT }{\f0\fs24 United Bible Societies }{\f0\fs24\i Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs
24 committee favors inclusion of the modifier }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n a[rtwn}{
\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 of the loaves, based on the important witn
esses }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs3
2\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\
fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 co; Origen. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCG
NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M.
Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs
24 , 42.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. This pericope is p
laced here undoubtedly because of the reference to the Pharisees and Sadducees i
n the preceding passage. They had there requested that Jesus produce a sign from
heaven, apparently not in sincere quest of the truth but in order to entrap Jes
us. The negative view of the Jewish leadership, representing an evil and adultero
us generation, prompts a comment concerning the danger of their teaching. So much
is clear in the present passage. At the same time, however, much in this perico
pe, which has been called the most enigmatic in the whole of Matthew (Green, 148),
remains clouded and difficult, even mysterious. This passage, combined with the
one that precedes, serves as a kind of final indictment of the Pharisees (and S
adducees) in the first main part of the Gospel.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew continues here to be depende
nt on Mark ({\f0\fs24 Mark 8:14 21}{\f0\fs24 ; only a partial parallel is found in
}{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:1}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew departs from his source in making cer
tain changes, and as usual he also abridges Mark. The important differences are
as follows. Matthew s opening reference to the disciples having come to the other
side finds its parallel in the last verse of the preceding pericope in Mark (}{\
f0\fs24 Mark 8:13}{\f0\fs24 ). After these opening words and the note that the d
isciples had forgotten to bring bread, Matthew omits Mark s reference to the one l
oaf that was in the boat (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:14}{\f0\fs24 ). In v. }{\f0\fs24 6}{
\f0\fs24 Matthew softens Mark by substituting }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei\\pen}{\f0\
fs24 , he said, for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diestevlleto}{\f0\fs24 , he ordered (}{
\f0\fs24 Mark 8:15}{\f0\fs24 ). In the same verse Matthew further substitutes th

e synonym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosevcete}{\f0\fs24 , beware, for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\l


ang1032 blevpete}{\f0\fs24 . For Mark s }{\f0\fs24 difficult }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 k
ai; th`" zuvmhs JHrwv`/dou}{\f0\fs24 , and the leaven of Herod, Matthew substitute
s the more general }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai Saddoukaivwn}{\f0\fs24 , and Sadducees
, in keeping with the representation of the Jewish leadership in v. }{\f0\fs24 1}
{\f0\fs24 . Among the few minor changes in v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 , we need m
ention only Matthew s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlavbomen}{\f0\fs24 , we brought, for Mar
k s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[comen}{\f0\fs24 , we have. In v. }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 M
atthew adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e
jn aujtoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , among yourselves, and his favorite }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojl
igovpistoi}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
little faiths, and he deletes
Mark s redundant }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujde sunivete}{\f0\fs24 , nor understood (}{\f
0\fs24 Mark 8:17}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew omits the rest of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:17}{\f
0\fs24 and most of }{\f0\fs24 8:18}{\f0\fs24 , which contain a harsh rebuke of
the disciples for being hard hearted and for having eyes that do not see and ear
s that do not hear (in Matthew, the latter criticism is reserved for those unrec
eptive of the kingdom; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
13:15 16}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew abridges the remainder of Mark (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:18
b 21}{\f0\fs24 ), primarily by omitting the repeated reference to the baskets bein
g filled with fragments as well as the answer of the disciples in each case, where
they respond concerning the number of baskets, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24
, that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , twelve and seven. Matthew apparently assumes these are
well known from the earlier narratives and need not be repeated at this point. H
e also twice substitutes the synonymous verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlavbete}{\f0\
fs24 , take up, for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h[rate}{\f0\fs24 . Finally, Matthew a
dds }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0
\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24
to the Markan account, apparently to clarify Jesus point in the pericope. The r
esult is a return to the beginning of the pericope by the repetition of the warn
ing concerning the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees together with the provi
sion of the interpretation that the leaven is }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`" didach`"}
{\f0\fs24 , the teaching, of these groups (v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ). We can th
us see Matthew s special interests at work in some of his alterations of and addit
ions to the Markan text as well as some of the customary tendency to abbreviate
when possible. Above all, it is clear how Matthew has brought light to the meani
ng of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:15}{\f0\fs24 by his addition in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 11 12}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The passage consists basically of a warning giv
en by Jesus that is misunderstood by the disciples because of their own exaspera
tion at having forgotten to bring bread with them to their apparently isolated d
estination. The following outline may be suggested: (1) the problem of the disci
ples (v. {\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) Jesus warning (v. }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 );
(3) the confusion of the disciples (v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) Jesus rebuk
e, consisting of (a) the disciples lack of faith (v. }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 ), (b
) the reference to the feedings (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9 10}{\f0\fs24
), and (c) the misunderstanding (v. }{\f0\fs24 11a}{\f0\fs24 ); (5) the repetit
ion of the warning (v. }{\f0\fs24 11b}{\f0\fs24 ); and (6) the disciples comprehe
nsion (v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ). The warning of v. }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 i
s repeated verbatim (minus the initial }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJra`te}{\f0\fs24 , lo
ok ) in v. }{\f0\fs24 11b}{\f0\fs24 , which serves therefore as an inclusio (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 also v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ), lack
ing in Mark. Further exact parallelism is to be seen especially in }{\f0\fs24 vv
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 in the double qu

estion pertaining to the two miraculous feedings, although it is to be noted tha


t the different Greek words for baskets are carefully maintained for the respectiv
e feedings, as, of course, are the respective numbers. Other formal connections
can be seen in the repeated use of the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dialogivzesqai}{
\f0\fs24 , reason, consider, in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 an
d }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 , as well as the repeated }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 noei`te}{
\f0\fs24 , understand, in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f
0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 . The parallel prepositional phrases in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f
0\fs24 present the distinctive Matthean interpretation of the Markan pericope,
equating the leaven with the teaching of the Pharisees (and Sadducees). The leav
en of the Pharisees in Luke, on the other hand, is identified as }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 uJpovkrisi"}{\f0\fs24 , hypocrisy (}{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:1}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Matt 23}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 According to Matthew, the
disciples apparently join Jesus, who has already come }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032
eij to pevran}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , to the other side, of the lake. Accordin
g to Mark, the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 discussion recorded here seems to have
taken place in the boat (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 ). If Magadan (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:39}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) wa
s on the west side of the lake, this appears to be the more deserted east side o
f the lake, perhaps with Jesus and the disciples on their way northward toward C
aesarea Philippi (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The di
sciples embarrassingly had forgotten (the only occurrence of the verb }{\plain\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ejpilanqavnesqai}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 in Matthew) to bring
food (basically bread ) with them and were accordingly upset.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 6}{\f0\fs24 A
t this point Jesus delivers a strong warning to them (note the combination of }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJra`te}{\f0\fs24 , be on your watch, }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs2
4 see, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prosevcete}{\f0\fs24 , beware, which is emphatic) co
ncerning }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`" zuvmh" tw`n Farisaivwn kai; Saddoukaivwn}{\f0\
fs24 , the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The disciples, with only bre
ad on their minds (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 7
}{\f0\fs24 ), apparently misunderstood the import of Jesus statement. What Jesus
meant by this rather cryptic statement will dawn upon the disciples only in v. }
{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 . It can only be guessed whether Jesus choice of metaphor
was itself occasioned by the disciples concern over the bread. The warning is rep
eated verbatim in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 , and its interpretation is given i
n v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 . The dynamic potential of leaven, but in a good se
nse, has already been used by Matthew in describing the kingdom of God (}{\f0\fs
24 13:33}{\f0\fs24 , the only occurrence in Matthew of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 zuvmh
}{\f0\fs24 , leaven, outside the present passage). Here again the metaphor points
to the spreading and permeating effect of leaven, but in a corrupting sense (the
more normal use of the metaphor; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Str-B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Str-B }{\
f0\fs24 H. Strack and P. Billerbeck, }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Kommentar zum Neuen T
estament}{\f0\fs24 , 4 vols. (Munich: Beck sche, 1926 28)}}}{\f0\fs24 1:728 29; 4:469
, 474) and therefore as something to be wary of (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 5:6 8}{\f0\fs24 ). The linking together of the Pha
risees and the Sadducees with one definite article is again surprising (see }{\f

0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 ), especially when th


e leaven is defined as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`" didach`"}{\f0\fs24 , the teaching
, of these groups. See further }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on v. }{\f0\fs24
12}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 7 8}{\f0\fs24 These verses
show the preoccupation of the disciples with bread, which causes them to miss t
he point being made by Jesus. The reference to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 zuvmh}{\f0\fs
24 , leaven, has apparently only the effect of exacerbating their anxiety concerni
ng the lack of bread (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs2
4 11a}{\f0\fs24 ); to all else the disciples were oblivious. Notable in this con
nection is the repeated use of the verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dialogivzesqai}{\f0\
fs24 , discuss (a word with a negative connotation in Matthew; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\
fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 21:25}{\f0\fs24 and the cognate noun in }
{\f0\fs24 15:19}{\f0\fs24 ), with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn eJautoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , a
mong themselves/yourselves. Jesus rebukes them for being so caught up with this p
roblem, addressing them with the word }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojligovpistoi}{\f0\fs2
4 , people of little faith. In every instance of the use of this word in Matthew,
it is addressed to disciples in a context where the question concerns their ulti
mate welfare and the reality of God s provision for them (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6:30}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:26}{\f0\fs24 ; }{
\f0\fs24 14:31}{\f0\fs24 ). The implication here seems to be that the disciples
can trust God s provision for their physical need and that they ought not to be so
distracted by the lack of bread that they miss altogether the point of an impor
tant spiritual warning Jesus gives them. The participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gnou
v"}{\f0\fs24 , knowing, suggests an unusual or miraculous ability of Jesus to know
what has not been told to him (note }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn eJautoi`"}{\f0\fs24
, among themselves/yourselves ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the
similar use of the same participle in }{\f0\fs24 12:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 22
:18}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 26:10}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}
{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 9:4}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 9 10}{\f0\fs24
The reference now to the two miraculous feedings is designed to remind the disci
ples of how faithful God is in meeting human need, even particularly in the matt
er of bread. The questions, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou[pw noei`te, oujde; mnhmoneuve
te}{\f0\fs24 , Do you not yet comprehend? Do you not remember? have the effect of
sharpening the rebuke. Matthew emphasizes the abundance of God s provision in the
specific mention of the five loaves and the five thousand and the seven loaves a
nd the four thousand. His deletion of the answer to the question of how many bas
kets were taken up in each instance (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:19 20}{\f0\fs24 ) is an interesting touch. As in Mark, the qu
estion }{\f0\fs24 of the number of baskets (using the different vocabulary, }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 kofivnou"}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 spurivda"}{\f0\fs24
) is raised, but the answer is left to be supplied by the reader on the basis o
f the accounts that have been presented in the immediately preceding chapters (}
{\f0\fs24 14:15 21}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:32 38}{\f0\fs24 ). This test of the mem
ory has the effect of drawing a heightened attention to the numbers involved in
each case the very numbers that are the key to the underlying symbolism of the two
feedings, twelve and seven respectively, pointing, as we argued above, to the p
rovision for Israel and the nations. Thus even in this passing mention of the tw
o miraculous feedings, where the focus is on the divine provision for human need
(}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0
\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 6:52}{\f0\fs24 )
, the numbers and their symbolism remain significant. Jesus makes the point that
the disciples should not have become so concerned about their mundane needs, fo

r which they could trust God, that they lost sight of things that really mattere
d (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f
0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6:33}{\f0\fs24 ).}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 11}{\f0\fs24
Jesus again expresses his disappointment (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f
0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 ) over the disciples failure to understand (}{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 noei`te}{\f0\fs24 , as in v. }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 ) his point
by mistaking it for some comment about literal bread. He then turns to the trul
y important issue, repeating verbatim (except for the opening word }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 oJra`te}{\f0\fs24 , be on your watch ) the original warning given in v. }{\f
0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 concerning the danger of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadd
ucees. }\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 12}{\f0\fs24 The discipl
es finally understand their mistake (contrast the disciples in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8
:21}{\f0\fs24 ) in not realizing that Jesus had not been talking about leaven in
bread but about the leaven that was }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`" didach`" tw`n Fari
saivwn kai; Saddoukaivwn}{\f0\fs24 , the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
Here we have not only the strangeness of the linking of two such antithetical gr
oups but the further and more difficult problem of the reference to their teachi
ng (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 didachv}{\f0\fs24 ) as though this were something they h
eld in common. The teaching of the Pharisees, however, consisted essentially of
the oral tradition constructed around the written Torah so as to insure obedienc
e to it the tradition of the elders (}{\f0\fs24 15:2}{\f0\fs24 ). The Lukan version
of this logion (}{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:1}{\f0\fs24 ) appears to have this in mind to
some extent in the description of the leaven of the Pharisees (there is no ment
ion of the Sadducees) as being hypocrisy (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23:13 36}{\f0\fs24 ). The teaching of the Sadducees, if one may i
ndeed refer to their views as any kind of coherent teaching, consisted of a deni
al of the authority of the Pharisaic tradition and of any accretions, such as ev
en the prophetic writings, to the five books of Moses, which were alone regarded
by them as canonical. Most notorious in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 is the
ir disagreement with the Pharisees over the question of the resurrection of the
dead (noted by Matthew in }{\f0\fs24 22:23 33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Acts 23:6 10}{\f0\fs24 ). In terms of their essen
tial religious perspectives, it thus makes no sense to speak of the teaching of t
he Pharisees and the Sadducees (moreover, if the Pharisaic tradition is in view,
the command stands in some tension with }{\f0\fs24 23:2 3}{\f0\fs24 ). But if inst
ead we look for a particular teaching held in common by the Pharisees and Sadducee
s, keeping in mind the immediately preceding passage (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 1 4}{\f0\fs24 ) and the unified front of the two groups against Jesus (}{
\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs2
4\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22:34}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\f
s24 Acts 5:17}{\f0\fs24 ), it could be found in a preconception of the nature of
the Messiah and messianic fulfillment a fulfillment that of necessity would inclu
de a national-political dimension (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
their inability to read the signs of the times [v }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ]). The t
eaching would thus be that of the united front of Jewish leadership, which was al
so widely held by the masses (and even the disciples, hence the appropriateness
of the warning here). It disqualified Jesus from any claim to being the agent of
messianic fulfillment. This teaching was indeed like leaven in that it affected a
ll else and would indeed ultimately bring Jesus to his death.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The disciples had not

yet learned that they could trust in God s provision for their needs. They theref
ore fell into that very common error of letting relatively unimportant and munda
ne concerns block out the teaching of their Lord. The point was not that they sh
ould expect another miraculous provision of food but rather that they should not
have allowed themselves to become so distraught over something so relatively mi
nor that it controlled their very thinking (and hearing). If God is the faithful
provider, as the miraculous feedings demonstrate, then no disciple should be th
reatened by insecurity and thus become sidetracked from the truly important or f
all prey to false teaching. Once the kingdom is one s priority, mundane matters sh
ould no longer cause undue anxiety (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 comp
are}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 6:25 33}{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 ). It was more important to be vigilant against untruthful opponents.}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i Peter s Confession and Comm
issioning (16:13 20)}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Anderson
, B. W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Messiah as the Son of God in the Old Testamen
t. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Christological Perspectives}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in hono
r of}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 H. K. McArthur, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edit
ion(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 R. F. Berkey and S. A. Edwards. New Y
ork: Pilgrim, 1982. 157 69. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Basser, H. W.}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033
Derrett s Binding Reopened. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical
Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 104 (1985) 297 300. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lan
g1033 Betz, O.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Felsenmann und
Felsengemeinde}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeit
schrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 48 (195
7) 49 77. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bornkamm, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Au
thority to Bind and Loose in the Church in Matthew s Gospel: The Problem of Sources in
Matthew s Gospel. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Perspective}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
11 (1970) 37 50.
. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Jesus of Nazareth}{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 . New York: Harper & Row, 1960. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bousset, W.}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang265 Kyrios Christos}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033 . Nashville: Abingdon, 1970. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Brown, C.}
{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Gates of Hell and the Church. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\
lang1033 Church, Word and Spirit}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lan
g1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 G. W. Bromiley, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 J. Bradley and R. Muller. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. 15 43. }{\p
lain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Brown, R. E., Donfried, K. P.,}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
and }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Reumann, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\
f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Peter in the New Testament}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Minneap
olis: Augsburg, 1973. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bchsel, F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033
}{\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 devw}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 (}{\plain\f8\fs22\
lang1032 luvw}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 TDNT{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kittel and
G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionary of th
e New Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}}}{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1033 2:60 61. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bultmann, R.}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Frage nach dem messianischen Bewusst
sein Jesu und das Petrus-Bekenntnis}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs2
2\i\lang1033 Exegetica}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ., }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.

{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, ed


ition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. Dinkler. Tbingen: Mohr, 1967. 1 9.
. }{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Frage nach der Echtheit von Mt 16,17 19}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Exegetica}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ,
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. Din
kler. Tbingen: Mohr, 1967. 255 77. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Cadbury, H. J.}{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Meaning of John 20.23, Matthew 16.19, and Matthew 18.18.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 58 (1939) 251 54. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Caragounis, C. C.}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Peter and the Rock}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 BZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs22 BZNW }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beihefte zur }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschri
ft fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}{\f0\fs24\lang1031 [ZNW]}}}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033 58. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1989. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Carroll,
K. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Thou Art Peter. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265
Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 6 (1963) 268 76. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\
lang1033 Claudel, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 La co
nfession de Pierre: Trajectoire d une pricope vanglique.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{
\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 EBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs22\i EBib }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Etudes bibliques}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ns{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22
ns }{\f0\fs24 new series}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 10. Paris: Gabalda, 1988. }
{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Cullmann, O.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs
22\i\lang1033 Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Clevel
and: Meridian, 1958.
. }{\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 Pevtro"}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ,
}{\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 Khfa`"}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\la
ng1033 TDNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\f
s24 G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theologica
l Dictionary of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdma
ns, 1964 76)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 6:100 112. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Derr
ett, J. D. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Binding and Loosing (Matthew 16:19; 18:18
; and John 20:23). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 102 (1983) 112 17.
.
Thou Art the Stone, and upon This Stone
ain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 DR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\
i DR }{\f0\fs24\i Downside Review}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 106 (1988) 276 85. }
{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Duling, D. C.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Binding and Lo
osing: Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18; John 20:23. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Foru
m}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 3/4 (1987) 3 31. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Emerton,
J. A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Binding and Loosing Forgiving and Retaining. }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JTS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i
JTS }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Theological Studies}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 13
(1962) 325 31. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Falk, Z. W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Bi
nding and Loosing. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JJS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JJS }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Jewish Studies}}}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 25 (1974) 92 100. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Fitzmyer, J. A.}{\p
lain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Aramaic }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Kepha }{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 and Peter s Name in the New Testament. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 To A
dvance the Gospel}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . New York: Crossroad, 1981. 112 24. }{
\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Fornberg, T.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Peter The High Pri
est of the New Covenant? }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 EAJT{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i EAJT }{\f0\fs24\i East Asia Journal of Theology
}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 4 (1986) 113 21. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Gero, S.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Gates or the Bars of Hades? A Note on Matthew 16.1
9. NTS 27 (1981) 411 14. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Grelot, P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Sur cette pierre je btirai mon glise}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 (Mt 16.18b). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NRT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql

\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i NRT }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 La nouvelle revue thologiq


ue}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 109 (1987) 641 59. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Gund
ry, R. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Narrative Framework of Matthew 16.17 19. }{\
plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Novum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 7 (1
964) 1 9. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Hahn, F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1031 Die Petrusverheissung}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Mt 16,18}{\plain
\f0\fs22\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 f }{\f
0\fs24 feminine}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Das ki
rchliche Amt im Neuen Testament}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 ed
ited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 K. Kertelge. Freiburg: Herd
er, 1977. 543 63. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Harnack, A. von.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Der Spruch ber Petrus als den Felsen der Kirche}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Sitzungsberichte der Preuss
ischen (Deutschen) Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Philosophisch-historis
che Klasse)}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 1 (1918) 637 54. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033
Hiers, R. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Binding and Loosing : The Matthean Authoriza
tions. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\
lang1033 104 (1985) 233 50. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Hoffmann, P.}{\plain\f0\f
s22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Bedeutung des Petrus fr die Kirche des
Matthus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Dienst an der E
inheit}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}
}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. Ratzinger. Dsseldorf: Patmos, 1978. 9 26.
. }{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1031 Der Petrus-Primat im Matthusevangelium}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Neues Testament und Kirche}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Festschrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}
}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 R. Schnackenburg, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition
(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. Gnilka. Freiburg: Herder, 1974. 94 114.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Hommel, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1031 Die Tore des Hades}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1
033 ZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i
\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 80 (1989) 124 25. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Howard, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 The Meaning of Petros-Petra. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ResQ{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ResQ }{\f0\fs24\i Restoration Quarte
rly}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 10 (1967) 217 21. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Immi
sch, O.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Matthus 16.18. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031
Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 17
(1916) 18 26. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Jeremias, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{
\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 kleiv"}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang
1033 TDNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\fs2
4 G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological
Dictionary of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
, 1964 76)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 3:744 53. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Khler, C
.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Zur Form- und Traditionsges
chichte von Mt 16,17 19}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . NTS 23 (1976 77) 36 58. }{\plain\f0\
fs22\b\lang1033 Kahmann, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 D
ie Verheissung an Petrus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang103
3 L vangile selon Matthieu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, ed
ition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 M. Didier. 261 80. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b
\lang1033 Kingsbury, J. D.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Figure of Peter in Matth
ew as a Theological Problem. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literat

ure}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 98 (1979) 67 83. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Klein


, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Bekenntniss des Petr
us und die Anfnge des Christusglaubens im Urchristentum}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 EvT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22\i EvT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Evangelische Theologie}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang10
33 47 (1987) 176 92. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Knight, G. A. F.}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 Thou Art Peter. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Today}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 17 (1960) 168 80. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Korting, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Binden oder lsen: Zu Verstockungs- und Befreiungs
theologie in Mt 16,19; 18,18.21 35 und Joh 15,1 17; 20,23}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 .
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 SNTU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22\i SNTU }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwel
t}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 14 (1989) 39 91. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lambrec
ht, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Du bist Petrus}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 SNTU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i SNTU }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Studien zum Neuen Testament
und seiner Umwelt}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 11 (1986) 5 32. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\
lang1033 Lampe, P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Spiel
mit dem Petrus-Namen Mt 16,18}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . NTS 25 (1978 79) 227 45. }{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Luz, U.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang103
1 Das Primatwort Matthus 16.17 19 aus wirkungsgeschichtlicher Sicht}{\plain\f0\fs22
\lang1033 . NTS 37 (1991) 415 33 = The Primacy Text (Mt. 16:18). }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\l
ang1033 Princeton Seminary Bulletin}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 12 (1991) 41 55. }{\
plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Mantey, J. R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Distorted Transl
ations in John 20:23; Matthew 16:18 19 and 18:18. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 RevEx
p{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i RevExp }{\f0\fs24\i Re
view and Expositor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 78 (1981) 409 16. }{\plain\f0\fs22\
b\lang1033 Marcus, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Gates of Hades and the Keys o
f the Kingdom. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 CBQ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i CBQ }{\f0\fs24\i Catholic Biblical Quarterly}}}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 50 (1988) 443 55. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Menken, M.}{\plain\f0
\fs22\lang1033 The References to Jeremiah in the Gospel according to Matthew. }{\
plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
22\i ETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses}}}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 60 (1984) 5 25. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Moule, C. F. D.}{\plain\f0
\fs22\lang1033
Some Reflections on the Stone Testimonia in Relation to the Name Pe
ter. NTS 2 (1955) 56 58. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Porter, S. E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\
lang1033
Vague Verbs, Periphrastics, and Matt. 16.19. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1034
Filologia Neotestamentaria}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 2 (1988) 155 73. }{\plain\f0
\fs22\b\lang1033 Robinson, B. P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Peter and His Successo
rs: Tradition and Redaction in Matthew 16:17 19. JSNT 21 (1984) 85 104. }{\plain\f0\f
s22\b\lang1033 Schenk, W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das
Matthusevangelium als Petrusevangelium}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\
i\lang1033 BZ{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i BZ }{\f0\f
s24\i\lang1031 Biblische Zeitschrift}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 ns{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ns }{\f0\fs2
4 new series}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 27 (1983) 58 80. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1
033 Schmid, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Petrus der Fels
und die Petrusgestalt der Urgemeinde}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs
22\i\lang1031 Evangelienforschung}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\la
ng1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24
edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. B. Bauer. Graz: Styria
, 1968. 159 75. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Schnackenburg, R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Vollmachtswort vom Binden und Lsen, traditions
geschichtlich gesehen}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 K
ontinuitt und Einheit}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, editi
on(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 P.-G. Mller and W. Stenger. Freiburg: H
erder, 1981. 141 57. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Stauffer, E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte des Primatus Petri}{\pl

ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZKG{\footnote \pard\plain \ql


\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZKG }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr Kirchenges
chichte}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 62 (1943 44) 3 34. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Vg
tle, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Problem der Herku
nft von}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Matthew 16,17 19. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Of
fenbarungsgeschehen und Wirkungsgeschichte}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Freiburg:
Herder, 1985. 109 40. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Wall, R. W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033
Peter, Son of Jonah: The Conversion of Cornelius in the Context of Canon. JSNT
29 (1987) 79 90. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Wilcox, M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Peter and the Rock: A Fresh Look at Matthew 16:17 19. NTS 22 (1975) 73 88.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 When Jesus came into the region of Caesa
rea Philippi, he began asking his disciples:}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. The tr
anslation omits the redundant }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgwn}{\f0\fs24 , saying. }}}{\p
lain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Who do people say}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. Many witn
esses (}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24
it }{\f0\fs24 vg}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super (s
,c),p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\
fs24
me, which gives the resultant translation I, the Son of man, am, thus making i
t quite clear that Jesus asks about himself and not another. This addition, howe
ver, almost certainly results from its inclusion in the parallels (}{\f0\fs24 Ma
rk 8:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:18}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 Cf.}{\f0\fs24
too v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 42.}}}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the Son of Man is? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 14}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 They said: Some,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f0\fs24 D}
{\f0\fs24 W it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ mevn}{\f0\fs24 , some, on the one ha
nd. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 on the one hand, say John the Baptist, but othe
rs Elijah, and still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets. }{\plain\f0\fs24\sup
er\lang1033 15}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 He said to them: But you yourselves, wh
o do you say I am? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 16}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
Simon Peter answered and said:}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\f
s24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtw`/}{\f0\fs24
, to him. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
You are the Christ, the Son of the living}{
\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 * reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 s
wv/zonto"}{\f0\fs24 , saving. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 God! }{\plain\f0\fs24\s
uper\lang1033 17}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Jesus responded and said to him: You
are blessed, Simon bar-Jonah,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. A few }{\f0\fs24\scap
s mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 ) separate the two parts of the name, t
hus }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ba;r Iwna`}{\f0\fs24 , bar Jonah. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1
033 because flesh and blood are not the source of this revelation}{\plain\f0\fs
24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super
g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk ajpekavluyevn soi}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs2
4 lit.}{\f0\fs24
have not revealed to you. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 but my F
ather who is in heaven. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 18}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lan
g1033 And I say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my ch
urch and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 19}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heav
en and whatever}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. Some witnesses (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24\i Or}{\f
0\fs24 Cyp Eus }{\f0\fs24\i Cyr.}{\f0\fs24 ) have the }{\f0\fs24 pl.}{\f0\fs24

}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{sa a[n}{\f0\fs24 , whatever, in place of the }{\f0\fs24 si


ng.}{\f0\fs24 , with the corresponding participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dedemevna}
{\f0\fs24 , bound, also in the }{\f0\fs24 pl.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 you bi
nd on earth }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 shall have been bound in heaven; and wha
tever}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 i{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24\super i }{\f0\fs24 i. Same variant as preceding }{\f0\fs24\i Note}{
\f0\fs24 , with corresponding }{\f0\fs24 pl.}{\f0\fs24 participle }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 lelumevna}{\f0\fs24 , set free. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 you set loose
upon the earth shall have been set loose in heaven. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1
033 20}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Then he ordered}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033
j{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super j }{\f0\fs24 j. }
{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c}
{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejpetivmhsen}{\f0\fs24 , warned sternly, for }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diesteivlato}{\f0\fs24 , ordered, through influence of the Mark
an parallel (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:30}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the
}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 k{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24\super k }{\f0\fs24 k. }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 co insert }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 disciples to tell no one
that he}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 l{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24\super l }{\f0\fs24 l. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Q}{\f0\fs24 q read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou|to"}{\f0\fs24 , this one, in place of
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtov"}{\f0\fs24 , he. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 was}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24\super m }{\f0\fs24 m. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejstivn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.
}{\f0\fs24 is. }{\f0\fs24 Cf.}{\f0\fs24 preceding }{\f0\fs24\i Note}{\f0\fs24 (
}{\f0\fs24 i.e.}{\f0\fs24 , this one is the Christ ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 n{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24\super n }{\f0\fs24 n. Many later }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{
\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W
}{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super
h}{\f0\fs24 mae bo) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, }{\f0\fs24
i.e.}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus the Christ (but }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus Christ ), clea
rly an expansion.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Christ.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
The translation omits the redundant }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgwn}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 , saying. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. Many witnesses ({\f0\fs24 D{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or
Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }
{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Re
ceptus}}}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as published in Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs
24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super (s,c),p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 me}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 me, which gives the r
esultant translation I, the Son of man, am, thus making it quite clear that Jesus
asks about himself and not another. This addition, however, almost certainly res
ults from its inclusion in the parallels (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0
\fs24 Luke 9:18}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f0\fs24 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too v
. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 . See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual

Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 42.}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W it omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ mevn}{\f0\fs24 , some, on the o
ne hand. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtw`/
}{\f0\fs24 , to him. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 * reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 swv/zonto"}{\f0\fs24 , saving. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. A few {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscri
pt(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\la
ng513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 G}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 ) separate the two parts
of the name, thus }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ba;r Iwna`}{\f0\fs24 , bar Jonah. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 oujk ajpek
avluyevn soi}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 have not revealed to you. }\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. Some witnesses ({\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24\i O
r{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Or }{\f0\fs24\i Orient
alia}{\f0\fs24 (Rome)}}}{\f0\fs24 Cyp Eus }{\f0\fs24\i Cyr.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Cyr. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Cyropaedia}{\f0\
fs24 (Xenophon)}}}{\f0\fs24 ) have the }{\f0\fs24 pl.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 pl. }{\f0\fs24 plate or plural}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 o\{sa a[n}{\f0\fs24 , whatever, in place of the }{\f0\fs24 sing.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sing. }{\f0\fs24 singular}}}{\
f0\fs24 , with the corresponding participle }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dedemevna}{\f0\f
s24 , bound, also in the }{\f0\fs24 pl.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 pl. }{\f0\fs24 plate or plural}}}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. Same variant as preceding {\f
0\fs24\i Note}{\f0\fs24 , with corresponding }{\f0\fs24 pl.{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 pl. }{\f0\fs24 plate or plural}}}{\f0\fs24 pa
rticiple }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 lelumevna}{\f0\fs24 , set free. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 j. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 *
}{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24
Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\
fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejpetivmhsen}{\f0\fs24 , warned sternly, for }{\f8\
fs24\lang1032 diesteivlato}{\f0\fs24 , ordered, through influence of the Markan pa
rallel (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:30}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 k. {\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publ
ished in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0
\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR
}{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\f
s24 co insert }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 l. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 q read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou|t
o"}{\f0\fs24 , this one, in place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtov"}{\f0\fs24 , he. }\pa

r
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 m. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejstivn}{\
f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
is. }{\f0\fs24 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0
\fs24 preceding }{\f0\fs24\i Note}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24
, that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , this one is the Christ ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 n. Many later {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\
fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs
32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deute
ronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\f
s24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 mae bo) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"
}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus
the Christ (but }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus Christ ), clear
ly an expansion.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. As it is in Mark a
nd Luke, this passage in Matthew is clearly the climax of the first main part of
the Gospel, devoted to the description of the Galilean ministry of Jesus (}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:17 16:20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). It presents in
a paradigmatic form an unequivocal and definitive confession of Jesus as the pro
mised Messiah. This is the only adequate conclusion to the preceding, lengthy de
scription of the deeds and words of Jesus. And without question, much in the pre
ceding accounts has been anticipating this powerful confession. Thus we have rep
eatedly heard the question asked concerning the identity of the one who could sp
eak and act in this unique way (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:27}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 , What sort of man is this? ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11:2}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 , Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another? ; }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 12:23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Can this be the Son of David? ). There
have been intimations of his identity throughout, such as his authority (}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 7:29}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:8
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), his power to heal (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15:31}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), and his uniqueness (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:33}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Never was anything like this seen in Israel ). The demons kno
w his identity as the Son of God (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:29}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 ). And even the disciples in the excitement of the moment have already e
xclaimed Truly you are the Son of God (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14:33}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 ). But now in a private, peaceful, meditative setting, Jesus for t
he first time elicits from the disciples, represented by Peter, the reasoned and
careful conclusion that he is indeed the Christ, the Messiah of promise.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew, who has been followi
ng Mark s order closely since the beginning of chap. {\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f
0\fs24 Mark 6:14}{\f0\fs24 ), omits the preceding Markan pericope concerning the

healing of the blind man at Bethsaida (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:22 26}{\f0\fs24 ). Matth
ew was probably not impressed with the Markan story since it suggests the use of
means to heal (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 his omission of th
e similar healing in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 7:32 35}{\f0\fs24 ) and that more than one at
tempt }{\f0\fs24 was needed to do the job right. It does not fit well with the C
hristology Matthew has been developing, with immediate healings by a spoken word
, and is thus omitted, especially just before Peter s confession. So far as source
criticism of the present pericope is concerned, it can be divided into two part
s. The first, }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 13 16}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 20}{
\f0\fs24 , is drawn from }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:27 30}{\f0\fs24 (paralleled in }{\f0\f
s24 Luke 9:18 21}{\f0\fs24 , with a Johannine counterpart in }{\f0\fs24 John 6:67 69
}{\f0\fs24 ). The second part is }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17 19}{\f0\fs2
4 , which are unique to Matthew (for v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 20:23}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 In the f
irst part, the following alterations of Mark are to be noted. In the introductor
y verse (v. }{\f0\fs22 13}{\f0\fs22 ), Matthew omits Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ka
i; ejn th`/ oJdw`/}{\f0\fs22 , and on the road (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:27}{\f0\fs22 ),
perhaps regarding such an important passage as deserving a setting of its own. H
e also omits Mark s and his disciples, it being obvious from the following clause th
at the disciples are with Jesus, and he changes }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ta;" kwvma"}
{\f0\fs22 , the villages (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:27}{\f0\fs22 ), to }{\f8\fs22\lang1032
ta; mevrh}{\f0\fs22 , the region. In the question asked of the disciples about wh
at others were saying, Matthew replaces Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 me}{\f0\fs22 , I
, with the common title Jesus used of himself, }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 to;n uiJo;n to
u` ajnqrwvpou}{\f0\fs22 , the Son of Man (v. }{\f0\fs22 13}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22
Mark 8:27}{\f0\fs22 ). In v. }{\f0\fs22 14}{\f0\fs22 Matthew alters Mark s second
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 a[lloi}{\f0\fs22 , others, to }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 e\{teroi}{\
f0\fs22 , others, for stylistic reasons and inserts immediately after it }{\f8\fs2
2\lang1032 Ieremivan h[}{\f0\fs22 , Jeremiah or, perhaps to give an example (}{\f0\
fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:28}{\f0\fs22 ). In v.
}{\f0\fs22 15}{\f0\fs22 he substitutes }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 levgei aujtoi`"}{\f0
\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 li
t. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs22 he says to them, for Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032
kai; aujto;" ejphrwvta aujtouv"}{\f0\fs22 , and he asked them (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:
29}{\f0\fs22 ), again for reasons of style. In v. }{\f0\fs22 16}{\f0\fs22 Matth
ew adds the name }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Sivmwn}{\f0\fs22 , Simon, before the name Pete
r, and then in the confession itself adds to Mark s simple }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 oJ C
ristov"}{\f0\fs22 , the Christ (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:29}{\f0\fs22 ), the words }{\f8\
fs22\lang1032 oJ uiJo;" tou` qeou` tou` zw`nto"}{\f0\fs22 , the Son of the living
God (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Luke s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 to;n
Cristo;n tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs22 , the Christ of God [}{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:20}{\f0\fs22
], and John s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 oJ a\{gio" tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs22 , the Holy One o
f God [}{\f0\fs22 John 6:69}{\f0\fs22 ]). In v. }{\f0\fs22 20}{\f0\fs22 Matthew
inserts a characteristic }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs22 , then, and substitut
es }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 diesteivlato toi`" maqhtai`"}{\f0\fs22 , ordered his disci
ples, for Mark s stronger }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejpetivmhsen aujtoi`"}{\f0\fs22 , he s
ternly charged them. Finally, he replaces Mark s simple }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 peri; a
ujtou`}{\f0\fs22 , concerning him (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:30}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Luke s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 tou`to}{\f0\fs22 , this [
}{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:21}{\f0\fs22 ]), with }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 o\{ti aujtov" ejstin
oJ Cristov"}{\f0\fs22 , that he was the Christ thus adding emphasis to the point.}\
par

\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 In his alterations of Mark, we again see


Matthew making stylistic changes, but little of the usual abridgment is to be s
een. Instead Matthew makes several interesting theological expansions of Mark, t
he most important, of course, being in the high point of the passage, the words
of the confession itself (v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 ). To the material borrowed
from Mark, Matthew has added new material from his own special sources (}{\f0\f
s24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse
(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17 19}{\f0\fs24 ). On this material, see below, }{\f0\f
s24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex B
ezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. This important pericope is very care
fully constructed. A simple outline is as follows: (1) the setting and the quest
ion concerning the public s estimate of Jesus (v. {\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) th
e answer to the first question (v. }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) the question a
sked of the disciples (v. }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) Peter s answer to the sec
ond question (v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 ); (5) Jesus affirmation of the answer (
v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ); (6) the commissioning of Peter, consisting of (a)
the saying concerning the church (v. }{\f0\fs24 18}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) the autho
rity of the keys (v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 ); and (7) the command to silence (
v. }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs24 ). A fair amount of structural parallelism is to be f
ound in the passage. Thus, the structure of the two questions is exactly paralle
l in form (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 v
v }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\
fs24 ), despite the substitution of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n uiJo;n tou` ajnqrwv
pou}{\f0\fs24 , the Son of Man, for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me}{\f0\fs24 , I, in the fir
st one. The answer to the first question presents the various options in paralle
l syntax. Each of the three verses }{\f0\fs24 17 19}{\f0\fs24 consists of three e
lements: a main statement followed by a couplet (see Jeremias, }{\f0\fs24\i TDNT
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kitt
el and G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionar
y of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}
}}{\f0\fs24 3:7). Peter s confession }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 su; ei\\ oJ Cristov"}{\f
0\fs24 , You are the Christ (v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 ), finds a syntactic paral
lel in the response of Jesus, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 su; ei\\ Pevtro"}{\f0\fs24 , Yo
u are Peter (v. }{\f0\fs24 18}{\f0\fs24 ). Antithetic }{\f0\fs24 parallelism can
be seen in the contrast between flesh and blood and my heavenly Father in v. }{\f0\f
s24 17}{\f0\fs24 . A striking instance of symmetrical parallelism is found in v.
}{\f0\fs24 19b}{\f0\fs24 and c. Finally, Matthew s restatement of the Markan end
ing, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e.
}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 aujtov" ejstin oJ Cristov"}{\f0\fs24 , he is the Christ, has the emphatic effect
of an inclusio with v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 . The confession is thereby in a
sense repeated. Matthew s artistry is thus again to be seen in this pericope, bot
h by means of certain alterations of his Markan source and through his presentat
ion of his special material.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. Although relatively few schol
ars deny the historicity of Peter s confession itself, the historicity of the spec
ial Matthean material that follows ({\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17 19}{\f0\f
s24 ) is widely regarded as dubious. Not only is the latter material lacking in
the other Gospels (but }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
Luke 22:31 32}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 John 21:15 23}{\f0\fs24 for passages consonant
with the present one), but it also seems to be full of anachronisms, including
the reference to the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 , church, the securi
ty of the church, as well as the authority of office and power granted to Peter.
It is certainly the case that the language of the passage as it stands reflects
to a considerable extent the conceptions and self-consciousness of the later ch
urch. But this is a long way from necessarily concluding that Jesus could not ha
ve said something along these lines or that Matthew has simply invented the mate

rial out of thin air.}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Davies-Allison
correctly resist the conclusion that }{\f0\fs22 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 17 19}{\f0
\fs22 are the result of Matthean composition. They also deny that the verses re
present a displaced resurrection story (Stauffer; Strecker, }{\f0\fs22\i Weg}{\f
0\fs22 , 206 7; C. Khler) or reflect an incident originally in the context of the L
ast Supper (Cullmann, }{\f0\fs22\i Peter}{\f0\fs22 ). Instead, they tentatively
propose that the entire narrative is an early account (reflected in scattered Jo
hannine parallels), earlier than the Markan and Lukan parallels, that may well r
eflect a historical event. Not all the evidence they provide (}{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 ex
empli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs22 , evidence of Peter s authority i
n Paul s letters, Semitisms, parallel ideas at Qumran, criteria of consistency and
dissimilarity) is equally strong, as they admit, but they have at least shown t
hat the common negative assessment of historicity is hardly justifiable.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 Certain frequent objections to the historicity of
these verses can be met ({\f0\fs22 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs22 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 18 19}{\f0\fs22 are th
e bigger problem; see Wilcox). Can Jesus have referred to building my church ? Luz
regards this as the most important argument against the authenticity of the words.
The word }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs22 , church, however, should not b
e thought to be a problem since Jesus would have been speaking in Aramaic and no
t Greek. Thus he would not have used the word }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f
0\fs22 but probably an Aramaic equivalent meaning community (see }{\f0\fs22\cf1 C
omment}{\f0\fs22 on v. }{\f0\fs22 18}{\f0\fs22 for possibilities). But can Jes
us have referred to building }{\f0\fs22\i my}{\f0\fs22
community? Luz says we sho
uld expect the community of God since Jesus assembled God s people and not a holy re
mnant. The point, however, is that the calling of God s people demanded a decision
for the kingdom of God as announced by and embodied in Jesus himself. It was a
decision to be related to Jesus. In this perspective, to become a member of the
community of God was to become a member of the community of Jesus (}{\f0\fs22 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 the fate of the children of the kingdom in }{\f0\
fs22 8:12}{\f0\fs22 ). A division was inevitable. It should therefore by no mean
s be regarded unthinkable that Jesus could have talked of }{\f0\fs22\i his}{\f0\
fs22 community.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 Can Jesus have been inter
ested at all in building a {\f0\fs22\i future}{\f0\fs22 community? Although thi
s is often assumed to be impossible because of the apparent imminence of Jesus es
chatological expectation, certain facts indicate otherwise. The very choice of t
welve disciples, the trouble taken to teach them, and the commission given to th
em point to Jesus preparation for the future. That Jesus would himself be active
in the future building of the church is not an impossibility if he was able to s
peak of his own resurrection (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }
{\f0\fs22 21}{\f0\fs22 ) and promise his future presence with the disciples (}{\
f0\fs22 28:20}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs
22 18:20}{\f0\fs22 ). Davies-Allison }{\f0\fs22 seem unnecessarily to deny the p
ost-resurrection aspect of the promise of Jesus building his community by taking
it as fulfillable in the life of Jesus, translating from this point on (2:614).}\
par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 Despite the claims of som
e who deny the authenticity of the passage, the authority of Peter here is not o
ut of keeping with the picture of him in the rest of the {\f0\fs22 NT{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\f
s22 (thus, }{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
2 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs22 ,
Beare).Although Peter s authority as witnessed in Acts or Galatians is not absolu

te (nor is that part of the promise here), his central position in the early cha
pters of Acts is quite consonant with the importance granted him here as the roc
k upon which the church is to be built.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 Worth indicating are the
Semitisms in the passage, which, though they do not prove the point, are consist
ent with the claim that the material is early. Thus Peter is designated as {\f8\
fs22\lang1032 makavrio"}{\f0\fs22 , blessed or happy (}{\f7\fs30\lang1037 rv,a,\par
}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 <eser}{\f0\fs22 ), and referred to as bar-Jonah,
Son of Jonah. Further Semitisms are the word play on the Aramaic }{\f7\fs30\lang1
037 ap;yKe\par
}{\f0\fs22 (}{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 kep_a<}{\f0\fs22 ;), rock, the reference to humans
as flesh and blood, the expression the gates of Hades, and finally and especially t
he figurative language of binding and loosing. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 Finally we note that much
of the language in this passage has its parallels in earlier portions of the Go
spel. {\f0\fs22\i V{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i V }{
\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 17}{\f0\fs22 contains the language con
cerning revelation to Peter from my Father who is in heaven, and v. }{\f0\fs22 19}
{\f0\fs22 cites the kingdom of heaven. Jesus elsewhere in the Gospel pronounces o
thers blessed (}{\f0\fs22 5:3 11}{\f0\fs22 ) and employs the image of building on ro
ck (}{\f0\fs22 7:24 25}{\f0\fs22 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 If Jesus affirmed
Peter s confession of him as the Christ, then he was conscious of his messianic id
entity and accordingly would have thought in terms of constituting the messianic
community. This conclusion is by no means canceled out even if Jesus had expect
ed the parousia to occur within that generation ({\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare
}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }{\f0\fs22 28}{\f0\fs22 ), a point that is in any event debatab
le. In support of the historicity of the passage, see further Cullmann, Jeremias
. For an overview of the study of the passage up to the 1950s, see Cullmann, }{\
f0\fs22\i Peter}{\f0\fs22 , 163 70.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 In short, although the authenticity of t
he passage cannot be demonstrated, there is no convincing reason to doubt that J
esus the Messiah could have contemplated and founded a messianic community (a chu
rch ), spoken of its security, and given Peter the role of leadership in that comm
unity. To be sure, this passage gains increasing significance for the increasing
ly self-conscious church as it moves to the end of the first century and later,
but that surplus of meaning must not be read into the passage or put into the mo
uth of Jesus.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 When Jesus takes his dis
ciples north of the Sea of Galilee (about twenty-five miles) to the region of Ca
esarea Philippi (so named because it was rebuilt by the tetrarch Herod Philip in
honor of the emperor Tiberius; modern Baniyas, formerly Paneas ), a beautiful area i
n the foothills of Mount Hermon, it is ostensibly in order to retreat from the p
ress of the crowds. But there is also another special reason, for what transpire
s here is both a climax and a dramatic turning point in the Gospel (as it is als
o in Mark and Luke). It is unlikely that Jesus chooses Caesarea Philippi because
of its pagan associations, including the shrine to Pan, in order to assert his
own authority over the world s religions (contra Bruner, following Barclay). He ta
kes the disciples there merely as a place of retreat where he can be alone with
them. The location of Caesarea Philippi may, however, have prompted some of the
imagery used (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for exam
ple}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , rock,
building of church, gates of }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 Hades ; see Immisch). Jesus takes the initiative by directly asking the q
uestion that has been in the minds of the disciples (and the readers of the Gosp
el) from the beginning of his ministry. What were people saying about him? How d
id they classify him, having seen him heal and heard him teach? Matthew s use of }

{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n uiJo;n tou` ajnqrwvpou}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , t


he Son of Man, in the question is probably meant as a circumlocution for the firs
t-person pronoun, I, used regularly by Jesus (contra Davies-Allison). Thus the que
stion means here, as in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 8:27}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 , Who do people say I am? See the repetition of the question using I in v. }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 15}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Jesus is hardly asking here
for the identification of one who fits the title the Son of Man (contra Gundry), w
hich was at best of ambiguous meaning. At the same time, however, the answer giv
en by Peter in v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 is cons
onant with the meaning of the Son of Man in its titular sense (for which, see }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\
lang1033 8:20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), and the readers can hardly have failed
to think of this (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 13:41}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). There is thus at least an
anticipation of the answer in the question as posed in Matthew.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 14}{\f0\fs24 The discipl
es report that the people hold a variety of opinions about Jesus. Common to the
three names and the more general one of the prophets is the idea of one who appear
s in connection with the coming of the end times, but as a precursor or attendan
t figure rather than the promised one himself. John the Baptist seemed clearly t
o be such a figure, who indeed portrayed his ministry as one of preparation for
an imminent end and just for this reason caused such a sensation. Some apparentl
y were of the opinion that Jesus was the martyred John resurrected to life (see
especially }{\f0\fs24 14:2}{\f0\fs24 for the articulation of this view by Herod
). Others thought of Jesus as Elijah, a prophet who in the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f
0\fs24 was assigned the preparatory role of forerunner to the Messiah (}{\f0\fs
24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mal 3:1}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24
4:5 6}{\f0\fs24 ) and who for just this reason became identified with the work of
John the Baptist (by Jesus already in }{\f0\fs24 11:9 10}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 14
}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17:12 13}{\f
0\fs24 ). Matthew s addition of the name Jeremiah (which in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}
{\f0\fs24 occurs only in Matthew; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
also }{\f0\fs24 2:17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 27:9}{\f0\fs24 ) suggests that Jere
miah was thought by some to be a key }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 figure who wou
ld play a role in the coming of the eschaton (on Jeremiah in the intertestamenta
l period, see }{\f0\fs24 2 Macc 15:13 16}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 2 Esdr 2:18}{\f0\fs24 , which refers to an eschatological appeara
nce of Jeremiah with Isaiah [but the date of this reference is debatable]). Ther
e are, furthermore, a number of obvious parallels between Jesus and Jeremiah, su
ch as the preaching of judgment against the people and the temple, and especiall
y in suffering and martyrdom (see Menken). The general phrase }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 h] e\{na tw`n profhtw`n}{\f0\fs24 , or one of the prophets, points to the widesp
read view that the greatest figures of the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 would re
turn in a preparatory role just before the end of this age (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\f
s24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the importance of Enoch in the intertestamental litera
ture and Melchizedek at Qumran). We have no evidence of Jeremiah being named exp
licitly in such a connection, and it may be that Jeremiah is named as representa
tive of the prophetic corpus (Jeremiah appears first in a rabbinic list of proph
ets; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{

\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the }{\f0\fs24\i baraita}{\f0


\fs24 in }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\
i b. }{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poetic line), or before a t
ractate indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\fs24 & }{\f2\fs24\lang513 B. Bat.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513 B. Bat. }{\f2\fs24\l
ang513 Baba Batra}}}{\f0\fs24 14b). Special }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 men wh
o had not died, }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs
24 , Enoch and Elijah, were ideal candidates for returning in the time just prio
r to the eschatological era. There is no record of the death of Jeremiah in the
Bible. On the other hand, others, such as the prophets, could well be raised fro
m the dead in order to participate in the events of the end (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\
fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:19}{\f0\fs24 ). The crowds also ide
ntify Jesus as a prophet in }{\f0\fs24 21:11}{\f0\fs24 . Exalted as these evaluati
ons of Jesus are, placing him as an important figure connected with the coming o
f the eschatological age, they are inadequate, although partially true.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 15}{\f0\fs24
Jesus repeats the question (this time in verbatim agreement with Mark), }{\f0\fs
24 now directing it to the disciples (note the emphatic }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 uJme
i`"}{\f0\fs24 , you yourselves ). The first-person pronoun }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me}{
\f0\fs24 stands in place of Son of Man in v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 . The questi
on is asked not so much for information but to elicit from the disciples an expl
icit confession of his messianic identity.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 16}{\f0\fs24 Simon Peter
(for the double name, see }{\f0\fs24 4:18}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:2}{\f0\fs24
; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f
0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ) an
swers for himself as well as for the other apostles (see }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0
\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 15:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 19:27}{\f0\fs24 for Peter as spokesman for the others). This was s
omething they had undoubtedly discussed again and again, and they had already co
me to their conclusion. While it must be granted that it }{\f0\fs24\i is}{\f0\fs
24 Peter who responds and upon whom the singular pronouns and verbs of }{\f0\fs
24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(
s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17 19}{\f0\fs24 focus (thus rightly Davies-Allison), P
eter is never regarded as isolated from the twelve. To be sure, he is their lead
er and spokesman (}{\f0\fs24\i\lang1034 primus inter pares}{\f0\fs24 ), but he i
s also }{\f0\fs24\i their}{\f0\fs24 representative, indeed the representative o
f the entire church (rightly Luz). }{\f0\fs24 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
too the plural verbs in the similar logion in }{\f0\fs24 18:18}{\f0\fs24 , whic
h in principle involve the same authority, even if at a local level (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confe
r,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 Kingsbury, }{\f0\fs24\i JBL{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Lite
rature}}}{\f0\fs24 98 [1979] 67 83). Peter thus boldly declares: }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 su; ei\\ oJ Cristo;" oJ uiJo;" tou` qeou` tou` zw`nto"}{\f0\fs24 , You are th
e Christ, the Son of the living God. This answer differs categorically from those
offered by the people. That is, here Jesus is not identified as one of the figu
res involved in the coming of the end times, but as }{\f0\fs24\i the}{\f0\fs24
coming one, the determinative person who brings with him the messianic age and t
he transformation of the present order. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Cristov"}{\f0\fs24 ,
Christ, is the Greek word for anointed one (Hebrew: }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 j'yvim;\par
}{\f0\fs24 ; [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 masah}{\f0\fs24 ]). For the title, see }{\f0\fs2
4\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 1:1}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24

. This is the first occurrence of the title in direct speech. For the closely r
elated title Son of David, see }{\f0\fs24 9:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:23}{\f0\f
s24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:22}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 In {\f0\fs24 1 Sam 7:4 16}{\f0\fs24 , the
passage that gives rise to the expectation of the Son of David, it is said that
the }{\f0\fs24\scaps Lord}{\f0\fs24 will make you a house and that that house sha
ll be made sure forever before me and that throne shall be established forever (}{\
f0\fs24 2 Sam 7:16}{\f0\fs24 ). Davies-Allison stress this passage as the backgr
ound for the present pericope, which serves as its fulfillment: }{\f0\fs24 Mt 16.
13 20}{\f0\fs24 records the eschatatological realization of the promises made to
David (Davies-Allison, 2:603; see too Anderson for Davidic and Zionist links with
Peter s confession). Matthew s interpretive expansion, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ uiJo;
" tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24 , the Son of God, defines the Messiah as more than a human
figure, as someone who is uniquely a manifestation of God, the very agent of God
who somehow participates in God s being (see Gundry, Davies-Allison; on the title
, see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\fs24 ; and }{\f0
\fs24 4:3}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 8:29}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 11:27}{\f0\fs24 ).
The disciples had earlier already confessed Jesus as the Son of God (}{\f0\fs24
14:33}{\f0\fs24 ). There it was under pressure of extraordinary circumstances; h
ere it is the result of calm reflection as well as the product of divine revelat
ion. And to this second confession the revelation of Jesus call to suffer and die
is appended. The high priest later asks Jesus whether he is the Christ, the Son
of God (}{\f0\fs24 26:63}{\f0\fs24 ), thereby again bringing together the two tit
les (for the same juxtaposition of titles, see also }{\f0\fs24 John 11:27}{\f0\f
s24 ; }{\f0\fs24 20:31}{\f0\fs24 ). For the background of the conception of the
Messiah as God s Son, }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2 S
am 7:14}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Ps 2:6 8}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ; &4QF
lor; 10 14. See also }{\f0\fs24 27:40}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 43}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\
fs24 54}{\f0\fs24 for the Son of God title. The title is, of course, extremely im
portant in the Fourth Gospel (besides references above, see }{\f0\fs24 1:34}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 49}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 19:7}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6:69}{\f0\fs24 ). The expression }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 tou` qeou` tou` zw`nto"}{\f0\fs24 , the living God, is an }{\f0\fs24 O
T{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testam
ent}}}{\f0\fs24 expression (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 Deut 5:26}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Pss 42:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 84:2}{\f0
\fs24 ), found elsewhere in Matthew in }{\f0\fs24 26:63}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 22:32}{\f0\fs24 ) and frequently in
the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f
0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 (see }{\f0\fs24 1 Tim 3:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\f
s24 4:10}{\f0\fs24 [where it furthermore modifies the noun }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 , church ]; }{\f0\fs24 Acts 14:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Rom 9
:26}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 2 Cor 3:3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 6:16}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\
f0\fs24 1 Thess 1:9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Heb 3:12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:14}
{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:31}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12:22}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24
1 Peter 1:23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Rev 7:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 15:7}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 6:57}{\f0\fs2
4 ; }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Rev 1:18}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 4:9}{\f0\fs24 ). It de
scribes the true God, as opposed to the gods of the world who were not alive, su
ch as the deities of the region of Caesarea Philippi (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c
ompare}}}{\f0\fs24 its use by Jews in pagan contexts, }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli g
ratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 2 Macc 7:33}{\f0\fs24 ; }
{\f0\fs24 15:4}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 3 Macc 6:28}{\f0\fs24 ). Implied in the ph

rase (but only implied) is the fact that God is uniquely the source of all life
(see Meier, Davies-Allison).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 17}{\f0
\fs24 In his response, Jesus proclaims Peter to be }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 makavrio
"}{\f0\fs24 , blessed, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , on
e in the state of being deeply happy through the proleptic experience of the esc
hatological blessing of God. For, in fact, Peter s confession is the truth. Jesus
affirms it not merely as the result of human effort and reasoning (}{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 sa;rx kai; ai|ma}{\f0\fs24 , flesh and blood, is a Semitic expression for h
uman agency; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Gal 1:16}{
\f0\fs24 ), although these were clearly at work in the process, but as a revelat
ion from God, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , divinely
certified truth. In distinctively Matthean language, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ path
vr mou oJ ejn toi`" oujranoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , my Father who is in heaven, has reveale
d to Peter the identity of his Son, Jesus (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 11:27}{\f0\fs24 , No one knows the Son except the Father ). Pau
l can use similar language in describing God s revelation of the Son to him (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Gal. 1:15 16}{\f0\fs24 ). The
verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpekavluyen}{\f0\fs24 , revealed, with God as the acting
subject has connotations of the imparting of eschatological knowledge (see also
}{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comments}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 11:25}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 2
7}{\f0\fs24 ). Davies-Allison link this with the notion of the unveiling of a hi
dden Messiah (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 7:27
}{\f0\fs24 ; Justin, }{\f0\fs24\i Dial}{\f0\fs24 . 8.4; 100.1). In short, divine
revelation has been at work in bringing Peter and his disciples to this conclus
ion about Jesus. And that divine authority serves as a guarantee of the correctn
ess of their assessment. Peter is addressed here by his proper name, Simon (}{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 Sivmwn}{\f0\fs24 , from Hebrew }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 /[m]vi\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Sim>n}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Sumewvn}{\f0\fs24 , Simeon [}{\f0\fs24 2 Peter 1:
1}{\f0\fs24 ]), by which he is first introduced in }{\f0\fs24 4:18}{\f0\fs24 (}
{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs
24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 10:2}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The name }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Bariwnav}{\
f0\fs22 , bar-Jonah, }{\f0\fs22 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs22 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs22 , the
transliterated Aramaic for son of Jonah, is quite problematic, since in the best }
{\f0\fs22\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\scaps
mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 of }{\f0\fs22 John 1:42}{\f0\fs22 and
}{\f0\fs22 21:15}{\f0\fs22 , Simon Peter is called the son of }{\f8\fs22\lang10
32 Iwavnnou}{\f0\fs22 , John. If we are not faced here with a textual corruption (o
ddly no textual witnesses have harmonized the present passage to agree more clos
ely with the Johannine references), then we may have simply an Aramaic alternate
to the Greek name John. Although the Aramaic }{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 bar-Yh anan}{\f0\f
s22 is quite different, the Lucianic text of the }{\f0\fs22 LXX{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek tran
slation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs22 can use }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Iwnavn}{\f0\fs22 (}{
\f2\fs22\i\lang513 Yonan}{\f0\fs22 ) for John (}{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 Yh anan}{\f0\fs22 )
see, }{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 e.g.
}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs22 , }{\f0
\fs22 Neh 6:18}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 2 Kgs 25:23}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 1 Chr 3
:24}{\f0\fs22 . See Jeremias, }{\f0\fs22\i TDNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G.

W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionary of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24


, 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}}}{\f0\fs22 3:407; }{\f0\fs22 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Luz, 461, }{\f0\fs22 n.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 n. }{\f0\fs24 note}}}{\f0\fs22 59. On the other
hand, it may be that the ascription is a deliberate Matthean redaction (}{\f0\fs
22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 B. P. Robinson), and it is possible that s
ome special meaning is in view through the association of Peter with the prophet
Jonah. A number of suggestions have been made. A particularly interesting one i
s the parallel between the two figures in their common reluctance to preach repe
ntance to the Gentiles (see R. W. Wall). Some have seen the connection in the si
gn of Jonah. Thus Gundry argues that in the name bar-Jonah is a warning of death by
martyrdom and a promise of resurrection. This seems to read rather too much into
the name, however. C. Brown (37) goes even further, nevertheless, in the actual
identification of Jesus with Jonah so that bar-Jonah means that Peter was spiritu
ally the son of Jesus, who is the new Jonah. Also possible, but unlikely, is the
claim that bar-Jonah is derived from the word for terrorist or revolutionary and that
Peter was once a Zealot (thus Cullmann; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0
\fs22 M. Hengel, }{\f0\fs22\i The Zealots}{\f0\fs22 [Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark,
1989] 55). Davies-Allison regard as more probable the simple solution that John w
as changed to Jonah by Matthew to elevate Peter to the status of a prophet; perhap
s, on the other hand, Jonah was inadvertently changed in the Fourth Gospel to the
more popular John. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 18}{\f0
\fs24 This verse has rightly been described as among the most controversial in a
ll of Scripture (Davies-Allison, 2:623). As Peter had made a declaration concerni
ng Jesus, now Jesus makes an important declaration concerning Peter: }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 su; ei\\ }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Pevtro"}{\f0\fs24 , you are Peter, and that
name is now to take on special significance because Peter is also the rock upon wh
ich Jesus the Messiah will build his community. It is more probable that new sig
nificance is given to a name by which Simon was already known (with Gundry, cont
ra Davies-Allison) than that Jesus first at this point gives him the name Peter (b
y which he has repeatedly been referred to in the preceding narratives). DaviesAllison, however, speak of the gaining of a new name in connection with the foun
ding of a new people, noting (with Cullmann) the parallel with Abraham and the r
eference in }{\f0\fs24 Isa 51:1 2}{\f0\fs24 , which refers to the rock from which y
ou were hewn. The suggestion is intriguing but based more on speculation than evi
dence and furthermore must face the very different metaphors of being hewn from
rock and being built upon rock. The word play is clear in the Greek (}{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 Pevtro"}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Petros}{\f0\fs24 ], Peter [}{\f
0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs2
4 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 stone ] }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pevtra}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f2\fs24\i\l
ang513 petra}{\f0\fs24 ], rock ) despite the shift required by the feminine form of
the noun for rock. It is even more obvious in the Aramaic, where the name }{\f7\f
s32\lang1037 ap;yKe\par
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Kep_a<}{\f0\fs24 , is exactly the same for the w
ord rock. Since }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 kep_a<}{\f0\fs24 usually means stone, not someth
ing one builds upon, Luz argues for the derivation of the word play from the Gre
ek words. But word play does not demand the usual meaning of words, especially i
n metaphorical applications such as the present one. The Aramaic word play on th
e same word remains the most convincing explanation. Fortunately, the play also
worked in Greek. For evidence that }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 kep_a<}{\f0\fs24 was a na
me in current use, contrary to the claim of many scholars, see Fitzmyer. (For }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 Khfa`"}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Kephas}{\f0\fs24 ], Ceph
as, the Greek form of the name, see }{\f0\fs24 John 1:42}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 1
Cor 1:12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Gal 1:18}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The natural rea
ding of the passage, despite the necessary shift from }{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 Petro

s}{\f0\fs22 to }{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 petra}{\f0\fs22 required by the word play


in the Greek (but not the Aramaic, where the same word }{\f2\fs22\i\lang513 kep_a<
}{\f0\fs22 occurs in both places), is that it is Peter who is the rock upon whi
ch the church is to be built (thus rightly Morris, France, Carson, Blomberg, Cul
lmann [}{\f0\fs22\i Peter}{\f0\fs22 , 207], Davies-Allison; so too the interconf
essional volume by Brown, Donfried, and Reumann [}{\f0\fs22\i Peter in the }{\f0
\fs22 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 NT }{\f0\fs24 New
Testament}}}{\f0\fs22 , 92]). The frequent attempts that have been made, largel
y in the past, to deny this in favor of the view that the confession itself is t
he rock (}{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 e
.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs22 , mo
st recently Caragounis) seem to be largely motivated by Protestant prejudice aga
inst a passage that is used by the Roman Catholics to justify the papacy. Not in
frequently these attempts reveal the improper influence of passages such as }{\f
0\fs22 1 Cor 3:11}{\f0\fs22 and }{\f0\fs22 Eph 2:20}{\f0\fs22 . But to allow th
is passage its natural meaning, that Peter is the rock upon which the church is
built, is by no means either to affirm the papacy or to deny that the church, li
ke the apostles, rests upon Jesus as the bedrock of its existence. Jesus is afte
r all the builder, and all that the apostles do they do through him. For a simil
ar point, buttressed with }{\f0\fs22 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs22 allusions, see Knight, wh
o refers finally to the rock as none other than God-in-Christ (179; }{\f0\fs22 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Moule). As has often been pointed out, it is non
e other than the confessing Peter who is in view here as the rock, and it is as
the representative of Christ that the authority to be mentioned in the next vers
e is given to him in his custody of the gospel of Christ.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 Luz follows the argument of P. Lampe that {\f2\fs2
2\i\lang513 kep_a<}{\f0\fs22 meant a round stone rather than rock and would not h
ave been thought of as suitable to build upon. (For this reason Luz regards }{\f
0\fs22 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 vv }{\f0\fs24 ve
rse(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 18 19}{\f0\fs22 as deriving from a Greek-speaking
context.) As Davies-Allison (following Fitzmyer) note, however, }{\f2\fs22\i\lan
g513 kep_a<}{\f0\fs22 can mean rock (as, }{\f0\fs22 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24
, for example}}}{\f0\fs22 , at Qumran and in the Targumim). Even if one were to
think only of a stone, Davies-Allison point out that the Greek equivalent, }{\f
8\fs22\lang1032 livqo"}{\f0\fs22 , stone, is the word used for the foundation ston
e for the temple (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Isa 2
8:16}{\f0\fs22 ). For a possible link with the stone passage of }{\f0\fs22 Ps 11
8:22}{\f0\fs22 , see Wilcox (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Moule
). Cullmann sees a connection with the block of stone in }{\f0\fs22 Dan 2:34 35}{\
f0\fs22 , }{\f0\fs22 44 45}{\f0\fs22 , which Judaism associated with the Messiah (
}{\f0\fs22\i Peter}{\f0\fs22 , 191 92).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 The rock imagery implies both
stability and endurance (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs
24 7:24 25}{\f0\fs24 ), even before the gates of Hades (see below). For Jewish bac
kground concerning a community built upon a rock, see }{\f0\fs24 Str-B{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Str-B }{\f0\fs24 H. Strack and P. Bil
lerbeck, }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Kommentar zum Neuen Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 4 vols.
(Munich: Beck sche, 1926 28)}}}{\f0\fs24 1:732 33. Rock of course refers here not to P
eter s character, as will become clear later in the narrative, but to his office a
nd function (see too France) as leader of the apostles.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 As argued above, underlying the Greek w
ord {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 , church, is an Aramaic word spoken by
Jesus meaning community (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 lh;q;\par
}{\f0\fs24 ; [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 qahal}{\f0\fs24 ]; }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 hd;[e\pa

r
}{\f0\fs24 , [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 >ed_a}{\f0\fs24 ] = }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sunagwg
hv}{\f0\fs24 , synagogue, in }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f
0\fs24 ; or possibly }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 aT;v]ynIK]\par
}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 kensta<}{\f0\fs24 ]). The word }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 appears often in the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation
of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 , usually as the translation of }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 lh;q;
\par
}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 qahal}{\f0\fs24 ). Israel can be called }{\f7\fs
32\lang1037 lh;q hwhy\par
}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 qehal}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\caps YHWH}{\f0\fs24
), }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsiva tou` kurivou}{\f0\fs24 , community of the L}{\f
0\fs24\scaps ord}{\f0\fs24 . The word for community in Jesus day was }{\f7\fs32\la
ng1037 hd;[e\par
}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 >ed_a}{\f0\fs24 ), usually translated }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 sunagwghv}{\f0\fs24 . If Jesus is the Christ, then it is natural to ex
pect that the community Jesus refers to is the messianic community or the eschat
ological people of God. Jesus says my community, where the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mou
`}{\f0\fs24 , my, is emphatic by its position. It is the messianic community of th
e Messiah, and the statement is thus an implicit messianic claim (Carson; }{\f0\
fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 Brown, 33). Naturally Matthew and his re
aders understood by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 the church, and th
ey did so justifiably. (The word }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsiva}{\f0\fs24 occur
s only here and in }{\f0\fs24 18:17}{\f0\fs24 in the four Gospels.) The point o
f the assertion is that Jesus, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0
\fs24 , the risen Jesus, will build his new community in the first instance thro
ugh the labor of the apostles (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 Eph 2:20}{\f0\fs24 ), and Peter has been designated as the leader of the
apostles (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the early chapters of t
he book of Acts). The metaphorical use of build (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oijkodomhvsw}
{\f0\fs24 ) is appropriate to a community conceived of as a spiritual house or temp
le (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f
0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
house of Israel and note the desc
ription of the church as God s building in }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 3:9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs
24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Eph 2:19 21}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 Jesus further assures Peter and the oth
er disciples that {\f8\fs24\lang1032 puvlai a\{/dou ouj katiscuvsousin aujth`"}{
\f0\fs24 , the gates of Hades will not overpower it. The metaphor gates of Hades is
found in the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 and intertestamental writings (where i
n Hebrew it is the gates of Sheol [}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 l/av] yre[\}v'\par
}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 sa>are se<ol}{\f0\fs24 ]), }{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli g
ratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , in }{\f0\fs24 Isa 38:10}{\f0\fs24 ;
}{\f0\fs24 Wis 16:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 3 Macc 5:51}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24\i
Pss. Sol.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Pss. Sol. }{\
f0\fs24 Psalms of Solomon}}}{\f0\fs24 16:2 (in all of which cases the Greek agr
ees exactly with Matthew s phrase). It is essentially synonymous with gates of deat
h (as in }{\f0\fs24 Job 38:17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Pss 9:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\f
s24 107:18}{\f0\fs24 ; see too &1QH; 6:24 26), Hades/Sheol being understood to be
the realm of the dead.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 The word {\f8\fs24\lang1032 puvlai}{\f0\fs24 , gate
s, in this stereotyped phrase has become symbolic of the power of or, as is more li

kely, it is a case of }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 pars pro toto}{\f0\fs24 (thus Jeremi


as), where Hades itself is in view. Marcus (47) regards the gates of Hades as an
antitype of the implied gates of heaven (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f
0\fs24 metaphor of Peter s keys) with the background being one of apocalyptic con
flict.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 The meaning of
this statement has been much debated (summaries are available in C. Brown and Da
vies-Allison). Almost all the explanations that have been offered focus on or st
art with the idea of the overcoming of death. Some hypotheses stress the positiv
e side by referring to resurrection, whether general resurrection (Schlatter), t
he resurrection of Jesus (McNeile), or the immortality of Peter or his office (H
arnack and B. P. Robinson, taking }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 pevtra/}{\f0\fs22 , rock, ra
ther than }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejkklhsivan}{\f0\fs22 , church, as the antecedent of
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 aujth`"}{\f0\fs22 , it ). Such an understanding also underlies
the quite speculative suggestion that the statement refers to Christ s descent in
to Hades to bring the righteous dead to life (Bousset, }{\f0\fs22\i Kyrios}{\f0\
fs22 , 65). Other hypotheses are content to speak merely of the triumph over dea
th (Schweizer, Hill, Schnackenburg, Gundry [more specifically over martyrdom thr
ough persecution]; note }{\f0\fs22\scaps rsv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs22\scaps rsv }{\f0\fs24 Revised Standard Version (NT 1946, OT 19
52, Apoc 1957)}}}{\f0\fs22 : the powers of death ; but now }{\f0\fs22\scaps nrsv{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\scaps nrsv }{\f0\fs24 New Re
vised Standard Version (1989)}}}{\f0\fs22 returns to the literal: the gates of H
ades ). A key exegetical question is whether one should extend the }{\f0\fs22 meta
phor of the gates of Hades to include more than merely death, in other words as ha
ving distinctly eschatological overtones. Many do so: the powers of evil (Allen)
; rulers of Hades, by metonymy (Marcus); the powers of the underworld (Bornkamm,
}{\f0\fs22\i Jesus of Nazareth}{\f0\fs22 , 187; Jeremias, }{\f0\fs22\i TDNT{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kittel a
nd G. Friedrich, eds., tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionary of
the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}}}{\
f0\fs22 6:924 28; Davies-Allison); or the power of Satan (Hiers). There is risk i
n some of these more adventuresome proposals, yet since the ultimate survival of
the church is in view, certainly the ultimate defeat of all evil is at least im
plied.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs22\lang1033 With the help of h
is association of Jesus with Jonah in this passage, C. Brown finds in the phrase
a passion prediction. That is, for Jesus the gates of Jerusalem and the temple
({\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\f
s24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Ps 118:19 26}{\f0\fs22 )
will become the gates of Sheol. Jesus will be put to death by the hostile Jewish
authorities, but neither Jesus nor his community will ultimately be overcome. I
f this is a passion prediction, however, it is at very best only implicit, for M
atthew has reserved the passion predictions until after v. }{\f0\fs22 21}{\f0\fs
22 with its formulaic from that time. The general point is true enough, however:
nothing not even the death of the Messiah can prevent the community from arriving vi
ctoriously at its eschatological goal.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Given the usual understanding
of the phrase, it is probably best taken as meaning the power of death or perhaps
simply death ; it is this that shall not overpower (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 katiscuvso
usin}{\f0\fs24 ) the church. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujth`"}{\f0\fs24 , it, has as it
s antecedent not }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pevtra}{\f0\fs24 , rock, but more naturally t
he nearer antecedent }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejkklhsivan}{\f0\fs24 , church (contra B.
P. Robinson). That is, the church as God s eschatological community will never di
e or come to end this despite the eventual martyrdom of the apostles and even, mor
e imminently, the death of its founder (soon to be announced; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ). Since death is one of
the weapons of Satan and his horde, the extended meaning of the passage wherein th

e church survives the attack upon it from the realm of the evil one is not far f
rom the mark, though it goes beyond what the text actually says. If the church e
scapes destruction despite the death of its leadership, so too will it escape an
ything that the enemy might bring upon it. Implied too is that those who die as
a part of that church cannot be defeated by death but will be raised at the end
time. The church conceived of as the community of saints at any particular time, o
r as the saints of every age who cumulatively make up the church }{\f0\fs24\i in
toto}{\f0\fs24 can never be destroyed.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 19}{\f0\fs24 Peter, as t
he leader of the twelve, is the rock upon which the new community will be built. W
ith this commissioning of Peter comes the authority symbolized by his possession
of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta;" klei`da" th`" basileiva" tw`n oujranw`n}{\f0\fs24 ,
the keys of the kingdom of heaven. For kingdom of heaven, see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Commen
t}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 3:2}{\f0\fs24 . Keys are above all a symbol of authorit
y and, hence, a symbol of power over something. This may be possessed by means o
f knowledge (as in }{\f0\fs24 Luke 11:52}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Matt 23:13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (m
etrically short poetic line), or before a tractate indicates Babylonian Talmud.}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Sabb.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Sabb. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sabbat}}}{\f0\fs24 31a b) or, in th
e case of Jesus, by divine right. In the context of our passage, note especially
}{\f0\fs24 Rev 1:18}{\f0\fs24 : I died, and behold I am alive for evermore, and
I have the keys of Death and Hades (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Rev 3:7}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 Isa 22:22}{\f0\fs24 ]; }{\f0\fs24 9:1}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 20:1}{\f0\
fs24 ). See Emerton for the links between v. }{\f0\fs24 19}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\
fs24 Isa 22:22}{\f0\fs24 . Peter s possession of the keys of the kingdom grants hi
m the right to admit or deny admittance into the kingdom, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est
}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , into the experience of the beginning blessing
s of eschatological salvation, as the following words confirm. This authority is
expressed through the distinctive rabbinic idiom of binding and loosing (see }{\f
0\fs24 Str-B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Str-B }{\f0\f
s24 H. Strack and P. Billerbeck, }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Kommentar zum Neuen Testa
ment}{\f0\fs24 , 4 vols. (Munich: Beck sche, 1926 28)}}}{\f0\fs24 1:741 47 for numero
us references).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Again, t
he question of the meaning of binding and loosing has given rise to much discussio
n. Among the options that have been offered, the following may be mentioned (see
the review in Davies-Allison). Binding and loosing can be regarded as the languag
e }{\f0\fs22 of demon exorcism (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Hi
ers), but this interpretation cannot be made to fit the context. Equally unlikel
y is the suggestion that the phrase refers to the placing and removing of magica
l curses (F. C. Conybeare, Christian Demonology, }{\f0\fs22\i JQR{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JQR }{\f0\fs24\i Jewish Quarterly Review
}}}{\f0\fs22 9 [1897] 444 70). More reasonable, but still unconvincing, is the ap
plication of the words to a ban, }{\f0\fs22 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\
f0\fs22 , of excommunication (Bchsel, }{\f0\fs22\i TDNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds.,
tr. G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionary of the New Testament}{\f
0\fs24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}}}{\f0\fs22 2:60 61). Most
likely the words refer in the first instance to some kind of conduct that one is
bound to or released from. One possibility is that they might concern vows (Fal
k), although this again does not fit the context. The words are better taken in

the wider sense of wrong and right conduct, on the rabbinic model of specific, p
ractical interpretation of the Torah, the determination of what was permitted an
d what was forbidden (so too B. H. Streeter, }{\f0\fs22\i The Primitive Church}{
\f0\fs22 [New York: Macmillan, 1929] 63; Derrett; Zahn; Davies-Allison; Luz), o
r somewhat more generally teaching authority (Bornkamm, }{\f0\fs22\i Perspective}{
\f0\fs22 11 [1970] 37 50). This interpretation may by extension be construed to i
nclude the forgiveness or nonforgiveness of sins (Schlatter; Basser) and thus th
e determination of salvation or damnation (A. Schweitzer, }{\f0\fs22\i The Quest
of the Historical Jesus}{\f0\fs22 [New York: Macmillan, 1910] 371; Falk). That
is, admission or nonadmission to the kingdom is now to be determined by the dis
ciples proclamation of what may be called the Jesus tradition his proclamation and
his teaching (see Korting). }{\f0\fs22 Cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 the co
mmission of }{\f0\fs22 28:16 20}{\f0\fs22 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 In its primary meaning, the p
hrase binding and loosing refers to the allowing and disallowing of certain conduc
t, based on an interpretation of the commandments of the Torah, and thus it conc
erns the issue of whether or not one is in proper relationship to the will of Go
d (contrast the reference to the Pharisees misuse of their authority [note implie
d keys!] in }{\f0\fs24 23:13}{\f0\fs24 ). In Matthew, Jesus is the true interpre
ter of Torah. His disciples will pass on that interpretation and extend it. Thus
Matthew may have in mind the teaching office of Peter and the apostles (for who
m the power of binding and loosing is also assumed in the plural verbs of }{\f0\
fs24 18:18}{\f0\fs24 in the discourse on church discipline ). Peter is in this sen
se }{\f0\fs24\i the}{\f0\fs24 scribe trained for the kingdom of heaven (}{\f0\f
s24 13:52}{\f0\fs24 ). This would be a more Matthean description (}{\f0\fs24 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 23:8}{\f0\fs24 ) than the reference t
o Peter as chief rabbi by B. P. Robinson (98) and Davies-Allison (2:639). He is th
e primary custodian and guarantor of the tradition of the teaching of Jesus (thu
s rightly Bornkamm, }{\f0\fs24\i Perspective}{\f0\fs24 11 [1970] 37 50). This mea
ns the words of Jesus and would, of course, include the ethical teaching of Jesu
s his authoritative exposition of the law. But it also includes the kerygmatic utt
erances of Jesus concerning the coming of the kingdom of God as well as those th
at point to his own unique position in the mediation of salvation (}{\f0\fs24 e.
g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang2
65 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 10:32 33}{\f0\f
s24 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 11:27}{\f0\fs24 ). Thus, despite the
rabbinic idiom, more is in view than halachic renderings (although Matthew and h
is community would have relished this aspect). In construing the meaning here mo
re widely so as to include gospel with law, we may appeal to the closely related
saying in }{\f0\fs24 John 20:23}{\f0\fs24 (indeed, probably a variant of the p
resent logion [thus Emerton on the basis of underlying Aramaic]): If you [plural]
forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you [plural] retain the sins of
any, they are retained. The Matthean logion has an extended meaning quite like th
is, which refers to the declaration of the forgiveness of sins, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265
id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , of salvation itself (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 18:18}{\f0\fs24 ; Fornberg thus likens Pe
ter to the high priest of the new covenant). The authority spoken of, then, is i
n effect that of being able to declare whether a person becomes fully a part of
the community of salvation or not, no longer simply on the basis of obedience to
Torah but on the basis of response or lack of response to the good news of the
kingdom (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf
. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the practice of the disci
ples in }{\f0\fs24 10:13 15}{\f0\fs24 ). It is the }{\f0\fs24 conveying of the word
of grace and judgment (Jeremias, }{\f0\fs24\i TDNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TDNT }{\f0\fs24 G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., tr.
G. W. Bromiley }{\f0\fs24\i Theological Dictionary of the New Testament}{\f0\fs

24 , 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964 76)}}}{\f0\fs24 3:752). Thus it i


s not wrong to say, as Knight does, that ultimately the power of the keys is giv
en to the people of God as a whole (178). Marcus (453) regards this as an apocal
yptic change that alters the cosmos (including the law), involving the transfer
of authority from the scribes and Pharisees to Peter.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 To indicate the final authority of this
binding and loosing, the unusual Greek construction of the future tense and the p
erfect participle is employed ({\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[stai dedemevnon ejn toi`" ou
jranoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , shall have been bound in heaven ; }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[stai l
elumevnon ejn toi`" oujranoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , shall have been loosed in heaven ). The
meaning of these tenses is not altogether clear (see Porter s discussion). Many ta
ke them as referring to decisions already taken in heaven, thus giving a predest
inarian sense to the statement (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for e
xample}}}{\f0\fs24 , Gundry, Carson, Mantey, Marcus). That Matthew has a doctrin
e of election is clear from }{\f0\fs24 11:25 27}{\f0\fs24 , as we have seen, and t
hus this interpretation of the tenses must be taken seriously. At the same time,
the thrust of the present passage (like that of }{\f0\fs24 18:18}{\f0\fs24 ) ha
s more to do with the establishment of the authority of Peter (the apostles and
the church) in his mission to the world. The judgment of Peter, and by implicati
on that of the church, reflects what is in accord with what is settled in heaven
as the fully determined will of God (see Mantey, Porter). Whether this is alrea
dy decreed in the will of God or subsequently ratified as the will of God is not
the issue here. Peter s authority, in short, is such that he speaks on behalf of
heaven (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.
e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , God).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 20}{\f0\fs24 Jesus then (}
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\f0\fs24 ) ordered (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 diesteivlato}{\f
0\fs24 , the only occurrence of the verb in Matthew) the disciples to keep quiet
about his messianic identity, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{ti aujtov" ejstin oJ Cristov"}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\f
s24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 l
iterally}}}{\f0\fs24
that he is the Christ, a repetition of the confession of v.
}{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 for emphasis. This logion is perhaps the key one in est
ablishing the motive of the messianic secret (see further }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{
\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 8:4}{\f0\fs24 ). Here the reason for the secrecy is abou
t to become particularly clear. Jesus is not the kind of Messiah that the masses
have in mind. Far from overpowering the evil powers of the world there and then
and establishing a national-political kingdom, Jesus is now to talk of another,
dramatically different path upon which his messianic calling will take him.}\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The
climax of the first main part of the Gospel is found in this resounding confess
ion of Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the living God. It is this to which all (be
ginning especially with }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:17}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
) has led. It is this that must be established with all possible fixity before t
he narrative takes that startling turn that will dominate the second half of the
Gospel and that seems almost to contradict the point just established. With thi
s supremely important confession of Jesus as Messiah, confirmed by Jesus declarat
ion of the divinely certified truth of the confession (v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 17}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), it is not surprising that several other impor
tant ideas emerge, }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , the church, the authority of Peter (and the other apos
tles), and inclusion or exclusion from the kingdom. For all of these as indeed Chr
istianity itself are dependent on the identity of Jesus. It is because Jesus is wh
o he is that Peter and the disciples can fulfill their calling and the church ca
n be built. The extended meaning of the logion spoken to Peter (}{\plain\f0\fs24\l

ang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 v


erse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 18 19}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 ) coincides with what took place in the early history of the church a
ccording to the book of Acts. Peter and the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 apostles w
ere the proclaimers of the gospel, the perpetuators of the tradition, and they w
ere vitally a part of each new stage of advancement in the overcoming of traditi
onal barriers. And although Paul would ultimately become the apostle to the Genti
les, it was through Peter s preaching that the gospel first came to Gentiles (}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Acts 10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). It is especially here,
in a major turning point for the history of the church, that Peter makes the mos
t exemplary use of the keys and of his authority to loose. (Had Paul been the initia
tor of gentile evangelization, it perhaps would have been forever suspect.) Matt
hew s Jewish-Christian readers would have taken pride in the knowledge that Christ
ianity was Jewish before the influx of the Gentiles and that the church as a who
le depended upon its Jewish roots in Peter and the apostles.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb1440 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs48\b\i The Turning Point: The A
nnouncement of the Cross (16:21 17:27)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs48\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs40 The First Announcement of
the Suffering and Death of the Messiah (16:21 23)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bastin, M.}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 L annonce de la passion et les critres d
e l historicit}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 RevScRel{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i RevScRel }{\f0\fs24\i\lang103
6 Revue des sciences religieuses}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 50 (1976) 289 329; 51
(1977) 187 213. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Black, M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Th
e Son of Man Passion Sayings in the Gospel Tradition. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Z
NW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang
1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
60 (1969) 1 8. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Feuillet, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Les trois grandes prophties de la passion et de la rsur
rection des vangiles synoptiques}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lan
g1033 RevThom{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i RevThom }{
\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Revue thomiste}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 67 (1967) 533 60; 6
8 (1968) 41 74. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Neirynck, F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 Apo; tovte h[rxato}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 and the St
ructure of Matthew. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ETL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ephemerides theologicae lovani
enses}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 64 (1988) 21 59. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Sch
aberg, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Daniel 7,12 and the New Testament Passion-Res
urrection Predictions. NTS 31 (1985) 208 22. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Vgtle, A.}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Todesankndigungen und Todesvers
tndnis Jesu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Der Tod Jesu
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 K. Kertelge. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 QD{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 QD }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Quaestioned disputat
ae}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 74. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Freiburg: Herder}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1976. 51 113. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Willaert, B.}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 La connexion littraire entre la
premire prdiction de la passion et la confession de Pierre chez les synoptiques}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ETL{\footnote \pard\plain \q
l \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ETL }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Ephemerides theologicae l
ovanienses}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 32 (1956) 24 45.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 21}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 From that time Jesus}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. The important w
itnesses }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 * and }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 * (as well as sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f

0\fs24 mae bo) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Cristov"}{\f0\fs24 , Christ. The addition


is clearly caused by the preceding verse (and pericope). Because of its rarity e
lsewhere (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.}{\f0\fs24 , in Matthew only in }{\f0\fs24 1:1}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 18}{\f0\fs24 ), the }{\f0\fs24 UBSGNT}{\f0\fs24 committee regard
s the addition as made by a scribe rather than the evangelist, although the latt
er is far from impossible. In favor of the simple }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f
0\fs24 , Jesus, see }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 latt }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super ms}{\f
0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 . A few }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24
(}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 892) omit both names, probably through accidental
omission of both abbreviated names (XC and IC) in an attempt to correct the reading.
See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 42 43.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 began to
show his disciples that it was necessary for him to go to Jerusalem, and to suff
er many things at the hands of}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. At the hands of transl
ates }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpov}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 from. }}}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 the elders and chief priests and scribes,}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c
}{\f0\fs24 c. A few witnesses (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}
{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 mae) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tou` laou`}{\f0\fs2
4 , of the people (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2:4}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 and to be put to death and to be raised to life on the thir
d day.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 (it) bo have }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 meta; trei`" hJmevra" ajnasth`nai}{\f0\fs24 , after three days to ri
se again, through the influence of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:31}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 22}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 A
nd Peter took him aside and began to reprove him, saying: Far be this from you, L
ord; this will in no wise happen to you! }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 23}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 But he turned and said to Peter: Get behind me, Satan. You
are a cause of stumbling to me, because you are setting your mind not on the thi
ngs of God but on the things of human beings. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
The important witnesses }{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 * and }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 B{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 * (as well as sa}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 mss}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 mae bo) add }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Cristov"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
, Christ. The addition is clearly caused by the preceding verse (and pericope). Be
cause of its rarity elsewhere (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f
0\fs24 , for example}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , in Matthew only in }{\plain\f0
\fs24\lang1033 1:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 18}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 UBSGNT{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 UBSGNT }{\f0\fs24 United Bible Societies }{\f0
\fs24\i Greek New Testament}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 committee regards the ad
dition as made by a scribe rather than the evangelist, although the latter is fa
r from impossible. In favor of the simple }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\lang1033 , Jesus, see }{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The C
airo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as
published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}

}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103


3 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 f}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1,13}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 latt
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sa}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 ms}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 bo}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 mss}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 . A few }{\plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 (}{\plain\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 892) omit both names
, probably through accidental omission of both abbreviated names (XC and IC) in an a
ttempt to correct the reading. See }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 TCGNT{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f
0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 , 42 43.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. At the hands of translates {\f8
\fs24\lang1032 ajpov}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
from. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. A few witnesses ({\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 mae) add }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 tou` laou`}{\f0\fs24 , of the people (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 com
pare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2:4}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 (i
t) bo have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 meta; trei`" hJmevra" ajnasth`nai}{\f0\fs24 , afte
r three days to rise again, through the influence of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:31}{\f0\fs
24 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. The second main pa
rt of the Gospel begins at this point, signaled by the opening }{\plain\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ajpo; tovte}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , from that time, placing Jesus on t
he road to Jerusalem and the cross. Not that Jesus ministry of healings or his te
aching has come to an end. Both indeed continue, but no longer as the main focus
of attention. From now on the focus is upon what is to befall Jesus in Jerusale
m. Although Jesus death has been alluded to earlier in the Gospel (}{\plain\f0\fs
24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\
fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 9:15}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 12:40}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 ), in the present pericope it is first announced openly as the
explicit intention of Jesus. This passage is thus no less of key importance in t
he Gospel than the preceding one. It can be no accident that the announcement of
Jesus imminent death is delayed until after Peter s bold confession at Caesarea Ph
ilippi in the immediately preceding pericope. It was important for Jesus identity
as Messiah to be firmly fixed in the minds of the disciples before they could b
e told of Jesus death since the death could well seem to rule out such a conclusi
on. Peter s reaction in the present passage which stands in such bold contrast to hi
s praiseworthy confession in the preceding pericope shows how incongruous he regar
ded the ideas. This passage and even more so the closely related following passa
ge seem to contradict everything that raced through the disciples minds when they
thought of the presence of the Messiah and the dawning of the messianic age. Th
e turn the Gospel now takes will necessitate the radical redefining of categorie
s for the disciples. The narrative now inexorably moves toward the heart of the
story of Jesus the Christ. Thus Martin Khler was theologically correct when he de
scribed the Gospels as passion narratives with extended introductions }{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 (The So-Called Historical Jesus and the Historic Biblical Christ
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1964] 80, }{\plain\f0\fs24\l

ang1033 n.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 n. }{\f0\fs24 n


ote}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew here is dependent on {\f0\fs
24 Mark 8:31 33}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs
24 Luke 9:22}{\f0\fs24 ). The changes Matthew makes at the beginning have the ef
fect of establishing the pericope as one of particular importance. Matthew s own i
nitial }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpo; tovte}{\f0\fs24 , from that time, informs the rea
der that a major turning point in the narrative has been reached (}{\f0\fs24 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 4:17}{\f0\fs24 ). Among further chang
es in v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:31}{\f0\fs24 ), the followi
ng should be noted. Matthew adds }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ j Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jes
us, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 toi`" maqhtai`" aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , to his disciples, t
o emphasize the significance of the passage. Matthew s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 deiknuv
ein}{\f0\fs24 , to show, for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 didavskein}{\f0\fs24 , to tea
ch, is more appropriate to the nature of the material about to be revealed. Matth
ew substitutes the simple }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him, for Matthew s
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n uiJo;n tou` ajnqrwvpou}{\f0\fs24 , the Son of Man, proba
bly because the title, or even the circumlocution, seems weak and anticlimactic
after the confession of v. }{\f0\fs24 16}{\f0\fs24 . Matthew adds the phrase }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" Ierosovluma ajpelqei`n}{\f0\fs24 , to go to Jerusalem (}{\f0\
fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 20:18}{\f0\fs24 ), and delete
s Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ajpodokimasqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , and be rejected, pro
bably because it seemed redundant in the context. Matthew is content with one de
finite article, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n}{\f0\fs24 , the, for the three groups, eld
ers, chief priests, and scribes, thus linking them together (as does }{\f0\fs24 L
uke 9:22}{\f0\fs24 ). Finally, in v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 Matthew substitute
s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`/ trivth`/ hJmevra`/ ejgerqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , on the thir
d day to be raised to life (}{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:22}{\f0\fs24 agrees with this chan
ge, against Mark), for Mark s less accurate }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 meta; trei`" hJmev
ra" ajnasth`nai}{\f0\fs24 , after three days to rise again, probably reflecting th
e more precise language used in the kerygma and liturgy of the church (}{\f0\fs2
4 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i con
fer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 15:4}{\f0\fs24 , including
the passive use of the verb). Matthew omits the opening words of }{\f0\fs24 Mar
k 8:32}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; parrhsiva`/ to;n lovgon ejlavlei}{\f
0\fs24 , and with boldness he was speaking the word, probably because the boldness
seemed self-evident. }{\f0\fs24 Matthew, expanding Mark s mere reference to Peter s
reproof of Jesus, supplies the content of the reproof with the added direct dis
course: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 levgwn: i\{lewv" soi, kuvrie: ouj mh; e[stai soi tou
`to}{\f0\fs24 , God be gracious to you, Lord; this will in no wise happen to you (
v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ). In v. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 Matthew omits Mark s
curious note }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ijdw;n tou;" maqhta;" aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , a
nd looking at his disciples (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:33}{\f0\fs24 ), with the result th
at the focus remains on Peter. Matthew further softens Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ejpitivmhsen}{\f0\fs24 , he rebuked (Peter), to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei\\pen}{\f0\f
s24 , he said. Finally to be noted is Matthew s addition of the clause }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 skavndalon ei\\ ejmou`}{\f0\fs24 , you are a cause of stumbling to me, whic
h sharpens the already sharp rebuke of Peter. Thus in this passage Matthew again
follows Mark quite closely, with only a couple of omissions of Markan material
and with a number of significant additions designed to highlight the passage and
to help the reader with further information at important points.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The structure of this brief pericope
can be seen in this simple outline: (1) announcement of the divinely willed nec
essity of Jesus suffering and death (v. {\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) Peter s repro
of of Jesus (v. }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ); and (3) Jesus rebuke of Peter (v. }{\f
0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 ). The most interesting syntactic feature is without questio
n that of v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 , where }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs

24 , he, is the subject of four parallel infinitives, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpelqei


`n}{\f0\fs24 , go, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 paqei`n}{\f0\fs24 , suffer, }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 ajpoktanqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , be put to death, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgerqh`nai
}{\f0\fs24 , be raised to life all of which together serve as the subject controlled
by the single verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\f0\fs24 , it is necessary, thus poi
nting to divine necessity. Three of the infinitives have modifiers (only }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 ajpoktanqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , to be put to death, does not), and }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 paqei`n}{\f0\fs24 is modified by the threefold }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
presbutevrwn kai; ajrcierevwn kai; grammatevwn}{\f0\fs24 ( elders and chief prie
sts and scribes ). Other syntactic parallelisms to be noted are: the parallel clau
ses in Peter s reproof (the first positive, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 i\{lewv" soi}{\f0\
fs24 , God be gracious to you ; the second strongly negative, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o
uj mh; e[stai soi tou`to}{\f0\fs24 , this will in no wise happen to you [v. }{\f0\
fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ]) and the parallelism in Jesus rebuke: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta;
tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24 , the things of God, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; tw`n ajnqrw
vpwn}{\f0\fs24 , the things of human beings (v. }{\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 ). The con
trast between the two vocatives, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie}{\f0\fs24 , Lord (v. }
{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ), and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 satana`}{\f0\fs24 , Satan (v. }{
\f0\fs24 23}{\f0\fs24 ), is striking.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. This is the first of three predictions (all of
which are found also in Mark and Luke) of the suffering and death of Jesus ({\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 17:22 23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs2
4 20:17 19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 26
:2}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew depends on Mark for all three. Of these, the second is t
he shortest while the third is the most detailed. Common to all three are the es
sential elements of being killed (in the third, crucified explicitly) and being
raised on the third day. Thus, in the passion predictions of Jesus, we have the
two elements that are of key importance in the kerygma of the early church (as w
itnessed in }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 15:3 8}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pla
in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}
}{\f0\fs24 the sermons in the book of Acts). This does not necessarily mean tha
t the historical Jesus could not have predicted his own suffering and death, and
even his resurrection (see the discussion in Davies-Allison, 2:657 61). Of the th
ree passion predictions, the one that most bears the detailed marks of being wri
tten with the events already in mind (}{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 vaticinia ex eventu}{
\f0\fs24 ) is the third. That Jesus predictions in these passages line up with th
e kerygma of the church is not sufficient reason to reject the possibility of th
eir authenticity, or at least of an authentic core. A variety of scripture passa
ges were available to Jesus in understanding what lay ahead (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exe
mpli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 Pss 22}{\f0\fs24 ;
}{\f0\fs24 118:17 18}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 22}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Isa 53}{\f0\
fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Dan 7}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Wis 3}{
\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The opening words, }{\pl
ain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpo; tovte h[rxato oJ Ihsou`"}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , fro
m that time Jesus began, repeat verbatim the formula of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
4:17}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , thus bringing the readers to the second main }{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 stage of the entire Gospel narrative, which, as this ver
se announces, will focus on the death of Jesus. Immediately following the triump
hant announcement of Peter that Jesus is the Messiah, Jesus begins to show (}{\pla
in\f8\fs24\lang1032 deiknuvein}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; the verb occurs elsewh
ere in Matthew only in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:8}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a
nd }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:4}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), }{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs2
4\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , to make vivi

dly clear, to his disciples something that at this point is mysterious and compl
etely out of their purview. But as unthinkable as it would seem, what Jesus now
says will happen to him is a matter of divine necessity (to be distinguished fro
m the blind fate of the Greek world). The verb }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\
plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , it is necessary, points to nothing less than the will of
God (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
the use of }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 in connecti
on with the passion and the fulfilling of scripture in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
26:54}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 24:26 27}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 ). It is thus the compulsion of God s will that lies behind the follo
wing four infinitives, which are together syntactically governed by }{\plain\f8\
fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . The first of these is }{\plain\f8\
fs24\lang1032 eij" Ierosovluma ajpelqei`n}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , to go to Jeru
salem. This element is also part of the third passion prediction (}{\plain\f0\fs2
4\lang1033 20:18}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The narrative concerning the minist
ry of Jesus is to find its climax in the Holy City itself in a final and fateful
confrontation with the Jewish leadership (on the association of Jerusalem with
the death of prophets, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 23:37}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 and }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 13:33}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 The second infinitive clause, {\f8\fs24
\lang1032 polla; paqei`n}{\f0\fs24 , to suffer many things, refers generally (}{\f
0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\
i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too }{\f0\fs24 17:12}{\f0\fs24 ) to wh
at will befall Jesus in Jerusalem, something described more fully in the third p
assion prediction (in }{\f0\fs24 20:19}{\f0\fs24 ). The three groups mentioned a
s responsible for what Jesus will suffer, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tw`n presbutevrwn
kai; ajrcierevwn kai; grammatevwn}{\f0\fs24 , the elders and chief priests and sc
ribes, apparently represent the leadership of Israel (which may account for the s
ingle article for the three). The elders were those whose age, experience, and p
iety accorded to them the responsibilities of leadership. The chief priests were
the intermediate hierarchy between the single high priest, the presiding office
r of the Sanhedrin (see }{\f0\fs24 26:62 68}{\f0\fs24 ), and the priesthood genera
lly (for the chief priests and the Sanhedrin, see }{\f0\fs24 26:59}{\f0\fs24 ).
The scribes were the professional Torah scholars (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2:4}{\f0\fs24 and see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs
24 on }{\f0\fs24 13:52}{\f0\fs24 ). The three are mentioned together again only
in }{\f0\fs24 27:41}{\f0\fs24 (though in a different order, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id
est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , 2, 3, 1), which records the partial fulfi
llment of the present prediction (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 26:57}{\f0\fs24 , where the scribes and elders are mentioned together
with the high priest, Caiaphas). Most commonly linked in the passion narrative
itself are the high priests and elders (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 26:3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 47}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 27:1}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 20}{\f0\fs
24 ; }{\f0\fs24 28:11 12}{\f0\fs24 ; outside the passion narrative, }{\f0\fs24 cf.
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}
{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 21:23}{\f0\fs24 ). The chief priests
and scribes are linked only in }{\f0\fs24 2:4}{\f0\fs24 ; in the third passion p
rediction, }{\f0\fs24 20:18}{\f0\fs24 ; and in }{\f0\fs24 21:15}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 The third infinitive stands unmodified, {\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ajpoktanqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , to be put to death, posing at once the supreme
mystery of this Messiah and an apparent contradiction of what the disciples had

finally confessed openly in the preceding pericope. The same verb is used in th
e second passion prediction (}{\f0\fs24 17:23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs2
4 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 its use in }{\f0\fs24 14:5}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 21:38 39
}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 26:4}{\f0\fs24 ), while the more specific }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 staurou`n}{\f0\fs24 , crucify, is used in the third prediction (}{\f0\fs24 2
0:19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 its use in }{\f0\
fs24 26:2}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 27:22 44}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 The fourth infinitive governed by {\f8\
fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\f0\fs24 is used in the clause }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th`/ tri
vth`/ hJmevra`/ ejgerqh`nai}{\f0\fs24 , to be raised to life on the third day. The
same verb (also passive in form, reflecting divine agency) in the same phrase i
s found in the second and third passion predictions (}{\f0\fs24 17:23}{\f0\fs24
; }{\f0\fs24 20:19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 27:63}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 26:32}{\f0\fs24 ). These predictions find t
heir fulfillment in }{\f0\fs24 28:1}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 , and thi
s affirmation in turn becomes the central element of the kerygma of the early ch
urch (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }
{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 15:4}{\f0\f
s24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Acts 2:23 24}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 3:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 4
:10}{\f0\fs24 , etc.). The related reference three days is found in }{\f0\fs24 12:
40}{\f0\fs24 (together with three nights ) in connection with the sign of Jonah an
d in }{\f0\fs24 26:61}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 27:40}{\f0\fs24 in connection w
ith the metaphor of destroying the temple and rebuilding it in three days (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 John 2:19 22}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f
0\fs24 A further possible background to the prediction on the third day is in }{\f
0\fs24 Hos 6:2}{\f0\fs24 . On the third day requires inclusive reckoning (Friday Sun
day). Thus at this major turning point in the Gospel, Jesus through his predicti
on provides what amounts to a programmatic prospect of what lies ahead, determin
ed already in the will of God.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 22}{\f0\fs24
Jesus statement was fully incomprehensible to Peter. In no way did the messianic
identity of Jesus fit the program now laid out by Jesus. To Peter and the other
disciples what Jesus now began to say to them seemed flatly contradictory of the
ir confession of him as Messiah (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 1:23}{\f0\fs24 ) and his unqualified acceptance of that confessi
on. Peter accordingly took Jesus aside to reprove him. This was quite a remarkab
le act in itself, given Peter s confession of Jesus as Messiah and that he address
es Jesus as }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kuvrie}{\f0\fs24 , Lord, but it is also indirect e
vidence that for Peter the deity of Jesus was hardly yet clear despite his confe
ssion. Peter s statement falls into two parts. The first }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 i\{le
wv" soi}{\f0\fs24 , is an abbreviated form of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei[h oJ qeo;"
i\{lewv" soi}{\f0\fs24 , May God be gracious to you, which in the context means so
mething like May God mercifully spare you this (}{\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Gre
ek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature}{\f
0\fs24 , ET, ed. W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and
F. W. Danker (University of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f0\fs24 , 376a). But }{\f0\fs24 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 BDF{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BDF }{\f0\fs24 F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and R. W. Funk, }{
\f0\fs24\i A Greek Grammar of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24 (University of Chicag
o/University of Cambridge, 1961)}}}{\f0\fs24 128(5), which more convincingly tak
es the clause as a Septuagintism meaning more directly far be it from, thus making i
t synonymous with the second clause (for this use of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 i\{lew"
}{\f0\fs24 in the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\

f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 ,


see 2 Kgdms 20:20; 23:17 [= }{\f0\fs24 1 Chr 11:19}{\f0\fs24 ]; }{\f0\fs24 2 Ma
cc 2:21}{\f0\fs24 ). This is followed by a very strong negation (the double nega
tive, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj mhv}{\f0\fs24 ) of the possibility of the things j
ust mentioned by Jesus: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ouj mh; e[stai soi tou`to}{\f0\fs24
, this will in no wise happen to you. Peter s confidence in this response depends up
on his faulty concept of the nature of the Messiah and his work. He has yet to u
nderstand that God has willed another path for the Messiah.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 23}{\f0\fs24 Although no
ne of the evangelists tells us of Peter s reaction to this harsh response of Jesus
, it is obvious that he would have been bewildered and crushed. In opposing the
death of Jesus, Peter was going }{\f0\fs24\i against}{\f0\fs24 the will of God
and had unwittingly taken a position identical with that of Satan, who early on
in Matthew s narrative had attempted to sidetrack Jesus from his Father s will (see
}{\f0\fs24 4:1 11}{\f0\fs24 ). For this reason, Jesus speaks to Peter addressing h
im as Satan ; it is as though Peter s response were inspired by Satan. Jesus rebuke, }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 u\{page ojpivsw mou, satana`}{\f0\fs24 , get behind me, Satan,
is thus almost exactly the same as that of }{\f0\fs24 4:10}{\f0\fs24 (where onl
y the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojpivsw mou}{\f0\fs24 , behind me, is missing). Peter, th
e rock (v. }{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ), had become in effect a stone of offense or
a rock of stumbling (}{\f0\fs24 Isa 8:14}{\f0\fs24 ) to Jesus (as Jesus himself wo
uld become to others [}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 R
om 9:33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 1 Peter 2:6 8}{\f0\fs24 ]), a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 s
kavndalon}{\f0\fs24 , a stumbling block (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\f
s24 the cognate verb in }{\f0\fs24 11:6}{\f0\fs24 ), in the path to the accompl
ishment of God s will (for parallel testings of Jesus along this line, see }{\f0\f
s24 26:36 46}{\f0\fs24 , but especially }{\f0\fs24 27:40 44}{\f0\fs24 ). The command
to get behind me (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ojpivsw mou}{\f0\fs24 ) refers to the clear
ing of Jesus path by the removal of an obstacle (and perhaps hints at the proper
place for a disciple following Jesus; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }
{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 ; and }{\f0\fs24 4:
19}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:38}{\f0\fs24 ). The essence of Peter s mistake was se
tting his mind upon }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; tw`n ajnqrwvpwn}{\f0\fs24 , the thing
s of human beings, rather than upon }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24
, the things of God (a very similar point is made in the imperative, using the sam
e verb, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 fronei`n}{\f0\fs24 , in }{\f0\fs24 Col 3:2}{\f0\fs24
). Peter s focus, like that of the other disciples (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 comp
are}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 20:21}{\f0\fs24 ), was on the triumphant aspects of
the Messiah and the messianic kingdom. But if Peter would set his mind on the wi
ll of God, he needed to make room for the necessity of the suffering and death o
f Jesus. And as they next will be told, the disciples must face that reality in
their own lives.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 If the Messiah was pr
esent among his people and the messianic kingdom was already beginning with the
promise that its full realization lay in the near future, then the line between
promise and fulfillment seemed simple and direct. Given such a scheme, dominated
by Israel s national-political hope, it is no surprise that the disciples were ba
ffled by Jesus somber announcement, which seemed not so much a serious detour as
a blatant contradiction of their hopes (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 24:21}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Lacking in the disciples perspective was a sense of the grav
ity of sin and thus of the necessity of the cross as the instrumental means to t
he very possibility of the experience of the kingdom. Jesus purpose was far great

er than the blessing of Israel with the establishment of political independence


and the experience of material blessing. His purpose was to counteract the effec
ts of sin universally (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Gal 3:13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 )
and thus to deliver humanity from a far greater enemy than the Roman oppressors
. It is this purpose that makes the work of Jesus the turning point of the ages
and that controls Jesus in the accomplishment of God s will. It is this that drive
s him to the cross (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 20:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}
\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Path of Discipleship
(16:24 28)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Chilton, B. D.}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Not to Taste Death : A Jewish, Christian and Gnostic Usage. In
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang265 Studia Biblica 1978}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed
. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. A. Living
stone. Sheffield: }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JSOT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JSOT }{\f0\fs24\i Journal for the Study of the Old Te
stament}{\f0\fs24 Biblical Studies}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , 1980. 2:29 36. }{
\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Dautzenberg, G.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\
fs22\i\lang1031 Sein Leben bewahren}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\
lang1033 SANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SANT }{\f0\f
s24\lang1031 Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 1
4. Munich: Ksel, 1966. 68 82. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Fletcher, D. R.}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 Condemned to Die: The Logion on Cross-Bearing: What Does it Mean
? }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Int{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22\i Int }{\f0\fs24\i Interpretation}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 18 (1964) 1
56 64. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Knzi, M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\f
s22\i\lang1031 Das Naherwartungslogion Markus 9,1 par.: Geschichte seiner Ausleg
ung}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 BGBE{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 BGBE }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Beitrge zur Geschich
te der biblischen Exegese}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 21. Tbingen: Mohr, 1977. }{
\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Riesenfeld, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Meaning of
the Verb }{\plain\f8\fs22\lang1032 ajrnei`sqai}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ConNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
2\i ConNT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Coniectanea neotestamentica}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 11 (1947) 207 19. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Satake, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Das Leiden der Jnger um meinetwillen}{\plain\f0\fs2
2\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche
Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 67 (1976) 4 19.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 24}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 Then Jesus said to his disciples: If any}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lan
g1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24
a. Vv }{\f0\fs24 24 27}{\f0\fs24 , originally in the }{\f0\fs24 sing.}{\f0\fs24
(}{\f0\fs24 e.g.}{\f0\fs24 , anyone
his [her] ; whoever
his [her] ), have been recast
in the }{\f0\fs24 pl.}{\f0\fs24 to avoid the }{\f0\fs24 masc.}{\f0\fs24 pronou
ns.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 desire to come after me, they must practice se
lf-denial}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajparnhsavsqw eJautov
n}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 let him deny himself [herself]. }}}{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 and take their cross and keep following me. }{\plain\f0\fs2
4\super\lang1033 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 For those who want to preserve th
eir lives}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuchv}{\f0\fs24 , }{\
f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
soul, but here in the Hebraic sense of life animating the
body.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 will lose them; but those who lose their liv

es on my account will find them. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 26}{\plain\f0\f


s24\i\lang1033 For what will}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. Some witnesses (}{\f0\
fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
lat}{\f0\fs24 ) have the present tense }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wjfelei`tai}{\f0\fs24
, does (profit). }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 any profit if they should gain the
whole world but lose their lives? Or what will people give in exchange for thei
r lives? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 27}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 For the S
on of Man is about to come in the glory of his Father with his angels, and then
he will render to all according to what they have done.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\la
ng1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs2
4 e. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n pra`xin aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\f
s24 his [her] deed. Some }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\p
ar
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg}{\f0\f
s24\super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c,p,h}{\f0\fs24 co) have
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; e[rga aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his [her] works, thus harmonizin
g with }{\f0\fs24 Ps 61:13}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 LXX}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\f
s24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 28}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Tr
uly I tell you: There are some standing here who will by no means die}{\plain\f0
\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\sup
er f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 geuvswntai qanavtou}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs2
4 lit.}{\f0\fs24
taste of death. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 before they see th
e Son of Man coming in his kingdom. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
Vv }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 24 27}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , originally in the }{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 sing.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 sing. }{\f0\fs24 singular}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\
i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , any
one his [her] ; whoever his [her] ), have been recast in the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 pl.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 pl. }{\f0\fs24 plate
or plural}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 to avoid the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ma
sc.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 masc. }{\f0\fs24 mascu
line}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 pronouns.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajparnhsav
sqw eJautovn}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
let him deny himself [herse
lf]. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuchv}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 li
t. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
soul, but here in the Hebraic sense of life a
nimating the body.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. Some witnesses ({\f0\fs24 C{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geni
za}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24 TR{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptu
s}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 ) have the present tense }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 wjfelei`tai}{\f0\fs24 , does (profit). }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n pra`x
in aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
his [her] deed. Some }{\f0\fs2
4\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f
0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 vg{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vg }{\f0\fs24 Latin Vulgate (as

published in Weber s edition)}}}{\f0\fs24\super cl}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footn


ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24
\super c,p,h}{\f0\fs24 co) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ta; e[rga aujtou`}{\f0\fs24
, his [her] works, thus harmonizing with }{\f0\fs24 Ps 61:13}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs2
4 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The S
eptuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 geuvswntai qanavtou}{\f0\fs2
4 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }
{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 taste of death. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
Jesus now confronts his disciples with what must have been yet a further unsettl
ing revelation. True discipleship must entail a readiness to accept a path of se
lf-denial and even martyrdom. This is a motif that has been broached earlier in
the Gospel (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\la
ng1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:17 28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), and indeed
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:38 39}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 corresponds closely t
o }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 24 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . Yet with the present passage preceded by the ja
rring announcement of the necessity of Jesus imminent suffering and death, the sa
yings here lose their theoretical character and sound proportionately more omino
us. If the slave is not above the master and may thus expect similar treatment (
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:24 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), the disciples are h
ere confronted vividly with the cost of discipleship.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. In this triple tradition pass
age Matthew depends as usual on Mark ({\f0\fs24 Mark 8:34 9:1}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs
24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i co
nfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:23 27}{\f0\fs24 ). Matthew
deletes Mark s opening words and calling the crowd together, thereby restricting th
e passage to the hearing of the disciples. Matthew begins instead with the openi
ng }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , then Jesus. The dominical logio
n that follows (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 :, }{\f0\
fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 vers
e(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 24 25}{\f0\fs24 ) is in verbatim agreement with Mark
except for the following changes.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Matthew s
}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejlqei`n}{\f0\fs22 , come, takes the place of Mark s }{\f8\fs22\
lang1032 ajkolouqei`n}{\f0\fs22 , follow (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:34}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\f
s22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i c
onfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 e[rcesqai}{\f0\fs22 ,
come, in }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:23}{\f0\fs22 ); the more proper subjunctive, }{\f8\fs2
2\lang1032 ajpolevsh/}{\f0\fs22 , lose (so too }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:24}{\f0\fs22 ), i
s used for Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ajpolevsei}{\f0\fs22 , lose (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8
:35}{\f0\fs22 ); Matthew (so too }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:24}{\f0\fs22 ) omits Mark s }{\
f8\fs22\lang1032 kai; tou` eujaggelivou}{\f0\fs22 , and the gospel s (}{\f0\fs22 Mar
k 8:35}{\f0\fs22 ), thereby focusing more on Jesus; and he substitutes }{\f8\fs2
2\lang1032 euJrhvsei}{\f0\fs22 , will find (thus breaking the symmetrical parallel
ism; }{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 10:39}{\f0\fs22 ),
for Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 swvsei}{\f0\fs22 , will save (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:35}{
\f0\fs22 ). Matthew revises the syntax of the next logion (v. }{\f0\fs22 26}{\f0
\fs22 ), making use of the future rather than the present tense, but still close
ly follows the Markan vocabulary. The following logion, }{\f0\fs22 Mark 8:38a}{\
f0\fs22 b ( whoever is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful gen
eration, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of ) is omitted by Matthew, probably
because it is seen as a digression (a similar logion has already been given in }

{\f0\fs22 10:33}{\f0\fs22 ). Matthew takes the final part of the same logion (th
e subordinate clause when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angel
s ) and makes an independent statement of it (using }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 mevllei}{\
f0\fs22 , about to, and omitting the modifier }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 tw`n aJgivwn}{\f
0\fs22 , holy, with }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ajggevlwn}{\f0\fs22 , angels ), adding an }{\
f0\fs22 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 OT }{\f0\fs24 O
ld Testament}}}{\f0\fs22 quotation concerning judgment (v. }{\f0\fs22 27}{\f0\f
s22 ; }{\f0\fs22 Ps 62:12}{\f0\fs22 ). }{\f0\fs22\i V{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 28}{\
f0\fs22 omits Mark s opening and he said to them (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:1}{\f0\fs22 ),
thereby attaching this final logion more closely to the preceding passage.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Otherwise, Matthew in this logion follow
s Mark very closely except in the final object clause following }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 i[dwsin}{\f0\fs24 , they see, where for Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n basileiv
an tou` qeou` ejlhluqui`an ejn dunavmei}{\f0\fs24 , the kingdom of God having com
e in power (}{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:1}{\f0\fs24 ), he has the more specific }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 to;n uiJo;n tou` ajnqrwvpou ejrcovmenon ejn th`/ basileiva aujtou`}{\f0
\fs24 , the Son of Man coming in his kingdom (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{
\f0\fs24 in }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:27}{\f0\fs24 , the simple }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;
n basileivan tou` qeou`}{\f0\fs24 , the kingdom of God ). In this pericope, Matthew
has thus followed Mark very closely but at the same time has put his own stamp
upon the material.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. The passage consists of an initial m
ain saying (v. {\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 ), followed by three }{\f0\fs24 supporting
logia reminiscent of wisdom sayings (}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 , each with an initial
post-positive }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for ). }{\f0\fs24\i V{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 28}{\f0\fs24 functions as a stress on the imminence of the coming o
f the Son of Man referred to in v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 . The following outli
ne may be suggested: (1) the main condition of discipleship (v. }{\f0\fs24 24}{\
f0\fs24 ); (2) a paradoxical principle (v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) the su
preme value of life (v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 ); (4) the reality of the parous
ia and future judgment (v. }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 ); and (5) the imminence of t
he parousia (v. }{\f0\fs24 28}{\f0\fs24 ). Some parallelism is found in each of
the first three logia. Thus v. }{\f0\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 has three parallel third
-person imperatives; v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 consists of two structurally pa
rallel sentences (the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 euJrhvsei}{\f0\fs24 , will find, in the
second main clause breaks the exact verbal parallelism of Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 swvsei}{\f0\fs24 , will save (perhaps through the influence of the similar sayi
ng in }{\f0\fs24 10:39}{\f0\fs24 ); and in v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 there is
syntactic parallelism in the two main parts (introduced by }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 t
iv}{\f0\fs24 , what ) as well as in the contrast in the subordinate clause between
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to;n kovsmon o\{lon kerdhvsh/}{\f0\fs24 , gain the whole worl
d, and }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n de; yuch;n aujtou` zhmiwqh`/}{\f0\fs24 , but lose
his life. Finally to be noted are the parallel references to the coming of the So
n of Man in }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 27}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 28}{
\f0\fs24 . The Markan pericope contains most of the parallelism (which is a part
of the Jesus tradition itself in its oral form), which is then taken over and i
mproved by Matthew.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. The exact relationship between the similar sayi
ngs in {\f0\fs24 10:38 39}{\f0\fs24 , also addressed to the disciples, and }{\f0\f
s24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse
(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 24 25}{\f0\fs24 is difficult to establish (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i conf
er,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too }{\f0\fs24 Luke 17:33}{\f0\fs24 ). We ma
y well have here variants of the same saying, the former coming to Matthew via }

{\f0\fs24 Q{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Q }{\f0\fs24 Qu


mran , Qere }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Qere}{\f0\fs24 (To be read. Masoretic suggested pronun
ciation for vocalized Hebrew text of the OT), or Quelle ( Sayings source for the Go
spels)}}}{\f0\fs24 and utilized in the free composition of the discourse in cha
p. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 (thereby also accounting for their anachronistic cha
racter there), the latter via Mark. On the other hand, it is not at all impossib
le that very similar sayings about the essence of discipleship may have been utt
ered by Jesus on different occasions. }{\f0\fs24 John 12:25}{\f0\fs24 provides
a saying similar to v. }{\f0\fs24 25}{\f0\fs24 , but it is obviously given with
a clearly Johannine imprint. Matthew s unique citation of the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\
f0\fs24 in v. }{\f0\fs24 27b}{\f0\fs24 is probably alluded to in 2 Clem 11:6.
Justin Martyr probably alludes to v. }{\f0\fs24 26}{\f0\fs24 in Apol 1.15.12 (i
n the context of a montage of Matthean allusions).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\b\
lang1033 24}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The initial, typically Matthean, }{\plain\
f8\fs24\lang1032 tovte}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , then, in this case links this pe
ricope closely with the preceding one. Jesus now proceeds to instruct his discip
les and through them the church (note: if any ) in a discipleship patterned on his
own self-denial and suffering. The disciple must be modeled on the example of th
e master (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:24 25}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). Discipleship
involves a deliberate decision to follow Jesus by denying self and putting one s l
ife on the line, taking up one s cross (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 the Lukan addition }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 k
aqj hJmevran}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , daily [}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 9:23
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ]). }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejlqei`n}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 , to come, is used referring to discipleship only here in Matthew (but }
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs
24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:19}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 d
eu`te}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , come ). Here the self-denial (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 ajparnhsavsqw}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , in Matthew only here) is a prelim
inary to the central imperative to take up one s cross (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 aj
ravtw to;n stauro;n aujtou`}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i conf
er,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:
38}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , where however the verb is }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang103
2 lambavnei}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , take ). The latter metaphor does not mean be
aring up under some difficulty or malady in life but a deliberate dying to onese
lf (a point confirmed by the following verses). To deny oneself indeed to die to o
neself this is what it means to follow Jesus (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkolouqeivt
w}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; see }{\plain\f0\fs24\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 for
the importance of this word for Matthew). In contrast to the preceding aorist i
mperatives, this verb is in the present tense, suggesting the ongoing practice o
f following. Thus the revelation of Jesus own imminent suffering and death in the
preceding pericope is now seen to be full of significance for the disciples the
mselves.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 25}{\f0\fs24
The first reason (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for ) for this death to self
is presented in the articulation of the paradoxical principle that the attempt
to preserve one s life (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 sw`sai}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{
\f0\fs24
save, is to be understood in this sense) results in the loss of it (}{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ajpolevsei}{\f0\fs24 , will lose, with overtones of eschatological
judgment; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24

cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 10:39}{\f0\f


s24 ), while the deliberate giving up of one s life for the sake of Jesus results
in the finding of it (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 euJrhvsei}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0
\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 10:39}{\f0\fs24 ). }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e\
{neken ejmou`}{\f0\fs24 , on my account (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 5:11}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:18}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0
\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 19:29}{\f0\fs24 ; see Satake), not only establishes this serv
ice as discipleship to Jesus (note the christological implications) but sets thi
s material apart from other general, secular sentiments concerning a similar pri
nciple of self-giving and self-discovery (for a rabbinic parallel, }{\f0\fs24 cf
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,
}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poet
ic line), or before a tractate indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\f
s24\lang513 Tamid{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513
Tamid }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Tamid}}}{\f0\fs24 32a). While }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuch
v}{\f0\fs24 is clearly to be translated life here, rather than soul, the life intende
d is not merely physical life but life in the deeper and more fundamental sense
of one s true being, and thus life that transcends death (see }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Comme
nts}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 10:28}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0\fs24 ). Althou
gh it is difficult to articulate, the concept of finding one s life is not very diff
erent from experiencing the ultimate well-being meant by the word salvation (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i shalom}{\f0\fs24 ). The dy
ing to self may or may not involve a literal martyr s death, but the person who di
es to self in discipleship to Jesus (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 5:11}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 10:18}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 39}{\f0\f
s24 ; }{\f0\fs24 19:29}{\f0\fs24 ) will discover life in this fundamental sense.
In sharp contrast, those persons who try selfishly to guard their existence wil
l not know the full commitment of discipleship and will tragically end up losing
the very thing they tried to protect (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 John 12:25}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\f
s24 Rev 12:11}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 26}{\f0\fs24 A second re
ason (again }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for ) for heeding the instruction
of Jesus concerning discipleship builds upon the first one. If it is a matter of
nothing less than gaining or losing one s life, what could be of more importance to
an individual? Thus if a person were to gain the whole world (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032
to;n kovsmon o\{lon kerdhvsh/}{\f0\fs24 ) but suffer the loss of life in some fun
damental sense (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n de; yuch;n aujtou` zhmiwqh`/}{\f0\fs24
; the only occurrence of this verb in Matthew) }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuchv}{\f0\fs24
, life, here again understood as more than physical life what would be the good of
that (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }
{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Luke 12:20}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Jas 4:13 14}{\f0\fs24 )? Here }{\f8
\fs24\lang1032 wjfelhqhvsetai}{\f0\fs24 means profit or benefit (the word is used e
lsewhere in Matthew only in }{\f0\fs24 15:5}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 27:24}{\f0
\fs24 ). The reference to the possibility of gaining the whole world, }{\f0\fs24 i
.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang
265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , its wealth, is reminiscent of }{\f0
\fs24 4:8}{\f0\fs24 , where Satan offers Jesus all the kingdoms of the world and
their glory if he will only worship him }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}
}}{\f0\fs24 , if Jesus would look out for himself and avoid the path of obedienc
e (suffering and death) God had marked out for him. It is hard to imagine a more

powerful polemic against wealth that squeezes out discipleship (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{
\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6:19 21}{\f0\fs24 ). The second question
asks rhetorically whether there is any conceivable }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajntavll
agma}{\f0\fs24 ( thing given in exchange ; the only occurrence in the }{\f0\fs24 NT
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testame
nt}}}{\f0\fs24 is here and in the Markan parallel) with which a person could ag
ain acquire possession of his or her }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuchv}{\f0\fs24 , life, i
tself (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 &2ApocBar; 51:15). The answ
er is self-evident. Given the supreme value of life, the person s very being, noth
ing can be imagined that could warrant an exchange. Any conceivable answer would
be fundamentally self-contradictory, such is the }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 sine qua
non}{\f0\fs24 of one s being (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\l
ang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24 Ps 49:8 9}{\f0\fs24 ). The only sensible course for the disciple is the way
of Jesus, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , the way of se
lf-denial and the cross.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 27}{\f0\fs24
As a third reason for the commitment of full discipleship (again, }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 gavr}{\f0\fs24 , for ), building on the preceding material, Matthew has place
d special emphasis on the reality of the coming of the Son of Man and human acco
untability at that time. This emphasis is fully in keeping with the common use o
f eschatology in the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 as a motivation for ethics. Gi
ven the preceding announcement of the imminent }{\f0\fs24 suffering and death of
Jesus, the reference here to the Son of Man coming }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn th`/
dovxh/ tou` patro;" aujtou` meta; tw`n ajggevlwn aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , in the glor
y of his Father with his angels, must refer to what will follow those announced e
vents. The }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 mevllei}{\f0\fs24 , is about to, is indeterminate b
ut suggests something in the not distant future (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compar
e}}}{\f0\fs24 the use of the same verb in the second passion prediction; }{\f0\
fs24 17:22}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24
17:12}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 20:22}{\f0\fs24 ). The time reference is, however,
made more specific in the verse that follows. The Son of Man who must suffer and
die (v. }{\f0\fs24 21}{\f0\fs24 ) is also destined to return }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 ejn th`/ dovxh/ tou` patro;" aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , in the glory of his Father (}{\
f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Rom 6:4}{\f0\fs24 ). The g
lorious coming of the Son of Man is referred to again in }{\f0\fs24 24:30}{\f0\f
s24 (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 meta; dunavmew" kai; dovxh" pollh`"}{\f0\fs24 , with po
wer and great glory ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the reference
to the Son of Man s throne of glory in }{\f0\fs24 19:28}{\f0\fs24 ) and in }{\f0\fs2
4 25:31}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn th`/ dovxh/ aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , in hi
s glory ). The latter passage also includes a reference to }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 pav
nte" oiJ a[ggeloi met` aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , all his angels with him. The }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , him, in the present reference to angels probably ref
ers to the Son of Man (}{\f0\fs24 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}
{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 13:41}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 24:31}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24
2 Thess 1:7}{\f0\fs24 ; so too perhaps }{\f0\fs24 25:31}{\f0\fs24 ; for }{\f0\f
s24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old T
estament}}}{\f0\fs24 background, }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 Zech 14:5}{\f0\fs24 ). At this point Matthew inserts the further apoc
alyptic motif of the coming judgment by the use of explicit }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footn

ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\


f0\fs24 language: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; tovte ajpodwvsei eJkavstw/ kata; th;
n pra`xin aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , and then he will render to each person according to
what he or she has done. These words, which are cited elsewhere in the }{\f0\fs2
4 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Tes
tament}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 Rom 2:6}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 com
pare}}}{\f0\fs24 allusions in }{\f0\fs24 2 Cor 11:15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 2 T
im 4:14}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 1 Peter 1:17}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 Rev 2:23}{\f0
\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 18:6}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 20:12 13}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 22:
12}{\f0\fs24 ), are in nearly verbatim agreement with }{\f0\fs24 Ps 61:13}{\f0\f
s24 (}{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{
\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 ), where only t
he number of the verb (second person) differs and the final phrase is }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 kata; ta; e[rga aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , according to his [her] works. The id
entical words, however, are also found in }{\f0\fs24 Prov 24:12}{\f0\fs24 (but
where the verb is in the present tense, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpodivdwsin}{\f0\fs
24 , renders ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 too }{\f0\fs24 Sir 35:
22}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 ], wh
ere the last phrase is found nearly verbatim, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kata; ta;" pra
vxei"}{\f0\fs24 [plural] }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , according to hi
s [her] deeds, but where the first part is somewhat differently put). The concept
is a common one in the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 c
ompare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Jer 17:10}{\f0\fs24 ) and had by the }{\f0\fs24 N
T{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f0\fs24 New Testam
ent}}}{\f0\fs24 era (as the above references show) become nearly proverbial in
character. Matthew s singular }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 th;n pra`xin}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\f
s24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 l
iterally}}}{\f0\fs24
the deed, is a summarizing noun. His point is clear. After h
is death and resurrection, Jesus will return in glorious manner as the apocalypt
ic Judge of humanity (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 7
:22 23}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 13:41 42}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 25:31 46}{\f0\fs24 ). In light of this, one s decisions abou
t one s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 yuchv}{\f0\fs24 , very being, become not only crucially
important but also urgent.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 28}{\f0
\fs24 In a saying that is given grave importance by the introductory }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 ajmhvn}{\f0\fs24 , truly, Jesus assures his disciples (although Mark s inc
lusion of the crowd [}{\f0\fs24 Mark 8:34}{\f0\fs24 ] makes more sense here) tha
t some of those hearing his words at that time, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tine" tw|n w
|de eJstwvtwn}{\f0\fs24 , some standing here, would still be alive to see }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 to;n uiJo;n tou` ajnqrwvpou ejrcovmenon ejn th`/ basileiva/ aujtou`}
{\f0\fs24 , the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. This is the meaning of }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 ouj mh; geuvswntai qanavtou}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
b
y no means taste death, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 ,
not die (for the same expression, see }{\f0\fs24 John 8:52}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs2
4 Heb 2:9}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 2 Esdr 6:26}{\f0\fs24 ; rabbinic references: }{
\f0\fs24\i Gen. Rab.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Gen
. Rab. }{\f2\fs24\i\lang513 Midras Rabbah}{\f0\fs24 on Genesis or }{\f0\fs24\i G
enesis Rabba}}}{\f0\fs24 9.2; }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs2
4\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrically short poetic
line), or before a tractate indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs2

4\i\lang513 Yoma{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\i\lang513


Yoma }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Yoma (= Kipturim)}}}{\f0\fs24 78b). For a look at the
problem raised by a similar verse, see the discussion of }{\f0\fs24 10:23}{\f0\f
s24 . By far the most natural understanding of this verse, given especially the
context of the preceding verse to which Matthew has closely attached it, is that
the consummation of the present age and the coming of the eschaton proper with
its concomitant blessing and judgment would be experienced within not many decad
es through the triumphant return of the Son of Man. (Understanding the verse as
referring to the parousia proper are Grundmann, Gundry, Luz, Gnilka, Sabourin.)
Thus the length of the interim }{\f0\fs24 period between the death of the Son of
Man and his glorious return would be limited, so that the latter would occur wi
thin the lifetime of some standing there at that moment. (The }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 e\{w"}{\f0\fs24 , before or until, does not require the conclusion that these pers
ons will die }{\f0\fs24\i after}{\f0\fs24 seeing the coming of the Son of Man i
n power and that therefore the parousia cannot be meant since it will usher in t
he final age.) As we have noted in the discussion of }{\f0\fs24 10:23}{\f0\fs24
, such a conclusion, which from our later perspective must be judged as chronolo
gically incorrect, is not out of keeping with the theological unity of eschatolo
gy (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }
{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , wherein the first a
nd second coming of Jesus are part of one eschatological process, with the forme
r anticipating and guaranteeing the reality of the latter) as well as with Jesus
own self-confessed ignorance of the actual time of his return (}{\f0\fs24 24:36}
{\f0\fs24 ). Of key importance in deciding the interpretation of this verse is t
he necessity of giving full heed to the statement that some would still be alive
to see the coming of the Son of Man in power. The idea that }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
eJstwvtwn}{\f0\fs24 , standing, could be taken in the sense of faithfulness in th
e midst of persecution (thus very tentatively Davies-Allison; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foot
note \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\f
s24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 Strecker, }{\f0\fs24\i Weg}{\f0\fs24 , 43) is hardly c
onvincing without more evidence from the immediate context.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Some hav
e tried to ease the problem by understanding death as referring to some kind of sec
ond death or eschatological punishment, but this explanation goes against the nat
ural meaning of to taste death and creates as many of its own problems as it solve
s. There is, alternatively, as we have also seen above (on }{\f0\fs22 10:23}{\f0
\fs22 ), the possibility of a range of meanings for the expression the coming of
the Son of Man in his kingdom. Some encouragement to ponder these comes from the
parallel expressions in Mark and Luke, namely, the kingdom of God come in power an
d simply the kingdom of God, respectively. It is obvious that whereas Matthew has
made Mark s clause more specific (perhaps over-specific), Luke has made it more ge
neral. If we look for an event within the lifetime of at least some who were pre
sent, which could correspond to the powerful coming of the kingdom, and perhaps
even of Matthew s coming of the Son of Man, the following options are conceivable.
(1) Since in all three Synoptics this statement is followed by the transfigurat
ion of Jesus (a revelation of his glorious identity), it has been argued that th
is is what is intended. This view was held already by the early Fathers (}{\f0\f
s22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i c
onfer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 Harrington [tentatively]; Blomberg). But
an event that was to occur in a mere six days is hardly compatible with the stra
nge statement that some would live to see it. (2) Another candidate is the resur
rection of Jesus (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Rom 1
:4}{\f0\fs22 ) and/or the subsequent ascension of Jesus and the experience of th
e Holy Spirit at Pentecost fifty days later (thus among others, Luther, Calvin,
McNeile, Albright-Mann, Tasker, and Meier, who speaks of the resurrection as an a
nticipated parousia ). Although an easier interpretation than the transfiguration,
the time interval (probably less than a year) again seems too short for the lan
guage used. (3) A further possibility sometimes considered is the gentile missio
n and the rapid expansion of the church, or simply Christ s role in the church (th

us Hill, Green, France). Without doubt, these involve a realization of the kingd
om in power. They fit Mark and Luke better, however, than Matthew s reference to t
he coming Son of Man who comes in powerful judgment (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 co
mpare}}}{\f0\fs22 v. }{\f0\fs22 27}{\f0\fs22 ). It is of course possible to opt
for a combination of these. Thus Carson opts for a combination of (2) and (3).
Davies-Allison opt for a combination of the resurrection and the second coming,
regarding the one as a foreshadowing of the other. Bruner sees truth in each of
the options (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
2 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 too Morris). (4) A fo
urth possibility and one that fits particularly well with the time interval (wit
h the lapse of about forty years) is the destruction of Jerusalem (already J. J.
Wettstein [}{\f8\fs22\lang1032 H Kainh; Diaqhvkh}{\f0\fs22 , 2 }{\f0\fs22 vol(s)
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volum
e(s)}}}{\f0\fs22 (Amsterdam, 1751 52)] in 1752; among other authors: H. Alford [}
{\f0\fs22\i The Greek New Testament}{\f0\fs22 , 2 }{\f0\fs22 vol(s).{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 vol(s). }{\f0\fs24 volume(s)}}}{\f0\f
s22 (Chicago: Moody, 1968)]; Morison [}{\f0\fs22\i Gospel according to St. }{\f
0\fs22\i Matthew}{\f0\fs22 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1895)]; so too Lagran
ge, Benoit, Gaechter). Because the coming of the kingdom by definition means not
only blessing but judgment and because the destruction of Jerusalem can be conc
eived of as the judgment of God upon national Israel for her unbelief, this even
t can be thought of itself as a form of the coming of the kingdom of the Son of
Man in power. }{\f0\fs22 Matt 24}{\f0\fs22 , as we will see, associates the dest
ruction of Jerusalem with the eschatological judgment of the end time (Luke s vers
ion of the eschatological discourse of Jesus also gives special place to the des
truction of Jerusalem [}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22
Luke 21:20 24}{\f0\fs22 ]). See further the }{\f0\fs22\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs22 on }
{\f0\fs22 24:34}{\f0\fs22 . The interpretation of this logion as anticipating th
e destruction of Jerusalem fits Matthew s language concerning the returning of the
Son of Man as Judge. In this way, the judgment upon Jerusalem can be seen as pa
radigmatic of the final, eschatological judgment itself (rightly Alford: a }{\f0\
fs22\i type}{\f0\fs22 and }{\f0\fs22\i earnest}{\f0\fs22 of the final coming o
f Christ [1:177]).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 This typology is apparent in chap. }{\f0
\fs24 24}{\f0\fs24 , but there in the examination of }{\f0\fs24 24:29 30}{\f0\fs24
we will see that it is nevertheless the case, if the eschatological discourse
intends any chronology, that Matthew conceives of the Son of Man as gloriously r
eturning in connection with, }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\f
s24 , immediately after, the destruction of Jerusalem. As we will argue there, p
robably Jesus predicted the destruction of Jerusalem within that generation an eve
nt the disciples could not imagine without the end of the age and the parousia o
f the Son of Man. Then what may easily have happened was that the imminence beca
me associated with the coming of the Son of Man in power. Although Matthew in th
e present instance regarded the glorious parousia of the Son of Man as occurring
within the lifetime of some who were standing there, what Jesus may have referr
ed to was the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. From our perspective, bec
ause of the typological interconnection, the latter may be regarded as an antici
pation of the final judgment. Given the unity of eschatology, the theological po
int remains justifiable; }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24
, to see the destruction of Jerusalem was in a sense to see the coming of the So
n of Man in his kingdom. What Jesus had already brought and accomplished pointed
dramatically to the coming eschaton.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 The
path of discipleship is the path of the cross for everyone who would follow Jes
us. Paradoxically, it is the one who gives up his or her life in discipleship to

Jesus who will truly find life, both in the present and in the future, while th
e one who seeks to have life on his or her own terms will in effect lose it. Thi
s self-denial means a new set of priorities that will look foolish to the world.
This dying to self makes possible the radical love and service that are the ess
ence of discipleship. The stakes are exceedingly high, for what could be more im
portant to an individual than life itself? Furthermore, when Jesus comes and becau
se of the theological unity of eschatology, the time could even now be chronolog
ically imminent he will hold all people accountable for what they have done with t
heir lives. Taking up the cross, death to self, the reality of suffering even in
the new era inaugurated by Jesus these were hardly what the bewildered disciples
anticipated for themselves in their association with Jesus (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 19:27 30}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 20:20 28}{\plain\f0\
fs24\lang1033 ). Thus as Jesus startled them with a redefinition of the work of
the Messiah, so too he startled them with his concept of discipleship for them.
Triumph and glory would }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 indeed come for the disciples as
it would for Jesus but not until after the present era was brought fully to its e
nd.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Transfiguration of Je
sus (17:1 8)}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bacon, B. W.}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033
After Six Days. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 HTR{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i HTR }{\f0\fs24\i Harvard Theological R
eview}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 8 (1915) 94 121.
. The Transfiguration Story. }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 AJT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i
AJT }{\f0\fs24\i American Journal of Theology}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 6 (19
02) 236 65. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Baltensweiler, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Die Verklrung Jesu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ATANT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22
ATANT }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testam
ents}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 33. Zrich: Zwingli, 1959. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lan
g1033 Baly, D.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Transfiguration Story. }{\plain\f0\fs
22\i\lang1033 ExpTim{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i Exp
Tim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Times}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 82 (1971) 70.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Bernadin, J. B.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Transfi
guration. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 52 (1933) 181 89. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Best, T. F.}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 The Transfiguration: A Select Bibliography. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang
1033 JETS{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JETS }{\f0\fs2
4\i Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 2
4 (1981) 157 61. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Blinzler, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Die neutestamentlichen Berichte ber die Verklrung Je
su}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 NTAbh{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 NTAbh }{\f1\fs24\lang1043 Neutestamentliche
Abhandlungen}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 17.4. Mnster: Aschendorff, 1937. }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Caird, G. B.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Transfiguration. }
{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ExpTim{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\
f0\fs22\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Times}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 6
7 (1956) 291 94. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Carlston, C. E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 Transfiguration and Resurrection. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \
pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblica
l Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 80 (1961) 233 40. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang
1033 Chilton, B. D.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Transfiguration: Dominical Assu
rance and Apostolic Vision. NTS 27 (1980) 115 24. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Dabro
wski, E.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1034 La transfiguratio
n de Jsus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Rome: Biblical Institute, 1939. }{\plain\f0\
fs22\b\lang1033 Danker, F. W.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
God with Us: Hellenistic

Christological Perspectives in Matthew. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 CurTM{\footno


te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i CurTM }{\f0\fs24\i Currents in
Theology and Mission}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 19 (1992) 433 39. }{\plain\f0\fs2
2\b\lang1033 Dodd, C. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Appearances of the Risen C
hrist: An Essay in Form-Criticism of the Gospels. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
Studies in the Gospels}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edi
tion(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 D. E. Nineham. Oxford: Blackwell, 19
55. 9 35. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Feuillet, A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1036 Les perspectives propres chaque vangliste dans le rcits de la t
ransfiguration}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Bib{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i Bib }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 Biblic
a}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 39 (1958) 281 301. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Friel
ing, R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Die Verklrung auf d
em Berge}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1969. }{\
plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Kee, H. C.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Transfiguration
in Mark: Epiphany or Apocalyptic Vision? In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Understa
nding the Sacred Text}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edit
ion(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. Reumann. Valley Forge, PA: Judson,
1972. 135 52. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lon-Dufour, X.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1034 La transfiguration de Jsus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 tudes}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . 83 122. }{\plain\f0\f
s22\b\lang1033 Liefeld, W. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Theological Motifs in the
Transfiguration Narrative. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 New Dimensions in New
Testament Study}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s)
, editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 R. N. Longenecker and M. C. Tenney. Grand R
apids: Zondervan, 1974. 162 79. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Lohmeyer, E.}{\plain\f
0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Verklrung Jesu nach dem Markus-Evan
gelium}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr
die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 21 (1922) 185 215.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 McGuckin, J. A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Jesus Tran
sfigured: A Question of Christology. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 Clergy Review}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 69 (1984) 271 79.
. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 The Transfigu
ration of Christ in Scripture and Tradition}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . Lewiston,
NY: Mellen, 1986. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Mller, H.-P.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1
033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Verklrung Jesu}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ZNW{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\
i ZNW }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1031 Zeitschrift fr die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft}}}{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 51 (1960) 56 64. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Murphy-O Conno
r, J.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 What Really Happened at the Transfiguration? }{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 BibRev{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\f
s22\i BibRev }{\f0\fs24\i Biblical Review}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 3 (1987) 8 2
1. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Neirynck, F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Minor Agree
ments: Matthew-Luke in the Transfiguration Story. In }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031
Orientierung an Jesus}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 FS{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 FS }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 Fests
chrift}{\f0\fs24 , volume written in honor of}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 J. Sch
mid, }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 P
. Hoffman }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 et al.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22 et al. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 et alii}{\f0\fs24 , and others}}}{\
plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Freiburg: Herder, 1973. 253 66. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang103
3 Niemand, C.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1031 Studien zu d
en Minor Agreements der synoptischen Verklrungsperikopen}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1989. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Pamment, M.}{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033
Moses and Elijah in the Story of the Transfiguration. }{\plain
\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 ExpTim{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22

\i ExpTim }{\f0\fs24\i The Expository Times}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 92 (1981


) 338 39. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Pedersen, S.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\pla
in\f0\fs22\lang1031 Die Proklamation Jesu als des eschatologischen Offenbarungst
rgers (Mt. xvii.1 13)}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 NovT{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i NovT }{\f0\fs24\lang265 No
vum Testamentum}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 17 (1975) 241 64. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\l
ang1033 Ramsey, A. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 The
Glory of God and the Transfiguration of Christ}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . London
: Longmans, Green, 1949. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Refoul, F.}{\plain\f0\fs22\l
ang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1036 Jsus, nouveau Mose, ou Pierre, nouveau grand prtr
e?}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 RTL{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i RTL }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Revue thologique de
Louvain}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 24 (1993) 145 62. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033
Riesenfeld, H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1036 Jsus transf
igur}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 ASNU{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ASNU }{\f0\fs24\lang265 Acta seminarii neote
stamentici upsaliensis}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 16. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1
947. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Roehrs, W. R.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 God s Tabe
rnacles among Men: A Study of the Transfiguration. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 CT
M{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i CTM }{\f0\fs24\i Conco
rdia Theological Monthly}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 35 (1964) 18 25. }{\plain\f0\
fs22\b\lang1033 Sabbe, M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1034 La
rdaction du rcit de la transfiguration}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . In }{\plain\f0\fs
22\i\lang1036 La venue du Messie}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed. }{\f0\fs24 e
dited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 E. Massaux. }{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 RechBib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 RechBi
b }{\f0\fs24\lang1036 Recherches bibliques}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 6. Bruges
: Descle de Brouwer, 1962. 65 100. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Smith, M.}{\plain\f0
\fs22\lang1033 The Origin and History of the Transfiguration Story. }{\plain\f0\f
s22\i\lang1033 USQR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i USQR
}{\f0\fs24\i Union Seminary Quarterly Review}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 36 (19
80) 39 44. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Stein, R. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Is th
e Transfiguration (Mark 9:2 8) a Misplaced Resurrection-Account? }{\plain\f0\fs22\i
\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\
fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 95 (1976) 79 96.
}{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Trites, A. A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 The Transfig
uration of Jesus: The Gospel in Microcosm. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 EvQ{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i EvQ }{\f0\fs24\i The Evangelic
al Quarterly}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 51 (1979) 67 79. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1
033 Williams, W. H.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
The Transfiguration A New Approach? }{
\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SE{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22
SE }{\f0\fs24\i Studia Evangelica}{\f0\fs24 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ( = TU 73 [1959],
87 [1964], 88 [1964], 102 [1968], 103 [1968], 112 [1973]}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang
1033 6 [= }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 TU{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs22 TU }{\f0\fs24\lang1031 TU Texte und Untersuchungen}}}{\plain\f0\fs
22\lang1033 112] (1973) 635 50.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs
24\i\lang1033 And}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0
\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs2
4\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 it add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgevneto}{\f0\fs24 , it came
to pass (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:28}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0
\fs24\i\lang1033 after six days Jesus took Peter and James and his brother John
, and he brought them up to a high mountain alone.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang103
3 b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b.
}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 livan}{\f0\fs24 , very (high mo
untain), for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kat ijdivan}{\f0\fs24 , alone. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\
lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 2}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And he wa
s transfigured}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs

24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 e (}{\f0\fs2


4 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p}{\f0\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 metamorfwqei;" oJ Ihs
ou`"}{\f0\fs24 , having been transfigured, Jesus, and they accordingly omit the }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , and, after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[mprosqen aujtw
`n}{\f0\fs24 , before them. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 before them, and his fac
e shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as light.}{\plain\f0\fs24
\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d
}{\f0\fs24 d. For }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; fw`"}{\f0\fs24 , light, }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f
0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 bo}
{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ciwvn}{\f0\fs24 , snow (}{
\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28:3}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang103
3 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 3}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And behold Moses
and Elijah, who were talking with him, appeared to them. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super
\lang1033 4}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And Peter responded and said to Jesus: Lor
d, it is good for us to be here. If you would like,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang10
33 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e.
W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24
sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs24 bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij}{\f0\fs24 , if,
thereby turning Peter s statement into a question: Do you want
? }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i
\lang1033 I}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo }{\f0
\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 poihvswmen}{\f0\fs24 , let us make, a
harmonization with the Markan and Lukan parallels.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
will put up three shrines here, one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah
. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 5}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 While he was still
speaking, look, a bright cloud came down over them, and, look, a voice from the
cloud said: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Hear him. }{\plain\
f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\s
uper g }{\f0\fs24 g. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f
0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\fs24 }{
\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 mae) reverse the order of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvete a
ujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , hear him, thereby bringing greater stress to the }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , him (}{\f0\fs24 cf.}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:35}{\f0
\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 6}{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And when the disciples heard the voice, they fell on their f
aces, and they were terrified.}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
ejfobhvqhsan sfovdra}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24
they were exceedingly
afraid. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 7}{\plain\
f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And Jesus came to them, touched them, and said: Rise and do no
t be afraid. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 8}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And whe
n they lifted their eyes, they saw no one except him,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang
1033 i{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super i }{\f0\fs24
i. Many }{\f0\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 ] }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 ) have }{\f8
\fs24\lang1032 tovn}{\f0\fs24 , the definite article, before }{\f8\fs24\lang1032
Ihsou`n}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, instead of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him ;
W omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him, putting nothing in its place;
in support of the text (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn
}{\f0\fs24 ) are }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 (but after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`n}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0
\fs24 * }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 700.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Jesu
s, alone.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\p

lain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 it add }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang10


32 ejgevneto}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , it came to pass (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i conf
er,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luk
e 9:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 reads }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 livan}{\f0\fs24 , very (high mountain),
for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kat ijdivan}{\f0\fs24 , alone. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 e (}{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super p}{\f0\fs24 ) read }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 metamorfwqei;" oJ Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , having been transfigured, Jesus, and the
y accordingly omit the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaiv}{\f0\fs24 , and, after }{\f8\fs24\
lang1032 e[mprosqen aujtw`n}{\f0\fs24 , before them. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. For {\f8\fs24\lang1032 to; fw
`"}{\f0\fs24 , light, }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat
{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\
f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy
}{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 bo}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs2
4 read }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ciwvn}{\f0\fs24 , snow (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 28:3}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. W {\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 sa}{\f0\fs24\super mss}{\f0\fs2
4 bo omit }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij}{\f0\fs24 , if, thereby turning Peter s statement
into a question: Do you want ? }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. {\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)
ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 it }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super
c,p}{\f0\fs24 sa bo }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 po
ihvswmen}{\f0\fs24 , let us make, a harmonization with the Markan and Lukan parall
els.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscrip
t(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publi
shed in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\
fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\
f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24
mae) reverse the order of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvete aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , hea
r him, thereby bringing greater stress to the }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs
24 , him (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf.
}{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:35}{\f0\
fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejfobhvqhs
an sfovdra}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24
they were exceedingly afraid. }
\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 i. Many {\f0\fs24\scaps mss{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\f0\fs24
(}{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24

Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24\super 2}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\pla


in \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 [}
{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 C
odex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 ] }{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as publishe
d in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\
plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24
) have }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 tovn}{\f0\fs24 , the definite article, before }{\f8\f
s24\lang1032 Ihsou`n}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus, instead of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f
0\fs24 , him ; W omits }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him, putting nothing i
n its place; in support of the text (}{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \
f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}
}}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 ) are }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\
par
}{\f0\fs24 (but after }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`n}{\f0\fs24 ) }{\f0\fs24 B{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}
}{\f0\fs24 * }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 700.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A.
All three synoptic Gospels preserve the sequence of (1) the confession at Caesar
ea Philippi, (2) the announcement of Jesus suffering and death (together with the
subsequent saying about true discipleship), and (3) the transfiguration. Matthe
w and Mark include immediately after the present pericope (4) a repetition of th
e prophecy about the passion of the Son of Man. The logic of this sequence is cl
ear. Jesus elicits the confession concerning his messiahship but then proceeds t
o instruct the disciples in the unexpected way of this strange Messiah and those
who would follow him. It is for the purpose of confirming the truth of Jesus ide
ntity as the Messiah, the Son of God despite the shocking and apparently contradic
tory revelation of his imminent suffering and death that the inner circle of disci
ples is allowed a glimpse of the true glory of Jesus in his transfiguration befo
re their eyes. Thus Schweizer appropriately names the pericope God s answer to the
announcement of the passion. The real context of our passage is thus to be found
not in the logion of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (
contra Chilton) but in the passion announcement of }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:
21 23}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 . No other narrative between those of the birth and
those of the resurrection is quite like this one. For whereas Jesus ministry reg
ularly has a veiled character to it, here is the only time that veil is briefly
taken }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 away, and something of Jesus transcendent glory i
s directly seen by the disciples. Despite his coming death, Jesus is the Messiah
, the glorious personage, confessed by Peter in the preceding pericope.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew follows his Markan so
urce quite closely in this pericope ({\f0\fs24 Mark 9:2 8}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:28 36}{\f0\fs24 ). The major c
hanges are the additions of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; e[lamyen to; provswpon aujt
ou` wJ" oJ h\{lio"}{\f0\fs24 , and his face shone like the sun (v. }{\f0\fs24 2}{\
f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c
f. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:2}{\f0
\fs24 ; Luke also refers to the image [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ei\\do"}{\f0\fs24 ] o
f his face becoming other [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e\{teron}{\f0\fs24 ], }{\f0\fs24 Lu
ke 9:29}{\f0\fs24 ), and }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 6 7}{\f0\fs24 in thei
r entirety, concerning the fear of the disciples (which is placed after the expe
rience of the cloud and the divine voice) and Jesus comforting touch and words. I
n the first instance, we probably have a tradition other than Mark one reflected a
lso in Luke; in the second, we have perhaps Matthean elaboration of the referenc
e to fear in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:6}{\f0\fs24 (omitted by Matthew from what would
have been its place following v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 ). The larger omissions

of Markan material in Matthew s narrative are the subordinate clause of }{\f0\fs24


Mark 9:3}{\f0\fs24 , as no fuller on earth could bleach them (which becomes point
less given Matthew s likening of the garments to light itself), and all of }{\f0\f
s24 Mark 9:6}{\f0\fs24 , about the fear of the disciples (but perhaps reflected
in v. }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Among the smaller alterations of Mark, t
he following should be noted. In v. }{\f0\fs22 1}{\f0\fs22 Matthew omits the de
finite articles before the names }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Iavkwbon}{\f0\fs22 , James, an
d }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Iwavnnhn}{\f0\fs22 , John (so too }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:28}{\f0\f
s22 , which for stylistic reasons omits the article in all three instances); in
the same verse Matthew adds }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 to;n ajdelfo;n aujtou`}{\f0\fs22
, his brother, after John (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs
22 4:21}{\f0\fs22 ; }{\f0\fs22 10:2}{\f0\fs22 ) and deletes Mark s redundant }{\f8
\fs22\lang1032 movnou"}{\f0\fs22 , alone (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:2}{\f0\fs22 ), after }
{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kat ijdivan}{\f0\fs22 , privately. In v. }{\f0\fs22 2}{\f0\fs22
Matthew changes Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 stivlbonta leuka; livan}{\f0\fs22 , ver
y gleaming white (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:3}{\f0\fs22 ), to }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 leuka;
wJ" to; fw`"}{\f0\fs22 , white as light (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\f
s22 }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:29}{\f0\fs22 : }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejxastravptwn}{\f0\fs2
2 , flashing like lightning ). In v. }{\f0\fs22 3}{\f0\fs22 Matthew adds }{\f8\fs2
2\lang1032 ijdouv}{\f0\fs22 , behold (so too }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:30}{\f0\fs22 ), rev
erses (as does }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:30}{\f0\fs22 ) the order of names to Moses and E
lijah (Mark has }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 Hliva" su;n Mwu>sei`}{\f0\fs22 , Elijah with Mo
ses [}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:4}{\f0\fs22 ], perhaps with }{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:11 13}{\f0\fs2
2 in mind; but the order Moses and Elijah appears in Peter s proposal in }{\f0\fs22
Mark 9:5}{\f0\fs22 ), and changes Mark s }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 tw`/ Ihsou`}{\f0\fs22
, to Jesus (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:4}{\f0\fs22 ), to the smoother }{\f8\fs22\lang1032
metj aujtou`}{\f0\fs22 , with him. In v. }{\f0\fs22 4}{\f0\fs22 Mark s }{\f8\fs22\l
ang1032 rJabbiv}{\f0\fs22 , Rabbi (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:5}{\f0\fs22 ), in Peter s addre
ss to Jesus becomes the more christologically suitable (especially after Caesare
a Philippi) }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 kuvrie}{\f0\fs22 , Lord (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:33}{\f0\fs22 : }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejpist
avta}{\f0\fs22 , Master ); Matthew further indicates Peter s deference to Jesus by ad
ding }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 eij qevlei"}{\f0\fs22 , if you want, to the idea of build
ing three shrines there (}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:5}{\f0\fs22 ). In v. }{\f0\fs22 5}{\f
0\fs22 Matthew inserts an initial genitive absolute, }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 e[ti a
ujtou` lalou`nto"}{\f0\fs22 , while he was yet speaking (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs22 a similar genitive absolute in }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:34}{\f0\fs
22 ), followed by }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ijdouv}{\f0\fs22 , behold (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:7}{\f0\fs22 ); there Matthew also
adds the adjective }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 fwteinhv}{\f0\fs22 , bright, to describe t
he cloud that comes over the disciples (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\
fs22 }{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:7}{\f0\fs22 ), as well as a further }{\f8\fs22\lang1032
ijdouv}{\f0\fs22 , behold, before the reference to the voice from the cloud. Matth
ew (and }{\f0\fs22 Luke 9:35}{\f0\fs22 ) employs the participle }{\f8\fs22\lang1
032 levgousa}{\f0\fs22 , saying, before the spoken words (}{\f0\fs22 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs22 }{\f0\fs22 3:17}{\f0\fs22 ), while into the latter Matthew
inserts }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejn w|/ eujdovkhsa}{\f0\fs22 , in whom I am well ple
ased (on the model of }{\f0\fs22 3:17}{\f0\fs22 ). Finally, in v. }{\f0\fs22 8}{\
f0\fs22 Matthew rephrases Mark, writing }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 ejpavrante" de; tou
;" ojfqalmou;" aujtw`n}{\f0\fs22 , and when they lifted their eyes, and omitting M
ark s final redundant }{\f8\fs22\lang1032 meqj eJautw`n}{\f0\fs22 , with themselves
(}{\f0\fs22 Mark 9:8}{\f0\fs22 ). Apart from these changes Matthew is content to

follow Mark nearly verbatim.}\par


\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C. The narrative, in the form
of an epiphany story, centers on the revelation of Jesus glory and the voice fro
m heaven. Peter s proposal is a parenthetical misunderstanding. The following outl
ine may be suggested: (1) the setting (v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the reve
lation of Jesus glory, consisting of (a) his physical alteration (v. }{\f0\fs24 2
}{\f0\fs24 ) and (b) the appearance of key }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \
ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 figures
(v. }{\f0\fs24 3}{\f0\fs24 ); (3) Peter s proposal (v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f0\fs24 ); (
4) the }{\f0\fs24 divine confirmation of Jesus uniqueness (v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\f
s24 ); (5) the fear of the disciples (v. }{\f0\fs24 6}{\f0\fs24 ) and the comfor
t of Jesus (v. }{\f0\fs24 7}{\f0\fs24 ); and (6) the return to the ordinary (v.
}{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 ). Arguably v. }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 , with its injuncti
on of temporary silence about the event, could be considered the closing verse o
f this pericope (thus K. Aland s }{\f0\fs24\i Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum}{\f0\
fs24 [Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1985] 236 39). On the other hand, ta
king it as the introduction to the next pericope has the effect of linking the t
wo pericopes closely together and serving as the reminder that prompts the disci
ples question in v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 . Since the pericope is basically nar
rative, it contains little structural parallelism. Only to be mentioned are the
exactly parallel clauses in v. }{\f0\fs24 2b}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 c{\footno
te \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 c }{\f0\fs24 common or correction
by a later hand }{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 first corrector }{\f0\fs24\super
2}{\f0\fs24 second corrector}}}{\f0\fs24 , the parallelism in Peter s one for
(v.
}{\f0\fs24 4c}{\f0\fs24 ), and the parallelism in Jesus words in v. }{\f0\fs24 7}
{\f0\fs24 . }{\f0\fs24\i V{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
\i V }{\f0\fs24 Vulgate}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8}{\f0\fs24 , furthermore, in it
s reference to Jesus alone, comes close to forming an inclusio with the }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 kat ijdivan}{\f0\fs24 , alone, in v. }{\f0\fs24 1}{\f0\fs24 . A possible
chiastic analysis places the divine voice of v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f0\fs24 at the c
enter of the pericope (see Davies-Allison).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. The words of v. {\f0\fs24 5b}{\f0\fs
24 , beginning with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ijdouv}{\f0\fs24 , and look, are in v
erbatim agreement with those of }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\fs24 at the baptism of Jes
us, except for }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejk th`" nefevlh"}{\f0\fs24 , from the cloud, f
or }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejk tw`n oujranw`n}{\f0\fs24 , from heaven, and the final t
wo words, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvete aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , hear him, which are la
cking in }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\fs24 . Thus exactly the same words are spoken conc
erning Jesus at the crucial point of the beginning of his public ministry and at
the major turning point of the initial open announcement of his death. The same
words (though not quite verbatim) are found in }{\f0\fs24 2 Peter 1:6 17}{\f0\fs2
4 , where in a quite explicit allusion to the present passage (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\f
ootnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f
0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 with him on the holy mountain ) the author says we were
eyewitnesses of his majesty (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 megaleiovthto"}{\f0\fs24 ), thu
s drawing out the christological import of the passage. The voice itself is desc
ribed as that of the Majestic Glory (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 megaloprepou`" dovxh"}{\f
0\fs24 ). Here we have dependence either on our Matthew or on the tradition that
underlay it.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 E. Because the transfiguration story by its nature
is closely linked theologically to the resurrection narratives, where the glory
of Jesus is again unmistakably revealed, a number of scholars ({\f0\fs24 esp.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}
}}{\f0\fs24 R. Bultmann [}{\f0\fs24\i Theology of the New Testament}{\f0\fs24
(New York: Scribner s, 1951) 1:26] and his followers; see too Carlston, Murphy-O Con
nor) have regarded the present pericope as a displaced resurrection story, brought
forward into the account of Jesus ministry to aid the reader in assessing the re
al significance of Jesus. No evidence exists, however, to confirm this hypothesi
s, which is based solely on the unique character of the narrative in its setting
in the ministry of Jesus. The argument of Carlston and Murphy-O Connor, that if t

he event had actually happened before the resurrection, these disciples would ne
ver again have experienced doubt or fear, seems psychologically naive. Furthermo
re, the narrative differs from the resurrection narratives in many particulars (
see }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }
{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 Dodd; Stein; Baltensweiler).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 The unusual nature of the story
is not to be denied, nor its similarity to the resurrection stories, which in a
sense it foreshadows. But although this narration is so difficult as to almost de
fy historical investigation (I. H. Marshall, {\f0\fs24\i The Gospel of Luke}{\f0\
fs24 [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978] 381), there is no necessity to dismiss the
historicity of the event out of hand. (Chilton tries to sidestep the question of
historicity altogether by a strictly literary approach.) Murphy-O Connor s attempt
to reconstruct an original historical kernel involving Jesus realization, aided b
y two explaining angels (which in the first century were understood by all to have
a literary function [}{\f0\fs24 17}{\f0\fs24 ]), of the role of his death in God s
purposes is inventive but highly speculative. Matthew will record that Jesus ref
erred to the event }{\f0\fs24 as a }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{rama}{\f0\fs24 , vision
(v. }{\f0\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 ). This points unquestionably to the unusual characte
r of what happened. But it should also be clearly noted that this word indicates
something really seen (according to Kee, it was an apocalyptic vision ) and not so
mething merely imagined (see }{\f0\fs24 BAGD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAGD }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek-English Lexico
n of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature}{\f0\fs24 , ET, ed.
W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker (Uni
versity of Chicago, 1979)}}}{\f0\fs24 , 577a). We may add that an }{\f0\fs24\i a
priori}{\f0\fs24 bias against the possibility of an event such as this does no
t put one in an advantageous position with respect to much of the Gospel.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 Literary and more general parallels, bot
h Jewish and Hellenistic, have led some scholars to conclude that the story of t
he transfiguration was originally the creation of the early church. Thus the sim
ilarities that can be seen between the transfiguration and the }{\f0\fs22 Exod 3
4}{\f0\fs22 story of the glowing face of Moses on Mount Sinai (see below) are t
aken by D. F. Strauss (}{\f0\fs22\i The Life of Jesus Critically Examined}{\f0\f
s22 [reprint, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972] 544) as an indication that th
e one story is modeled on the other. More popular, on the other hand, is the exp
lanation based on the similarity with epiphany motifs in Hellenistic literature,
as for example held by E. Lohmeyer, W. G. Kmmel (}{\f0\fs22\i The Theology of th
e New Testament}{\f0\fs22 [Nashville: John Knox, 1975] 123), and F. Hahn (}{\f0
\fs22\i The Titles of Jesus in Christology}{\f0\fs22 , 340 41). The similar motifs
that may be pointed to, however, can hardly be made to substantiate the claim t
hat the transfiguration story is a concocted version of a Hellenistic epiphany n
arrative.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\b\
lang1033 1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Matthew s exceptionally precise time indicati
on }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 meq j hJmevra" e\{x}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , after
six days, follows Mark (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plai
n\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Luke 9:28}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
, about the eighth day ) and may allude to }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Exod 24:12 18}{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , where Moses sees the glory of Yahweh on the mountain a
nd on the seventh day hears the voice of God. Jesus took with him the inner circ
le of disciples, Peter, James, and John (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Exod 24:1}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , where
Moses takes three close co-workers with him, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu). These th
ree are again privileged to accompany Jesus into the deeper recesses of the Gard
en of Gethsemane (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 26:37}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; see
too }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 5:37}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 [}{\plain\f0\f

s24\lang1033 par.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 par. }{\


f0\fs24 parallel or paragraph}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1
033 Luke 8:51}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ] and }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 13:3}{\pl
ain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , where they are joined by Andrew). The fact that Jesus res
tricts this experience to the inner core of the disciples points to its particul
arly special character and the necessity to keep it secret (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). These three disciples witness the glory of Je
sus }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 kat j ijdivan}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , alone, just
as the twelve themselves in }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:21}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 had been given the privileged knowledge that Jesus was to suffer and die.
Jesus took them }{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 eij" o[ro" uJyhlovn}{\plain\f0\fs24\l
ang1033 , to a high mountain, corresponding in a sense to Mount Sinai (not the tra
ditional site, Mount Tabor, where there was a Roman post at the time [}{\plain\f
0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{
\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Jos., }{\plain
\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 J.W.}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 2.2
0.6 573}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4.1.8 54 55}{\plain\f0\f
s24\lang1033 ], but some other, now unknown, high place; Mount Meron, between Ca
esarea Philippi and Capernaum, is a good guess [so Liefeld]). For the importance
of mountains as places of special revelation in Matthew, see }{\plain\f0\fs24\i
\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:8
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , and Donaldson, }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Jesus on
the Mountain}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 2}{\f0\fs24 T
he central event is described simply, in the words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 metemorfw
vqh e[mprosqen aujtw`n}{\f0\fs24 , he was transfigured before them ; }{\f0\fs24 i.e
.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang26
5 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , his physical appearance was transform
ed or dramatically altered. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 metamorfou`n}{\f0\fs24 occurs i
n the physical sense only here and in the Markan parallel; in a spiritual sense
it occurs in }{\f0\fs24 Rom 12:2}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 2 Cor 3:18}{\f0\fs24
(in a passage that is a midrash on }{\f0\fs24 Exod 34}{\f0\fs24 ), the latter p
ossibly in a deliberate allusion to the transfiguration story. What happened is
spelled out further, though only partially, in the following statements that }{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 e[lamyen to; provswpon aujtou` wJ" oJ h\{lio"}{\f0\fs24 , his fa
ce shone like the sun (the same expression is used figuratively of the righteous
in the kingdom following the judgment [}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 13:43}{\f0\fs24 ]; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
Moses face in }{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Exod 34:29 35}{\f0\fs24 and for further }{\f0
\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old
Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 background, }{\f0\fs24 Dan 12:3}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 c
f.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer
,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 2 Esdr 7:97}{\f0\fs24 ; &2ApocBar;
51.3), and that his garments became }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 leuka; wJ" to; fw`"}{\f0
\fs24 , as white as light (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the white
ness of the angel s raiment in }{\f0\fs24 28:3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 wJ"
ciwvn}{\f0\fs24 , as snow ). The disciples see Jesus as they had never seen him be
fore. What they saw must surely have reminded them of what they had often read i
n the narratives concerning Moses on Mount Sinai (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard
\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compa
re}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Exod 24}{\f0\fs24 ), and this may to some extent infl
uence the form of the present passage. It is clear that in this manifestation of
Jesus they were somehow suddenly in direct contact with the glory of the divine
presence (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 Liefeld).}\par

\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 3}{\f0\fs24 But now a fu


rther remarkable event witnessing to the glory of Jesus occurs, announced by Mat
thew s flag-words }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai; ijdouv}{\f0\fs24 , and look. Two of the m
ost important }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 figures, Moses and Elijah, appear to
the disciples (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 w[fqh aujtoi`"}{\f0\fs24 , appeared to them ), a
nd they converse with Jesus. This suggests at once the unity of the work of Jesu
s with the meaning of the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1
033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , Moses and Elijah perhaps
representing both the law and the prophets, as well as the imminence of the end
of the age (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0
\fs24 ), in connection with which key }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 individuals w
ere expected to reappear (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang
1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0
\fs24 16:14}{\f0\fs24 ). Both Moses and Elijah were associated with Mount Sinai,
the mountain of revelation (for Elijah, Horeb, the mount of God [}{\f0\fs24 1 Kgs
19:8}{\f0\fs24 ]). Elijah furthermore was taken directly to heaven without dyin
g (}{\f0\fs24 2 Kgs 2:11 12}{\f0\fs24 ), and rabbinic tradition (based on }{\f0\fs
24 Deut 34:6}{\f0\fs24 ) held too that Moses had been taken directly to heaven (
}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\f
s24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i b.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i b. }{\f0\fs24\i breve}{\f0\fs24 (metrical
ly short poetic line), or before a tractate indicates Babylonian Talmud.}}}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sot\}{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\
fs24\lang513 Sot\} }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Sot\\a}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513 13b and the bo
ok known as }{\f0\fs24\i The Assumption of Moses}{\f2\fs24\lang513 [=}{\f0\fs24
\i Testament of Moses?}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ]). Possibly Elijah and Moses are furth
er linked in }{\f0\fs24 Rev 11:1 13}{\f2\fs24\lang513 (see }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f2\
fs24\lang513
}{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f2\fs24\lang513 }{\f0\fs24 5 6}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ). Cl
early, to be associated with Moses and Elijah, indeed on such a personal basis (
which is what the conversation indicates), also indicated something about the gr
eatness of Jesus. But it is apparently just this line of thinking that leads Pet
er to his well-meant but mistaken proposal in v. }{\f0\fs24 4}{\f2\fs24\lang513 ,
which in turn receives its correction in v. }{\f0\fs24 5}{\f2\fs24\lang513 .}\pa
r
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f2\fs24\lang513 {\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }{\f0\fs24\b\lang10
33 4}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 Although Matthew downplays Peter s bewildered and fearful
state of mind (by omitting }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 9:6}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), i
t is obvious here too that Peter s suggestion involved a serious mistake. Apparent
ly feeling that some response from him was called for, Peter began lamely with t
he statement Lord, it is good [}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kalov"}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{
\f0\fs24\lang1033 BAGD{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 BAG
D }{\f0\fs24 W. Bauer, }{\f0\fs24\i A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
and Other Early Christian Literature}{\f0\fs24 , ET, ed. W. F. Arndt and F. W.
Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker (University of Chicago, 19
79)}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 , 400b: pleasant, desirable, advantageous ] for us to be h
ere. He proposes to put up }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 trei`" skhnav"}{\f0\fs24\lang1033
, }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24
lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033
three tents, probably little huts
made of branches, not for providing the hospitality of overnight lodging or to
prolong the experience (which after all was terrifying) but possibly as a kind o
f honorary gesture, a commemoration of this remarkable event, }{\f0\fs24\lang103
3 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\l
ang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 , three shrines or holy p
laces, similar to the }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 tent shrine

itself, which would symbolize the remarkable communion between heaven and earth
represented by these three figures. (}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 Cf.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}
}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 the tent of meeting, where Yahweh spoke to Moses [}{\f0\fs24
\lang1033 Exod 33:7 11}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 Num 12:5 9}{\f0\fs24
\lang1033 ].) God in this instance, however, would speak to the disciples withou
t a tent of meeting. Riesenfeld and others make the alternative, but less convin
cing, suggestion that the proposal refers to the huts or booths that were put up d
uring the autumn harvest festival in commemoration of God s deliverance in the wil
derness wandering and at the same time as a sign of the coming eschatological de
liverance (}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\f0
\fs24\lang1033 Lev 23:39 44}{\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). No indication of the time of the
year is given, and further, as Carson rightly notes, it is difficult to suppose
that Jesus traveled with his disciples to the mountain during the Feast of Tabe
rnacles. It would be hard, however, to deny the eschatological allusions intrins
ic to this passage, and they perhaps hold the key to understanding Peter s unusual
suggestion. Did he think the eschaton was beginning and that some sort of perma
nent dwelling should be provided for }{\f0\fs24\lang1033 these key eschatologica
l figures? The basic mistake of Peter, as the following verse shows, is the rela
tivizing of Jesus so that he becomes one of three, even if the first named. Rath
er the focus was upon Jesus, who was seen in divine splendor and who was announc
ed by the Shekinah glory as the unique Son.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 5}{\f0\fs24 While Peter
was still speaking, another remarkable event occurred (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ijdouv}{\f0\fs24 , look ): a bright cloud
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 nefevlh fwteinhv}{\f0\fs24 ) came upon the disciples. This cl
oud symbolizes the Shekinah glory, the very presence of God (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\foo
tnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\
fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Exod 40:35}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24\i Odes S
ol.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i Odes Sol. }{\f0\fs24
Odes of Solomon}}}{\f0\fs24 35:1, where the same noun and verb }{\f8\fs24\lang
1032 ejpiskiavzein}{\f0\fs24 , come upon, overshadow [}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 com
pare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Exod 19:19}{\f0\fs24 ], are used to describe the pr
esence of Yahweh in the tent-shrine). The future coming of the Son of Man will a
lso be accompanied by clouds (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\
lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f
0\fs24 16:27}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 24:30}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 26:64}{\f0\fs24
; for the expectation of a return of the cloud of the Shekinah glory in the esc
hatological era, see }{\f0\fs24 2 Macc 2:8}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24
compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Isa 4:5}{\f0\fs24 ). Directly from this cloud of
the divine presence comes another startling occurrence (Matthew uses }{\f8\fs24
\lang1032 ijdouv}{\f0\fs24 , look, for the second time in the verse): the voice (}
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 fwnhv}{\f0\fs24 ) of God is heard from the cloud (}{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confe
r,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the equivalent }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejk tw`n o
ujranw`n}{\f0\fs24 , from heaven, in }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\fs24 ). The words spoken
are exactly the same as in }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\fs24 but now with the added }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajkouvete aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , hear him, calling further attentio
n to the unique authority of Jesus, and are probably an intentional allusion to
}{\f0\fs24 Deut 18:15}{\f0\fs24 , where Moses speaks of the prophet like me, whom
God would raise up for his people (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\
fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24
the }{\f0\fs24 NT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 NT }{\f
0\fs24 New Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 use of this passage in }{\f0\fs24 Acts 3:22 23}{
\f0\fs24 ). Matthew particularly, with his catechetical interests, focuses on th
e authority of Jesus teachings (see }{\f0\fs24 esp.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0

(}

\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 esp. }{\f0\fs24 especially}}}{\f0\fs24 Pedersen), spec


ifically his exposition of the Torah, but the passion predictions need not there
fore be ruled out of consideration. For the exegesis of the oracle This is my bel
oved [Luke: }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejklelegmevno"}{\f0\fs24 , chosen ] Son, in whom I
am well pleased, see }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 3:17}{\f0\
fs24 . If the second clause contains an allusion to the suffering Servant of Isa
iah (as argued there), this now takes on enormously heightened significance, giv
en the preceding announcement by Jesus of his suffering and death. Jesus is the
Messiah in whom God delights (}{\f0\fs24 Isa 42:1}{\f0\fs24 ) but also the suffe
ring Servant upon whom the Lord has laid the iniquity of us all (}{\f0\fs24 Isa 53
:6}{\f0\fs24 ). The divine voice thus identifies Jesus as the unique Son of God
who possesses unique authority. Moses and Elijah are but his attendants. The foc
us is upon Jesus who is about to accomplish God s saving purposes in the redemptio
n of the world (this point emerges more clearly in the parallel passage in Luke,
where Moses and Elijah are described as speaking to Jesus concerning his death [
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[xodo"}{\f0\fs24 ] which he was about to accomplish in Jeru
salem [}{\f0\fs24 Luke 9:31}{\f0\fs24 ]). Thus in the very midst of Jesus supreme
exaltation the divine voice alludes to his fate as the suffering Servant who mus
t die. The idea of erecting three shrines reflected a misunderstanding of the un
iqueness of Jesus and of his centrality to the whole sweep of salvation history.
}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 6 7}{\f0\fs24 T
he disciples were terrified by the phenomena they were witnessing (in }{\f0\fs24
3:17}{\f0\fs24 the voice was probably heard only by Jesus). Fear at hearing th
e voice of God is a common experience in the }{\f0\fs24 OT{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0
\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i
confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Deut 4:33}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\
fs24 Hab 3:2}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translation of the OT}}}{\f0\f
s24 ]; for fear as a reaction to a vision, see }{\f0\fs24 Dan 8:17}{\f0\fs24 ). Wh
en the disciples heard the voice of God, they fell on their faces, probably part
ly in fear (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejfobhvqhsan sfovdra}{\f0\fs24 , they were terrif
ied ; }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 the same words in }{\f0\fs24 2
7:54}{\f0\fs24 ) and partly in worship (for the connection between falling down
before Jesus and worship of him, see }{\f0\fs24 2:11}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 4:9}
{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 18:26}{\f0\fs24 ). As he had done on a previous occasion
when the disciples were filled with terror, Jesus comes to them, he touches them
(}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aJyavmeno" aujtw`n}{\f0\fs24 ; the verb is usually used in
conjunction with healings: }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\
fs24 8:3}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 15}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 9:29}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0
\fs24 20:34}{\f0\fs24 ), and he tells them }{\f0\fs24 to rise and not to be afra
id (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\
f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 14:27}{\f0\fs24 ).
The recording of the touch of Jesus here may well have the purpose of showing th
at it was the real Jesus they had seen transfigured and talking to Moses and Eli
jah and that they therefore had not simply experienced an illusion. The Jesus of
transcendent glory remains the compassionate Master who led them into disciples
hip. (The three elements of falling down, being touched, and being told not to f
ear are found in }{\f0\fs24 Rev 1:17}{\f0\fs24 .)}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 8}{\f0\fs24 This final v
erse serves not only to bring the account of the experience to an end but to emp
hasize the exclusive focus upon Jesus. The repetition involved in the syntax eff
ectively makes this point: when they looked up they saw no one [}{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 oujdevna}{\f0\fs24 ] except }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn Ihsou`n movnon}{\f0\fs2
4 , him [emphatic], Jesus alone. Moses and Elijah were no longer to be seen. As th
ey had played their respective roles in the history of salvation leading to this
point in time, so now too they, returning to normal experience, must yield to J

esus, who alone remains on center stage, who alone is to be heard, and who alone
can bring salvation history to its goal. It is that human Jesus, whose glory no
w recedes again until the resurrection, who alone can accomplish the will of God
through the cross.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Explanation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Whereas in our day mo
st Christians need to have a revelation concerning the full humanity of Jesus, w
ho has been abstracted into the doctrine of the Trinity, it was not so with the
disciples. They, having a few days earlier heard Jesus speak in a most unexpecte
d and disconcerting way about his death, needed at this point some assurance of
the true identity of Jesus as Messiah, Son of God. This was especially important
if they were to be able later to hold on to the continuity between the Jesus th
ey had followed and the glory of the risen Christ they were also to experience.
It may well be, however, that even in our day a sense of the transcendent glory
of Jesus, such as is afforded by this pericope, is also very important. With the
unveiling of Jesus glory comes the divine exhortation: Hear him! For Matthew and h
is community, this exhortation undoubtedly emphasized the authority of Jesus teac
hing (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 7:29}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). This prompted G. B.
Caird (294) to write: The whole history of Christian ethics could be written as
a commentary on the Transfiguration. The present-day church needs once again to d
iscover the absolute authority of the teaching of Jesus. Jesus, as our passage s
hows, stands in continuity with the revelation of the }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033
OT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testa
ment}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , symbolized by Moses and Elijah, but because of
who he is and what he brings (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 i.e.{\footnote \pard\pl
ain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 ,
that is}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , the kingdom of God, the climax of salvatio
n history), his utterances have a final and incomparable authority. The transfig
uration dramatically underlines that fact.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb720 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs40\b\i The Coming of Elijah (17:
9 13)}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs40\b\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Bibliography}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Allison,
D. C.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Elijah must come first. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Jo
urnal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 103 (1984) 256 58. }{\pla
in\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Blomberg, C. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Elijah, Election,
and the Use of Malachi in the New Testament. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 CTR{\fo
otnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i CTR }{\f0\fs24\i Criswell T
heological Review}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 2; (1987) 100 108. }{\plain\f0\fs22\
b\lang1033 Faierstein, M. M.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033
Why do the Scribes say that Elijah must come first? }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 J
BL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Jour
nal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 100 (1981) 75 86. }{\plain\
f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Fitzmyer, J. A.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 More about Elijah Co
ming First. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 JBL{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22\i JBL }{\f0\fs24\i Journal of Biblical Literature}}}{\plain\f0\
fs22\lang1033 104 (1985) 295 96. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Holzmeister, U.}{\pl
ain\f0\fs22\lang1033
}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1031 Einzeluntersuchungen ber das Gehei
mnis der Verklrung Christi}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 . }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033
Bib{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22\i Bib }{\f0\fs24\i\lan
g265 Biblica}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 21 (1940) 200 210. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lan
g1033 Martyn, J. L.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 We have found Elijah. In }{\plain\f0
\fs22\i\lang1033 Jews, Greeks, and Christians}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 , }{\plai
n\f0\fs22\lang1033 ed.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 ed.
}{\f0\fs24 edited, edition(s), editor}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 R. G. Hamerto
n-Kelly and R. Scroggs. }{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 SJLA{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 SJLA }{\f0\fs24 Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquit

y (Leiden: Brill)}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 21. Leiden: Brill, 1976. 181 219. }{


\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Robinson, J. A. T.}{\plain\f0\fs22\lang1033 Elijah, Jo
hn, and Jesus. NTS 4 (1958) 263 81. }{\plain\f0\fs22\b\lang1033 Taylor, J.}{\plain\
f0\fs22\lang1033 The Coming of Elijah, Mt 17,10 13 and Mk 9,11 13: The Development o
f the Texts. }{\plain\f0\fs22\i\lang1033 RB{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs22\i RB }{\f0\fs24\i\lang1036 Revue biblique}}}{\plain\f0\fs22\lan
g1033 98 (1991) 107 19.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Translation}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs
24\i\lang1033 And when they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded
them, saying: Tell no one of the vision until the Son of Man is risen}{\plain\f0
\fs24\super\lang1033 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\sup
er a }{\f0\fs24 a. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgerqh`/}{\f0\fs24 , is raised ; many }{\f0
\fs24\scaps mss}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L}{\f0\fs24 W Z }{\f8\fs24\lang1
032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1,13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\
f0\fs24 ) have the synonym }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnasth`/}{\f0\fs24 , influenced
by the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:9}{\f0\fs24 .}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
from the dead. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 10}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 And
the}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 b{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang103
3 {\f0\fs24\super b }{\f0\fs24 b. }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24 mae bo}{\f0\fs24\super pt}{\f0\fs24 ad
d }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou`}{\f0\fs24 , his. This is more likely a secondary add
ition (commonly occurring with }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ maqhtaiv}{\f0\fs24 , the d
isciples ) than an intentional omission resulting from the preceding }{\f8\fs24\la
ng1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , him. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT}{\f0\fs24 , 43.}}}{\plain\f
0\fs24\i\lang1033 disciples asked him: Why therefore do the scribes say that Eli
jah must come first? }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 11}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang103
3 And he}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 c{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24\super c }{\f0\fs24 c. Some witnesses (}{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus. }}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 answered and s
aid: As the scriptures say:}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 d{\footnote \pard\plai
n \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super d }{\f0\fs24 d. As the scriptures say is a
dded to the translation to point out that Jesus here quotes the }{\f0\fs24 OT}{\
f0\fs24 (see }{\f0\fs24\i Comment}{\f0\fs24 ).}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 Eli
jah is coming,}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 e{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super e }{\f0\fs24 e. }{\f0\fs24 C}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 L
}{\f0\fs24 Z }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prw`ton
}{\f0\fs24 , first, probably influenced by the parallel in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:12}{\
f0\fs24 . Favoring the critical text, however, are }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang103
2 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat}{\f0\f
s24 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 co.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
and he will restore}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 f{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super f }{\f0\fs24 f. D it have the infinitive }{\f
8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatasth`sai}{\f0\fs24 , to restore ; thus Elijah is coming to re
store everything ; bo has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpaggevlei}{\f0\fs24 , will proclaim
, in place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatasth`sei}{\f0\fs24 , will restore. }}}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 everything. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 12}{\plain\f0\
fs24\i\lang1033 But I say to you that Elijah has already come, and they did not
recognize him but did to}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 g{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\super g }{\f0\fs24 g. }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn}{\
f0\fs24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.}{\f0\fs24 in ; since it is an unnecessary preposition, i
t is omitted by }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs2
4 }{\f0\fs24 sy}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 bo.}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033

him whatever they wanted to do. Thus too the Son of Man is about to suffer at th
eir hands. }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 h{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24\super h }{\f0\fs24 h. }{\f0\fs24 Lit.}{\f0\fs24
by them. }}}{\pla
in\f0\fs24\i\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 13}{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang
1033 Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them concerning John the Ba
ptist.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\i\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b Notes}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 a.
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgerqh`/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , is raised ; many }{\
plain\f0\fs24\scaps\lang1033 mss{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f
0\fs24\scaps mss }{\f0\fs24 manuscript(s)}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 (}{\plain\
f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang103
7 a}}\par
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lan
g1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24 Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\
lang513 Codex Leningradensis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 W Z }{
\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\lang1033
f}{\plain\f0\fs24\super\lang1033 1,13}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24
Textus Receptus}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) have the synonym }{\plain\f8\fs24\
lang1032 ajnasth`/}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , influenced by the parallel in }{\p
lain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 9:9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 .}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 b. {\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B }{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }
{\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 T
he Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lan
g1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0
\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs2
4 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}
}}{\f0\fs24 mae bo}{\f0\fs24\super pt}{\f0\fs24 add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtou
`}{\f0\fs24 , his. This is more likely a secondary addition (commonly occurring wi
th }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ maqhtaiv}{\f0\fs24 , the disciples ) than an intentional
omission resulting from the preceding }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , hi
m. See }{\f0\fs24\i TCGNT{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\i
TCGNT }{\f0\fs24 B.M. Metzger, }{\f0\fs24\i A Textual Commentary on the Greek N
ew Testament}}}{\f0\fs24 , 43.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 c. Some witnesses ({\f0\fs24 C{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geni
za}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super
13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs2
4 TR }{\f0\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0
\fs24 ) add }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Ihsou`"}{\f0\fs24 , Jesus. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 d. As the scriptures say is added
to the translation to point out that Jesus here quotes the {\f0\fs24 OT{\footnot
e \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 OT }{\f0\fs24 Old Testament}}}{\f0
\fs24 (see }{\f0\fs24\i Comment}{\f0\fs24 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 e. {\f0\fs24 C{\footnote \pard\p
lain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 C }{\f0\fs24 The Cairo Geniza}}}{\f0\fs24
}{\f0\fs24 L{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 L }{\f0\fs24
Leningrad Codes of MT (as published in BHS) or }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Codex Leningra
densis}{\f0\fs24 , B19a}}}{\f0\fs24 Z }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs
24 }{\f0\fs24 TR{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 TR }{\f0
\fs24 Textus Receptus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\f
s24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super p,h}{\f0\fs24 add
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prw`ton}{\f0\fs24 , first, probably influenced by the paralle
l in }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:12}{\f0\fs24 . Favoring the critical text, however, are }

{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f7\fs32\lang1


037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 B{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 B
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Vaticanus}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D }{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0
\fs24 W }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Q}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\fs24\super 1}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 lat{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lat }
{\f0\fs24 Latin}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\la
ng1033 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super c}{\f0\fs24 co.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 f. D it have the infinitive {\f8
\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatasth`sai}{\f0\fs24 , to restore ; thus Elijah is coming to res
tore everything ; bo has }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpaggevlei}{\f0\fs24 , will proclaim,
in place of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatasth`sei}{\f0\fs24 , will restore. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 g. {\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejn}{\f0\f
s24 , }{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit.
}{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 in ; since it is an unnecessary preposition, it
is omitted by }{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f7\fs32\lang1037 a}}\par
}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 D{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 D
}{\f0\fs24 Codex Bezae or Deuteronom(ist)ic}}}{\f0\fs24 W }{\f0\fs24\i f}{\f0\
fs24\super 13}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 sy{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang10
33 {\f0\fs24 sy }{\f0\fs24 Syriac}}}{\f0\fs24\super h}{\f0\fs24 bo.}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 h. {\f0\fs24 Lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs
24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 Lit. }{\f0\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 by them. }\par
\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Form/Structure/Setting}\p
ar
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 A. It is obvious that
this passage is closely related to what immediately precedes, even if one were
to take v. }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 as the end of t
hat pericope rather than as the beginning of the present one. Having seen Jesus
talking with Elijah, who was very clearly prophesied to return in connection wit
h the end of the age (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f
0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\
f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mal 3:1}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 4:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ), the disciples understan
dably wonder about his promised coming. They had apparently not yet understood w
hat Jesus had said explicitly earlier in the narrative about John the Baptist fu
nctioning in the role of Elijah (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 11:10}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 14}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). The discipl
es should not be thought of as stupid. They were being bombarded with one new an
d surprising thing after another, as was inevitable at this decisive juncture in
the history of salvation. This question is a natural one, given their circumsta
nces.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 B. Matthew continues to be dependent on
Mark ({\f0\fs24 Mark 9:9 13}{\f0\fs24 ; lacking in Luke). The major departures ar
e Matthew s omission of }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:10}{\f0\fs24 , where the }{\f0\fs24 disc
iples are reported to have kept the matter to themselves, questioning what the ri
sing of the dead meant (probably Matthew regarded this as a diversion or as too n
egative a portrayal of the disciples); Matthew s altering of Jesus question in the
rather difficult }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:12b}{\f0\fs24 ( And how it is written of the S
on of Man that he should suffer many things and be treated with contempt? with un
mistakable verbal allusions to }{\f0\fs24 Isa 53}{\f0\fs24 ) to the clear statem
ent of v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 , }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou\{tw" kai; oJ uiJo;" t
ou` ajnqrwvpou mevllei pavscein uJpj aujtw`n}{\f0\fs24 , thus too the Son of Man
is about to suffer at their hands ; and Matthew s addition of the following and fina
l verse: Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them concerning John the
Baptist (v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 ). Other changes to be noted are: in v. }{\f0
\fs24 9}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {
\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mar
k 9:9}{\f0\fs24 ) Matthew s insertion of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ Ihsou`" levgwn}{\f0

\fs24 , Jesus saying, the substitution of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{rama}{\f0\fs24 (


}{\f0\fs24 lit.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 lit. }{\f0
\fs24 literally}}}{\f0\fs24 vision, though not in any technical sense) as an equi
valent to Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 a\} ei\\don}{\f0\fs24 , the things they saw, an
d the substitution of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ejgerqh`/}{\f0\fs24 , is raised (in keep
ing with }{\f0\fs24 16:21}{\f0\fs24 and the language of the church; }{\f0\fs24
cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confe
r,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 1 Cor 15:4}{\f0\fs24 ) for Mark s }{
\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajnasth`/}{\f0\fs24 , rises. In v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 (}{\
f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24
\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:11}{\f0\fs24 ), Mat
thew inserts }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 oiJ maqhtaiv}{\f0\fs24 , the disciples, for clari
ty, and in v. }{\f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql
\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\
fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:12}{\f0\fs24 ) he deletes Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 prw`t
on}{\f0\fs24 , first, regarding it as self-evident (it has been used in the preced
ing verse). In v. }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{
\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:13}{\f0\fs24 ) Matthew alters Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang10
32 ejlhvluqen}{\f0\fs24 , has come, to the more decisive }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 h\}dh
h\\lqen}{\f0\fs24 , has already come; he adds the clarifying words }{\f8\fs24\lan
g1032 kai; oujk ejpevgnwsan aujtovn}{\f0\fs24 , and they did not recognize him ; an
d finally he deletes Mark s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kaqw;" gevgraptai ejpj aujtovn}{\f
0\fs24 , just as it is written concerning him (after the references to the people
treating him [Elijah; }{\f0\fs24 i.e.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033
{\f0\fs24 i.e. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 id est}{\f0\fs24 , that is}}}{\f0\fs24 , Joh
n] however they wanted), perhaps regarding this as confusing (there is no prophe
cy of Elijah suffering) and as detracting from attention to Jesus as the fulfill
er of scripture in his passion. Beyond these changes, Matthew as usual follows t
he wording of Mark s narrative very closely. There is a small degree of abbreviati
on, but Matthew s main purpose in the changes appears to be to make the Markan nar
rative as clear as possible by removing what is awkward, confusing, or potential
ly difficult for his readers.}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 C. At the heart of the pericope are the
quotations of the prophet Malachi concerning Elijah and Jesus revolutionary unde
rstanding of this material. The central issue is a hermeneutical one, and to the
extent that Jesus must counter the interpretation of the authorities, the scribes
({\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\
fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 ), the
passage has the shape of a controversy pericope, with the offering of thesis (E
lijah must come) and counterthesis (Elijah has come). It can be outlined as foll
ows: (1) the command to silence concerning the transfiguration (v. }{\f0\fs24 9}
{\f0\fs24 ); (2) the disciples question concerning Elijah (v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\
fs24 ); (3) Jesus answer, further divided into (a) the coming of Elijah (v. }{\f0
\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 ), (b) John the Baptist (v. }{\f0\fs24 12a}{\f0\fs24 b), and (
c) the suffering of the Son of Man (v. }{\f0\fs24 12c}{\f0\fs24 ); and (4) the d
isciples comprehension (v. }{\f0\fs24 13}{\f0\fs24 ). Consisting of dialogue with
relatively brief exchanges, the pericope contains very little structural parall
elism. We mention only the contrasting assertions of }{\f0\fs24 vv{\footnote \pa
rd\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 vv }{\f0\fs24 verse(s)}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\
f0\fs24 11}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 12}{\f0\fs24 (}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 me;n}{\f
0\fs24
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dev}{\f0\fs24 ) and the parallel verbs of v. }{\f0\f
s24 12b}{\f0\fs24 .}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 D. The pericope is closely related to the earlier
assertion of Jesus in {\f0\fs24 11:14}{\f0\fs24 , And if you are willing to recei
ve it, he is Elijah, the one about to come.
The function of John the Baptist as Eli
jah is important for the evangelist s portrayal of Jesus as the Messiah who brings
eschatological fulfillment. The present pericope is employed effectively by Jus
tin Martyr in his }{\f0\fs24\i Dialogue with Trypho the Jew}{\f0\fs24 in respon
se to the same problem raised by the scribes in v. }{\f0\fs24 10}{\f0\fs24 (}{\

f0\fs24\i Dial.}{\f0\fs24 49.1 5).}\par


\pard\plain \ql \sb360 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b\i Comment}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \sb180 \f0\fs24\b\i\lang1033 {\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 }
{\plain\f0\fs24\b\lang1033 9}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 On the way down from the
mountain, Jesus commanded the disciples to tell no one (}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032
mhdeni; ei[phte}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ) what they had just seen. Matthew uses
}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 o\{rama}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , regarding it as su
itable for a theophany. The word here means a supernatural vision, not in the sens
e of something imagined but in the sense of something seen. It replaces Mark s }{\
plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 a\} ei\\don}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , what you have seen,
as a kind of technical term, but not to take away from the reality of the event.
(Only Matthew among the Gospels uses this word. The frequent use of it in Acts
[}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 e.g.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0
\fs24 e.g. }{\f0\fs24\i\lang265 exempli gratia}{\f0\fs24 , for example}}}{\plain
\f0\fs24\lang1033 , }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 9:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{
\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 10:3}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang103
3 11:5}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 16:9}{\plain\f0\fs24
\lang1033 ] is usually connected with divine revelations or visions in the proper
sense of the word.) The command to secrecy is a variant of the messianic secret
motif (see }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\cf1\lang1033 Comment}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:4}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). If Jesus regularly exh
orted silence concerning his messianic identity lest the people misunderstand hi
s messianic calling, how much more would he do so in the present case where his
divine glory was briefly seen. The secret was to be kept until his resurrection
(}{\plain\f8\fs24\lang1032 oJ uiJo;" tou` ajnqrwvpou}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 , t
he Son of Man, is here a circumlocution for I ; }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{\footn
ote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs
24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 }{\plain\f0\fs24\i\cf1\lang1033 Comment}
{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 on }{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 8:20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang
1033 ), that is, until Jesus had finished his work on the cross and again assume
d his glorious status, now as the Risen One. In this sense the transfiguration w
as a foreshadowing of Jesus glorious resurrection (}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 cf.{
\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{
\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 the appearance on the mountain in
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 28:16 20}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ). When the resurrecti
on became the center of the early church s proclamation, then too the story of the
transfiguration could be made known. But the disciples surely would have been h
ard pressed to comprehend at this point Jesus intent (despite Matthew s omission of
}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 Mark 9:10}{\plain\f0\fs24\lang1033 ).}\par
\pard\plain \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 10}{\f0\fs24 With the si
ght of Elijah and Moses talking to Jesus fresh in their minds, the disciples are
prompted to ask about the coming of Elijah. They knew well the scribes (}{\f8\fs
24\lang1032 grammatei`"}{\f0\fs24 , the professional scripture scholars; see fur
ther }{\f0\fs24\i\cf1 Comment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 2:4}{\f0\fs24 ) insistenc
e (perhaps even in response to Jesus and their proclamation of the kingdom) that
the coming of the eschatological age had the precondition of the return of Elija
h. The }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ou\\n}{\f0\fs24 , therefore, probably is linked not wit
h the reference to the resurrection but to the transfiguration narrative as a wh
ole and in particular to the appearance of Elijah. According to the prophet Mala
chi, }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Hlivan dei` ejlqei`n prw`ton}{\f0\fs24 , Elijah must come
first. On the nuance of }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 dei`}{\f0\fs24 , it is necessary, as t
he divine will, }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\
fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24\cf1 Com
ment}{\f0\fs24 on }{\f0\fs24 16:21}{\f0\fs24 . This is essentially a distillati
on of }{\f0\fs24 Mal 4:5}{\f0\fs24 : Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet be
fore the great and terrible day of the }{\f0\fs24\scaps Lord}{\f0\fs24 comes (}{
\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs2
4\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek translatio
n of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 [}{\f0\fs24 Mal 3:22}{\f0\fs24 ]). For the rabbinic exp

ectation of Elijah, see }{\f0\fs24 m{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033


{\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculine}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\lang513 >Ed.{\footnote
\pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513 >Ed. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 >Ed
uyyot}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 8:7}{\f0\fs24 ; }{\f0\fs24 m{\footnote \pard\plain
\ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 m }{\f0\fs24 masculine}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f2\fs24\
lang513 B. Mes\\.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f2\fs24\lang513
B. Mes\\. }{\f2\fs24\lang513 Baba Mes\\i>a}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 3:5}{\f0\fs24
. Thus the disciples shared the question of the scribes concerning whether the
Elijah they had just seen was going to return yet again before the end of the ag
e. With their uncertainty and lack of understanding of the resurrection saying (
}{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\f
s24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0\fs24 Mark 9:10}{\f0\fs24 ),
however, it is unlikely that their question was specifically how Elijah could re
turn before the imminent death and resurrection of Jesus (contra Fenton, Gundry,
Patte). Their question concerns, rather, the meaning of the Malachi passage.}\p
ar
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \li360 \ri360 \sa180 \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs22 It has b
een pointed out by M. M. Faierstein (so too J. A. T. Robinson and J. L. Martyn)
that it is far from clear that the Malachi passage or Jewish tradition brought t
he prior coming of Elijah specifically into relation with the coming of the Mess
iah. The response of D. C. Allison, however, shows that the association is not t
o be regarded as a Christian }{\f0\fs22 invention. Fitzmyer calls attention to t
he difficulty of establishing a general Jewish expectation that the Messiah was
to come on the day of the Lord. The question about Elijah in the present verse con
cerns only the meaning of the Malachi prophecy that Elijah must come before the
end of the age. Undoubtedly, the disciples also wondered how this expectation wa
s to be related to the eschatological realities being announced by Jesus, whom t
hey had just confessed to be the Messiah (}{\f0\fs22 16:16}{\f0\fs22 ).}\par
\pard\plain \ql \fi360 \f0\fs22\lang1033 {\f0\fs24\b }{\f0\fs24\b 11}{\f0\fs24
Jesus responds to their question by alluding to the same passage with the words
}{\f8\fs24\lang1032 Hliva" me;n e[rcetai}{\f0\fs24 , Elijah is coming (}{\f8\fs24\l
ang1032 e[rcetai}{\f0\fs24 being reminiscent of the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \p
ard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek t
ranslation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 s }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 e[lqein}{\f0\fs24 ), going
a step further by adding }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 kai ajpokatasthvsei pavnta}{\f0\fs
24 , and he will restore everything. The verb }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatasthvsei}
{\f0\fs24 , will restore, is drawn verbatim from the }{\f0\fs24 LXX{\footnote \par
d\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 LXX }{\f0\fs24 The Septuagint, Greek tra
nslation of the OT}}}{\f0\fs24 of }{\f0\fs24 Mal 3:23}{\f0\fs24 , where, howeve
r, the object clause is the heart of the father to the son and the heart of a man
to his neighbor (the Hebrew of }{\f0\fs24 Mal 4:6}{\f0\fs24 is only slightly di
fferent). The future tense, therefore, does not suggest that Jesus expects a fut
ure return of John the Baptist (contra Gundry). The restoration of everything (}{\
f8\fs24\lang1032 pavnta}{\f0\fs24 ) must here refer not to the eschatological re
newal of the present order itself (which would make Elijah the Messiah himself,
rather than the forerunner of the Messiah), as, for example, apparently in }{\f0
\fs24 Acts 1:6}{\f0\fs24 (and }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24
\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 esp
ecially the cognate noun }{\f8\fs24\lang1032 ajpokatavstasi"}{\f0\fs24 , restorat
ion or establishing, in }{\f0\fs24 Acts 3:21}{\f0\fs24 in an allusion to the retur
n of Jesus), but to a preparatory work of repentance and renewal (as in the Mala
chi passage; see especially }{\f0\fs24 Luke 1:17}{\f0\fs24 and }{\f0\fs24 cf.{\
footnote \pard\plain \ql \f0\fs24\lang1033 {\f0\fs24 cf. }{\f0\fs24\i confer,}{\
f0\fs24 compare}}}{\f0\fs24 }{\f0